Sample records for acetone

  1. Rubrene endoperoxide acetone monosolvate

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    Kiyoaki Shinashi


    Full Text Available The title acetone solvate, C42H28O2·C3H6O [systematic name: 1,3,10,12-tetraphenyl-19,20-dioxapentacyclo[,11.04,9.013,18]icosa-2(11,3,5,7,9,13,15,17-octaene acetone monosolvate], is a photooxygenation product of rubrene (systematic name: 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene. The molecule bends at the bridgehead atoms, which are linked by the O—O transannular bond, with a dihedral angle of 49.21 (6° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system of the tetracene unit. In the crystal, the rubrene molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a column along the c axis. The acetone solvent molecules form a dimer around a crystallographic inversion centre through a carbonyl–carbonyl dipolar interaction. A C—H...O hydrogen bond between the rubrene and acetone molecules is also observed.

  2. Acetone:isomedzation and aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhan; JIN Ming-xing; XU Xue-song; CHENG Xi-hui; DING Da-jun


    The advanced experimental and theoretical techniques enable us to obtain information on the rearrangement of atoms or molecules in a reaction nowadays.As an example,we report on our research work on acetone isomerization and aggregation to give an insight into the reaction pathways,the products and their structures,and the growth regularity of aggregation.The evidences on the structural change of acetone and the stability of acetone clusters are found by a laser ionization mass spectrometer and the results are interpreted from theoretical analysis based on the DFT/B3LYP method.Various isomerization channels of acetone have been established and the optimal structures of the neutral clusters (CH3COCH3)n and the protonated acetone clusters (CH3COCHa)n H+ for n=1-7 have been determined.

  3. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt


    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  4. (RS-Efonidipine acetone hemisolvate

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    Yu-Heng Liu


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C34H38N3O7P·0.5C3H6O {systematic name: (RS-2-[phenyl(phenylmethylamino]ethyl 5-(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxa-2λ5-phosphacyclohex-2-yl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate acetone hemisolvate}, contains one R-efonidipine molecule, one S-efonidipine molecule and half of a solvate acetone molecule. In both efonidipine molecules, the six-membered rings of the dioxaphosphinanyl moieties display a chair conformation and the dihydropyridine rings display a flattened boat conformation. In the crystal, N—H...O, C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. A solvent-accessible void of 199 Å3 is found in the structure; the contribution of the heavily disordered solvate molecule was suppressed by use of the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18].

  5. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review


    Anderson, Joseph C.


    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  6. Microbial acetone oxidation in coastal seawater

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    Joanna Lee Dixon


    Full Text Available Acetone is an important oxygenated volatile organic compound in the troposphere where it influences the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere. However, the air-sea flux is not well quantified, in part due to a lack of knowledge regarding which processes control oceanic concentrations, and, specifically whether microbial oxidation to CO2 represents a significant loss process. We demonstrate that 14C labelled acetone can be used to determine microbial oxidation to 14CO2. Linear microbial rates of acetone oxidation to CO2 were observed for between 0.75-3.5 hours at a seasonally eutrophic coastal station located in the western English Channel (L4. A kinetic experiment in summer at station L4 gave a Vmax of 4.1 pmol L-1 h-1, with a Km constant of 54 pM. We then used this technique to obtain microbial acetone loss rates ranging between 1.2-42 pmol L-1 h-1 (monthly averages over an annual cycle at L4, with maximum rates observed during winter months. The biological turnover time of acetone (in situ concentration divided by microbial oxidation rate in surface waters varied from ~3 days in February 2011, when in situ concentrations were 3 ± 1 nM, to >240 days in June 2011, when concentrations were more than 2 fold higher at 7.5 ± 0.7 nM. These relatively low marine microbial acetone oxidation rates, when normalised to in situ concentrations, suggest that marine microbes preferentially utilise other oxygenated volatile organic compounds such as methanol and acetaldehyde.

  7. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone


    Nemecek-Marshall, M; Wojciechowski, C; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.


    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1035 - Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. 153.1035... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1035 Acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions. No person may operate a tankship carrying a cargo of acetone cyanohydrin or lactonitrile solutions, unless that cargo is...

  9. Antimutagenicity of an acetone extract of yogurt. (United States)

    Nadathur, S R; Gould, S J; Bakalinsky, A T


    Reconstituted non-fat dry milk powder, fermented by a mixture of Streptococcus thermophilus CH3 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 191R to produce yogurt, was freeze-dried and extracted in acetone. After evaporation of the acetone, the extract was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tested for antimutagenicity. In the Ames test, significant dose-dependent activity was observed against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2). Weak activity was observed against 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO), and no activity was observed against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In a related assay (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7), significant antimutagenic activity was detected against MNNG and 4NQO. Activity against the experimental colon carcinogens MNNG and DMAB was examined further, as assayed in the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100). Compounds responsible for both activities were less soluble in aqueous solutions than in DMSO. Adjustment of yogurt pH to 3, 7.6, or 13 prior to freeze-drying and acetone extraction did not significantly alter the amount of anti-MNNG activity recovered. In contrast, extractability of anti-DMAB activity was significantly greater at acidic pH. Conjugated linoleic acid, a known dairy anticarcinogen, failed to inhibit mutagenesis caused by either mutagen, suggesting that other yogurt-derived compound(s) are responsible. Unfermented milk was treated with lactic acid, yogurt bacteria without subsequent growth, or both, to determine if formation of antimutagenic activity required bacterial growth. Extracts of the milk treatments exhibited the same weak antimutagenicity observed in unfermented milk, approximately 2.5-fold less than in the yogurt extracts, suggesting that antimutagenic activity is associated with bacterial

  10. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing


    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  11. Reduction of acetone to isopropanol using producer gas fermenting microbes. (United States)

    Ramachandriya, Karthikeyan D; Wilkins, Mark R; Delorme, Marthah J M; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Kundiyana, Dimple K; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Huhnke, Raymond L


    Gasification-fermentation is an emerging technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials into biofuels and specialty chemicals. For effective utilization of producer gas by fermenting bacteria, tar compounds produced in the gasification process are often removed by wet scrubbing techniques using acetone. In a preliminary study using biomass generated producer gas scrubbed with acetone, an accumulation of acetone and subsequent isopropanol production was observed. The effect of 2 g/L acetone concentrations in the fermentation media on growth and product distributions was studied with "Clostridium ragsdalei," also known as Clostridium strain P11 or P11, and Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 or P7. The reduction of acetone to isopropanol was possible with "C. ragsdalei," but not with P7. In P11 this reaction occurred rapidly when acetone was added in the acidogenic phase, but was 2.5 times slower when added in the solventogenic phase. Acetone at concentrations of 2 g/L did not affect the growth of P7, but ethanol increased by 41% and acetic acid concentrations decreased by 79%. In the fermentations using P11, growth was unaffected and ethanol concentrations increased by 55% when acetone was added in the acidogenic phase. Acetic acid concentrations increased by 19% in both the treatments where acetone was added. Our observations indicate that P11 has a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that enables it to reduce acetone to isopropanol, while P7 lacks this enzyme. P11 offers an opportunity for biological production of isopropanol from acetone reduction in the presence of gaseous substrates (CO, CO₂, and H₂).

  12. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

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    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail:; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  13. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

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    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen; Wang, Yong


    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  14. Viscosities and refractive indices of binary systems acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol

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    Živković Emila M.


    Full Text Available Viscosities and refractive indices of three binary systems, acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol, were measured at eight temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15K and at atmospheric pressure. From these data viscosity deviations and deviations in refractive index were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The viscosity modelling was done by two types of models: predictive UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG VISCO and correlative Teja-Rice and McAlister equations. The refractive indices of binary mixtures were predicted by various mixing rules and compared with experimental data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  15. Bis(tetraphenylphosphonium tetraiodidomanganate(II acetone monosolvate

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    Sven Lidin


    Full Text Available The title compound, (C24H20P2[MnI4]·(CH32CO, prepared from the reaction of manganese powder, iodine and tetraphenylphosphonium iodide in acetone shows a tetrahedral complex anion [Mn—I = 2.6868 (5–2.7281 (4 Å and I—Mn—I = 104.011 (13–116.164 (15°], two tetraphenylphosphonium cations and one molecule of acetone.

  16. Characterization of Acetone-Solution Casting Film of PMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng; Fu Weiwen; Cheng Rongshi


    Acetone solution-casting films of poly(methylmethacrylate)were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy under natural evaporation and ultrasonic vibration,respectively.Analytical results indicate that both the condensed structure of the polymer and the residue solvent in the films vary in different film-forming conditions and that the residuesolvated acetone in films prepared under natural evaporation is 12 times greater than that under ultrasonic vibration.

  17. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii. (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter


    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  18. trans-Carbonylchloridobis(tri-p-tolylphosphinerhodium(I acetone solvate

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    Brian R. James


    Full Text Available The title compound, [RhCl(C21H21P2(CO]·C3H6O, was precipitated in trace yield from a reaction of RhCl(cod(THP with P(p-tol3 in a 1:1 acetone-d6/CD3OD solution under a hydrogen atmosphere [p-tol = p-tolyl, THP = tris(hydroxymethylphosphine, P(CH2OH3, and cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene]. The complex displays a square-planar geometry around the RhI atom. The complex molecules and the acetone molecules are linked into a chain along the a axis by intermolecular C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Non-Isothermal Desolvation Kinetics of Erythromycin A Acetone Solvate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by a thermogravimetric analyzer. This paper emphasized the kinetic analysis of non-isothermal TG-DTA data by Achar method and Coats-Redfern method to fit various solid-state reaction models, and to achieve kinetic parameters of desolvation. The mechanism of thermal desolvation was evaluated using the kinetic compensation effect. The results show that kinetics of desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was compatible with the mechanism of a two-dimensional diffusion controlled and was best expressed by Valensi equation. Corresponding to the integral method and the differential method, the activation energy of desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was estimated to be 51.26-57.11 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor was 8.077 × 106 s-1-4.326 × 107 s-1,respectively.

  20. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  1. Synthesis and Analysis of Resorcinol-Acetone Copolymer

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    Gen-ichi Konishi


    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of resorcinol-acetone copolymer is described. The polymer was prepared by trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed polymerization of resorcinol with acetone. According to the 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF Mass spectra data, the obtained polymer had three types of repeating units: isopropylidene bridged-resorcinol, chromane ring, and spiro-shaped double chromane ring, indicating that polymerization proceeded via simultaneous addition-condensation and cyclization of resorcinol with acetone. The obtained polymer can be useful not only for the development of plastic materials such as thermosets, adhesives, and coatings but also for the synthesis of biomaterials such as antimicrobial agents, pesticides, and medicines.

  2. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetone to Isopropanol: An Environmentally Benign Approach

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    Ateeq Rahman


    Full Text Available The catalytic hydrogenation of acetone is an important area of catalytic process to produce fine chemicals. Hydrogenation of acetone has important applications for heat pumps, fuel cells or in fulfilling the sizeable demand for the production of 2-propanol. Catalytic vapour phase hydrogenation of acetone has gained attention over the decades with variety of homogeneous catalysts notably Iridium, Rh, Ru complexes and heterogeneous catalysts comprising of Raney Nickel, Raney Sponge, Ni/Al2O3, Ni/SiO2, or Co-Al2O3, Pd, Rh, Ru, Re, or Fe/Al2O3 supported on SiO2 or MgO and even CoMgAl, NiMg Al layered double hydroxide, Cu metal, CuO, Cu2O. Nano catalysts are developed for actone reduction Ni maleate, cobalt oxide prepared in organic solvents. Author present a review on acetone hydrogenation under different conditions with various homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts studied so far in literature and new strategies to develop economic and environmentally benign approach. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 16th June 2010, Revised: 18th October 2010; Accepted: 25th October 2010[How to Cite:Ateeq Rahman. (2010. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetone to Isopropanol: An Environmentally Benign Approach. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 113-126. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.798.113-126][DOI: || or local:

  3. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji


    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  4. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism


    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; William P. Wagner; Fall, Ray


    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed...

  5. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, M.J.; Boeren, S.; Atashgahi, S.; Plugge, C.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Stams, A.J.M.


    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In

  6. Evaluation of unbound free heme in plant cells by differential acetone extraction. (United States)

    Espinas, Nino A; Kobayashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Masuda, Tatsuru


    Heme functions not only as a prosthetic group of hemoproteins but also as a regulatory molecule, suggesting the presence of 'free' heme. Classically, total non-covalently bound heme is extracted from plant samples with acidic acetone after removal of pigments with basic and neutral acetone. Earlier work proposed that free heme can be selectively extracted into basic acetone. Using authentic hemoproteins, we confirmed that acidic acetone can quantitatively extract heme, while no heme was extracted into neutral acetone. Meanwhile, a certain amount of heme was extracted into basic acetone from hemoglobin and myoglobin. Moreover, basic acetone extracted loosely bound heme from bovine serum albumin, implying that the nature of hemoproteins largely influences heme extraction into basic acetone. Using a highly sensitive heme assay, we found that basic and neutral acetone can extract low levels of heme from plant samples. In addition, neutral acetone quantitatively extracted free heme when it was externally added to plant homogenates. Furthermore, the level of neutral acetone-extractable heme remained unchanged by precursor (5-aminolevulinic acid) feeding, while increased by norflurazon treatment which abolishes chloroplast biogenesis. However, changes in these heme levels did not correlate to genomes uncoupled phenotypes, suggesting that the level of unbound free heme would not affect retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus. The present data demonstrate that the combination of single-step acetone extraction following a sensitive heme assay is the ideal method for determining total and free heme in plants.

  7. Enhanced Acetone Sensing Characteristics of ZnO/Graphene Composites. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Cen, Yuan; Du, Yu; Ruan, Shuangchen


    ZnO/graphene (ZnO-G) hybrid composites are prepared via hydrothermal synthesis with graphite, N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP), and Zn(NO₃)₂·6H₂O as the precursors. The characterizations, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate the formation of ZnO-G. Gas sensors were fabricated with ZnO-G composites and ZnO as sensing material, indicating that the response of the ZnO towards acetone was significantly enhanced by graphene doping. It was found that the ZnO-G sensor exhibits remarkably enhanced response of 13.3 at the optimal operating temperature of 280 °C to 100 ppm acetone, an improvement from 7.7 with pure ZnO.

  8. Multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters at 355 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Reng; KONG Xiang-he; ZHANG Shu-dong; ZHANG Xia; FAN Xing-yan; ZHAO Shu-yan


    @@ The multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters were detected at 355 nm laser wavelength by using the time of flight mass spectrometer(TOF-MS).The experiments show that all products are protonated.Three main products such as (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,(CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-1H+ and (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)nH+ are concluded from the results.In order to study the equilibrium structures of the (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,the ab-initio calculation is used on them.The experiment is even done when the volume rate of acetone to water is 1:2.

  9. Effect of Coadsorbed Water on the Photodecomposition of Acetone on TiO2(110)

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    Henderson, Michael A.


    The influence of coadsorbed water on the photodecomposition of acetone on TiO2 was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and the rutile TiO2(110) surface as a model photocatalyst. Of the two major influences ascribed to water in the heterogeneous photocatalysis literature (promotion via OH radical supply and inhibition due to site blocking), only the negative influence of water was observed. As long as the total water and acetone coverage was maintained well below the first layer saturation coverage (‘1 ML’), little inhibition of acetone photodecomposition was observed. However, as the total water+acetone coverage exceeded 1 ML, acetone was preferentially displaced from the first layer to physisorbed states by water and the extent of acetone photodecomposition attenuated. The displacement originated from water compressing acetone into high coverage regions where increased acetone-acetone repulsions caused displacement from the first layer. The immediate product of acetone photodecomposition was adsorbed acetate, which occupies twice as many surface sites per molecule as compared to acetone. Since the acetate intermediate was more stable on the TiO2(110) surface than either water or acetone (as gauged by TPD) and since its photodecomposition rate was less than that of acetone, additional surface sites were not opened up during acetone photodecomposition for previously displaced acetone molecules to re-enter the first layer. Results in this study suggest that increased molecular-level repulsions between organic molecules brought about by increased water coverage are as influential in the inhibiting effect of water on photooxidation rates as are water-organic repulsions.

  10. Excess protons in mesoscopic water-acetone nanoclusters


    Semino, Rocío; Martí Rabassa, Jordi; Guàrdia Manuel, Elvira; Laria, Daniel


    We carried out molecular dynamics simulation experiments to examine equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the solvation of excess protons in mesoscopic, [m:n] binary polar clusters comprising m = 50 water molecules and n = 6, 25, and 100 acetone molecules. Contrasting from what is found in conventional macroscopic phases, the characteristics of the proton solvation are dictated, to a large extent, by the nature of the concentration fluctuations prevailing within the clusters. At low ac...

  11. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

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    Swapna S. Nair


    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  12. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus


    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  13. Insights into Acetone Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110). 1. Off-Normal CH3 Ejection from Acetone Diolate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Henderson, Michael A.; Kimmel, Gregory A.


    Thermal- and photon-stimulated reactions of acetone co-adsorbed with oxygen on rutile TiO2(110) surface are studied with infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) combined with temperature programmed desorption and angle-resolved photon stimulated desorption. IRAS results show that n2-acetone diolate ((CH3)2COO) is produced via thermally-activated reactions between the chemisorbed oxygen with co-adsorbed acetone. Formation of acetone diolate is also consistent with 18O / 16O isotopic exchange experiments. During UV irradiation at 30 K, CH3 radicals are ejected from the acetone diolate with a distribution that is peaked at .-. +- 66 degrees from the surface normal along the azimuth (i.e. perpendicular to the rows of bridging oxygen and Ti5c ions). This distribution is also consistent with the orientation of the C–CH3 bonds in the n2-acetone diolate on TiO2(110). The acetone diolate peaks disappear from the IRAS spectra after UV irradiation and new peaks are observed and associated with n2-acetate. The data presented here demonstrate direct signatures of the proposed earlier 2-step mechanism for acetone photooxidation on TiO2(110)

  14. Molybdenum disulfide catalyzed tungsten oxide for on-chip acetone sensing (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Park, Sangwook; Cai, Lili; Zhao, Jiheng; He, Jiajun; Zhou, Minjie; Park, Joonsuk; Zheng, Xiaolin


    Acetone sensing is critical for acetone leak detection and holds a great promise for the noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes. It is thus highly desirable to develop a wearable acetone sensor that has low cost, miniature size, sub-ppm detection limit, great selectivity, as well as low operating temperature. In this work, we demonstrate a cost-effective on-chip acetone sensor with excellent sensing performances at 200 °C using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) catalyzed tungsten oxide (WO3). The WO3 based acetone sensors are first optimized via combined mesoscopic nanostructuring and silicon doping. Under the same testing conditions, our optimized mesoporous silicon doped WO3 [Si:WO3(meso)] sensor shows 2.5 times better sensitivity with ˜1000 times smaller active device area than the state-of-art WO3 based acetone sensor. Next, MoS2 is introduced to catalyze the acetone sensing reactions for Si:WO3(meso), which reduces the operating temperature by 100 °C while retaining its high sensing performances. Our miniaturized acetone sensor may serve as a wearable acetone detector for noninvasive diabetes monitoring or acetone leakage detection. Moreover, our work demonstrates that MoS2 can be a promising nonprecious catalyst for catalytic sensing applications.

  15. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon


    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  16. Aldol Condensation of Citral with Acetone on Basic Solid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NODA C.


    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of solids with basic properties, such as CaO, MgO and hydrotalcites, was evaluated in the aldol condensation of citral and acetone, the first step in the synthesis of ionones from citral. The best results were obtained with CaO and hydrotalcite with high conversions (98% and selectivities (close to 70% for the main product observed for both of the catalyst. Such pseudoionone yields were greater than those reported in the literature for the homogeneous reaction.

  17. Enhanced Acetone Sensing Characteristics of ZnO/Graphene Composites


    Hao Zhang; Yuan Cen; Yu Du; Shuangchen Ruan


    ZnO/graphene (ZnO-G) hybrid composites are prepared via hydrothermal synthesis with graphite, N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP), and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as the precursors. The characterizations, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate the formation of ZnO-G. Gas sensors were fabricated with ZnO-G composites and ZnO as sensing material, indicating that the response of the ZnO towards acetone was significant...

  18. Saving Energy and Reducing Emission When Recycling Acetone during the Production of Soy Phospholipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Daicheng; Wang Yan; Tao Yinhua


    Acetone, which is volatile, flammable, toxic, expen-sive and causing serious air pollution, is often used as extracting solvent in the production of powdery soy phospholipid. Recycling and reusing acetone is the key of reducing the cost of production. Therefore, saving energy and reducing emission when recycling acetone are the most important technologies during the production of phospholipid. On the basis of the productivity of powdery phospholipid being 2.4 t every day, 43.2 t acetone is reused every 8 h and the total volume of acetone gas emitted is 450.75 m3 (about 901.5 kg). According to the current price of acetone, the lost money is about 7212 yuan RMB.

  19. The Effect of Fluorocarbon Surfactant Additives on the Effective Viscosity of Acetone Solutions of Cellulose Diacetate, (United States)



  20. Fluorometric biosniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for breath acetone as a volatile indicator of lipid metabolism (United States)

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Chien, Po-Jen; Ye, Ming; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro


    A fluorometric acetone biosniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for assessment of lipid metabolism utilizing reverse reaction of secondary alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed and evaluated. The biosniffer showed highly sensitivity and selectivity for continuous monitoring of gaseous acetone. The measurement of breath acetone concentration during fasting and aerobic exercise were also investigated. The acetone biosniffer provides a novel analytical tool for noninvasive evaluation of human lipid metabolism and it is also expected to use for the clinical and physiological applications such as monitoring the progression of diabetes.

  1. Monitoring the Aggregation of Dansyl Chloride in Acetone through Fluorescence Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG,Yu(房喻); YIN,Yi-Qing(尹艺青); HU,Dao-Dao(胡道道); GAO,Gai-Ling(高改玲)


    The aggregation of dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl) in acetone has been studied in detail by steady-state fluorescence techniques. It has been demonstrated that DNS-Cl is stable in acetone during purification and aggregation study processes. The aggregates are not solvolyzed in acetone, and do not take part in any chemical reactions either. It has been found that DNS-Cl tends to aggregate even when its concentration is much lower than its solubility in acetone. The aggregation is reversible, and both the aggregation and the deaggregation are very slow processes.Introduction of SDS has a positive effect upon the formation and stabilization of the aggregates.

  2. Fabrication of a SnO2-Based Acetone Gas Sensor Enhanced by Molecular Imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhu Tan


    Full Text Available This work presents a new route to design a highly sensitive SnO2–based sensor for acetone gas enhanced by the molecular imprinting technique. Unassisted and acetone-assisted thermal synthesis methods are used to synthesis SnO2 nanomaterials. The prepared SnO2 nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption−desorption. Four types of SnO2 films were obtained by mixing pure deionized water and liquid acetone with the two types of as-prepared powders, respectively. The acetone gas sensing properties of sensors coated by these films were evaluated. Testing results reveal that the sensor coated by the film fabricated by mixing liquid acetone with the SnO2 nanomaterial synthesized by the acetone-assisted thermal method exhibits the best acetone gas sensing performance. The sensor is optimized for the smooth adsorption and desorption of acetone gas thanks to the participation of acetone both in the procedure of synthesis of the SnO2 nanomaterial and the device fabrication, which results in a distinct response–recovery behavior.

  3. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures


    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel


    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  4. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production (United States)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.


    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  5. Acetone-CO enhancement ratios in the upper troposphere based on 7 years of CARIBIC data: new insights and estimates of regional acetone fluxes (United States)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Bönisch, Harald; Neumaier, Marco; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Orphal, Johannes; Brito, Joel; Becker, Julia; Sprung, Detlev; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas


    Acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) are two important trace gases controlling the oxidation capacity of the troposphere; enhancement ratios (EnRs) are useful in assessing their sources and fate between emission and sampling, especially in pollution plumes. In this study, we focus on in situ data from the upper troposphere recorded by the passenger-aircraft-based IAGOS-CARIBIC (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory over the periods 2006-2008 and 2012-2015. This dataset is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial variation of acetone-CO EnRs. Furthermore, we utilize a box model accounting for dilution, chemical degradation and secondary production of acetone from precursors. In former studies, increasing acetone-CO EnRs in a plume were associated with secondary production of acetone. Results of our box model question this common presumption and show increases of acetone-CO EnR over time without taking secondary production of acetone into account. The temporal evolution of EnRs in the upper troposphere, especially in summer, is not negligible and impedes the interpretation of EnRs as a means for partitioning of acetone and CO sources in the boundary layer. In order to ensure that CARIBIC EnRs represent signatures of source regions with only small influences by dilution and chemistry, we limit our analysis to temporal and spatial coherent events of high-CO enhancement. We mainly focus on North America and Southeast Asia because of their different mix of pollutant sources and the good data coverage. For both regions, we find the expected seasonal variation in acetone-CO EnRs with maxima in summer, but with higher amplitude over North America. We derive mean (± standard deviation) annual acetone fluxes of (53 ± 27) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 and (185 ± 80) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 for North America and Southeast Asia, respectively. The derived flux for North America

  6. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karim


    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  7. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xie, Min [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Bernstein, Elliot R. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR-VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 {approx} 3550 cm{sup -1} of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}){sub n} (n = 1-4). Features around 3440 cm{sup -1} in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm{sup -1} as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  8. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji


    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  9. 77 FR 28266 - Acetone; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance (United States)


    ... (LOAEL) from the toxicity studies are discussed in this unit. The toxicity data base for acetone includes... (approximately 3,086 mg/kg/day). Acetone is normally eliminated mainly by enzymatic metabolism (70- 80% of the...--as a key product of intermediary metabolism--can enter various pathways, e.g. gluconeogenesis or...

  10. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.


    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limit

  11. Skin barrier disruption by acetone: observations in a hairless mouse skin model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rissmann, R.; Oudshoorn, M.H.M.; Hennink, W.E.; Ponec, M.; Bouwstra, J.A.


    To disrupt the barrier function of the skin, different in vivo methods have been established, e.g., by acetone wiping or tape-stripping. In this study, the acetone-induced barrier disruption of hairless mice was investigated in order to establish a reliable model to study beneficial, long-term effec

  12. Antibacterial Activities and Mechanism of Action of Acetone Extracts from Rabdosia rubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Cheng


    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities and mechanism of action of acetone extracts from R. rubescens were reported in this paper. The results showed that 80% acetone extracts had both the highest contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Acetone extracts showed better antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains and there were no inhibitory effects found on tested Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, 80% acetone extracts from R. rubescens had relatively higher antibacterial activities with the lowest values of MIC and MBC at 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL against B. subtilis. The antibacterial mechanism of 80% acetone extracts against Bacillus subtilis might be described as disrupting cell wall, increasing cell membrane permeability, and finally leading to the leakage of cell constituents

  13. Characterization of transient species in laser photolysis of aromatic amino acids using acetone as photosensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋钦华; 徐业平; 俞书勤; 陈从香; 马兴孝; 王文锋; 姚思德; 林念芸


    The photochemical processes of aromatic amino acids were investigated in aqueous solution using acetone as photosensitizer by KrF (248 nm) laser flash photolysis. Laser-induced transient species were characterized according to kinetic analysis and quenching experiments. The intermediates recorded were assigned to the excited triplet state of tryptophan, the radicals of tryptophan and tyrosine. The excited triplet state of tryptophan produced via a triplet-triplet excitation transfer and the radicals arising from electron transfer reaction has been identified. Neither electron transfer nor energy transfer between triplet acetone and phenylalanine can occur in photolysis of phenylalanine aqueous solution which contains acetone. Furthermore, triplet acetone-induced radical transformation: Trp/N-Tyr→Trp-Tyr/O was observed directly in photolysis of dipeptide (Trp-Tyr) aqueous solution containing acetone, and the transformation resulting from intramolecular electron transfer was suggested.

  14. Structure and internal rotation dynamics of the acetone-neon complex studied by microwave spectroscopy (United States)

    Gao, Jiao; Seifert, Nathan A.; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; Jäger, Wolfgang


    The microwave spectra of the van der Waals complexes acetone-20Ne and acetone-22Ne were measured using a cavity-based supersonic jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the region from 5 to 18 GHz. For these two isotopologues, both c- and weaker a-type transitions were observed. The transitions are split into multiplets due to the internal rotation of the two methyl groups in acetone. Initial electronic structure calculations were performed at the MP2/6-311++g (2d, p) level of theory and the internal rotation barrier height of the methyl groups was calculated to be ∼2.8 kJ/mol. The ab initio rotational constants were the basis for the spectroscopic searches, but the multiplet structures and floppiness of the complex made the quantum number assignment very difficult. The assignment was finally achieved with the aid of constructing closed frequency loops and predicting internal rotation splittings using the XIAM internal rotation program. The acetone methyl group tunneling barrier height was determined experimentally to be 3.10(6) kJ mol-1 [259(5) cm-1] in the acetone-Ne complex, which is lower than in the acetone monomer but comparable to the acetone-Ar complex (Kang et al., 2002). Experimental data and high-level CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations suggest that the Ne atom lies directly above the plane formed by the carbonyl group and the two carbon-carbon bonds, which is different than the slightly offset position found previously in the acetone-Ar complex. Additionally, ab initio calculations and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules analyses were used to analyze the methyl internal rotation motions in acetone and acetone-Ne.

  15. Heat transfer performance of a pulsating heat pipe charged with acetone-based mixtures (United States)

    Wang, Wenqing; Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue


    Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) are used as high efficiency heat exchangers, and the selection of working fluids in PHPs has a great impact on the heat transfer performance. This study investigates the thermal resistance characteristics of the PHP charged with acetone-based binary mixtures, where deionized water, methanol and ethanol were added to and mixed with acetone, respectively. The volume mixing ratios were 2:1, 4:1 and 7:1, and the heating power ranged from 10 to 100 W with filling ratios of 45, 55, 62 and 70%. At a low filling ratio (45%), the zeotropic characteristics of the binary mixtures have an influence on the heat transfer performance of the PHP. Adding water, which has a substantially different boiling point compared with that of acetone, can significantly improve the anti-dry-out ability inside the PHP. At a medium filling ratio (55%), the heat transfer performance of the PHP is affected by both phase transition characteristics and physical properties of working fluids. At high heating power, the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-water mixture is between that with pure acetone and pure water, whereas the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures at mixing ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 is less than that with the corresponding pure fluids. At high filling ratios (62 and 70%), the heat transfer performance of the PHP is mainly determined by the properties of working fluids that affects the flow resistance. Thus, the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures that have a lower flow resistance shows better heat transfer performance than that with acetone-water mixture.

  16. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.


    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  17. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae. (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D


    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  19. Photochromism and polarization spectroscopy of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, Alexander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Posokhov, Yevgen [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Hansen, Bjarke K.V. [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Spanget-Larsen, Jens [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Jasny, Jan [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Duus, Fritz [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Poul Erik [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Waluk, Jacek [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    Photochromism of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone (1) has been studied in argon and xenon cryogenic matrices. Application of linearly polarized light to induce the phototransformation resulted in partial alignment of both the initial structure and the photochromic product. Different orientations were achieved by using irradiation wavelengths corresponding to differently polarized electronic transitions. This was followed by measurements of linear dichroism (LD) in the IR region. The analysis of the IR spectra, combined with the results of DFT B3LYP/cc-pVDZ calculations enabled determining the structures of the most stable ground state species and of the photoproduct. Similarly to the recently reported cases of thioacetylacetone and monothiodibenzoylmethane, the initial structure of 1 corresponds to an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol form, and the photochromic species to an 'open', nonchelated enethiolic form. Vibrational assignments have been made for both species, greatly helped by the analysis of the LD spectra. It is concluded that DFT calculations for 1 quite reliably predict not only vibrational frequencies and intensities, but also transition moment directions, in both IR and electronic spectra.

  20. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors. (United States)

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P


    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  1. North American acetone sources determined from tall tower measurements and inverse modeling


    Hu,L; D. B. Millet; Kim, S Y; K. C. Wells; Griffis, T. J.; E. V. Fischer; Helmig, D.; J. Hueber; A. J. Curtis


    We apply a full year of continuous atmospheric acetone measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), with a 0.5° × 0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to develop quantitative new constraints on seasonal acetone sources over North America. Biogenic acetone emissions in the model are computed based on the MEGANv2.1 inventory. An inverse analysis of the tall tower observations implies a 37% underestimate of e...

  2. Measurement of Solubilities of o-Phenylphenol in Petroleum Ether and DDP in Acetone + Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-sheng; LONG Bing-wen; XIONG You-qing; WU Jun-sheng; KANG Hui-bao


    [(6-oxide-6H-dibenze(c, e)(1, 2) oxaphosphorin-6-yl) methyl]-butanedioic acid (DDP) was prepared and characterized. Solubilities of o-phenylphenol(OPP) in petroleum ether and DDP in acetone + water solution were measured by a gravimetrical method. The solubility data of OPP were well correlated using Francis equation. For the solubility of DDP in acetone aqueous solution, it was found that at each fixed temperature there existed a maximum when the acetone mass fraction in the solvent reached a certain concentration. The experiment shows that the fraction is approximately 0.6. The solubility data would be helpful for their industrial crystallization process.

  3. Ozonolysis at vegetation surfaces. a source of acetone, 4-oxopentanal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and geranyl acetone in the troposphere (United States)

    Fruekilde, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jensen, N. R.; Kotzias, D.; Larsen, B.

    The present study gives a possible explanation for the ubiquitous occurrence of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetone in ambient air and reports for the first time on a widespread occurrence of geranyl acetone and 4-oxopentanal. We have conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which it is demonstrated that significant amounts of geranyl acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), and acetone are formed by the reaction of ozone with foliage of common vegetation in the Mediterranean area ( Quercus ilex>Citrus sinensis>Quercus suber>Quercus freinetto>Pinus pinea). In order to rule out biological formation, epicuticular waxes were extracted from the leaves, dispersed on glass wool and allowed to react with a flow of artificial air. Significant amounts of 6-MHO and 4-OPA were formed at ozone concentrations of 50-100 ppbv, but not at zero ozone. A number of terpenoids common in vegetation contain the structural element necessary for ozonolytic formation of 6-MHO. Two sesquiterpenes (nerolidol; farnesol), and a triterpene (squalene) selected as representative test compounds were demonstrated to be strong precursors for acetone, 4-OPA, and 6-MHO. Squalene was also a strong precursor for geranyl acetone. The atmospheric lifetime of geranyl acetone and 6-MHO is less than 1 h under typical conditions. For the present study, we have synthesized 4-OPA and investigated the kinetics of its gas-phase reaction with OH, NO 3, and O 3. A tropospheric lifetime longer than 17 h under typical conditions was calculated from the measured reaction rate constants, which explains the tropospheric occurrence of 4-OPA. It is concluded that future atmospheric chemistry investigations should included geranyl acetone, 6-MHO, and 4-OPA. In a separate experiment it was demonstrated that human skin lipid which contains squalene as a major component is a strong precursor for the four above-mentioned compounds plus nonanal and decanal. The accidental touching of material

  4. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.


    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  5. Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.


    The competitive interaction between acetone and two solvent molecules (methanol and water) for surface sites on rutile TiO2(110) was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). On a vacuum reduced TiO2(110) surface, which possessed ~5% oxygen vacancy sites, excess methanol displaced preadsorbed acetone molecules to weakly bound and physisorbed desorption states below 200 K, whereas acetone was stabilized to 250 K against displacement by methanol on an oxidized surface through formation of an acetone-diolate species. These behaviors of acetone differ from the competitive interactions between acetone and water in that acetone is less susceptible to displacement by water. Examination of acetone+methanol and acetone+water multilayer combinations shows that acetone is more compatible in water-ice films than in methanol-ice films, presumably because water has greater potential as a hydrogen-bond donor than does methanol. Acetone molecules displaced from the TiO2(110) surface by water are more likely to be retained in the near-surface region, having a greater opportunity to revisit the surface, than when methanol is used as a coadsorbate. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Monitoring the Aggregation of Dansyl Chloride in Acetone through Fluorescence Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG,Yu; YIN,Yi-Qing; 等


    The aggregation of dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl) in acetone has been studied in detail by steady-state fluorescence techniques.It has been demonstrated that DNS-Cl is stable in acetone during purification and aggregation study processes.The aggregates are not solvolyzed in acetone,and do not take part n any chemical reactions either.It has been found that DNS-Cl tends to aggregate even when its concentration is much lower than its solubility in acetone.The aggregation is reversible,and both the aggregation and the deaggregation are very slow processes.Introduction of SDS has a positive effect upon the formation and stabilization of the aggregates.

  7. Concentration dependences of the physicochemical properties of a water-acetone system (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.


    Concentration dependences of the UV spectrum, refractive index, specific electrical conductivity, boiling point, pH, surface tension, and heats of dissolution of a water-acetone system on the amount of acetone in the water are studied. It is found that the reversible protolytic interaction of the components occurs in all such solutions, resulting in the formation of hydroxyl and acetonium ions. It is shown that shifts of the equilibrium between the molecules and ions in the solution leads to extreme changes in their electrical properties. It is concluded that the formation of acetone solutions of water is accompanied by heat absorption, while the formation of aqueous solutions of acetone is accompanied by heat release.

  8. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jiang, Hongmin [26th Research Institute, Chinese Electronics Scientific and Technical Group Company, Chongqing 400060 (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Shaoli, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)


    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  9. Electrocatalytic reduction of acetone in a proton-exchange-membrane reactor: a model reaction for the electrocatalytic reduction of biomass. (United States)

    Green, Sara K; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Kim, Hyung Ju; Bae Kim, Won; Huber, George W


    Acetone was electrocatalytically reduced to isopropanol in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) reactor on an unsupported platinum cathode. Protons needed for the reduction were produced on the unsupported Pt-Ru anode from either hydrogen gas or electrolysis of water. The current efficiency (the ratio of current contributing to the desired chemical reaction to the overall current) and reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature or applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/water system. The reaction rate and current efficiency went through a maximum with respect to acetone concentration. The reaction rate for acetone conversion increased with increasing temperature for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system. Increasing the applied voltage for the electrocatalytic acetone/hydrogen system decreased the current efficiency due to production of hydrogen gas. Results from this study demonstrate the commercial feasibility of using PEM reactors to electrocatalytically reduce biomass-derived oxygenates into renewable fuels and chemicals.

  10. Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Genes in Escherichia coli for Acetone Production and Acetate Detoxification


    Bermejo, Lourdes L.; Welker, Neil E.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.


    A synthetic acetone operon (ace4) composed of four Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 genes (adc, ctfAB, and thl, coding for the acetoacetate decarboxylase, coenzyme A transferase, and thiolase, respectively) under the control of the thl promoter was constructed and was introduced into Escherichia coli on vector pACT. Acetone production demonstrated that ace4 is expressed in E. coli and resulted in the reduction of acetic acid levels in the fermentation broth. Since different E. coli strains...

  11. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO{sub 3} gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton [Univ.-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Breath Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail: [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (<30 s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present sensors were highly selective to acetone over ethanol and water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensors were applied to human breath: good agreement with highly sensitive PTR-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests with people at rest and during physical activity showed the sensor robustness. - Abstract: Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO{sub 3} nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone ({approx}20 ppb) with short response (10-15 s) and recovery times (35-70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  12. Evaluation of acetone vapors toxicity on Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr; Nasab, Fershteh Sadeghi; Zadeh, Abas Hossein


    The efficacy of acetone vapors against carefully aged eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) at 17+/-1 and 27+/-1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acetone over various exposure times was determined. Acetone was found to be toxic to Indian meal moth eggs. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. An inverse relationship between LD50 values and exposure times was observed in age groups of tested eggs. At 27+/-1 degrees C and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acetone than other age groups, followed by 0-1 day-old, 2-3 day-old and 3-4 day-old eggs. A similar pattern of susceptibility of eggs was observed at 72 h exposure. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acetone developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17+/-1 to 27+/-1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acetone. At 27+/-1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-third of the dosage required for control at 17+/-1 degrees C. Acetone achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 82.76 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27+/-1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly diminished when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 80 mg L(-1) of acetone for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17+/-1 or 27+/-1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  13. Oscillatory bromate-oxalic acid-Ce-acetone-sulfuric acid reaction, in CSTR


    Pereira,Janaina A. M.; Roberto B Faria


    Periodic oscillations were observed for the first time, in a CSTR, in the system bromate-oxalic acid-Ce(IV)-acetone-sulfuric acid, in a CSTR. A reaction between Ce(IV) and acetone, until now not described in the literature and occurring before the addition of the reagents to the reactor, was identified as a decisive factor for the appearing of the regular oscillations.

  14. Acetone and isopropanol in ruminal fluid and feces of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Shiogama, Yumiko


    Acetone and its metabolite isopropanol are produced by gut microbes as well as by the host's metabolism. To evaluate the production of acetone and isopropanol in alimentary tracts, a total of 80 pair-samples of feces and ruminal fluid were taken in lactating dairy cows that had been fed silage-containing diets. Acetone and isopropanol were analyzed, together with ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Isopropanol was detected in 57 fecal and all the ruminal samples; however, the ruminal isopropanol and ethanol concentrations were distinctly lower than those in the feces. Acetone was detected in 13 fecal and 53 ruminal samples; however, there was no significant difference in acetone concentrations between the feces and the ruminal fluid. The group with higher fecal isopropanol concentration showed higher fecal proportions of acetate accompanied by low proportion of minor VFA, which consisted of isobutyrate and iso- and n-valerate. In the group with higher ruminal isopropanol concentration, ethanol concentration was higher; the ruminal VFA profiles showed only a negligible difference. Fecal and ruminal ethanol concentrations were not affected by feed ethanol. Thus, the colon showed an accelerated alcoholic fermentation compared with the rumen of dairy cows; however, acetone was present at higher frequency in the rumen than in the feces.

  15. A modified pathway for the production of acetone in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Maria Thum, Simone; Schaffer, Steffen; Verseck, Stefan; Dürre, Peter; Bahl, Hubert


    A modified synthetic acetone operon was constructed. It consists of two genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum (thlA coding for thiolase and adc coding for acetoacetate decarboxylase) and one from Bacillus subtilis or Haemophilus influenzae (teII(srf) or ybgC, respectively, for thioesterase). Expression of this operon in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of acetone starting from the common metabolite acetyl-CoA via acetoacetyl-CoA and acetoacetate. The thioesterases do not need a CoA acceptor for acetoacetyl-CoA hydrolysis. Thus, in contrast to the classic acetone pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum and related microorganisms which employ a CoA transferase, the new pathway is acetate independent. The genetic background of the host strains was crucial. Only E. coli strains HB101 and WL3 were able to produce acetone via the modified plasmid based pathway, up to 64mM and 42mM in 5-ml cultures, respectively. Using glucose fed-batch cultures the concentration could be increased up to 122mM acetone with HB101 carrying the recombinant plasmid pUC19ayt (thioesterase from H. influenzae). The formation of acetone led to a decreased acetate production by E. coli.

  16. Acetone production in solventogenic Clostridium species: new insights from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate. (United States)

    Han, Bei; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka


    Development of a butanologenic strain with high selectivity for butanol production is often proposed as a possible route for improving the economics of biobutanol production by solventogenic Clostridium species. The acetoacetate decarboxylase (aadc) gene encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate into acetone and CO(2), was successfully disrupted by homologous recombination in solventogenic Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to generate an aadc ( - ) mutant. Our fermentation studies revealed that this mutant produces a maximum acetone concentration of 3 g/L (in P2 medium), a value comparable to that produced by wild-type C. beijerinckii 8052. Therefore, we postulated that AADC-catalyzed decarboxylation of acetoacetate is not the sole means for acetone generation. Our subsequent finding that non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate in vitro, under conditions similar to in vivo acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, produces 1.3 to 5.2 g/L acetone between pH 6.5 and 4 helps rationalize why various knock-out and knock-down strategies designed to disrupt aadc in solventogenic Clostridium species did not eliminate acetone production during ABE fermentation. Based on these results, we discuss alternatives to enhance selectivity for butanol production.

  17. Fermentation and genomic analysis of acetone-uncoupled butanol production by Clostridium tetanomorphum. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Bao, Guanhui; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Dong, Hongjun


    In typical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, acetone is the main by-product (50 % of butanol mass) of butanol production, resulting in a low yield of butanol. It is known that some Clostridium tetanomorphum strains are able to produce butanol without acetone in nature. Here, we described that C. tetanomorphum strain DSM665 can produce 4.16 g/L butanol and 4.98 g/L ethanol at pH 6.0, and 9.81 g/L butanol and 1.01 g/L ethanol when adding 1 mM methyl viologen. Butyrate and acetate could be reassimilated and no acetone was produced. Further analysis indicated that the activity of the acetate/butyrate:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase responsible for acetone production is lost in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. The genome of C. tetanomorphum DSM665 was sequenced and deposited in DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank under the accession no. APJS00000000. Sequence analysis indicated that there are no typical genes (ctfA/B and adc) that are typically parts of an acetone synthesis pathway in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. This work provides new insights in the mechanism of clostridial butanol production and should prove useful for the design of a high-butanol-producing strain.

  18. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in rats acutely treated with acetone. (United States)

    Mathias, M G; Almeida, B B de; Bueno, J E; Portari, G V; Jordao, A A


    Cascades of metabolic changes leading to acetone production are induced in states of energy catabolism such as starvation or the use of a ketogenic diet. The reduced capacity for cell detoxification or the increased generation of free radicals is responsible for the toxic effect of acetone. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute treatment (AT) with acetone on the oxidative and metabolic status of rats. The AT group (n=16) was treated by gavage with a single administration of 7.0 g acetone/kg body weight at a concentration of 25% (m/v). Eight rats were euthanized 6 h later (AT6) and eight 24 h later (AT24). Acetone levels were determined in blood and urine and oxidative parameters were analyzed by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, indicators of lipid peroxidation) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E as antioxidant parameters. Serum glucose, blood cholesterol and triglycerieds and hepatic fat were also determined. The results indicated a significant difference in the hepatic oxidative parameters, serum glucose and in plasma triglycerides between the groups. Thus, we conclude that the administration of acute acetone doses can promote changes in some biochemical parameters and in the hepatic oxidative profile.

  19. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS). (United States)

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison


    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA.

  20. Covalent binding of acetone to aminophospholipids in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Kuksis, Arnis; Ravandi, Amir; Schneider, Michael


    We have determined the ions characteristic of acetone adducts of reference aminophospholipids and have used them as markers for identification of acetone adducts of aminophospholipids in commercial lecithin, acetone extracts of tissue lipids, and in plasma and red blood cells of diabetic subjects. The acetonation products were determined by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line electrospray-mass spectrometry, and electrospray/collision-induced dissociation in the negative ion mode. The major acetone complexes of PtdEtn and PtdSer were identified as the diacetone derivatives [PtdEtn+116-H2O]- and [PtdSer+116-H2O]-, respectively, although ions corresponding to monoacetone [PtdEtn+58-H2O]- and doubly dehydrated diacetone adducts [PtdSer+116-2 x 18]- were also observed. Upon increase of the capillary exit voltage (CapEx) from -160 to -300 V, new ions appeared with the original retention time but with 58 masses (one acetone molecule) lower than the mass of the parent compounds, along with fragment ions corresponding to lysoGPE+40 and free fatty acids. Scanning of chloroform/methanol extracts of red blood cell lipids of two of five diabetic subjects examined yielded elevated levels (in relation to nondiabetic subjects) for ions corresponding to the diacetone adducts [M+98]- of the major molecular species of PtdEtn and PtdSer. Because of possible overlap with major molecular species of PtdIns, the identification of the acetonated PtdSer in diabetic blood requires further confirmation.

  1. Evaluation of COSHH essentials: methylene chloride, isopropanol, and acetone exposures in a small printing plant. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Bowen, Russell B; Slaven, James


    The current study evaluated the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model for short-term task-based exposures and full-shift exposures using measured concentrations of three volatile organic chemicals at a small printing plant. A total of 188 exposure measurements of isopropanol and 187 measurements of acetone were collected and each measurement took approximately 60 min. Historically, collected time-weighted average concentrations (seven results) were evaluated for methylene chloride. The COSHH Essentials model recommended general ventilation control for both isopropanol and acetone. There was good agreement between the task-based exposure measurements and the COSHH Essentials predicted exposure range (PER) for cleaning and print preparation with isopropanol and for cleaning with acetone. For the other tasks and for full-shift exposures, agreement between the exposure measurements and the PER was either moderate or poor. However, for both isopropanol and acetone, our findings suggested that the COSHH Essentials model worked reasonably well because the probabilities of short-term exposure measurements exceeding short-term occupational exposure limits (OELs) or full-shift exposures exceeding the corresponding full-shift OELs were <0.05 under the recommended control strategy. For methylene chloride, the COSHH Essentials recommended containment control but a follow-up study was not able to be performed because it had already been replaced with a less hazardous substance (acetone). This was considered a more acceptable alternative to increasing the level of control.

  2. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp. (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa


    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of the Azeotropic Mixture of Acetone, Cyclohexane and Methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-Rong; NAN Zhao-Dong; TAN Zhi-Cheng


    Molar heat capacities of the pure samples of acetone, methanol and the azeotropic mixture composed of acetone,cyclohexane and methanol were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter from 78 to 320 K. The solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions of the pure samples and the mixture were determined based on the curve of the heat capacity with respect to temperature. The phase transitions took place at (126.16±0.68) and (178.96±1.47) K for the sample of acetone, (157.79±0.95) and (175.93±0.95) K for methanol, which were corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of the acetone and the methanol, respectively. And the phase transitions occurred in the temperature ranges of 120 to 190 K and 278 to 280 K corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of mixture of acetone, cyclohexane and methanol, respectively. The thermodynamic functions and the excess thermodynamic functions of the mixture relative to standard temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the relationships of the thermodynamic functions and the function of the measured heat capacity with respect to temperature.

  4. Influence of acetone on nanostructure and electrochemical properties of interfacial synthesized polyaniline nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyun Zhao; Zongyi Qin; Tao Li; Zhuozhan Li; Zhe Zhou; Meifang Zhu


    The growth of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers through interfacial polymerization can be well controlled by adding a small amount of acetone in the water/chloroform system. It was found that the polymerization rate became slower in the presence of acetone, yielding PANI nanofibers with larger aspect ratios. The influences of the acetone addition on the morphology, microstructure and properties of as-prepared PANI nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravity analysis (TGA), and electrical and electrochemical measurements. The experimental results showed that PANI nanofibers prepared by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant with acetone exhibited slower growth, the larger ratio of length to diameter, and higher crystallinity (2θ¼ 61, 191, 261) than that without acetone, meanwhile remained larger yield of 11.23% and higher conductivity 1.8 ? 10 ? 2 S/cm compared with that obtained by replacing APS with FeCl3. More importantly, these PANI nanofibers exhibited better electrochemical behaviors, which benefitted from their high crystallinity and good conductivity.

  5. Biofiltration of mixtures of gas-phase styrene and acetone with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rene, Eldon R.; Spackova, Radka; Veiga, Maria C. [University of La Coruna, Dpt. of Chemical Engineering, Campus da Zapateira, Rua da Fraga, 10, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Kennes, Christian, E-mail: [University of La Coruna, Dpt. of Chemical Engineering, Campus da Zapateira, Rua da Fraga, 10, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)


    The biodegradation performance of a biofilter, inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, to treat gas-phase styrene and acetone mixtures under steady-state and transient conditions was evaluated. Experiments were carried out by varying the gas-flow rates (0.05-0.4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}), leading to empty bed residence times as low as 17.1 s, and by changing the concentrations of gas-phase styrene (0.01-6.3 g m{sup -3}) and acetone (0.01-8.9 g m{sup -3}). The total elimination capacities were as high as 360 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, with nearly 97.5% removal of styrene and 75.6% for acetone. The biodegradation of acetone was inhibited by the presence of styrene, while styrene removal was affected only slightly by the presence of acetone. During transient-state experiments, increasing the overall pollutant load by almost 3-fold, i.e., from 220 to 600 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, resulted in a sudden drop of removal efficiency (>90-70%), but still high elimination capacities were maintained. Periodic microscopic observations revealed that the originally inoculated Sporothrix sp. remained present in the reactor and actively dominant in the biofilm.

  6. Application of finite inverse gas chromatography in hypromellose acetate succinate-water-acetone systems. (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Wei; Sturm, Derek R; Moser, Justin D; Danner, Ronald P


    A modification of a GC was developed to investigate both infinitely dilute and finite concentrations of solvents in polymers. Thermodynamic properties of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-L)-acetone-water systems are important for the optimization of spray-drying processes used in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dispersion formulations. These properties, at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, were investigated using capillary column inverse gas chromatography (CCIGC). Water was much less soluble in the HPMCAS-L than acetone. Experiments were also conducted at infinitely dilute concentrations of one of the solvents in HPMCAS-L that was already saturated with the other solvent. Overall the partitioning of the water was not significantly affected by the presence of either water or acetone in the polymer. The acetone partition coefficient decreased as either acetone or water was added to the HPMCAS-L. A representation of the HPMCAS-L structure in terms of UNIFAC groups has been developed. With these groups, the UNIFAC-vdw-FV model did a reasonable job of predicting the phase equilibria in the binary and ternary systems. The Flory-Huggins correlation with fitted interaction parameters represented the data well.

  7. Influence of acetone on nanostructure and electrochemical properties of interfacial synthesized polyaniline nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyun Zhao


    Full Text Available The growth of polyaniline (PANI nanofibers through interfacial polymerization can be well controlled by adding a small amount of acetone in the water/chloroform system. It was found that the polymerization rate became slower in the presence of acetone, yielding PANI nanofibers with larger aspect ratios. The influences of the acetone addition on the morphology, microstructure and properties of as-prepared PANI nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravity analysis (TGA, and electrical and electrochemical measurements. The experimental results showed that PANI nanofibers prepared by using ammonium persulfate (APS as an oxidant with acetone exhibited slower growth, the larger ratio of length to diameter, and higher crystallinity (2θ=6°, 19°, 26° than that without acetone, meanwhile remained larger yield of 11.23% and higher conductivity 1.8×10−2 S/cm compared with that obtained by replacing APS with FeCl3. More importantly, these PANI nanofibers exhibited better electrochemical behaviors, which benefitted from their high crystallinity and good conductivity.

  8. Designing and creating a modularized synthetic pathway in cyanobacterium Synechocystis enables production of acetone from carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe


    Ketones are a class of important organic compounds. As the simplest ketone, acetone is widely used as solvents or precursors for industrial chemicals. Presently, million tonnes of acetone is produced worldwide annually, from petrochemical processes. Here we report a biotechnological process that can produce acetone from CO(2), by designing and creating a modularized synthetic pathway in engineered cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The engineered Synechocystis cells are able to produce acetone (36.0 mgl(-1) culture medium) using CO(2) as the sole carbon source, thus opens the gateway for biosynthesis of ketones from CO(2).

  9. Using acetone as solvent to study removal of anthracene in soil inhibits microbial activity and alters nitrogen dynamics. (United States)

    Núñez, Edgar Vázquez; Rodríguez, Viviana; Gaytán, Alejandro García; Luna-Guido, Marco; Betancur-Galvis, Liliana A; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc


    Acetone is often used as a carrier to contaminate soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and then to study the factors that control their removal. Acetone is an organic solvent that might affect soil processes. An alkaline saline (Texcoco soil) and an agricultural soil (Acolman soil) were amended with or without acetone, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP), and contaminated with anthracene at 520 mg/kg soil while emissions of CO2 and N2O and concentrations of NH4+, NO2(-) and NO3(-) were monitored. The CO2 emission rate decreased greater than 10 times in the soils amended with acetone. Emission of N2O decreased 70 times in the Acolman soil amended with acetone and NP and 5 times in the Texcoco soil. The concentration of NH4+ decreased in the unamended Acolman and Texcoco soil but increased when acetone was added in the first and remained constant in the latter. Acetone inhibited the increase in the amount of NO3(-) in the Acolman soil but not in the Texcoco soil. It was found that microbial activity as evidenced by the emission of CO2, nitrification, and production of N2O were inhibited by acetone. The amount of acetone used as solvent should thus be kept to a minimum, but it can be assumed that its effect on soil processes will be temporary, as microorganisms are known to repopulate soil quickly.

  10. Increased blood concentration of isopropanol in ketotic dairy cows and isopropanol production from acetone in the rumen. (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi


    To evaluate acetone and isopropanol metabolism in bovine ketosis, the blood concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and other metabolites were analyzed in 12 healthy controls and 15 ketotic dairy cows including fatty liver and inferior prognosis after laparotomy for displaced abomasum. In ruminal fluid taken from 6 ketotic cows, ruminal isopropanol and acetone were also analyzed. Ketotic cows showed higher concentrations of isopropanol, acetone, 3-HB and nonesterified fatty acid, and higher activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase than control cows. Blood samples had higher concentration of isopropanol accompanied by increased acetone. In the ketotic cows, acetone was detected not only in blood but also in ruminal fluid, while higher ruminal isopropanol did not necessarily accompany its elevation in the blood. Using 2 steers with rumen cannula, all ruminal content was emptied and then substituted with artificial saliva to evaluate the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production. Under each condition of intact and emptied rumen, acetone was infused into the rumen and blood isopropanol was analyzed. The elevation in the blood isopropanol concentration after acetone infusion was markedly inhibited by the emptying. Here, increased blood concentrations of isopropanol and acetone were observed in ketotic cows, and the importance of ruminal microbes in isopropanol production was confirmed.

  11. (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene, or {beta}-pinene, or limonene) mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoli [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Tamura, Kazuhiro, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)


    (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria (tie-lines) of (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene) at T = (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K and (water + acetone + {beta}-pinene, or limonene) at T = 298.15 K have been measured. The experimental (ternary liquid + liquid) equilibrium data have been correlated successfully by the original UNIQUAC and modified UNIQUAC models. The modified UNIQUAC model reproduced accurately the experimental results for the (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene) system at all the temperatures but fairly agreed with the experimental data for the (water + acetone + {beta}-pinene, or limonene) systems.

  12. Composition measurement of bicomponent droplets using laser-induced fluorescence of acetone (United States)

    Maqua, C.; Depredurand, V.; Castanet, G.; Wolff, M.; Lemoine, F.


    Commercial fuels are complex mixtures, the evaporation of which remains particularly difficult to model. Experimental characterization of the differential vaporization of the components is a problem that is seldom addressed. In this paper, the evaporation of binary droplets made of ethyl-alcohol and acetone is investigated using a technique of measurement of the droplet composition developed in purpose. This technique exploits the laser induced fluorescence of acetone which acts as a fluorescent tracer as well as the more volatile component of the fuel associated with an accurate measurement of the droplet diameter by forward scattering interferometry. A model of the fluorescence intensity of the binary mixture, taking into account the absorption of the acetone molecules, is proposed and validated. The sensitivity of the technique is discussed. Finally, the reliability of the technique is demonstrated on binary combusting droplets in linear stream.

  13. Acetone gas sensing mechanism on zinc oxide surfaces: A first principles calculation (United States)

    Sadeghian Lemraski, M.; Nadimi, E.


    Semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have attracted growing interest as a result of their outstanding performance in the bio and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the sensing mechanism is yet not totally understood. In this study, we extensively investigate the adsorption mechanism of acetone molecule on ZnO-based thin film sensors by performing ab initio density functional theory calculations and employing quantum molecular dynamic simulations. Since the sensitivity of a metal oxide sensor is exceedingly depends on molecular oxygen exposure and operating temperature, we explore the competitive adsorption of acetone and oxygen molecule on the most stable orientation of ZnO surface (10 1 ̅ 0) at different temperatures. Results indicate that at elevated temperatures acetone gains required thermal energy to remove preadsorbed oxygen molecule from the surface in a competitive process. We will show that this competition is responsible for the resistive switching behavior in the ZnO-based gas sensors.

  14. Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for the determination of acetone by phosphorescence attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo-Gonzalez, Emma; Fernandez-Argueelles, Maria T. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Avda. Julian Claveria 8, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Costa-Fernandez, Jose M., E-mail: [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Avda. Julian Claveria 8, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Avda. Julian Claveria 8, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Colloidal Mn:ZnS QDs exhibiting intense and long-lasting phosphorescence were synthesized and exhaustively characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several experimental factors that influence classical phosphorescence do not modify the Mn:ZnS QDs phosphorescence emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn:ZnS QDs have been applied for phosphorescence-based acetone determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism has been proposed to explain acetone quenching effect on QDs phosphorescence. - Abstract: Quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used as highly valuable fluorescent biomarkers and as sensitive (bio)chemical probes. Interestingly, if certain metal impurities are incorporated during the NPs synthesis, phosphorescent QDs with analytical potential can be obtained. We report here the synthesis of colloidal manganese-doped ZnS nanoparticles which have been surface-modified with L-cysteine that exhibit an intense room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission in aqueous media even in the presence of dissolved oxygen (i.e. sample deoxygenation is not needed). An exhaustive RTP photoluminescent and morphological characterization of the synthesized QDs and their potential for development of phosphorescent analytical methodologies is described. Application to analytical control of acetone ('model analyte' from the ketones family) in water and urine samples is carried out by measuring the QDs phosphorescence quenching rate. The observed results showed a high selectivity of Mn{sup 2+}-doped ZnS QDs towards acetone. The linear range of the developed methodology turned out to be at least up to 600 mg L{sup -1} with a detection limit (DL) for acetone dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L{sup -1}. The developed methodology was finally applied for acetone determination in different spiked water and urine samples, and the recoveries fall in the range of 93-107%.

  15. Sensing performances to low concentration acetone for palladium doped LaFeO3 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小风; 秦宏伟; 裴金亮; 陈艳平; 李玲; 谢继浩; 胡季帆


    The PdCl2 was mixed with nanocrystalline powders LaFeO3 and subsequently followed by an annealing of 800 °C. PdO phase was formed and almost distributed uniformly on the surface of LaFeO3 nano-particles. With an increase of PdO amounts in composite powders, sensing sensitivityRg/Ra to low concentration acetone or ethanol for Pd doped LaFeO3 sensors increased at first, underwent the maximum with 2 wt.% PdCl2 dopant, and then doped again. Interestingly, appropriate Pd doping in LaFeO3 changed the selectivity behavior of gas sensing. LaFeO3 sensor showed good selectivity to ethanol, but 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor showed good selectivity to acetone. The sensitivity for LaFeO3 at 200 °C was 1.32 to 1 ppm ethanol, and 1.19 to 1 ppm acetone. Whereas the sensitivity for 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 at 200 °C was 1.53 to 1 ppm ethanol, and 1.9 to 1 ppm acetone. The 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor at 200 °C showed very short response time (4 s) and recovery time (2 s) to 1 ppm acetone gas, respectively. Such results showed that 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor is a new promising sensing candidate for detecting low concentration acetone.

  16. Antioxidant effect of water and acetone extracts of Fucus vesiculosuson oxidative stability of skin care emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hermund, Ditte Baun


    A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room...... temperature. High temperature also caused greater increments in the droplet size of the emulsions. The analysis of the tocopherol content, peroxide value and volatile compounds during the storage revealed that, whereas both water and acetone extracts showed (at 2 mg/g of emulsion) protective effect against...

  17. Effects of acetone and fasting on cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism in intact and hypophysectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.T.; Simonet, L.


    Hypophysectomized and intact male and female rats were fasted for 24-48 hrs or given acetone (5ml/kg body weight) in order to evaluate the effects of these treatments on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total P-450 in intact female rats. However, there was no significant changes in P-450 in microsomes from fasted or acetone-treated hypophysectomized rats. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in significant increases in nitrosamine metabolism in intact rats. This effect was markedly reduced in the hypophysectomized rat. When intact male rats were fasted or treated with acetone there was a significant increase in P-450 in microsomes from acetone treated rats. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly increased in both intact and hypophysectomized male and female rats treated with acetone. These results suggest that the pituitary gland or some product markedly influences acetone-stimulated nitrosamine metabolism.

  18. Neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and cyclohexanone. (United States)

    Mitran, E; Callender, T; Orha, B; Dragnea, P; Botezatu, G


    The neurotoxic effects of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone on Romanian workers and the impact of those effects on industry environmental standards have been controversial subjects. To scientifically substantiate the standards, a study was conducted on three groups of workers to determine the changes induced by ketone solvents on the central and peripheral nervous systems. Groups of exposed workers and matched controls were studied for each solvent: acetone, 71 exposed and 86 controls from a coin printing factory; MEK, 41 exposed and 63 controls from a cable factory; and cyclohexanone, 75 exposed and 85 controls from a furniture factory. The subjects' mean age was 36 years. The mean length of exposure was 14 years. Study participants completed a questionnaire, responded to questions about alcohol consumption, submitted to a clinical examination, submitted samples for identification of biological exposure markers, and underwent motor nerve conduction velocity and neurobehavioral tests. Results showed that workers exposed to acetone were most affected in terms of human performance and evidence of neurotoxicity, followed by workers exposed to MEK and workers exposed to cyclohexanone. On the basis of the results, it was proposed that the 6-hr permissible exposure limits for acetone, MEK, and cyclohexanone be reduced to less than 500, 200, and 150 mg/m3, respectively.

  19. Stable gold nanoparticles obtained in pure acetone by laser ablation with different wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, INSTM and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Chimica ' Ugo Schiff' (Italy); Marsili, Paolo; Scarpellini, David [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (Italy); Giammanco, Francesco [University of Pisa, Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' (Italy)


    We prepared gold nanoparticles (NPs) by ps laser ablation in pure acetone and water with 532 and 1,064 nm wavelengths. The NPs obtained in pure acetone are stable for years and, depending on the fabrication conditions, they can be very small, quasi monodisperse and fluorescent. These properties are not lost when they are transferred from acetone to water. Post-irradiation tests of the colloids with 532 nm pulses, before and after phase transfer to water, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), either on liquid and on dried samples, suggest that the stabilization mechanism in acetone is related to the light-induced formation on the gold surface of enolate which, in some cases, can undergo degradation with formation of amorphous carbon. Micro-SERS tests were also used to demonstrate that functionalization of the particles with 1,10-phenanthroline or adenine is possible after transfer to the water phase, which opens the way to the use of such structures for biological and medical applications, such as biocompatible fluorescent or Raman markers.

  20. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.


    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  1. Improvement of the cold flow characteristics of biodiesel containing dissolved polymer wastes using acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Due to the fast fossil fuel depletion and at the same time global warming phenomenon anticipated for the next coming years, the necessity of developing alternative fuels e.g. biofuels (i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and etc. has turned into an important concern. Recently, the application of the bio-solvency properties of biodiesel for recycling waste polymers has been highlighted. However, the impact of polymer dissolution on cold flow characteristics of biodiesel was never investigated. The present study was set to explore the impact of different solvents in stabilizing biodiesel-polymer solution. Among them, acetone was proved to be the best fuel stabilizer. Subsequently, cold flow characteristic i.e. cloud point, of the biodiesel-polymer-acetone fuel was found to have improved (decreased due to the inclusion of acetone. Finally, flash point analysis of the fuel blends containing acetone was done to ensured high safety of the fuel blend by dramatically increasing the flash point values of biodiesel-polymer fuel blends.

  2. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana


    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolys

  3. Lignin depolymerisation in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Teunissen, W.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.; Gellerstedt, G.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Valorisation of lignin plays a key role in further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes the production of biofuels and bio-based materials. In the present study, organosolv hardwood and wheat straw lignins were converted in a supercritical fluid consisting of carbon dioxide/acetone/w

  4. Carbon and proton Overhauser DNP from MD simulations and ab initio calculations: TEMPOL in acetone. (United States)

    Küçük, Sami Emre; Biktagirov, Timur; Sezer, Deniz


    A computational analysis of the Overhauser effect is reported for the proton, methyl carbon, and carbonyl carbon nuclei of liquid acetone doped with the nitroxide radical TEMPOL. A practical methodology for calculating the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) coupling factors by accounting for both dipole-dipole and Fermi-contact interactions is presented. The contribution to the dipolar spectral density function of nuclear spins that are not too far from TEMPOL is computed through classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, whereas the contribution of distant spins is included analytically. Fermi contacts are obtained by subjecting a few molecules from every MD snapshot to ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. Scalar interaction is found to be an essential part of the (13)C Overhauser DNP. While mostly detrimental to the carbonyl carbon of acetone it is predicted to result in large enhancements of the methyl carbon signal at magnetic fields of 9 T and beyond. In contrast, scalar coupling is shown to be negligible for the protons of acetone. The additional influence of proton polarization on the carbon DNP (three-spin effect) is also analyzed computationally. Its effect, however, is concluded to be practically insignificant for liquid acetone.

  5. Initial Dynamics of The Norrish Type I Reaction in Acetone: Probing Wave Packet Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard


    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S1 (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels...

  6. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent


    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of New Material——La/Zr/MMT Employed in Acetone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN,Li-Ping; CHEN,Min; ZHANG,Yi-Gai; ZHOU,Ren-Xian; ZHENG,Xiao-Ming


    A new material of zirconium pillared montmorillonite added with lanthanum (denoted as La/Zr/MMT) was prepared for acetone oxidation. Surface properties of the catalysts were investigated by means of XRD, TEM,TG-DTA and BET methods. The XRD result indicated that the interlayer space of the montmorillonite was enlarged from 1.57 to 4.85 nm after the treatment with zirconium pillaring and the addition of lanthanum. N2 adsorption-desorption result showed that by the process of zirconium pillaring, the specific surface area of the sample was increased to 128.0 m2/g, which was two times almost as large as pure montmorillonite. Simultaneously, the thermal stability was also enhanced. The activity of the new material on the total oxidation of acetone was investigated, and the results indicated that the catalytic activity of the montmorillonite was greatly improved. Over the sample of La/Zr/MMT, the T98 of acetone was obtained at 350℃, while it needs 400℃ over the pure montmorillonite. After 0.1% Pd was supported on the sample of La/Zr/MMT, the T98 decreased from 350 to 280 ℃, indicating the montmorillonite is a promising material for the control of some types of the volatile organic compounds such as acetone.

  8. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius


    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  9. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samudrala, D.; Lammers, G.; Mandon, J.B.; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Harren, F.J.M.; Tappy, L.; Cristescu, S.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. METHODS: Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath a

  10. Thermal and Ablative Properties of Ipns and Composites of High Ortho Resole Resin and Difurfurylidene Acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. NAJIM


    Full Text Available High ortho resole resin was prepared by condensation of phenol with excess of formaldehyde in the presence of magnesium oxide as catalyst. Reaction of furfuraldehyde with acetone in basic medium led to difurfurylidene acetone (DFA. Their interpenetrating polymer network (IPNS were obtained by the reaction of predetermined quantities of difurfurylidene acetone and high ortho resole using p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA as curing agent. The thermal behavior of the resins was studied using thermogravimetry (TG under ambient and nitrogen atmospheres over a temperature range of (25-1000 Cº. It was observed that the IPN of 20% DFA – 80% resole has higher thermal stability than that of resole alone and the decomposition temperature was higher by 80 Cº. This behavior was attributed to highly cross linked structure and thermally stable backbone of ploy difurfurylidene acetone due to formation of ladder structure.Impregnation of chopped fiber glass type (E with the polymeric solutions was used to prepare their composites, and the ablative properties were investigated according to ASTM E-285 –80. It was observed that the IPN of (DFA- resol perform better than the resole composite alone.

  11. High dilutions of acetone affect the Avena sativa growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Karina Belato


    Full Text Available Introduction: Acetone is an organic solvent with molecular structure CH3(COCH3, its endogenous production in the animal body is called ketosis. The production of this compound increases with the fat. Acetone influences the lipid membrane, altering its fluidity and lipid composition [1], causing cell damage and leakage and can cause cell death. The use of herbicides in organic farming is not accepted by the Brazilian legislation [2]. So the weed control becomes a problem for organic farmers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the herbicide potential of high dilutions of acetone on Avena sativa L. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Homeopathy, State University of Maringá (UEM. The seeds of Avena sativa are placed in Petri dishes. Fitty seeds were germinated and grown in Petri dishes containing 15ml of high dilution of acetone and maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Acetone dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30cH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. Were evaluated the shoot length (cm, total length (cm, fresh root (mg and total dry mass (mg. The plants growth was measured after 7 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The experiment evaluated 4 replicates of each treatment and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Dilutions 6, 24 and 30 cH inhibited the growth of the shoot and total seedling of A. sativa. The root fresh weight was significantly reduced by 4 dilutions (6,12,24 and 30x, with no difference of 24x compared to the control. The total dry mass of plants of A. sativa was reduced in all the dilutions studied, showing an inhibitory effect on growth of seedlings subjected to treatment. Somehow, acetone diluited inhibited the growth and accumulation of biomass of these seedlings, suggesting an imbalance in metabolism

  12. An Acetone Microsensor with a Ring Oscillator Circuit Fabricated Using the Commercial 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang


    Full Text Available This study investigates the fabrication and characterization of an acetone microsensor with a ring oscillator circuit using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The acetone microsensor contains a sensitive material, interdigitated electrodes and a polysilicon heater. The sensitive material is α-Fe2O3 synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer between the interdigitated electrodes and to coat the α-Fe2O3 on the electrodes. When the sensitive material adsorbs acetone vapor, the sensor produces a change in capacitance. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. The experimental results show that the output frequency of the acetone sensor changes from 128 to 100 MHz as the acetone concentration increases 1 to 70 ppm.

  13. Hydrogen bond dynamics and vibrational spectral diffusion in aqueous solution of acetone: A first principles molecular dynamics study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhabani S Mallik; Amalendu Chandra


    We present an ab initio molecular dynamics study of vibrational spectral diffusion and hydrogen bond dynamics in aqueous solution of acetone at room temperature. It is found that the frequencies of OD bonds in the acetone hydration shell have a higher stretch frequency than those in the bulk water. Also, on average, the frequencies of hydration shell OD modes are found to increase with increase in the acetone-water hydrogen bond distance. The vibrational spectral diffusion of the hydration shell water molecules reveals three time scales: A short-time relaxation (∼80 fs) corresponding to the dynamics of intact acetone-water hydrogen bonds, a slower relaxation (∼1.3 ps) corresponding to the lifetime of acetone-water hydrogen bonds and another longer time constant (∼12 ps) corresponding to the escape dynamics of water from the solute hydration shell. The present first principles results are compared with those of available experiments and classical simulations.

  14. Toluene metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes: effects of in vivo pretreatment with acetone and phenobarbital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, A. (National Inst. of Forensic Toxicology, Oslo (Norway))


    Hepatocytes isolated from control, acetone- and phenobarbital-pretreated rats were used to study the metabolic conversion of toluene to benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and hippuric acid at low (<100 [mu]M) and high (100-500 [mu]M) toluene concentrations. The baseline formation rates of toluene metabolites (benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid and hippuric acid) were 2.9[+-]1.7 and 10.0[+-]2.3 nmol/mg cell protein/60 min at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In vivo pretreatment of rats with acetone and phenobarbital increased the formation of metabolites: at low toluene concentrations 3- and 5-fold, respectively; at high toluene concentrations no significant increase (acetone) and 8-fold increase (phenobarbital). Apparent inhibition by ethanol, 7 and 60 mM, was most prominent at low toluene concentrations: 63% and 69%, respectively, in control cells; 84% and 91% in acetone-pretreated cells, and 32% (not significant) and 51% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells. Ethanol also caused accumulation of benzyl alcohol. The apparent inhibition by isoniazid was similar to that of ethanol at low toluene concentrations. Control and acetone-pretreated cells were apparently resistant towards metyrapone; the decrease was 49% and 64% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In these cells, the decrease in presence of combined ethanol and metyrapone was 95% (low toluene concentrations). 4-Methylpyrazole decreased metabolite formation extensively in all groups. Benzaldehyde was only found in the presence of an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor. Increased ratio benzoic/hippuric acid was observed at high toluene concentrations. These results demonstrate that toluene oxidation may be studied by product formation in isolated hepatocytes. However, the influence of various enzymes in the overall metabolism could not be ascertained due to lack of inhibitor specificity. (orig.).

  15. Profiling and relative quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine based on acetone stable isotope derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Wei, Fang, E-mail: [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Xu, Ji-qu; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-yan [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Han, Xianlin [Center for Metabolic Origins of Disease, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL 32827 (United States); College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 548 Bingwen Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053 (China); Quek, Siew-young [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Huang, Feng-hong [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China)


    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered to be one of the pivotal lipids for normal cellular function as well as disease initiation and progression. In this study, a simple, efficient, reliable, and inexpensive method for the qualitative analysis and relative quantification of PE, based on acetone stable isotope derivatization combined with double neutral loss scan-shotgun electrospray ionization tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis (ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS), was developed. The ASID method led to alkylation of the primary amino groups of PE with an isopropyl moiety. The use of acetone (d{sub 0}-acetone) and deuterium-labeled acetone (d{sub 6}-acetone) introduced a 6 Da mass shift that was ideally suited for relative quantitative analysis, and enhanced sensitivity for mass analysis. The DNLS model was introduced to simultaneously analyze the differential derivatized PEs by shotgun ESI-MS/MS with high selectivity and accuracy. The reaction specificity, labeling efficiency, and linearity of the ASID method were thoroughly evaluated in this study. Its excellent applicability was validated by qualitative and relative quantitative analysis of PE species presented in liver samples from rats fed different diets. Using the ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS method, 45 PE species from rat livers have been identified and quantified in an efficient manner. The level of total PEs tended to decrease in the livers of rats on high fat diets compared with controls. The levels of PE 32:1, 34:3, 34:2, 36:3, 36:2, 42:10, plasmalogen PE 36:1 and lyso PE 22:6 were significantly reduced, while levels of PE 36:1 and lyso PE 16:0 increased. - Highlights: • A novel isotope reagent acetone was explored for the derivatization of PEs. • The labeling reaction was carried out under mild conditions with high specificity. • Enhanced detection sensitivity of PEs was achieved after derivatization. • The ASID-DNLS-Shotgun MS/MS method was used to relative quantification of PEs.


    A study was made of the spectra of soluble inorganic nitrates in acetone solution and the use of such spectra in analytical chemistry . The spectra of...solubilities of anhydrous inorganic nitrates in acetone. The applications of the spectra of inorganic nitrates in acetone to analytical chemistry is

  17. Atmospheric heteroseneous reaction of acetone: Adsorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms on SiO2 particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE ChongYu; CHEN ZhongMing; WANG HongLi; HUA Wei; WANG CaiXia; LI Shuang


    Acetone plays an important role in photooxidation processes in the atmosphere. Up to date, little is known regarding the heterogeneous fate of acetone. In this study, the adsorption and desorption processes of acetone on SiO2 particles, which are the major constituent of mineral dust in the atmos-phere, have been investigated for the first time under the simulated atmospheric conditions, using in situ transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is found that acetone molecules are ad-sorbed on the surfaces of SiO2 particles by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding forces in a nonreactive and reversible state. The rates of initial adsorption and initial desorption, initial uptake coefficients and adsorption concentrations at equilibrium have been determined at different relative humidity. The presence of water vapor cannot result in the formation of new substances, but can de-crease the adsorption ability by consuming or overlapping the isolated OH groups on the surfaces of SiO2 particles. In the desorption process, a considerable amount of acetone molecules will remain on SiO2 particles in dry air, whereas acetone molecules are almost completely desorbed at a high relative humidity. In order to evaluate the role of heterogeneous reactions of acetone and other carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere, a new model fitting the atmospheric conditions is needed.

  18. Insights on Clusters Formation Mechanism by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. 2. The Case of Acetone-Water Clusters (United States)

    Apicella, B.; Li, X.; Passaro, M.; Russo, C.


    This paper is the second of a series dealing with clusters formation mechanism. In part 1, water clusters with the addition of an electrophilic molecule such as ethanol were studied by Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS). Mass distributions of molecular clusters of ethanol, water and ethanol-water mixed clusters, were obtained by means of two different ionization methods: Electron Ionization (EI) and picosecond laser Photo-Ionization (PI) at a wavelength of 355 nm. In part 2, the same experimental approach was employed to obtain mass spectra of clusters generated by acetone-water binary mixtures with a different composition. Strong dependence of the mass spectra of clusters with EI and PI on the acetone-water mixing ratio was observed. It was shown that the spectral pattern changes gradually and water-rich cluster signals become fainter while acetone-rich cluster signals become more intensive with increasing acetone concentrations from 0.3% to 40%. Owing to the hydrogen bond acceptor character of acetone, its self-association is discouraged with respect to ethanol. The autocorrelation function (AF) was used to analyze the variation of the water clusters composition with the increase of the acetone concentration in terms of fundamental periodicities. However, although acetone and ethanol present a very different hydrogen-bonding ability, similarly to ethanol-water system, in acetone-water system the formation of water-rich clusters and subsequent metastable fragmentation are the dominant process that determine the clusters distribution, irrespective of the ionization process, while the ionization process significantly affects the acetone-rich clusters distribution.

  19. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry (United States)

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.


    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  20. Electron Thermal Capacity in Plasma Generated at Cavitation Bubble Collapse in D-acetone

    CERN Document Server

    Kostenko, B F


    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C$_3$D$_6$O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in very dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse needs specification. In the present paper, calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures $T_e \\simeq 10^4 $ K and above and compression range $\\rho/\\rho_0 \\simeq 1 \\div 100$ have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential.

  1. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M


    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L).

  2. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone (United States)


    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  3. Kinetic Model of Resin-Catalyzed Decomposition of Acetone Cyanohydrin in Organic Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章亭洲; 杨立荣; 朱自强; 吴坚平


    Decomposition of acetone cyanohydrin is the first-step reaction for preparing (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (CPBA) by the one-pot method in organic media. Considering the compatibility of biocatalysts with chemical catalysts and the successive operation in the bioreactor, anion exchange resin (D301) was used as catalyst for this reaction. External diffusion limitation was excluded by raising rotational speed to higher than 190r·min-1 in both solvents. Internal diffusion limitation was verified to be insignificant in this reaction system. The effect of acetone cyanohydrin concentration on the reaction was also investigated. An intrinsic kinetic model was proposed when the mass transfer limitation was excluded, and the average deviation of the model is 10.5%.

  4. Graphene oxide foams and their excellent adsorption ability for acetone gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000 (China); School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Nana; Wu, Fei; Xu, Fangqiang; Liu, Yu [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Jianping, E-mail: [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO and RGO foams were prepared using a simple and green method, unidirectional freeze-drying. • The porous structure of the foams can be adjusted by changing GO concentrations. • GO and RGO foams show good adsorption efficiency for acetone gas. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying method. These porous carbon materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption behavior of the two kinds of foams for acetone was studied. The result showed that the saturated adsorption efficiency of the GO foams was over 100%, and was higher than that of RGO foams and other carbon materials.

  5. Various Preconcentrator Structures For Determination of Acetone in a Wide Range of Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Maciej Rydosz


    Full Text Available In this paper, the investigation results on preconcentration of acetone at various initial concentrations are presented. The structures were made of conventional materials, such as stainless steel, quartz tube as well as fabricated in MEMS technology - micropreconcentrators. All structures have the same ‘active’ area to obtain more suitable comparison. The adsorbent materials were selected from commercial available Sigma-Aldrich Carbon Adsorbent Sampler Kit, consisting of 8 various adsorbents. The highest concentration factors were obtained by utilization of micropreconcentrator filled with Carboxen-1018, which is recommended for adsorption of C2-C3 compounds. The preconcentrators were placed into microsystem, and semiconductor gas sensor array was used as a detector unit. The microsystem was previously tested and designed for exhaled breath acetone analysis. The obtained results show that micropreconcentrator can be a useful tool for an increasing sensor sensitivity.

  6. Detection of acetone in exhaled breath with the use of micropreconcentrator and a commercial gas sensor (United States)

    Michoń, Dagmara; Rydosz, Artur; Domański, Krzysztof; Maziarz, Wojciech; Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz


    This paper presents investigation results obtained with the measuring system enabling detection of acetone with concentrations lower than 1 ppm. In the experiment we used both conventional preconcentrators made from materials such as stainless steel and quartz tubes and a micropreconcentrator manufactured in MEMS technology. The active volume of all preconcentrators was equal to enable comparisons of their performance. As a gas detector at the output of the measurement system we used both commercial semiconductor gas sensor and a mass spectrometer for comparison purposes. The obtained results show that the measurement system with micropreconcentrator and a commercial gas sensor can be used for detection of low level acetone present in the air exhaled by diabetics.

  7. Proton transfer reactions between nitric acid and acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde in the solid phase. (United States)

    Lasne, Jérôme; Laffon, Carine; Parent, Philippe


    The heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions of acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde with solid nitric acid (HNO(3)) films have been studied with Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS) under Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) conditions in the 90-170 K temperature range. In the bulk or at the surface of the films, nitric acid transfers its proton to the carbonyl function of the organic molecules, producing protonated acetone-H(+), hydroxyacetone-H(+), acetaldehyde-H(+) and benzaldehyde-H(+), and nitrate anions NO(3)(-), a reaction not observed when nitric acid is previously hydrated [J. Lasne, C. Laffon and Ph. Parent, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 697]. This provides a molecular-scale description of the carbonyl protonation reaction in an acid medium, the first step of the acid-catalyzed condensation of carbonyl compounds, fuelling the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere.

  8. Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature (United States)

    Abbatt, J. P. D.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Ullerstam, M.; Ye, T. J.


    The interactions of gas-phase acetone, ethanol and benzene with smooth ice films and artificial snow have been studied. In one technique, the snow is packed into a cylindrical column and inserted into a low-pressure flow reactor coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for gas-phase analysis. At 214 and 228 K, it is found for acetone and ethanol that the adsorbed amounts per surface area match those for adsorption to thin films of ice formed by freezing liquid water, when the specific surface area of the snow (as determined from Kr adsorption at 77 K) and the geometric surface area of the ice films are used. This indicates that freezing thin films of water leads to surfaces that are smooth at the molecular level. Experiments performed to test the effect of film growth on ethanol uptake indicate that uptake is independent of ice growth rate, up to 2.4 µm min-1. In addition, traditional Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiments were performed with these gases on artificial snow from 238 to 266.5 K. A transition from a BET type I isotherm indicative of monolayer formation to a BET type II isotherm indicative of multilayer uptake is observed for acetone at T>=263 K and ethanol at T>=255 K, arising from solution formation on the ice. When multilayer formation does not occur, as was the case for benzene at T<=263 K and for acetone at T<=255 K, the saturated surface coverage increased with increasing temperature, consistent with the quasi-liquid layer affecting adsorption prior to full dissolution/multilayer formation.

  9. Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbatt, J P D; Bartels-Rausch, T; Ullerstam, M; Ye, T J [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)


    The interactions of gas-phase acetone, ethanol and benzene with smooth ice films and artificial snow have been studied. In one technique, the snow is packed into a cylindrical column and inserted into a low-pressure flow reactor coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for gas-phase analysis. At 214 and 228 K, it is found for acetone and ethanol that the adsorbed amounts per surface area match those for adsorption to thin films of ice formed by freezing liquid water, when the specific surface area of the snow (as determined from Kr adsorption at 77 K) and the geometric surface area of the ice films are used. This indicates that freezing thin films of water leads to surfaces that are smooth at the molecular level. Experiments performed to test the effect of film growth on ethanol uptake indicate that uptake is independent of ice growth rate, up to 2.4 {mu}m min{sup -1}. In addition, traditional Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiments were performed with these gases on artificial snow from 238 to 266.5 K. A transition from a BET type I isotherm indicative of monolayer formation to a BET type II isotherm indicative of multilayer uptake is observed for acetone at T{>=}263 K and ethanol at T{>=}255 K, arising from solution formation on the ice. When multilayer formation does not occur, as was the case for benzene at T{<=}263 K and for acetone at T{<=}255 K, the saturated surface coverage increased with increasing temperature, consistent with the quasi-liquid layer affecting adsorption prior to full dissolution/multilayer formation.

  10. Optimization of Wastewater Microalgae Pretreatment for Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol Fermentation


    Castro, Yessica A.


    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from wastewater microalgae by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 is a novel bioprocess that utilizes waste substrate to generate valuable solvents. Butanol, the most abundant product resulting from ABE fermentation, is an environmentally safe and high performing fuel that can be utilized as a drop-in-fuel; however, high operational costs and low ABE yield present challenge in scale-up of the process. The utilization of algae as a substrate r...

  11. Surface tension isotherms of the dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems (United States)

    Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Dadashev, R. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.; Dadashev, I. N.


    The results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the concentration dependence of surface tension of aqueous solutions of the 1,4-dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems were given. The studies were performed by the hanging-drop method on a DSA100 tensiometer. The maximum error of surface tension was 1%. The theoretical models for calculating the surface tension of the ternary systems of organic solutions were analyzed.

  12. Shock-Tube Measurement of Acetone Dissociation Using Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy of CO. (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K


    A direct measurement for the rate constant of the acetone dissociation reaction (CH3COCH3 = CH3CO + CH3) was conducted behind reflected shock wave, utilizing a sub-ppm sensitivity CO diagnostic achieved by cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS). The current experiment eliminated the influence from secondary reactions and temperature change by investigating the clean pyrolysis of shock-tube kinetics studies.

  13. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis


    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and 5 acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone 10 over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass mo15 tion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  14. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis


    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  15. Metal-Exchanged β Zeolites as Catalysts for the Conversion of Acetone to Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza


    Full Text Available Various metal-β zeolites have been synthesized under similar ion-exchange conditions. During the exchange process, the nature and acid strength of the used cations modified the composition and textural properties as well as the Brönsted and Lewis acidity of the final materials. Zeolites exchanged with divalent cations showed a clear decrease of their surface Brönsted acidity and an increase of their Lewis acidity. All materials were active as catalysts for the transformation of acetone into hydrocarbons. Although the protonic zeolite was the most active in the acetone conversion (96.8% conversion, the metal-exchanged zeolites showed varied selectivities towards different products of the reaction. In particular, we found the Cu-β to have a considerable selectivity towards the production of isobutene from acetone (over 31% yield compared to 7.5% of the protonic zeolite. We propose different reactions mechanisms in order to explain the final product distributions.

  16. Vertical fluxes and atmospheric cycling of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in a coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang


    Full Text Available We present here vertical fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone measured directly with eddy covariance (EC during March to July 2012 near the southwest coast of the UK. The performance of the proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS for flux measurement is characterized, with additional considerations given to the homogeneity and stationarity assumptions required by EC. Concentrations and fluxes of these compounds vary significantly with time of day and wind direction. Higher values of acetaldehyde and acetone are usually observed in the daytime and from the direction of a forested park, most likely due to light-driven emissions from terrestrial plants. Methanol concentration and flux do not demonstrate clear diel variability, suggesting sources in addition to plants. We estimate air–sea exchange and photochemical rates of these compounds, which are compared to measured vertical fluxes. For acetaldehyde, the mean (1σ concentration of 0.13 (0.02 ppb at night may be maintained by oceanic emission, while photochemical destruction outpaces production during the day. Air-sea exchange and photochemistry are probably net sinks of methanol and acetone in this region. Their nighttime concentrations of 0.46 (0.20 and 0.39 (0.08 ppb appear to be affected more by terrestrial emissions and long distance transport, respectively.

  17. FTIR study of acetone oxime interaction with H-ZSM-5 and Cu-ZSM-5 (United States)

    Simakov, Andrey V.; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.; Rebrov, Evgenii V.; Sazonova, N. N.


    Copper based catalysts are of great importance as catalysts for NO removal from exhaust industrial gases. Earlier authors have shown that NO reaction with acetone oxime (AO) is the rate determining step of NO catalytic reduction by propane over Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst at temperatures below 300oC. Aim of the present work is to clarify the peculiarities of acetone oxime coordination over surface of H-ZSM-5 zeolite and that doped with Cu(II) and Cu(I)-cations. We studied AO coordination in CCl4 solutions and then data obtained were used for analysis of spectra of AO adsorbed on pure zeolite and that dopped with Cu (I) and Cu (II) cations. It was shown that there are monomers and several associates of AO in CCl4 solution differing in size and type of bonding with their own characteristic bands in IR spectra. The spectrum of acetone oxime adsorbed on pure zeolite includes non symmetrical band at 1710 cm-1 due to AO strongly bonded with zeolite surface through H-bond. There are four AO adspecies on zeolite dopped with copper with two different types of AO coordination to Cu(I) or to Cu(II) cations: one with participation of O atom and another one with N atom. Complexes of AO with Cu(I) ions are much more stable then those with Cu(II) ions.

  18. Fenton oxidation of 2, 4-and 2, 6-dinitrotoluene and acetone inhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiliang HE; Bin ZHAO; Joseph B.HUGHES; Sunh Soo HAN


    The performances and kinetic parameters of Fenton oxidation of 2, 4- and 2, 6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) in water-acetone mixtures and explosive contaminated soil washing-out solutions were investigated at a labor-atory scale. The experimental results show that acetone can be a significant hydroxyl radical scavenger and result in serious inhibition of Fenton oxidation of 2, 4- and 2, 6-DNT. Although no serious inhibition was found in con-taminated soil washing-out solutions, longer reaction time was needed to remove 2, 4- and 2, 6-DNT completely, mainly due to the competition of hydroxyl radicals. Fenton oxidation of 2, 4- and 2, 6-DNT fit well with the first-order kinetics and the presence of acetone also reduced DNT's degradation kinetics. Based on the com-parison and matching of retention time and ultraviolet (UV) spectra between high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) and standards, the following reaction pathway for 2, 4-DNT primary degradation was pro-posed: 2, 4-DNT→2, 4-dinitro-benzaldehyde→2, 4-dini-trobenzoic acid→1, 3-dinitrobenzene→3-nitrophenol.

  19. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye


    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...... were 0, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 4-week study the doses of DEHP were increased to 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 9-week study, the relative liver weight was increased in the rats exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. No interaction of DEHP and acetone was observed in any...... of the measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain...

  20. Pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin as matrix precursor for new carbon materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to increase the understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometric coupling technique (TG-MS) were used to study the pyrolysis behavior of furfural-acetone resin used for new carbon materials.The curing and carbonization mechanisms of furfural-acetone resin were mainly investigated;structural changes and volatile products evolved during pyrolysis were analyzed.The results indicate that,during pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin adding 7% (mass fraction) phosphorous acid as curing agent,the rupture of C-O bond in the five-membered heterocycle firstly takes place to release oxygen atoms and then does the C--H bond,which enable the molecular chain to cross-link and condense,then lead to the formation of three dimensional networking structure.With the increase of pyrolyzing temperature,the scission of methyl and the opening of furan ring are generated.As a result,the recomposition of molecular chain structure isgenerated and a hexatomic fused ring containing double bonds is built.The main volatile products during pyrolysis of furfuralacetone resin are H2O,and a small mount of CO,CO2 and CH4.At elevated temperatures,dehydrogenation takes place and hydrogen gas is evolved.

  1. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.


    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Reaction Kinetics of Acetone Peroxide Formation and Structure Investigations Using Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Trane, Rasmus


    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) has been prepared in order to study the effect of pH and temperature on the reaction kinetics. Raman spectra of liquid mixtures of acetone and hydrogen peroxide were recorded versus time throughout the experiments. The spectral data of the liquid phases indicate...... that at 25 degrees C the reaction between acetone and hydrogen peroxide proceeds to form intermediates within one day. Based on the assumption that a likely reaction path involves a sequence of reaction steps between acetone and hydrogen peroxide, calculations of Raman spectra were performed using a density...... functional theory (DFT)/Hartree-Fock approach. It was not possible from this to assess with certainty which intermediate products formed most extensively in an acetone/hydrogen peroxide mixture. However, it was concluded that the most likely reaction mixture is a mixture of the different intermediate...

  3. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses. (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng


    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  4. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends. (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S


    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  5. Low temperature acetone detection by p-type nano-titania thin film: Equivalent circuit model and sensing mechanism (United States)

    Bhowmik, B.; Dutta, K.; Hazra, A.; Bhattacharyya, P.


    Undoped nanocrystalline anatase p-type TiO2 thin film was deposited by sol-gel method on thermally oxidized p-Si (2-5 Ω cm, ) substrates. The thin film was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to confirm the formation of nanocrystalline anatase titania and to determine the crystallite size (∼7 nm). The resistive sensor structure was fabricated employing two lateral Pd electrodes on top of the TiO2 sensing layer. The developed sensor was tested in the temperature range of 50-200 °C for the detection of low ppm acetone (0.5-50 ppm). The maximum response of ∼115% was obtained at 150 °C with response/recovery time of 14 s/22 s at 50 ppm acetone (in air). Moreover, the sensors were capable of detecting acetone as low as 0.5 ppm with acceptable response magnitude. As titania acetone sensors are mostly n-TiO2 based, the acetone sensing mechanism for p-TiO2 is yet to be established authentically. To address the issue, an equivalent circuit model, based on the corresponding band diagram of nanocrystalline p-TiO2 with Pd electrode, was developed to describe the electron transfer mechanism through grain, grain boundary and Pd electrode under the influence of acetone vapor.

  6. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lam, Kingyiu


    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant κ1 (CH3COCH3 → CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding κ1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised κ1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant κtot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding κ tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised κtot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species.

  7. Recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions via membrane distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, F.A.; Al-Shannag, M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The simultaneous recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions by air gap membrane distillation was theoretically assessed. A previously developed and validated Stefan-Maxwell based mathematical model was used for this purpose. It was found that membrane distillation could successfully be used for the recovery of these solvents. Interestingly it was found that butanol could be separated with the highest selectivity and flux though it has the highest boiling point. The effect of operating conditions such as feed and cooling surface temperatures, air gap width, and individual component concentration on the flux and selectivity of these solvents was examined and discussed in this paper. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. M. Mendonça


    Full Text Available Abstract5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is considered to be an important building block for biorefineries and has a high potential for the production of chemicals and fuels. Production of HMF from glucose was studied using phosphoric acid as catalyst, in a water:acetone system with volume ratio of 1:2 and NaCl. An experimental design was applied to examine the influence of temperature, time and concentration of catalyst on the HMF yield. HMF yields of more than 50 % were obtained when using 200 ºC, 8.4 min and 0.8% of catalyst. The temperature is the main factor influencing the HMF yield.

  9. DFT Study on the (S)-Proline-catalyzed Direct Aldol Reaction between Acetone and 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    DFT/6-31G* calculations were applied to study the direct aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde catalyzed by (S)-proline. Four transition states associated with the stereo-controlling step, corresponding to syn and anti arrangements of methylene moiety related to the carboxylic acid group in enamine intermediate and re and si attacks to the aldehyde carbonyl carbon have been obtained. The solvent effect of DMSO was investigated with polarized continuum model. The computed energies of transition states reveal the stereo-selectivity of the reaction.

  10. Poly[[aquadi-μ3-malonato-hexaphenyl­ditin(IV)] acetone solvate



    The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric complex, {[Sn2=(C6H5)6(C3H2O4)(H2O)]·C3H6O}n, comprises of two Sn cations, one malonate anion and a non-coordinating acetone solvent molecule. Both crystallographically independent Sn cations are five-coordinated by two O and three C atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyrimidal geometry. One of the Sn cations is bridged by the malonate units, affording polymeric chains which run along [001]. Weak intramolecular C—H...π intera...

  11. Oxygenated compounds in aged biomass burning plumes over the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence for strong secondary production of methanol and acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger


    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy have been performed during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS, August 2001. In the course of the campaign 10 biomass burning plumes, identified by strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios, were found. The characteristic biomass burning signatures obtained from these plumes reveal secondary production of acetone and methanol, while CO photochemically declines in the plumes. Mean excess mixing ratios – normalized to CO – of 1.8%, 0.20%, 3.8%, and 0.65% for acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and PAN, respectively, were found in the plumes. By scaling to an assumed global annual source of 663–807 Tg CO, biomass burning emissions of 25–31 and 29–35 Tg/yr for acetone and methanol are estimated, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the present biomass burning contributions of acetone and methanol are significantly underestimated due to the neglect of secondary formation. Median acetonitrile mixing ratios throughout the troposphere were around 150 pmol/mol; this is in accord with current biomass burning inventories and an atmospheric lifetime of ~6 months.

  12. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo


    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  13. Acetone mediated electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline SDC on NiO-SDC ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhosale, A.G. [Smt. Kusumtai Rajarambapu Patil Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Islampur 415409, Maharashtra (India); Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Joshi, Rajeev [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Department of Technology, D.Y Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, Maharashtra (India); Subhedar, K.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mishra, R. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Pawar, S.H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Department of Technology, D.Y Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, Maharashtra (India)


    Films of Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) were electrophoretically deposited on non-conducting NiO-SDC ceramics using the suspension of nanocrystalline SDC in acetone. The effect of iodine addition on suspension stability was investigated by measuring the zeta potential of SDC particle and pH of the suspension. The highest zeta potential was 42.1 mV with the addition of 2 mg iodine at pH 5.7 indicating formation of relatively stable suspension. The particle size distribution reveals the agglomerate size of SDC in acetone with iodine addition was of the order of 222 nm. The surface morphology and sintering effect on grain growth of the deposited films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The structural investigation of the sintered film was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and it revealed phase pure SDC with cubic structure. Impedance study of sintered SDC/NiO-SDC hetero-structure showed decrease in total resistance with increase in temperature.

  14. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M Bhanushali


    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic residues pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kim, Nag-Jong; Jiang, Min; Kang, Jong Won; Chang, Ho Nam


    Bermudagrass, reed and rapeseed were pretreated with phosphoric acid-acetone and used for ethanol production by means of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with a batch and fed-batch mode. When the batch SSF experiments were conducted in a 3% low effective cellulose, about 16 g/L of ethanol were obtained after 96 h of fermentation. When batch SSF experiments were conducted with a higher cellulose content (10% effective cellulose for reed and bermudagrass and 5% for rapeseed), higher ethanol concentrations and yields (of more than 93%) were obtained. The fed-batch SSF strategy was adopted to increase the ethanol concentration further. When a higher water-insoluble solid (up to 36%) was applied, the ethanol concentration reached 56 g/L of an inhibitory concentration of the yeast strain used in this study at 38 degrees C. The results show that the pretreated materials can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production, and that the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment can effectively yield a higher ethanol concentration.

  16. Organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for efficient acetone, butanol, and ethanol production. (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zilouei, Hamid


    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was produced from rice straw using a process containing ethanol organosolv pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum bacterium. Pretreatment of the straw with 75% (v/v) aqueous ethanol containing 1% w/w sulfuric acid at 150 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest total sugar concentration of 31 g/L in the enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the highest ABE concentration and productivity (10.5 g/L and 0.20 g/Lh, respectively) were obtained from the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min with 5% solid loading resulted in glucose yield of 46.2%, which was then fermented to 80.3 g butanol, 21.1 g acetone, and 22.5 g ethanol, the highest overall yield of ABE production. Thus, the organosolv pretreatment can be applied for efficient production of the solvents from rice straw.

  17. Recent progress on industrial fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in China. (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao


    China is one of the few countries, which maintained the fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production for several decades. Until the end of the last century, the ABE fermentation from grain was operated in a few industrial scale plants. Due to the strong competition from the petrochemical industries, the fermentative ABE production lost its position in the 1990s, when all the solvent fermentation plants in China were closed. Under the current circumstances of concern about energy limitations and environmental pollution, new opportunities have emerged for the traditional ABE fermentation industry since it could again be potentially competitive with chemical synthesis. From 2006, several ABE fermentation plants in China have resumed production. The total solvent (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) production capacity from ten plants reached 210,000 tons, and the total solvent production is expected to be extended to 1,000,000 tons (based on the available data as of Sept. 2008). This article reviews current work in strain development, the continuous fermentation process, solvent recovery, and economic evaluation of ABE process in China. Challenges for an economically competitive ABE process in the future are also discussed.

  18. Acetone cataluminescence as an indicator for evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Chen, Yingchun; He, Nan; Lu, Chao


    Rapid and effective evaluation techniques for heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production are highly desirable with increased global demand for biofuels. In this work, we have discovered direct connections between the number of medium-strength basic sites of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production and cataluminescence intensity in acetone aldol condensation reactions. Accordingly, acetone cataluminescence has been employed as an indicator for rapid evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production. Its practical feasibility has been first established using commercially available heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production (including MgO, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO), indicating a good matching between the proposed cataluminescence screening method and routine temperature-programmed desorption measurements. Subsequently, the proposed cataluminescence method can be used to effectively distinguish a set of layered double hydroxides and layered double oxide with fewer differences of basic sites, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the proposed method is 2.90%. The developed cataluminescence platform is able to take advantage of low cost, simple configuration, fast response, long-term stability, and easy operation. This work has a great potential in distinguishing weak/strong basic sites and even acidic sites of each catalyst system by tuning molecular probes.

  19. Micronization of Griseofulvin by Ress in Supercritical CO2 with Cosolvent Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国勤; 陈鸿雁; 蔡建国; 邓修


    Griseofulvin (GF) is an antifungal drug whose pharmaceutical activity can be improved by reducing particle size. In this study the rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) was employed to micronize GF.Carbon dioxide with cosolvent acetone was chosen as a supercritical mixed solvent. The solubility of GF in super-critical CO2 with cosolvent acetone was measured using a dynamic apparatus at pressures between 12 and 32 MPa,temperatures at 313, 323 and 333 K and cosolvent concentration at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% (by mole). The effect of pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance, nozzle size and concentration of cosolvent on the precipitated particles was investigated. The results show that the mean particle size of griseofulvin precipitated by RESS was less than 1.2μm. An increase in pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance and concentration of cosolvent resulted in a decrease in particle size under the operating condition studied. With the decrease of nozzle diameter the particle size reduces. The crystallinity and melting point of the original material and the processed particle by RESS were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).No evident modification in the crystal habit was found under the experimental conditions tested. The morphology of particles precipitated was analyzed bY scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Theoretical study on the mechanism of cycloaddition between dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiuhui; WU Weirong; YU Haibin; XU Yuehua


    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone has been studied by using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation and density functional theory. The geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and energy of stationary points on the potential energy surface are calculated by MP2/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The results show that path b of the cycloaddition reaction (1) would be the major reactive channel of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone, which proceeds in two steps: i) The two reactants form an energy-rich intermediate (INT1b), which is an exothermic reaction of 23.3 kJ/mol with no energy barrier. ii) The intermediate INT1b isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) via transition state TS1b with energy barrier of 22.2 kJ/mol. The reaction rate of this reaction and its competitive reactions do greatly differ, with excellent selectivity. In view of dynamics and thermodynamics, this reaction is suitable for occurring at 1 atm and temperature range of 300―800 K, in which the reaction will have not only the larger spontaneous tendency and equilibrium constant but also the faster reaction rate.

  1. The Influence of PEG400 and Acetone on Polysulfone Membrane Morphology and Fouling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.P. Aryanti


    Full Text Available Modification of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane was conducted by blending polysulfone with PEG400 and acetone as additives. The influence of each additive on the resulted membrane morphology and fouling characteristics were investigated. The experimental results showed that the hydrophilicity of the polysulfone membrane was improved by the increase of PEG400 in the polysulfone membrane. The water contact angle of the membrane was decreased from 76.1° to 38.31° when 35 %wt of PEG400 was added into the polysulfone solution, while the water content of the membrane was increased by around 38%. The high concentration of PEG400 in the polysulfone solution led to the formation of longer finger-like cavities in the membrane structure and resulted in a thicker membrane skin layer. The high concentration of PEG400 also contributed to the increase in hydraulic resistance of the membrane due to organic matter fouling. This problem could be minimized by the addition of acetone into the polysulfone solution, which resulted in a lower fouling resistance of organic matter during up to five hours of peat water filtration.

  2. [Toluene, Benzene and Acetone Adsorption by Activated Carbon Coated with PDMS]. (United States)

    Liu, Han-bing; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Xin; Yang, Bing; Xue, Nan-dong; Zhang, Shi-lei


    To improve the adsorption selectivity of volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) , activated carbon ( AC) was modified by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and characterized by BET analysis and Boehm titration. Dynamic adsorption column experiments were conducted and Yoon-Neslon(Y-N) model was used to identify adsorption effect for toluene, beuzene and acetone on AC when relative humidity was 0%, 50% and 90%, respectively. The results showed that the BET area, micropore volume and surface functional groups decreased with the PDMS modification, and surface hydrophobicity of the modified AC was enhanced leading to a lower water adsorption capacity. The results of dynamic adsorption showed that the adsorption kinetics and capacity of Bare-AC decreased with the increase of relative humidity, and the adsorption capacities of PDMS coated AC were 1.86 times (toluene) and 1.92 times (benzene) higher than those of Bare-AC, while a significant improvement of adsorption capacity for acetone was not observed. These findings suggest that polarity of molecule can be an important influencing factor for adsorption on hydrophobic surface developed by PDMS.

  3. The charging of neutral dimethylamine and dimethylamine-sulphuric acid clusters using protonated acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ruusuvuori


    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere sulphuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulphuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines – strong organic bases – have become the subject of interest as possible cause for such stabilisation. To probe whether amines play a role in atmospheric nucleation, we need to be able to measure accurately the gas-phase amine vapour concentration. Such measurements often include charging the neutral molecules and molecular clusters in the sample. Since amines are bases, the charging process should introduce a positive charge. This can be achieved for example using a positively charged reagent with a suitable proton affinity. In our study, we have used quantum chemical methods combined with a cluster dynamics code to study the use of acetone as a reagent in chemical ionization and compared the results with measurements performed with a chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF. The computational results indicate that protonated acetone is an effective reagent in chemical ionization. However, in the experiments the charger ions were not depleted at the predicted dimethylamine concentrations, indicating that either the modelling scheme or the experimental results – or both – contain unidentified sources of error.

  4. Lignin Hydrolysis and Phosphorylation Mechanism during Phosphoric Acid–Acetone Pretreatment: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qin


    Full Text Available The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid–acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5 of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid–acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4− functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmalochana


    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  6. Lignin hydrolysis and phosphorylation mechanism during phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment: a DFT study. (United States)

    Qin, Wu; Wu, Lingnan; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping


    The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5) of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4- functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  7. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation. (United States)

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing


    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  8. Theoretical study on the vibrational state distribution of product CO in the photolysis of acetone CH3COCH3-→2CH3 + CO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杏利; 李宗; 马思渝


    The photolysis of acetone has been studied at 6-311G basis set using unrestricted Hartree-Fock method. The results show that ground state acetone (S0) cannot easily dissociate. The electrons of acetone undergo n→Ⅱ transition in laser, and excited acetone (T1) can easily dissociate: and acetyl can further undergo thermolytic dissociation: CH3CO→CH3+CO(R2). The dynamic information (ωK, BKF, V0(S)) of reaction R2 is obtained and the vibrational state distributions of product CO are calculated. The calculated value consists with the experimental value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadiq


    Full Text Available Zirconia was prepared by a precipitation method and calcined at 723 K, 1023 K, and 1253 K in order to obtain monoclinic zirconia. The prepared zirconia was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Monoclinic ZrO2 as a catalyst was used for the gas-phase oxidation of isopropanol to acetone in a Pyrex-glass-flow-type reactor with a temperature range of 443 K - 473 K. It was found that monoclinic ZrO2 shows remarkable catalytic activity (68% and selectivity (100% for the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone. This kinetic study reveals that the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone follows the L-H mechanism.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO Structures Formed by High-Aspect-Ratio Nanowires for Acetone Detection. (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhanguo; Yu, Naisen


    Snowflake-like ZnO structures originating from self-assembled nanowires were prepared by a low-temperature aqueous solution method. The as-grown hierarchical ZnO structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that the snowflake-like ZnO structures were composed of high-aspect-ratio nanowires. Furthermore, gas-sensing properties to various testing gases of 10 and 50 ppm were measured, which confirms that the ZnO structures were of good selectivity and response to acetone and could serve for acetone sensor to detect low-concentration acetone.

  11. Suspension Plasma-Sprayed ZnFe2O4 Nanostructured Coatings for ppm-Level Acetone Detection (United States)

    You, Jiajun; Chen, Xia; Zheng, Bingbing; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Chao


    Zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) sensitive coatings have been deposited by suspension plasma spraying. The phase constitution of the coatings was characterized by x-ray diffraction while the top surface and cross-sectional morphology of the coatings were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. The response to acetone was tested with the concentration in the range of 25-500 ppm at the working temperature from 175 to 275 °C. The sensors that were deposited at an arc current of 400 A showed better performance than those at 600 A owing to small grain size and high porosity. The sensor response increased with acetone concentration. The optimized sensors showed excellent response/recovery time and selectivity to acetone at 200 °C.

  12. Effect of Maclura pomifera total acetonic extract, pomiferin and osajin on the autooxidation of purified sunflower triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ahmed A.


    Full Text Available omiferin and osajin have been isolated from the acetonic extract of M. pomifera fruits. Effects of total acetonic extract, pomiferin and osajin on the autooxidation of purified sunflower triacylglycerol were studied. Pomiferin showed a high antioxidant activity whereas total acetonic extract showed moderate and osajin revealed a low activity.Se han aislado la pomiferina y la osajina del extracto de hexano del fruto de M. pomifera. Se han estudiado los efectos sobre la oxidación de triglicéridos purificados del aceite de girasol, del extracto de acetona, de la pomiferina y de la osajina. La pomiferina mostró una actividad antioxidante elevada en cambio, el extracto de acetona mostró una actividad moderada y la osajina baja.

  13. Study on acetone of iodinated reaction%“丙酮碘化”实验的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 张丽; 刘钰莹; 陆江林


    对物理化学实验教学中的典型动力学实验-丙酮碘化进行了研究,探讨了实验测试波长的选择、碘溶液的适宜浓度范围及所用酸和丙酮的最佳浓度范围。%The physical chemistry experiment teaching of typical dynamic experiment-acetone of iodinated reaction were studied.Selection of the experimental wavelength,the appropriate concentration of iodine solution and the best acid and acetone concentration were discussed.

  14. Acetone-water complexes at MRCI level using localized orbitals: n ->pi* and pi ->pi* electronic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyau, S.; Ben Amor, N.; Borini, Stefano


    The n -> pi* and pi -> pi* vertical electronic transitions of acetone with two and four H2O which correspond to a first solvation shell are considered. By using localized orbitals, and thanks to the MRCI approach which permits to know the wave function, the role of the various solvent molecules...... is analysed in details. Distinguishing the solvent molecules allows one to consider them at different calculation levels. The methodology is to compare the spectra obtained with four H2O, with two H2O either in the acetone plane or in a perpendicular plane and when they are completely or partly frozen....

  15. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with high magnetization prepared by acetone-aided coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu, E-mail:


    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with high magnetization were produced using an acetone-aided coprecipitation process. An aqueous solution of iron and barium nitrates, in an Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio of 12, was added in a stirred precipitation liquid medium composed of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}(CO)CH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH. After reacting metallic ions with ammonia, the precipitates were formed, centrifugally filtered, freeze dried and calcined. Effects of amount of the acetone in the precipitation liquid medium on the formation of crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were investigated. The presence of acetone in the precipitation liquid medium can greatly promote formation of the crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at temperature as low as 650 °C and can enhance magnetization of the derived particles. On the other hand, raising the calcination temperature can effectively accelerate development of crystallite morphology and magnetic characters of the barium hexaferrites. While the barium hexaferrite powder obtained without acetone additions and calcined at 1000 °C had magnetization (measured at 50 kOe; M(50 kOe)) of 63.5 emu/g, remanence magnetization (Mr) of 31.3 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 4.7 kOe, the single magnetic domain size BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was produced at 1000 °C, using a precipitation liquid medium of 64 vol% acetone. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high magnetic characters was produced by an acetone-aided coprecipitation. • The effects of acetone addition in the precipitation on the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were studied. • Acetone presence in the precipitation liquid medium promoted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation at ≥650 °C. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was obtained.

  16. Acetone photolysis at 248 nm revisited: pressure dependence of the CO and CO2 quantum yields. (United States)

    Somnitz, H; Ufer, T; Zellner, R


    Pressure dependent CO and CO2 quantum yields in the laser pulse photolysis of acetone at 248 nm and T = 298 K have been measured directly using quantitative infrared diode laser absorption. The experiments cover the pressure range from 50 to 900 mbar. It is found that the quantum yields show a significant dependence on total pressure, with Phi(CO) decreasing from around 0.5 at 20 mbar to approximately 0.3 at 900 mbar. The corresponding CO2 yields as observed when O2 exists in the reaction mixture, exhibit exactly the opposite behaviour. For the sum of both a value of 1.05(-0.05)(+0.02) independent of pressure is obtained, showing that the sum of (Phi(CO) + Phi(CO2)) is a measure for the primary quantum yield in the photolysis of acetone. In addition, CO quantum yields and corresponding pressure dependences were measured in experiments using different bath gases including He, Ar, Kr, SF6, and O2 as third body colliders. The theoretical framework in which we discuss these data is based on our previous findings that the pressure dependence of the CO yield is a consequence of a stepwise fragmentation mechanism during which acetone decomposes initially into methyl and a vibrationally 'hot' acetyl radical, with the latter being able to decompose promptly into methyl plus CO. The pressure dependence of the CO yield then originates from the second step and is modelled quantitatively via statistical dynamical calculations using a combination of RRKM theory with a time-dependent master equation (ME) approach. From a comparison of experiment with theory the amount of excess energy in the vibrationally hot acetyl radicals (E* approximately 65 kJ mol(-1)) as well as the characteristic collision parameters for interaction of acetyl with the different bath gases were derived. Values of 90, 280, 310, 545, 550 and 1800 cm(-1) for the average energy transferred per downward collision for the bath gases He, Ar, Kr, O2, N2, and SF6, respectively, are obtained. The calculations also

  17. Influence of Ce doping on microstructure of ZnO nanoparticles and their acetone sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.M.; Li, X.B. [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures & Eco-Materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC) at Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, S.Y., E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Chen, L.; Li, W.Q.; Zhu, C.T.; Xu, X.L. [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Chen, Y. [Northwest University for Nationality, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030 (China); Li, Y.F.; Lawson, G. [Atech Systems, 6110 W. Highway 290, Austin, TX 78735 (United States)


    Electrospinning technology was generally used to synthesis nanofiber, here we use it to fabricate pure ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ce-doped (0.1 wt%, 0.8 wt%, 1.5 wt%) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO:Ce NPs) via decrease the molecular weight of PVP in precursor liquid. Their microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller and photoluminescence spectra. The results clearly indicated that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs shows smaller average grain size (70 nm) and a higher specific surface area (21.5 m{sup 2}/g). The testing on gas sensing performance revealed that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor shows the highest response values and a well selectivity to acetone. The response and recovery time of ZnO NPs based sensors to 100 ppm acetone was about 13 and 7 s while these are about 10 and 9 s in ZnO:Ce NPs based sensors, respectively. These results demonstrated that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor can rapidly be detect and distinguish accurately acetone in ambient air. Moreover, the sensor shows good long-term stability and reproducibility of response. The sensing mechanism was also discussed and the results indicated that the gas diffusing channels and the electron depleted layer of the ZnO NPs based sensor was increased markedly after Ce-doped, which results in the response of the ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor increased. - Highlights: • The loose mesostructured provide more channel for gas diffusion. • Smaller average grain size (70 nm) and higher specific surface area (21.5 m{sup 2}/g). • The response and recovery time of ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor was about 10 and 9 s. • Suitable Ce-doped could improve the response of the ZnO NPs base sensors.

  18. Perovskite-type Mixed Oxides Catalyst for Complete Oxidation of Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; ZhiYing


    The catalytic oxidation of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) is an attractive subject in the field of environmental protection now. Furthermore, most countries have made out regulations m controlling the maximum content of VOCs in some places. Presently, the leading way of domestic and foreign means to eliminate VOCs is to completely oxidize VOCs into carbon dioxide and water in presence of noble metal catalyst. But noble metal is expensive for lack of resource[2]. So it is insistent to research a low-cost catalyst for removal of VOCs. In this work, we have used some base metals (such as La, Sr, Ce, Ni, Cu) to synthesize mixed oxides catalyst supported on γ-A12O3. We have investigated the catalytic properties in the complete oxidation of acetone over the catalyst prepared and achieved an exciting result.……

  19. Investigating the Impact of Acetone Vapor Smoothing on the Strength and Elongation of Printed ABS Parts (United States)

    Gao, Harry; Kaweesa, Dorcas V.; Moore, Jacob; Meisel, Nicholas A.


    Acetone vapor smoothing is a chemical treatment that "melts" the surface of additively manufactured acrylonitrile butadiene styrene parts. The process fuses layers together and allows them to reform when vapor is removed, resulting in a smooth surface finish. Although commonly used to improve aesthetics, recent work has begun to investigate the effects of vapor smoothing on part strength. Nevertheless, most of this work has failed to take into account the anisotropic nature of printed parts. Prior research has shown that vapor smoothing reduces strength under best-case loading conditions, when the tensile load is parallel with the direction of the layers. In this article, the authors hypothesize that vapor smoothing may increase strength under nonoptimal loading conditions as a result of increased cohesion between layers and a reduction in stress concentrations. They use a design of experiments approach to identify the combined impact of printing and vapor smoothing parameters on part material properties.

  20. Theoretical Studies on the Iodine-catalyzed Nucleophilic Addition of Acetone with Five-membered Heterocycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; LI Li; CHEN Xue-song


    The iodine-catalyzed nucleophilic addition reactions of pyrrole,furan,or thiophene with acetone were studied in gas and solvent by the density functional theory at the level of Lan12DZ*,It was seen that the halogen bond between iodine and carbonyl oxygen appeared to have an important catalytic effect on such reactions,and the first iodine molecule maximally diminished the barrier height by 41 kJ/mol,while the second iodine molecule could not improve such reactions largely,It was concluded that the C2-addition was generally more favorable than the C3-addition for the three heterocycles;however,iodine considerably more effectively catalyzed the C3-addition than the C2-addition for pyrrole,It was also revealed by PCM calculation that the iodine-catalyzed nucleophilic additions occurred more easily in solvent than in gas,which explained the experiment performed by Bandgar et al..

  1. Perovskite-type Mixed Oxides Catalyst for Complete Oxidation of Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The catalytic oxidation of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) is an attractive subject in the field of environmental protection now. Furthermore, most countries have made out regulations m controlling the maximum content of VOCs in some places. Presently, the leading way of domestic and foreign means to eliminate VOCs is to completely oxidize VOCs into carbon dioxide and water in presence of noble metal catalyst. But noble metal is expensive for lack of resource[2]. So it is insistent to research a low-cost catalyst for removal of VOCs. In this work, we have used some base metals (such as La, Sr, Ce, Ni, Cu) to synthesize mixed oxides catalyst supported on γ-A12O3. We have investigated the catalytic properties in the complete oxidation of acetone over the catalyst prepared and achieved an exciting result.

  2. 1,3-Di-1-adamantylimidazolium (phthalocyaninatolithium(I acetone hemisolvate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Grossie


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C23H33N2[Li(C32H16N8]·0.5C3H6O·H2O, consists of two symmetry-unrelated lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc− half-anions, centered at (1,0,0 and (0,{script{1over 2}},0, respectively, the bis(adamantylimidazolium cation (BAI+, occupying a general site, an acetone molecule, disordered about the inversion centre at (0, {script{1over 2}}, {script{1over 2}} and a water molecule at a general site. The LiPc− anions pack in a stepped pattern enclosing the bis(adamantylimidazolium cation. Attractions between the anion and cation are mediated by a water molecule which forms O—H...N hydrogen bonds. In addition, two C—H...O interactions are seen.

  3. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol production by corn stalk immobilized cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Ma, Yujiu; Yang, Fangxiao; Zhang, Chunhui


    Corn stalk was used as a support to immobilize Clostridia beijerinckii ATCC 55025 in the fermentation process of acetone, butanol, and ethanol production. The effect of the dilution rate on solvent production was examined in a steady-state 20-day continuous flow operation. The maximum total solvent concentration of 8.99 g l(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). Increasing the dilution rate between 0.2 and 1.0 h(-1) resulted in an increased solvent productivity, and the highest solvent productivity was obtained at 5.06 g l(-1) h(-1) with a dilution rate of 1 h(-1). The maximum solvent yield from glucose of 0.32 g g(-1) was observed at 0.25 h(-1). The cell adsorption and morphology change during the growth on corn stalk support were examined by the SEM.

  4. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu


    Full Text Available Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad


    Full Text Available Synthetic waste water contain organic compound can be oxidized in an anaerobic conditions in microbial fuel cell while biodegradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD takes place under anaerobic condition in anode compartment. The microorganisms for biological treatment of the organic matter were obtained from a UASFB bioreactor. In the treatment of waste water, ones COD was removed the current and power was generated and record. Also polarization curve was obtained. In cathode compartment ferocynide and potassium permanganate with several concentration were add for enhancement of proton oxidation. The performance of MFC for maximum current and power generation were obtained with 300 µM L-1 potassium permanganate as oxidizers agent. Maximum generated power and current densities were 22 mW/m2 and 70 mA/m2, respectively. Active microorganisms used acetone as electron donors and COD removal was 69% at the end of process.

  6. Poly[[aquadi-μ3-malonato-hexaphenylditin(IV] acetone solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip Foo Win


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric complex, {[Sn2=(C6H56(C3H2O4(H2O]·C3H6O}n, comprises of two Sn cations, one malonate anion and a non-coordinating acetone solvent molecule. Both crystallographically independent Sn cations are five-coordinated by two O and three C atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyrimidal geometry. One of the Sn cations is bridged by the malonate units, affording polymeric chains which run along [001]. Weak intramolecular C—H...π interactions stabilize the molecular structure. In the crystal structure, adjacent chains are interconnected by intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. A weak intermolecular C—H...π interaction is also observed.

  7. Poly[[aquadi-μ(3)-malonato-hexaphenyl-ditin(IV)] acetone solvate]. (United States)

    Win, Yip Foo; Teoh, Siang Guan; Vikneswaran, M R; Goh, Jia Hao; Fun, Hoong-Kun


    The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric complex, {[Sn(2)=(C(6)H(5))(6)(C(3)H(2)O(4))(H(2)O)]·C(3)H(6)O}(n), comprises of two Sn cations, one malonate anion and a non-coordinating acetone solvent mol-ecule. Both crystallographically independent Sn cations are five-coordinated by two O and three C atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyrimidal geometry. One of the Sn cations is bridged by the malonate units, affording polymeric chains which run along [001]. Weak intra-molecular C-H⋯π inter-actions stabilize the mol-ecular structure. In the crystal structure, adjacent chains are inter-connected by inter-molecular O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. A weak inter-molecular C-H⋯π inter-action is also observed.

  8. Numerical simulation for isothermal dendritic growth of succinonitrile-acetone alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi; CHEN Chang-le; HAO Li-mei


    Numerical simulation based on phase field method was developed to describe the solidification of two-dimensional isothermal binary alloys.The evolution of the interface morphology was shown and the effects of phase field parameters were formulated for succinonitrile-acetone alloy.The results indicate that an anti-trapping current (ATC) can suppress many trapped molten packets,which is caused by the thickened interface.With increasing the anisotropy value from 0 to 0.05,a small circular seed grows to develope secondary dendritic,dendritic tip velocity increases monotonically,and the solute accumulation of solid/liquid interface is diminished distinctly.Furthermore,with the increase of the coupling parameter value,the interface becomes unstable and the side branches of crystals appear and grow gradually.

  9. High Efficiency Pulse Acetone Liquid Raman Laser Using DCM Fluorescent Dye as the Enhancement Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Andrew Yuk-Sun; YANG Jing-Guo; CHAN Mau-Hing


    Pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, 10-Hz repetition rate, 320-mJ pump energy, and 5.1-ns pulse width, a liquid Raman laser using acetone as the Raman shifting medium has been established. The residual pump laser pulse and the generated Stokes pulse are directed to a DCM dye cell for energy enhancement of the Stokes pulse. The Raman laser system is capable to produce a laser pulse at wavelength 630 nm, with single pulse energy of 120 mJ, peak power of 70 MW and an average power of 1200 mW. The energy conversion efficiency is 37.5%, or equivalently a quantum efficiency of 44.5%.

  10. Pressure swing adsorption modeling of acetone and toluene on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐琳; 李立清; 邢俊东; 刘峥; 姚小龙


    A five steps pressure swing adsorption process was designed for acetone and toluene mixtures separation and recovery. Dynamic distributions of gas phase content and temperature were investigated. Based on the theory of Soret and Dufour, a non-isothermal mathematical model was developed to simulate the PSA process. Effects of heat and mass transfer coefficients were studied. The coupled Soret and Dufour effects were also evaluated. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient has little effect on mass transfer in adsorption stage. However, it has some impacts in desorption stage. The maximum value of C/C0 increases by about 25% as heat transfer coefficient decreases. The temperature variation is less than 0.05 K with the change of mass transfer coefficient, so that the effect of mass transfer coefficient on heat transfer can be ignored. It is also concluded that the Soret and Dufour coupled effects are not obvious in pressure swing adsorption compared with fixed-bed adsorption.

  11. Disentangling Multichannel Photodissociation Dynamics in Acetone by Time-Resolved Photoelectron-Photoion Coincidence Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Maierhofer, Paul; Bainschab, Markus; Thaler, Bernhard; Heim, Pascal; Ernst, Wolfgang E; Koch, Markus


    For the investigation of photoinduced dynamics in molecules with time-resolved pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy, it is essential to obtain unequivocal information about the fragmentation behavior induced by the laser pulses. We present time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) experiments to investigate the excited-state dynamics of isolated acetone molecules triggered by two-photon (269 nm) excitation. In the complex situation of different relaxation pathways, we unambiguously identify three distinct pump-probe ionization channels. The high selectivity of PEPICO detection allows us to observe the fragmentation behavior and to follow the time evolution of each channel separately. For channels leading to fragment ions, we quantitatively obtain the fragment-to-parent branching ratio and are able to determine experimentally whether dissociation occurs in the neutral molecule or in the parent ion. These results highlight the importance of coincidence detection for the interpretation of time-resolved photochemical relaxation and dissociation studies if multiple pathways are present.

  12. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld


    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction of HO2 with acetone (CH3C(OCH3 could be a potentially important sink for acetone and source for acetic acid in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. The reaction HO2+CH3C(OCH3⇌(CH32C(OHOO (R1, R-1 was therefore studied experimentally at low-temperatures for the first time. HO2 was generated by pulsed laser photolysis, and converted by reaction with NO to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T32C(OHOO at such temperatures. In contrast, no evidence for (R1 was observed at T>230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation of the peroxy radical product back to reactants (R-1. The experimental data indicate that the rate coefficient for the forward reaction, k1(207 K, is larger than 1.6×10-12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, in line with recent quantum mechanical calculations. In contrast, an upper limit for the equilibrium constant K1(T=k1(T/k-1(T of 7.8×1028exp(50.6 kJ mol-1/RT was obtained, considerably smaller than calculated from theory. Incorporation of these results into a global 3-D chemical model demonstrated that (R1 is neither a significant loss process for CH3C(OCH3 nor a significant source of acetic acid in the atmosphere.

  13. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19. (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup


    Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5 g L(-1) of ABE (17.6 g L(-1) butanol, 10.5 g L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4 g L(-1) acetone) from 85.2 g L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0 g L(-1)  h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85 h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86 h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04 h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1 g L(-1)  h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34 g g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes.

  14. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains. (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed


    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production.

  15. Acetones Removal with Fe Doped Titanium Nano Tube Catalysts Prepared from Slag Iron in Steel Plant. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Jung; Wen-ZhiCao; Chang, Chang-Tang


    TiO₂ has been studied most commonly because it has high stability, non-toxicity, high catalytic activity, and highly conductivity. Many studies have shown that TiO₂ would generate electron-hole pairs illuminated with UV and surround more energy than that before being illuminated. However, the surface area of TiO₂ is not large enough and the adsorption capacity is small. In this study, the titanium nano tube (TNT) catalysts were prepared to increase the surface area and adsorption capacity. The Fe-TNT was also prepared from slag iron since many slag iron cause waste treatment problems. In this study, the effect of Fe loading, including 0.77%, 1.13%, 2.24% and 4.50%, on acetone removal was also assessed since TNT doped with transitional or precious metals can be used to improve catalytic reaction efficiency. Furthermore, four kinds of VOCs concentration, including 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were tested. Four kinds of retention time, including 0.4, 0.8, 4.0 and 6.0 sec, and four kinds of dosage, including 0.15, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.45 g cm⁻³, were also assessed. In this study, the adsorption capacity of Fe-TNT was 18.8, 23.3, 28.9 and 32.6 mg g⁻¹ for acetone of 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm, respectively. Four kinds of temperature, including 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C were tested in catalytic reaction system. The results showed removal efficiency increased with increasing temperature. The efficiency can be reached 95% under the conditions with the dosage higher than 0.3 g cm⁻³, temperature higher than 270 °C and retention time higher than 270 °C. Reaction efficiency was 20, 31, 41 and 96% at the temperature of 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C, respectively.

  16. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of ibuprofen in acetone and dichloromethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Aragón


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic functions, Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy for the solution processes of ibuprofen (IBP in acetone and dichloromethane (DCM were calculated from solubility values obtained at temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K. The respective thermodynamic functions for mixing and solvation processes as well as the activity coefficients for the solute were calculated. IBP solubility was high and proved similar in both solvents but was greater in DCM than acetone. In addition, the thermodynamic quantities for the transfer process of this drug from cyclohexane to the organic solvents were also calculated in order to estimate the contributions of hydrogen-bonds or of other dipolar interactions. The results were discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions.As funções termodinâmicas, energia de Gibbs, entalpia e entropia dos processos de solução de ibuprofeno (IBP em acetona e em diclorometano (DCM foram calculadas a partir dos valores de solubilidade, obtidos em intervalos de temperatura de 293,15 K a 313,15 K. As funções termodinâmicas respectivas para os processos de mistura e solvatação e os coeficientes de atividade para o soluto também foram calculados. A solubilidade do IBP foi grande e semelhante em ambos os solventes, mas, maior em DCM do que em acetona. Em adição, as quantidades termodinâmicas relativas ao processo de transferência desse fármaco do cicloexano para os solventes orgânicos foram, também, calculadas com o objetivo de estimar as contribuições devidas às ligações de hidrogênio ou a outras interações dipolares. Os resultados foram discutidos nos termos das interações soluto-solvente.

  17. Reaction kinetics and critical phenomena: iodination of acetone in isobutyric acid + water near the consolute point. (United States)

    Hu, Baichuan; Baird, James K


    The rate of iodination of acetone has been measured as a function of temperature in the binary solvent isobutyric acid (IBA) + water near the upper consolute point. The reaction mixture was prepared by the addition of acetone, iodine, and potassium iodide to IBA + water at its critical composition of 38.8 mass % IBA. The value of the critical temperature determined immediately after mixing was 25.43 degrees C. Aliquots were extracted from the mixture at regular intervals in order to follow the time course of the reaction. After dilution of the aliquot with water to quench the reaction, the concentration of triiodide ion was determined by the measurement of the optical density at a wavelength of 565 nm. These measurements showed that the kinetics were zeroth order. When at the end of 24 h the reaction had come to equilibrium, the critical temperature was determined again and found to be 24.83 degrees C. An Arrhenius plot of the temperature dependence of the observed rate constant, k(obs), was linear over the temperature range 27.00-38.00 degrees C, but between 25.43 and 27.00 degrees C, the values of k(obs) fell below the extrapolation of the Arrhenius line. This behavior is evidence in support of critical slowing down. Our experimental method and results are significant in three ways: (1) In contrast to in situ measurements of optical density, the determination of the optical density of diluted aliquots avoided any interference from critical opalescence. (2) The measured reaction rate exhibited critical slowing down. (3) The rate law was pseudo zeroth order both inside and outside the critical region, indicating that the reaction mechanism was unaffected by the presence of the critical point.

  18. Effects of Bronsted acidity in the mechanism of selective oxidation of propane to acetone on CaY zeolite at room temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jiang; Mojet, Barbara L.; Ommen, van Jan G.; Lefferts, Leon


    The importance of Brønsted acid sites for partial oxidation of propane to acetone in CaY was investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. With an increasing number of protons in Ca-Y, Volcano plots were observed for (1) amount of adsorbed propane; (2) initial acetone formation rate; (3) total amount o

  19. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K


    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  1. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antifungal activities of acetonic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašković Pavle Z.


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of Hypericum perforatum L. extracts against the growth of certain fungi. The ethanolic, acetonic and petroleum ether extracts of the plant were evaluated for phenols, flavonoids and non-flavonoids. The highest amounts of phenols (17.6 mg EPC/g dry extract and flavonoids (16.85 mg EPC/g dry extract were found in the acetonic extract. The highest inhibitory effect on the growth of Penicillium canescens, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus glaucus and Phialophora fastigiata by the disk diffusion method was exhibited by the ethanolic extract at the concentration of 25 mg/disk. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts was 20 mg/mL. The acetonic extract did not affect the growth of the tested fungi. Antioxidant activity was assessed by determining 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. possesses antioxidant activity. The IC50 values, defined as the concentration of the test sample leading to 50% reduction of the free radical concentration, determined for each measurement were <7.8125, 105.9, 5.99 and 12.77 μg/ml for the ethanolic extract, the acetonic extract, ascorbic acid and BHT, respectively, for DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  2. Utilisation of saccharides in extruded domestic organic waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Contreras, A.M.; Claassen, P.A.; Mooibroek, H.; Vos, de W.M.


    Domestic organic waste (DOW) collected in The Netherlands was analysed and used as substrate for acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) production. Two different samples of DOW, referred to as fresh DOW and dried DOW, were treated by extrusion in order to expand the polymer fibres present and to obtain

  3. High acetone concentrations throughout the 0-12 km altitude range over the tropical rainforest in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poschl, U; Williams, J; Hoor, P; Fischer, H; Crutzen, PJ; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Hansel, A; Jordan, A; Lindinger, W; Scheeren, HA; Peters, W; Lelieveld, J


    Airborne measurements of acetone were performed over the tropical rainforest in Surinam (2 degrees -7 degrees N, 54 degrees -58 degrees W, 0-12 km altitude) during the LBA-CLAIRE campaign in March 1998, using a novel proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) that enables the on-line monito

  4. Cross-Selectivity Enhancement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene-Based Sensor Arrays for Detecting Acetone and Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daneshkhah


    Full Text Available Two methods for cross-selectivity enhancement of porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP/carbon black (CB composite-based resistive sensors are provided. The sensors are tested with acetone and ethanol in the presence of humid air. Cross-selectivity is enhanced using two different methods to modify the basic response of the PVDF-HFP/CB sensing platform. In method I, the adsorption properties of PVDF-HFP/CB are altered by adding a polyethylene oxide (PEO layer or by treating with infrared (IR. In method II, the effects of the interaction of acetone and ethanol are enhanced by adding diethylene carbonate (DEC or PEO dispersed in DEC (PEO/DEC to the film. The results suggest the approaches used in method I alter the composite ability to adsorb acetone and ethanol, while in method II, they alter the transduction characteristics of the composite. Using these approaches, sensor relative response to acetone was increased by 89% compared with the PVDF-HFP/CB untreated film, whereas sensor relative response to ethanol could be decreased by 57% or increased by 197%. Not only do these results demonstrate facile methods for increasing sensitivity of PVDF-HFP/CB film, used in parallel they demonstrate a roadmap for enhancing system cross-selectivity that can be applied to separate units on an array. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  5. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum (United States)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  6. Acetalization of acetone with glycerol catalyzed by niobium-aluminum mixed oxides synthesized by a sol–gel process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Raphael; Mandelli, Dalmo; Gonçalves, Norberto S.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.; Carvalho, Wagner A.


    Niobium-aluminum-based catalysts were synthesized by a sol–gel process and successfully applied to the reaction of acetalization of acetone with glycerol yielding 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (solketal) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-ol. The synthesis procedure was developed using high-throu

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu


    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  8. Reformation for production process of acetone cyanohydrin%丙酮氰醇生产工艺改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永亮; 李晓光; 钱有程


    The production capacity of acetone cyanohydrin unit is 80 000 t/a,the consumption of raw acetone is 60 000 t/a,producing incineration wastewater 3 000 t/a. Because of acetone cyanohydrin production process backward, using inorganic alkali hydroxide as catalyst, the production process produced a large amount of sodium sulfate crystal impurity,device operation cycle was short,the crystallization cauldron cleaning for three days at a time, refining tower cleaning for five days at a time, causing high consumption of acetone and wastewater,so the production cost was high;highly toxic plant startup and shutdown for cleaning frequent operation, which cause safety problems. According to the existence problem, we put forward a new production process of acetone cyanohydrin using organic alkali as catalyst,which can bring numerous economic benefits.%丙酮氰醇装置生产能力为8万t/a,消耗原料丙酮6万t/a,产生焚烧废水3 000 t/a.因丙酮氰醇生产工艺落后,用无机碱氢氧化钠做催化剂,生产过程中产生大量硫酸钠晶体杂质,装置运行周期短,结晶釜3d清洗1次,精制塔5d清洗1次,造成原料丙酮、废水消耗偏高,产品生产成本高;剧毒装置开停车清洗操作频繁,安全隐患大.根据装置存在问题,提出生产丙酮氰醇生产用有机碱做催化剂,具有显著的经济效益和社会效益.

  9. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass. (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed


    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

  10. A path integral molecular dynamics study of the hyperfine coupling constants of the muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals (United States)

    Oba, Yuki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Masanori


    The on-the-fly ab initio density functional path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations, which can account for both the nuclear quantum effect and thermal effect, were carried out to evaluate the structures and "reduced" isotropic hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) for muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals (2-muoxy-2-propyl and 2-hydoxy-2-propyl) in vacuo. The reduced HFCC value from a simple geometry optimization calculation without both the nuclear quantum effect and thermal effect is -8.18 MHz, and that by standard ab initio molecular dynamics simulation with only the thermal effect and without the nuclear quantum effect is 0.33 MHz at 300 K, where these two methods cannot distinguish the difference between muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals. In contrast, the reduced HFCC value of the muoniated acetone radical by our PIMD simulation is 32.1 MHz, which is about 8 times larger than that for the hydrogenated radical of 3.97 MHz with the same level of calculation. We have found that the HFCC values are highly correlated with the local molecular structures; especially, the Mu—O bond length in the muoniated acetone radical is elongated due to the large nuclear quantum effect of the muon, which makes the expectation value of the HFCC larger. Although our PIMD result calculated in vacuo is about 4 times larger than the measured experimental value in aqueous solvent, the ratio of these HFCC values between muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals in vacuo is in reasonable agreement with the ratio of the experimental values in aqueous solvent (8.56 MHz and 0.9 MHz); the explicit presence of solvent molecules has a major effect on decreasing the reduced muon HFCC of in vacuo calculations for the quantitative reproduction.

  11. Effect of Gold Dispersion on the Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous Titania for the Vapor-Phase Oxidation of Acetone

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    S. V. Awate


    Full Text Available Mesostructured titanium dioxide photocatalyst, having uniform crystallite size (6–12 nm and average pore diameter of ∼4.2 nm, was synthesized by using a low-temperature nonsurfactant hydrothermal route, employing tartaric acid as a templating agent. Gold additions from 0.5 to 2 wt% were incorporated, either during the hydrothermal process or by postsynthesis wet impregnation. Compared to the impregnation-prepared samples, the samples synthesized hydrothermally contained smaller-size (≤1 nm gold clusters occluded in the pores of the host matrix. Whereas CO2 and H2O were the main reaction products in UV-assisted vapor-phase oxidation of acetone using these catalysts, C2H6 and HCO2CH3 were also produced for higher acetone concentrations in air. The conversion of acetone was found to increase with decrease in the size of both TiO2 and gold particles. In situ IR spectroscopy revealed that titania and gold particles serve as independent adsorption and reaction sites for acetone and oxygen molecules. Acetone molecules adsorb exclusively at TiO2 surface, giving rise to a strongly adsorbed (condensed state as well as to the formation of formate- and methyl formate-type surface species. Hydroxyl groups at titania surface participate directly in these adsorption steps. Nanosize gold particles, on the other hand, were primarily responsible for the adsorption and activation of oxygen molecules. Mechanistic aspects of the photochemical processes are discussed on the basis of these observations.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor. (United States)

    Park, C H; Okos, M R; Wankat, P C


    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was successfully carried out in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor. The reactor was composed of two serial columns packed with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 entrapped on the surface of natural sponge segments at a cell loading in the range of 2.03-5.56 g dry cells/g sponge. The average cell loading was 3.58 g dry cells/g sponge. Batch experiments indicated that a critical pH above 4.2 is necessary for the initiation of cell growth. One of the media used during continuous experiments consisted of a salt mixture alone and the other a nutrient medium containing a salt mixture with yeast extract and peptone. Effluent pH was controlled by supplying various fractions of the two different types of media. A nutrient medium fraction above 0.6 was crucial for successful fermentation in a trickle bed reactor. The nutrient medium fraction is the ratio of the volume of the nutrient medium to the total volume of nutrient plus salt medium. Supplying nutrient medium to both columns continuously was an effective way to meet both pH and nutrient requirement. A 257-mL reactor could ferment 45 g/L glucose from an initial concentration of 60 g/L glucose at a rate of 70 mL/h. Butanol, acetone, and ethanol concentrations were 8.82, 5.22, and 1.45 g/L, respectively, with a butanol and total solvent yield of 19.4 and 34.1 wt %. Solvent productivity in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor was 4.2 g/L h, which was 10 times higher than that obtained in a batch fermentation using free cells and 2.76 times higher than that of an immobilized CSTR. If the nutrient medium fraction was below 0.6 and the pH was below 4.2, the system degenerated. Oxygen also contributed to the system degeneration. Upon degeneration, glucose consumption and solvent yield decreased to 30.9 g/L and 23.0 wt %, respectively. The yield of total liquid product (40.0 wt %) and butanol selectivity (60.0 wt %) remained almost constant. Once the cells were degenerated

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse. (United States)

    Gerasimov, Madina R; Ferrieri, Richard A; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding, Yu-Shin


    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane.

  14. Kinetic and mechanism of atmospheric degradation of three volatile organics compounds: acetone, phenol and catechol; Cinetique et mecanisme de degradation atmospherique de trois composes organiques volatils: l'acetone, le phenol et le catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, E.


    In this thesis, atmospheric degradation of three VOC (volatile organic compound), acetone, phenol and catechol, has been studied. These compounds are renowned to be some of main compounds in the atmosphere because the relative importance of their primary emissions (biogenic, gas fumes,...) and secondary emissions (VOCs oxidation). This work has been realised in two laboratories using two complementary devices. These instruments are the fast flow tube with LIF (laser induce fluorescence) and a smog Teflon chamber with gas-phase chromatography with FTIR, FID, MS. The both use of these techniques enable to determine the main pathway of the acetone oxidation with OH radical. The smog chamber's studies of the phenol and catechol reactions with OH radical enable to determine some relative rate constants and mechanisms. It's the first mechanism proposition for the catechol + OH radical reaction. These obtained results have been used to mention the atmospheric impact of these compounds. (author)

  15. Initial dynamics of the Norrish Type I reaction in acetone: probing wave packet motion. (United States)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Sølling, Theis I; Møller, Klaus B


    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S(1) (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels toward the S(1) minimum in less than 30 fs and stays there for more than 100 picoseconds [Chem. Phys. Lett.2008, 461, 193]. In this work we present simulated TRMS and TRPES signals based on ab initio multiple spawning simulations of the dynamics during the first 200 fs after excitation, getting quite good agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S(1) minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics simulations in interpreting experimental results.

  16. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting


    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent using Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.; Chorachoo, Julalak; Jaiswal, Lily; Shankar, Shiv


    The capability of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract (RAE) for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored for the first time. Silver nanoparticles with a surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm were synthesized by reacting RAE with AgNO3. Reaction time, temperature, concentration of AgNO3 and RAE could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size. The nanoparticles were found to be 10-30 nm in size and spherical in shape. XRD data demonstrated crystalline nature of AgNPs dominated by (200) facets. FTIR results showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching with the formation of AgNPs with RAE, respectively. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the nanoparticles. High negative zeta potential values confirmed the stability of AgNPs in water. In vitro antibacterial activity of AgNPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using broth microdilution method. AgNPs capped with RAE demonstrated profound antibacterial activity against the organisms with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration in the range between 3.1-6.2 and 6.2-50 μgmL-1, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles could be applied as an effective antimicrobial agent against staphylococcal infections.

  18. Effects of nutritional enrichment on the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum. (United States)

    Choi, Sung Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, In Ho


    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important organism that produces acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of increased cell density on the production of ABE during the phase transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum. The increased ABE productivity of C. acetobutylicum was obtained by increasing the cell density using a newly designed medium (designated C. a cetobutylicum medium 1; CAM1). The maximum OD(600) value of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain obtained with CAM1 was 19.7, which is 1.8 times higher than that obtained with clostridial growth medium (CGM). The overall ABE productivity obtained in the CAM1-fermetation of the ATCC 824 strain was 0.83 g/L/h, which is 1.5 times higher than that (0.55 g/L/h) obtained with CGM. However, the increased productivity obtained with CAM1 did not result in an increase in the final ABE titer, because phase transition occurred at a high titer of acids.

  19. Improvement of acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from woody biomass using organosolv pretreatment. (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro


    A suitable pretreatment is a prerequisite of efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from wood by Clostridia. In this study, organosolv fractionation, an effective pretreatment with ability to separate lignin as a co-product, was evaluated for ABE production from softwood pine and hardwood elm. ABE production from untreated woods was limited to the yield of 81 g ABE/kg wood and concentration of 5.5 g ABE/L. Thus, the woods were pretreated with aqueous ethanol at elevated temperatures before hydrolysis and fermentation to ABE by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Hydrolysis of pine and elm pretreated at 180 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest sugar concentrations of 16.8 and 23.2 g/L, respectively. The hydrolysate obtained from elm was fermented to ABE with the highest yield of 121.1 g/kg and concentration of 11.6 g/L. The maximum yield of 87.9 g/kg was obtained from pine pretreated for 30 min at 150 °C. Moreover, structural modifications in the woods were investigated and related to the improvements. The woody biomasses are suitable feedstocks for ABE production after the organosolv pretreatment. Effects of the pretreatment conditions on ABE production might be related to the reduced cellulose crystallinity, reduced lignin and hemicellulose content, and lower total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates.

  20. Lignin depolymerisation in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals. (United States)

    Gosselink, Richard J A; Teunissen, Wouter; van Dam, Jan E G; de Jong, Ed; Gellerstedt, Göran; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M


    Valorisation of lignin plays a key role in further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes the production of biofuels and bio-based materials. In the present study, organosolv hardwood and wheat straw lignins were converted in a supercritical fluid consisting of carbon dioxide/acetone/water (300-370°C, 100bar) to a phenolic oil consisting of oligomeric fragments and monomeric aromatic compounds with a total yield of 10-12% based on lignin. These yields are similar to the state-of-the-art technologies such as base-catalysed thermal processes applied for lignin depolymerisation. Addition of formic acid increases the yield of monomeric aromatic species by stabilizing aromatic radicals. Supercritical depolymerisation of wheat straw and hardwood lignin yielded monomeric compounds in different compositions with a maximum yield of 2.0% for syringic acid and 3.6% for syringol, respectively. The results of the present study showed that under the applied conditions competition occurred between lignin depolymerisation and recondensation of fragments.

  1. Butanol production in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with in situ product recovery by adsorption. (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Zhao, Jingbo; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian


    Activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8, zeolite CBV901, and polymeric resins Dowex Optipore L-493 and SD-2 with high specific loadings and partition coefficients were studied for n-butanol adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow Langmuir model, which can be used to estimate the amount of butanol adsorbed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In serum-bottle fermentation with in situ adsorption, activated carbon showed the best performance with 21.9g/L of butanol production. When operated in a fermentor, free- and immobilized-cell fermentations with adsorption produced 31.6g/L and 54.6g/L butanol with productivities of 0.30g/L·h and 0.45g/L·h, respectively. Thermal desorption produced a condensate containing ∼167g/L butanol, which resulted in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ∼640g/L after spontaneous phase separation. This in situ product recovery process with activated carbon is energy efficient and can be easily integrated with ABE fermentation for n-butanol production.

  2. Kinetic modeling and sensitivity analysis of acetone-butanol-ethanol production. (United States)

    Shinto, Hideaki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Genta; Sekiguchi, Tatsuya; Hanai, Taizo; Kuriya, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Sonomoto, Kenji


    A kinetic simulation model of metabolic pathways that describes the dynamic behaviors of metabolites in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was proposed using a novel simulator WinBEST-KIT. This model was validated by comparing with experimental time-course data of metabolites in batch cultures over a wide range of initial glucose concentrations (36.1-295 mM). By introducing substrate inhibition, product inhibition of butanol, activation of butyrate and considering the cessation of metabolic reactions in the case of insufficiency of energy after glucose exhaustion, the revised model showed 0.901 of squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) between experimental time-course of metabolites and calculated ones. Thus, the final revised model is assumed to be one of the best candidates for kinetic simulation describing dynamic behavior of metabolites in ABE production. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 5% increase in reaction of reverse pathway of butyrate production (R(17)) and 5% decrease in reaction of CoA transferase for butyrate (R(15)) highly contribute to high production of butanol. These system analyses should be effective in the elucidation which pathway is metabolic bottleneck for high production of butanol.

  3. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production in a novel continuous flow system. (United States)

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool


    This study investigates the potential of using a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using a mixed culture at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The results of this study showed that using a setting tank after the fermenter and recycle the settled biomass to the fermenter is a practical option to achieve high biomass concentration in the fermenter and thus sustainable ABE fermentation in continuous mode. The average ABE concentrations of 2.3, 7.0, and 14.6gABE/L which were corresponding to ABE production rates of 0.4, 1.4, and 2.8gABE/Lreactorh were achieved at OLRs of 21, 64, and 128gCOD/Lreactord, respectively. The main volatile fatty acids components in the effluent were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Acetic acid was the predominant component in the OLR-1, while butyric acid was the predominant acid in OLRs 2 and 3.

  4. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. (United States)

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y


    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis.

  5. Optical properties of Germanium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikiran eVadavalli


    Full Text Available Germanium (Ge nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by means of pulsed laser ablation of bulk germanium target immersed in acetone with ns laser pulses at different pulse energies. The fabricated NPs are characterized by employing different techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The mean size of the Ge NPs is found to vary from few nm to 40 nm with the increase in laser pulse energy. Shift in the position of the absorption spectra is observed and also the photoluminescence peak shift is observed due to quantum confinement effects. High resolution TEM combined with micro-Raman spectroscopy confirms the crystalline nature of the generated germanium nanoparticles. The formation of various sizes of germanium NPs at different laser pulse energies is evident from the asymmetry in the Raman spectra and the shift in its peak position towards the lower wavenumber side. The FESEM micrographs confirm the formation of germanium micro/nanostructures at the laser ablated position of the bulk germanium. In particular, the measured NP sizes from the micro-Raman phonon quantum confinement model are found in good agreement with TEM measurements of Ge NPs.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche


    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  7. Poly[[aquadi-μ3-malonato-hexaphenyl­ditin(IV)] acetone solvate (United States)

    Win, Yip Foo; Teoh, Siang Guan; Vikneswaran, M. R.; Goh, Jia Hao; Fun, Hoong-Kun


    The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric complex, {[Sn2=(C6H5)6(C3H2O4)(H2O)]·C3H6O}n, comprises of two Sn cations, one malonate anion and a non-coordinating acetone solvent mol­ecule. Both crystallographically independent Sn cations are five-coordinated by two O and three C atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyrimidal geometry. One of the Sn cations is bridged by the malonate units, affording polymeric chains which run along [001]. Weak intra­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions stabilize the mol­ecular structure. In the crystal structure, adjacent chains are inter­connected by inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. A weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­action is also observed. PMID:21579332

  8. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.


    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23°C- 90°C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90°C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  9. [Photodissociation of Acetylene and Acetone using Step-Scan Time-Resolved FTIR Emission Spectroscopy (United States)

    McLaren, Ian A.; Wrobel, Jacek D.


    The photodissociation of acetylene and acetone was investigated as a function of added quenching gas pressures using step-scan time-resolved FTIR emission spectroscopy. Its main components consist of Bruker IFS88, step-scan Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer coupled to a flow cell equipped with Welsh collection optics. Vibrationally excited C2H radicals were produced from the photodissociation of acetylene in the unfocused experiments. The infrared (IR) emission from these excited C2H radicals was investigated as a function of added argon pressure. Argon quenching rate constants for all C2H emission bands are of the order of 10(exp -13)cc/molecule.sec. Quenching of these radicals by acetylene is efficient, with a rate constant in the range of 10(exp -11) cc/molecule.sec. The relative intensity of the different C2H emission bands did not change with the increasing argon or acetylene pressure. However, the overall IR emission intensity decreased, for example, by more than 50% when the argon partial pressure was raised from 0.2 to 2 Torr at fixed precursor pressure of 160mTorr. These observations provide evidence for the formation of a metastable C2H2 species, which are collisionally quenched by argon or acetylene. Problems encountered in the course of the experimental work are also described.

  10. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong


    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced carcinogenesis in experimental mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhadul Islam; Shaikh Mohummad Mohsin Ali; Jahan Ara Khanam


    Objective:To determine the hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone (ASC) in vivo in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing male Swiss albino mice. Methods:Drug-induced changes in biochemical and behavioral parameters at dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 14 d and nullifying the toxicity induced by EAC cells were studied. The histopathology studies of the protective effects of ASC on vital organs were also assessed. Results:The administration of ASC made insignificant changes in body weight and behavioral (salivation, diarrhea, muscular numbness) changes during treatment period due to minor toxicity were minimized after the treatment in normal mice. The biochemical parameters, including serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloactate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and billirubin changed modestly in normal mice receiving ASC. Though the treatment continued, these values gradually decreased to normal level after the treatment. In EAC bearing mice, the toxic effects due to EAC cells in all cases were nullified by treatment with the ASC. Significant abnormalities were not detected in histology of the various organs of the normal mice treated with ASC. Conclusions: ASC can, therefore, be considered safe in formulating novel anticancer drug, as it exhibits strong protective effect against EAC cell bearing mice.

  12. Production Technology and Market of Phenol and Acetone in China%我国苯酚丙酮生产技术及市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽娜; 李洪涛; 姜道华; 刘龙; 何英华; 刘方舟; 张德顺


    Phenol/acetone production technology was introduced. The phenol/acetone productivity, market supply and demand in China was summarized. Some suggestions were given for the development of phenol/acetone.%介绍了苯酚/丙酮的生产技术,并对几种生产技术进行了比较。另外,简要介绍了目前我国苯酚/丙酮的产能及市场供需情况,对苯酚/丙酮的发展提出了建议。

  13. Complex dynamic behavior in the bromate-oxalic acid-acetone-Mn(II) oscillating reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) (United States)

    Silva, Lucyane C.; Faria, Roberto B.


    The oscillating reaction bromate-oxalic acid-acetone-Mn(II)-sulfuric acid was observed for the first time in a CSTR at 20 °C. Depending on the bromate concentrations and flow rate, the system showed large amplitude oscillations, two kinds of mixed mode oscillations, quasiperiodicity and bursts of large amplitude oscillations, all mapped in a phase diagram. More complex behavior was favored at low bromate concentrations. The system without acetone was discovered to oscillate too, but the more complex patterns were not seen, indicating that acetone is implied in their formation.

  14. 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks for enhanced acetone gas sensing application

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas


    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterizations and gas sensing application of 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized using several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the nanosheets are pure, grown in high-density, possessing well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized nanosheets were used as functional material to develop nanosensor device by coating it on the alumina substrate with suitable electrodes. The fabricated sensor device was tested towards acetone gas which exhibited a maximum sensitivity of 5.556 (Ra/Rg) for 200 ppm of acetone at 320 °C.

  15. Molecular orbital imaging of the acetone S2 excited state using time-resolved (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Oishi, Keiya; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Takahashi, Masahiko


    We report a time-resolved (e, 2e) experiment on the deuterated acetone molecule in the S2 Rydberg state with a lifetime of 13.5 ps. The acetone S2 state was prepared by a 195 nm pump laser and probed with electron momentum spectroscopy using a 1.2 keV incident electron beam of 1 ps temporal width. In spite of the low data statistics as well as of the limited time resolution (±35  ps) due to velocity mismatch, the experimental results clearly demonstrate that electron momentum spectroscopy measurements of short-lived transient species are feasible, opening the door to time-resolved orbital imaging in momentum space.

  16. Simple Method to Synthesize Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Employing Cobalt Nitrate and Acetone by Using Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Gómez


    Full Text Available Recently alcohols and ketones have been employed to sensitize CNT by CVD. A study has shown the importance of the chemical nature of those carbon precursors on the characteristics of the CNT (carbon nanotubes obtained. In the present work we show the influence of the catalyst employed on the synthesis of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs utilizing acetone as carbon source and cobalt nitrate Co(NO32 as catalyst.

  17. Achieving concentrated graphene dispersions in water/acetone mixtures by the strategy of tailoring Hansen solubility parameters (United States)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin


    Although exfoliating graphite to give graphene paves a new way for graphene preparation, a general strategy of low-boiling-point solvents and high graphene concentration is still highly required. In this study, using the strategy of tailoring Hansen solubility parameters (HSP), a method based on exfoliation of graphite in water/acetone mixtures is demonstrated to achieve concentrated graphene dispersions. It is found that in the scope of blending two mediocre solvents, tailoring the HSP of water/acetone mixtures to approach the HSP of graphene could yield graphene dispersions at a high concentration of up to 0.21 mg ml-1. The experimentally determined optimum composition of the mixtures occurs at an acetone mass fraction of ˜75%. The trend of concentration varying with mixture compositions could be well predicated by the model, which relates the concentration to the mixing enthalpy within the scope of HSP theory. The resultant dispersion is highly stabilized. Atomic force microscopic statistical analysis shows that up to ˜50% of the prepared nanosheets are less than 1 nm thick after 4 h sonication and 114g centrifugation. Analyses based on diverse characterizations indicate the graphene sheets to be largely free of basal plane defects and oxidation. The filtered films are also investigated in terms of their electrical and optical properties to show reasonable conductivity and transparency. The strategy of tailoring HSP, which can be easily extended to various solvent systems, and water/acetone mixtures here, extends the scope for large-scale production of graphene in low-boiling-point solutions.

  18. Direct evidence of iNOS-mediated in vivo free radical production and protein oxidation in acetone-induced ketosis. (United States)

    Stadler, Krisztian; Bonini, Marcelo G; Dallas, Shannon; Duma, Danielle; Mason, Ronald P; Kadiiska, Maria B


    Diabetic patients frequently encounter ketosis that is characterized by the breakdown of lipids with the consequent accumulation of ketone bodies. Several studies have demonstrated that reactive species are likely to induce tissue damage in diabetes, but the role of the ketone bodies in the process has not been fully investigated. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with novel spin-trapping and immunological techniques has been used to investigate in vivo free radical formation in a murine model of acetone-induced ketosis. A six-line EPR spectrum consistent with the alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone radical adduct of a carbon-centered lipid-derived radical was detected in the liver extracts. To investigate the possible enzymatic source of these radicals, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase knockout mice were used. Free radical production was unchanged in the NADPH oxidase knockout but much decreased in the iNOS knockout mice, suggesting a role for iNOS in free radical production. Longer-term exposure to acetone revealed iNOS overexpression in the liver together with protein radical formation, which was detected by confocal microscopy and a novel immunospin-trapping method. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as a consequence of persistent free radical generation after 21 days of acetone treatment in control and NADPH oxidase knockout but not in iNOS knockout mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acetone administration, a model of ketosis, can lead to protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation through a free radical-dependent mechanism driven mainly by iNOS overexpression.

  19. Studies on the toxicity of acetone, acrolein and carbon dioxide on stored-product insects and wheat seed. (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Tajbakhsh, Mehdie


    In laboratory experiments toxicity of acetone, acrolein and carbon dioxide were investigated against 4 species of stored-product insects. In all experiments, acrolein was the most toxic compound to the tested insects. In empty-space trials, estimated LD50 values of acrolein for adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae), Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (Bostrychidae), Sitophilus oryzae L. (Curculionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae) were 7.26, 6.09, 6.37 and 5.65 microl L(-1), respectively. Penetration tests revealed that acetone and acrolein vapors could penetrate into the wheat mass and kill concealed insects in interkernel spaces. Comparison of LD50 values of acrolein between empty-space tests and penetration experiments indicated that the increase in penetration toxicity was 4.96, 4.54, 3.64 and 3.43-fold for T. castaneum, R. dominica, S. oryzae and O. surinamensis, respectively. The effect of carbon dioxide on the toxicity of acrolein and acetone was synergistic. In the hidden infestation trials, the acrolein vapors destroyed the developmental stages of S. oryzae concealed inside the wheat kernels and resulted in a complete control with concentration of 80 microl L(-1) for 24 h and subsequently observed during 8 weeks after the exposure. Wheat germination and plumule length was reduced following exposure to all doses of acrolein. Acetone and carbon dioxide were harmless to wheat seed viability. The mixture of carbon dioxide with acrolein can be considered as a potential fumigant for replacing methyl bromide or phosphine under ambient storage conditions specifically in empty-space fumigations.

  20. 1,1,2,2-Tetrakis(dimethylaminoethane-1,2-diium bis(tetraphenylborate acetone disolvate

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    Willi Kantlehner


    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H24N42+·2C24H20B−·2C3H6O, crystallizes with two acetone solvent molecules per asymmetric unit. In the dication, both amidinium units are twisted about the central C—C single bond by 63.8 (3° and the positive charges are delocalized over both N—C—N planes.

  1. Change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated exposures to acetone and thermal decontamination. (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Tomasovic, Beth


    This study investigated the change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated cycles of exposure to acetone, followed by thermal decontamination. The glove was exposed to acetone (outer surface in contact with chemical), subjected to thermal decontamination, and tested for the tensile strength and the ultimate elongation. Thermal decontamination was carried out inside an oven for 16 hours at 100 degrees C. The exposure/decontamination procedure was repeated for a maximum of 10 cycles. For neoprene versus acetone, the mean tensile strength consistently decreased after each exposure/decontamination cycle. Multiple comparisons indicated that the mean tensile strengths between the new swatches and each exposure/decontamination group were significantly different (p 0.05). The mean tensile strength for the new swatches was 37.1 MPa and the mean tensile strength after nine exposure/decontamination cycles was 36.0 MPa, with a loss less than 3%. The largest single cycle loss for ultimate elongation occurred during the first exposure/decontamination cycle for both glove materials. In our previous study, decisions regarding the effectiveness of the decontamination process were based on having no discernible change in the breakthrough time and steady-state permeation rate. The results of this study indicate that the effectiveness of the decontamination process cannot be based on permeation parameters alone but must also take into account the change in physical properties.

  2. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. (United States)

    Akroum, S


    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  3. Production of an acetone-butanol-ethanol mixture from Clostridium acetobutylicum and its conversion to high-value biofuels. (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Pazhamalai, Anbarasan; Gunbas, Gorkem; Grippo, Adam; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean


    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a bacterial species that ferments sugar to a mixture of organic solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol). This protocol delineates a methodology to combine solventogenic clostridial fermentation and chemical catalysis via extractive fermentation for the production of biofuel blendstocks. Extractive fermentation of C. acetobutylicum is operated in fed-batch mode with a concentrated feed solution (500 grams per liter glucose and 50 grams per liter yeast extract) for 60 h, producing in excess of 40 g of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) between the completely immiscible extractant and aqueous phases of the bioreactor. After distillation of the extractant phase, the acetone, butanol and ethanol mixture is upgraded to long-chain ketones over a palladium-hydrotalcite (Pd-HT) catalyst. This reaction is generally carried out in batch with a high-pressure Q-tube for 20 h at 250 °C. Following this protocol enables the production of ∼0.5 g of high-value biofuel precursors from a 1.7-g portion of fermentation solvents.

  4. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus. (United States)

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping


    In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass.

  5. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoline Fri Tanih


    Full Text Available Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation. The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy.

  6. Detection of TATP precursor acetone at trace levels using rf sputtered SnO2 thin film-based sensors (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay


    Emerging threats of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and homemade explosives (HMEs) have created a demand for reliable and unambiguous recognition of constituent analytes. Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide based explosive has become a weapon of choice [1] in the hands of resourceful urban insurgents mainly because of ease of manufacture with readily available precursor constituents (acetone and concentrated hydrogen peroxide). Failure of conventional EDDs due to absence of nitrogen compounds coupled with the fact that TATP exhibits no significant absorption in UV region and does not demonstrate fluorescence has confined its detection to IR and Raman spectroscopy besides some enzyme-based tests and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence there is an urgent need for highly sensitive technique with a fast response speed that can detect presence of TATP at extremely low vapour pressure and purposely camouflaged physically or under cross-contamination with interfering compounds. In the present work trace level (20 ppm) acetone (precursor of TATP) sensing characteristics of rf sputtered semiconducting SnO2 thin films having embedded Pt interdigital electrodes have been investigated. Specifically a fast response speed of 08 seconds is noted and sensing characteristics of bare SnO2 and catalyst-SnO2 hetero-structures are compared. Innovative catalyst dispersal technique is shown to enhance sensor response as also reduce response times. Novel sensing hetero-structures with reversible acetone detection capabilities are shown to provide a feasible alternative for real-field operation along with remote detection with limited sample size.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of acetone, chloroform and acetonitrile on sludge-derived adsorbent, commercial granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Guan-Yinag; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    The adsorption characteristics of chloroform, acetone, and acetonitrile on commercial activated carbon (C1), two types of activated carbon fibers (F1 and F2), and sludge adsorbent (S1) was investigated. The chloroform influent concentration ranged from 90 to 7800 ppm and the acetone concentration from 80 to 6900 ppm; the sequence of the adsorption capacity of chloroform and acetone on adsorbents was F2>F1 approximately C1 approximately S1. The adsorption capacity of acetonitrile ranged from 4 to 100 mg/g, corresponding to the influent range from 43 to 2700 ppm for C1, S1, and F1. The acetonitrile adsorption capacity of F2 was approximately 20% higher than that of the other adsorbents at temperaturescarbon fibers is higher than that of the other adsorbents due to their smaller fiber diameter and higher surface area. The micropore diffusion coefficient of VOC on activated carbon and sludge adsorbent was approximately 10(-4) cm2 s(-1). The diffusion coefficient of VOC on carbon fibers ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-7) cm2 s(-1). The small carbon fiber pore size corresponds to a smaller diffusion coefficient.

  8. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld


    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction with HO2 could be an important sink for acetone (CH3C(OCH3 and source of acetic acid (CH3C(OOH in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. This work details studies of HO2 + CH3C(OCH3 (CH32C(OHOO (R1 in laboratory-based and theoretical chemistry experiments; the atmospheric significance of Reaction (R1 was assessed in a global 3-D chemical model. Pulsed laser-kinetic experiments were conducted, for the first time, at the low-temperatures representative of the tropopause. Reaction with NO converted HO2 to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T 2 by CH3C(OCH3 with a forward rate coefficient greater than 2 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. No evidence for Reaction (R1 was observed at T > 230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation back to HO2 + CH3C(OCH3. Numerical simulations of the data indicate that these experiments were sensitive to only (R1a HO2-CH3C(OCH3 complex formation, the first step in (R1. Rearrangement (R1b of the complex to form peroxy radicals, and hence the atmospheric significance of (R1 has yet to be rigorously verified by experiment. Results from new quantum chemical calculations indicate that K1 is characterised by large uncertainties of at least an order of magnitude at T 3C(OCH3 near the tropopause, it cannot explain observations of CH3C(OOH throughout the troposphere.

  9. A model to assess the feasibility of shifting reaction equilibrium by acetone removal in the transamination of ketones using 2‐propylamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Bach, Christian; Woodley, John


    Acetone removal by evaporation has been proposed as a simple and cheap way to shift the equilibrium in the biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of optically pure chiral amines, when 2‐propylamine is used as the amine donor. However, dependent on the system properties, this may or may not be a suitable...... strategy. To avoid excessive laboratory work a model was used to assess the process feasibility. The results from the current study show that a simple model of the acetone removal dependence on temperature and sparging gas flowrate can be developed and fits the experimental data well. The model for acetone...... volatilities (Henry's constant). The simulations were used to estimate the substrate losses and also the maximum yield that could be expected. The approach was seen to give a clear indication for which target amines the acetone evaporation strategy would be feasible and for which amines it would not. The study...

  10. Photo-catalytic oxidation of acetone on a TiO2 powder: An in situ FTIR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szanyi, János; Kwak, Ja Hun


    In situ transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the photo-oxidation of acetone on a commercial, oxidized TiO2 (P25) powder catalyst under UV irradiation at ambient temperature, in the absence and presence of gas phase O2. The photochemistry of a number of organic molecules (1-butanone, methanol and acetic acid,) under the same conditions was also studied in order to identify reaction intermediates and products formed in the photo-oxidation of acetone. Under anaerobic conditions (in the absence of gas phase oxygen) limited extent of photo-oxidation of acetone took place on the oxidized TiO2 sample. In the presence of O2 in the gas phase, however, acetone was completely converted to acetates and formates, and ultimately CO2. The initial step in the sequence of photo-induced reactions is the ejection of a methyl radical, resulting in the formation of surface acetates (from the acetyl group) and formates (from the methyl radicals). Acetate ions are also converted to formates, that, in turn, photo-oxidized to CO2. Under the experimental conditions applied the accumulation of carbonates and bicarbonates were observed on the TiO2 surface as the photo-oxidation of acetone proceeded (this was also observed during the course of photo-oxidation of all the other organics studied here). When the initial radical ejection step produced hydrocarbons containing more than one C atoms (as in the case in 2-butanone and mesytil oxide), the formation of aldehydes on the catalyst surface was also observed as a result of secondary reactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2014 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea). The authors thank M

  11. 乙醚与丙酮燃烧反应机理%Mechanisms of Ethyl Ether and Acetone Combustion Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    利用公式△H=-0.1196n/A计算了乙醚和丙酮分别在氧气和空气中燃烧反应的温度,并推测了乙醚和丙酮燃烧反应的机理.乙醚在氧气中燃烧反应的火焰温度理论值为3272K,与测定温度3134K接近,误差为4.40%.丙酮在空气中燃烧反应的火焰温度理论值为1292K,与测定温度173K接近,误差为1.49%.根据乙醚和丙酮燃烧反应的火焰温度,推测乙醚和丙酮燃烧反应机理为:(1)O2+hv→2O·;(2)(C2H5)2O→4C+4H2+H2O(乙醚),CH3COCH3→3C+2H2+H2O(丙酮);(3)H2+O·→H2O+hv;(4)C+O·→CO+hv;(5)2CO+O2→2CO2.%The flame temperatures produced by ethyl ether and acetone burning in oxygen and air in order were calculated by the formula △H = -0. 1196nA, and the mechanisms of ethyl ether and acetone combustion reactions were deduced. The theoretical flame temperature of ethyl ether burning in oxygen was 3272K, near to its actual temperature 3134K, the error was 4.40%. The theoretical flame temperature of acetone burning in air was 1292K, near to its actual temperature 1273K, the error was 1.49%. According to the flame tempera- tures, the mechanisms of ethyl ether and acetone combustion reactions were deduced as follow: ( 1 ) O2 + hv→ 2O ; (2) ( C2 H5 ) 2O→4C + 4H2 + H2O ( ethyl ether), CH3 COCH3→3 C + 2 H2 + H2O ( acetone ) ; ( 3 ) H2 +O→H2O + bv; (4)C + O→CO + hv; (5)2CO + O2→2CO2.

  12. Measurements of acetone and other gas phase product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of terpenes by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisthaler, A.; Lindinger, W. [University of Innsbruck (Austria). Institut fuer Ionenphysik; Jensen, N.R.; Winterhalter, R.; Hjorth, J. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Environment Institute, Ispra (Italy)


    The atmospheric oxidation of several terpenes appears to be a potentially relevant source of acetone in the atmosphere. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used as an on-line analytical method in a chamber study to measure acetone and other gas phase products from the oxidation of {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene initiated by OH radicals in air and in the presence of NO{sub x}. Acetone may be formed promptly, following attack by the OH radical on the terpene, via a series of highly unstable radical intermediates. It can also be formed by slower processes, via degradation of stable non-radical intermediates such as pinonaldehyde and nopinone. Primary acetone and pinonaldehyde molar yields of 11{+-}2% (one {sigma}) and 34{+-}9% (one {sigma}), respectively, were found from the reaction between {alpha}-pinene and the OH radical. After all {alpha}-pinene had been consumed, an additional formation of acetone due to the degradation of stable non-radical intermediates was observed. The total amount of acetone formed was 15{+-}2% (one {sigma}) of the reacted {alpha}-pinene. An upper limit of 12{+-}3% (one {sigma}) for the acetone molar yield from the oxidation of pinonaldehyde was established. From the reaction between {beta}-pinene and the OH radicals, primary acetone and nopinone molar yields of 13{+-}2% (one {sigma}) and 25{+-}3% (one {sigma}), respectively, were observed. Additional amounts of acetone were formed by the further degradation of the primary product, such as the most abundant product nopinone. The total amount of acetone formed was 16{+-}2% (one {sigma}) of the reacted {beta}-pinene. An upper limit of 12{+-}2% (one {sigma}) for the acetone molar yield from the oxidation of nopinone was established. The observed product yields from {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene are in good agreement with other studies using mass-spectrometric and gas chromatographic analytical techniques, but differ significantly from previous studies using spectroscopic methods. Possible

  13. Assessment of response of the Intoxilyzer 8000C to volatiles of forensic relevance in vitro, part I: acetone, isopropanol, and methanol. (United States)

    Watterson, James H


    The response of the Intoxilyzer 8000C (version approved for evidentiary breath alcohol testing in Canada) to volatile solvents in vitro is described. Acetone, isopropanol, and methanol were prepared as aqueous solutions or dilutions of standard alcohol solution (SAS; 1.21 mg ethanol/mL) to generate apparent blood ethanol concentrations (aBEC) of 50 or 80 mg/dL. Solvent concentrations examined were relevant to clinical or impaired driving scenarios. Replicates of 20 aBEC measurements were made for each mixture and the actuation of the "INTERFERANT DETECT" message (IDM) was noted. Measurements of aqueous acetone (0-40 mg acetone/dL), isopropanol (0-100 mg isopropanol/dL), and methanol (0-100 mg methanol/dL) yielded aBECs of 0, 0-43, and 0-55 mg/dL, respectively. The minimum concentration examined at which the IDM was actuated in 100% of replicates was 25, 30, and 100 mg/dL for acetone, isopropanol, and methanol, respectively. The maximum concentration examined at which the IDM was actuated in none of the replicates was 5, 10, and 50 mg/dL for acetone, isopropanol, and methanol, respectively. In examinations of acetone/isopropanol mixtures in diluted SAS where the IDM was not always actuated, the maximum BEC overestimation was 10 mg/dL. Overall, the potential for significant undetected BEC overestimation is low and may be further reduced through truncation of test results and subject observation.

  14. Analysis of the origin and importance of acetone and isopropanol levels in the blood of the deceased for medico-legal testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of acetone and isopropanol in the blood of the deceased, and to assess cases in which the compounds have been detected with a focus on their origin and usefulness for medico-legal testimony. Material and methods: The study material consisted of results of tests detecting ethyl alcohol and reports of autopsies performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 2008 to April 2009 – a total of 2,475 cases. The test group proper (group B comprised only those cases in which acetone was detected in blood, either with or without isopropanol [n = 202 (8.2%]. The blood levels of isopropanol varied depending on the cause of death. The need for differentiating the origin of isopropanol in the case of its presence in the blood of the deceased was pointed out. Results : The results of the present study show that the differentiation should be based on the isopropanol and acetone concentration ratio, as isopropanol concentration alone is not sufficient for preparing expert opinions. Even high concentrations of isopropanol, when accompanied by even higher concentrations of acetone, imply that isopropanol could have been formed as a result of acetone transformations. Isopropanol concentrations exceeding acetone levels strongly point to the exogenous origin of isopropanol, particularly when high levels of ethanol are concurrently detected.

  15. Origin of Enhanced Reactivity of a Microsolvated Nucleophile in Ion Pair SN2 Reactions: The Cases of Sodium p-Nitrophenoxide with Halomethanes in Acetone. (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Gen; Xu, Ke; Ren, Yi


    In a kinetic experiment on the SN2 reaction of sodium p-nitrophenoxide with iodomethane in acetone-water mixed solvent, Humeres et al. (J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 1163) found that the reaction depends strongly on the medium, and the fastest rate constant was observed in pure acetone. The present work tries to explore why acetone can enhance the reactivity of the title reactions. Accordingly, we make a mechanistic study on the reactions of sodium p-nitrophenoxide with halomethanes (CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I) in acetone by using a supramolecular/continuum model at the PCM-MP2/6-311+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level, in which the ion pair nucleophile is microsolvated by one to three acetone molecules. We compared the reactivity of the microsolvated ion pair nucleophiles with solvent-free ion pair and anionic ones. Our results clearly reveal that the microsolvated ion pair nucleophile is favorable for the SN2 reactions; meanwhile, the origin of the enhanced reactivity induced by microsolvation of the nucleophile is discussed in terms of the geometries of transition state (TS) structures and activation strain model, suggesting that lower deformation energies and stronger interaction energies between the deformed reactants in the TS lead to the lower overall reaction barriers for the SN2 reaction of microsolvated sodium p-nitrophenoxide toward halomethanes in acetone.

  16. Directional Solidification of Pure Succinonitrile and a Succinonitrile-Acetone Alloy (United States)

    Simpson, James E.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Garimella, Suresh V.


    An experimental study of the horizontal Bridgman growth of pure succinonitrile (SCN) and of a succinonitrile-1.0 mol% acetone alloy (SCN-1.0 mol.% ACE) has been performed. Experiments involving both a stationary thermal field (no-growth case) and a translating thermal field (growth case) were conducted. Growth rates of 2 and 40 micrometers/sec were investigated. For the pure SCN experiments, the velocity field in the melt was estimated using video images of seed particles in the melt. Observations of the seed particles indicate that a primary longitudinal convective cell is formed. The maximum velocity of two different particles which traveled along similar paths was the same and equal to 1.49 +/- 0.01 mm/s. The general accuracy of velocity measurements is estimated to be +/-0.08 mm/s, though the data shows consistency to within +/- 0.02 mm/s. The shape of the solid/liquid interface was also quantitatively determined. The solid/liquid interface was stable (non-dendritic and non-cellular) but not flat: rather it was significantly distorted by the influence of connection in the melt and, for the growth case, by the moving temperature boundary conditions along the ampoule. It was found that the interface shape and position were highly dependent on the alignment of the ampoule in the apparatus. Consequently, the ampoule was carefully aligned for all experiments. The values for front location agree with those determined in previous experiments. For the alloy experiments, the solid/liquid interface was determined to be unstable at growth rates greater than 2.8 micrometers/sec, but stable for the cases of no-growth and growth at 2 micrometers/sec. When compared to the shape of the pure SCN interface, the alloy interface forms closer to the cold zone, indicating that the melting temperature decreased due to the alloying element. Extensive temperature measurements were performed on the outside of the ampoule containing pure SCN. The resulting thermal profiles are presented

  17. Adsorption of some metal complexes derived from acetyl acetone on activated carbon and purolite S-930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A.H. Al-Ameri


    Full Text Available A new Schiff base (HL derived from condensation of p-anisidine and acetyl acetone has been prepared and used as a chelating ligand to prepare Cr(III, Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes. The study of the nature of these complexes formed in ethanol solution following the mole ratio method (2:1, L:M gave results which were compared successfully with these obtained from isolated solid state studies. These studies revealed that the complexes having square planner geometry of the type (ML2, M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, and octahedral geometry of the type [CrIIIL2(H2O2]Cl and [MNIIL2(H2O2]. The adsorption studies of three complexes Cr(III, Mn(II, and Co(II on activated carbon, H and Na-forms of purolite S-930 resin show high adsorption percentage for Cr(III on purolite S-930 due to ion exchange interaction compared with high adsorption of neutral Mn(II, Co(II complexes on activated charcoal. Linear plot of log Qe versus log Ce showed that the adsorption isotherm of these three complexes on activated carbon, H and Na-forms of purolite S-930 surface obeys Freundlich isotherm and was similar to S-curve type according to Giles classification which investigates heterogeneous adsorption. The regression values indicate that the adsorption data for these complexes fitted well within the Freundlich isothermal plots for the concentration studied. The accuracy and precision of the concentration measurements of these complexes were determined by preparing standard laboratory samples, the results show relative error ranging from ±1.08 to 5.31, ±1.04 to 4.82 and ±0.28 to 3.09 and the relative standard deviation did not exceed ±6.23, ±2.77 and ±4.38% for A1, A2 and A3 complexes, respectively.

  18. Seasonal variations of acetone in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes as observed by ACE-FTS (United States)

    Dufour, G.; Szopa, S.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.


    This study reports on the climatological acetone distribution and seasonal variations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes, derived from observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard SCISAT. The acetone profiles retrieved from 5 to ∼20 km cover the period from January 2004 to September 2010. The 1σ statistical fitting errors are typically ∼5-20% within the upper troposphere (UT), increasing in the lower stratosphere (LS) with decreasing acetone. The systematic errors range between 15% and 20%. The largest UT acetone mixing ratios (∼1200 ppt on average in July over Siberia) are observed in summer in the northern mid- and high latitudes. Mixing ratios are larger over continental regions than over the ocean. Comparisons with airborne measurements available in the literature point toward a possible underestimation in acetone retrieved from ACE-FTS. The largest differences occur primarily in winter and for the background values. This underestimation is attributed to the complexity of the spectral region used for the retrieval. The annual cycle of acetone for the 30-70°N midlatitude band shows a maximum during summer, reflecting the annual cycle of the primary terrestrial biogenic source of acetone. By comparison with ACE-FTS, the LMDz-INCA global climate-chemistry model systematically overestimates acetone mixing ratios lower than 400 ppt. This overestimation is thus generalized for the lower stratosphere, the Tropics and beyond 70°N for the upper troposphere. In contrast, in the upper troposphere of the 30-70°N region, where the acetone levels are the highest (>450 ppt on average), the model-observation differences are in the range of the observation uncertainty. However, in this region, the model fails to capture the annual cycle of acetone, culminating in July. A seasonal cycle can only be obtained by considering high biogenic emissions but this cycle is shifted

  19. Reactions of acetone oxide stabilized Criegee intermediate with SO2, NO2, H2O and O3 (United States)

    Kukui, Alexandre; Chen, Hui; Xiao, Shan; Mellouki, Wahid; Daële, Veronique


    Atmospheric aerosol particles represent a critical component of the atmosphere, impacting global climate, regional air pollution, and human health. The formation of new atmospheric particles and their subsequent growth to larger sizes are the key processes for understanding of the aerosol effects. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4, has been identified to play the major role in formation of new atmospheric particles and in subsequent particle growth. Until recently the reaction of OH with SO2 has been considered as the only important source of H2SO4 in the atmosphere. However, recently it has been suggested that the oxidation of SO2 by Criegee biradicals can be a significant additional atmospheric source of H2SO4 comparable with the reaction of SO2 with OH. Here we present some results about the reactions of the acetone oxide stabilized Criegee intermediate, (CH3)2=OO, produced in the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-butene (TME) with O3. The formation of the H2SO4 in the reaction of acetone oxide with SO2 was investigated in the specially constructed atmospheric pressure laminar flow reactor. The Criegee intermediate was generated by ozonolysis of TME. The H2SO4, generated by addition of SO2, was directly monitored with Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (SAMU, LPC2E). Relative rates of reactions of acetone oxide with SO2, NO2, H2O and ozone were determined from the dependencies of the H2SO4 yield at different concentrations of the reactants. Atmospheric applications of the obtained results are discussed in relation to the importance of this additional H2SO4 formation pathway compared to the reaction of OH with SO2.

  20. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose. (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji


    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

  1. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiozer, A.L.


    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  2. Kinetic parameters of oscillating reaction of amino acid-BrO-3-Mn2+-H2SO4-acetone system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zongxiao; YUAN Chunlan; NIE Fei


    The oscillating behavior of thirteen amino acids [leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), arginine (Arg), lysine (Lys), histidine (His), alanine (Ala), glutamine (Glu), glycine (Gly), methionine (Met), cystine (Cys), tryptophan (Trp), serine (Ser) and tyrosine (Tyr)] in amino acid--Mn2+-H2SO4-acetone system is studied by using a potentiometric determination. With the help of the oscillatory induction period and oscillation period obtained by the oscillating wave, and Arrhenius equation, the kinetic parameters [the apparent activation energy (E) and pre-exponential constant (A)] and rate constant (k) of the above-mentioned oscillating reaction are estimated.

  3. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M. [Institut de Combustion Aerothermique Reactivite et Environnement, CNRS, Orleans (France); Donohue, R. [Information Technology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)


    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  4. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Hao

    Full Text Available Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method.

  5. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim


    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  6. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations (United States)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter


    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  7. A membrane bioreactor for the simultaneous treatment of acetone, toluene, limonene and hexane at trace level concentrations. (United States)

    Lebrero, R; Volckaert, D; Pérez, R; Muñoz, R; Van Langenhove, H


    The performance of a flat-membrane biofilm reactor (MBR) for the removal of acetone, toluene, limonene and hexane at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 3.2 mg m(-3) was investigated at different gas residence times (GRT): 60, 30, 15 and 7 s. A preliminary abiotic test was conducted to assess the mass transport of the selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through the membrane. A reduced transport of limonene and hexane was observed with water present over the dense side of the membrane. The presence of a biofilm attached on the dense side of the membrane following bioreactor inoculation significantly increased VOC transport. High acetone and toluene removals (>93%) were recorded in the MBR regardless of the GRT. To remediate the low hexane removal performance (RE hexane-degrading consortium embedded in silicon oil was performed. Although hexane removal did not exceed 27%, this re-inoculation increased limonene removals up to 90% at a GRT of 7 s. The absence of inhibition of hexane biodegradation by substrate competition confirmed that hexane removal in the MBR was indeed limited by the mass transfer through the membrane. Despite the low carbon source spectrum and load, the microbiological analysis of the communities present in the MBR showed high species richness (Shannon-Wiener indices of 3.2-3.5) and a high pair-wise similarity (84-97%) between the suspended and the attached biomass.

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

  9. Modifying the product pattern of Clostridium acetobutylicum: physiological effects of disrupting the acetate and acetone formation pathways. (United States)

    Lehmann, Dörte; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Schmidt, Michael; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Bahl, Hubert; Lütke-Eversloh, Tina


    Clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a natural source for microbial n-butanol production and regained much interest in academia and industry in the past years. Due to the difficult genetic accessibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum and other solventogenic clostridia, successful metabolic engineering approaches are still rare. In this study, a set of five knock-out mutants with defects in the central fermentative metabolism were generated using the ClosTron technology, including the construction of targeted double knock-out mutants of C. acetobtuylicum ATCC 824. While disruption of the acetate biosynthetic pathway had no significant impact on the metabolite distribution, mutants with defects in the acetone pathway, including both acetoacetate decarboxylase (Adc)-negative and acetoacetyl-CoA:acyl-CoA transferase (CtfAB)-negative mutants, exhibited high amounts of acetate in the fermentation broth. Distinct butyrate increase and decrease patterns during the course of fermentations provided experimental evidence that butyrate, but not acetate, is re-assimilated via an Adc/CtfAB-independent pathway in C. acetobutylicum. Interestingly, combining the adc and ctfA mutations with a knock-out of the phosphotransacetylase (Pta)-encoding gene, acetate production was drastically reduced, resulting in an increased flux towards butyrate. Except for the Pta-negative single mutant, all mutants exhibited a significantly reduced solvent production.

  10. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth. (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei


    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system.

  11. Crystal structure of bis[μ-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethane-κ2P:P′]digold(I dichloride acetone monosolvate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Ing Yeo


    Full Text Available In the title complex salt, [Au2{(C6H52PCH2P(C6H52}]Cl2·(CH32C=O·H2O, the dication forms an eight-membered {—PCPAu}2 ring with a transannular aurophilic interaction [Au...Au = 2.9743 (2 Å]. The ring approximates a flattened boat conformation, with the two methylene C atoms lying ca 0.58–0.59 Å above the least-squares plane defined by the Au2P4 atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0849 Å. One Cl− anion functions as a weak bridge between the AuI atoms [Au...Cl = 2.9492 (13 and 2.9776 (12 Å]. The second Cl− anion forms two (waterO—H...Cl hydrogen bonds about a centre of inversion, forming a centrosymmetric eight-membered {...HOH...Cl}2 supramolecular square. Globally, the dications and loosely associated Cl− anions assemble into layers lying parallel to the ac plane, being connected by C—H...Cl,π(phenyl interactions. The supramolecular squares and solvent acetone molecules are sandwiched in the inter-layer region, being connected to the layers on either side by C—H...Cl,O(acetone interactions.

  12. Histochemical detection of GM1 ganglioside using cholera toxin-B subunit. Evaluation of critical factors optimal for in situ detection with special emphasis to acetone pre-extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petr


    Full Text Available A comparison of histochemical detection of GM1 ganglioside in cryostat sections using cholera toxin B-subunit after fixation with 4% formaldehyde and dry acetone gave tissue-dependent results. In the liver no pre-treatment showed detectable differences related to GM1 reaction products, while studies in the brain showed the superiority of acetone pre-extraction (followed by formaldehyde, which yielded sharper images compared with the diffuse, blurred staining pattern associated with formaldehyde. Therefore, the aim of our study was to define the optimal conditions for the GM1 detection using cholera toxin B-subunit. Ganglioside extractability with acetone, the ever neglected topic, was tested comparing anhydrous acetone with acetone containing admixture of water. TLC analysis of acetone extractable GM1 ganglioside from liver sections did not exceed 2% of the total GM1 ganglioside content using anhydrous acetone at -20°C, and 4% at room temperature. The loss increased to 30.5% using 9:1 acetone/water. Similarly, photometric analysis of lipid sialic acid, extracted from dried liver homogenates with anhydrous acetone, showed the loss of gangliosides into acetone 3.0±0.3% only. The loss from dried brain homogenate was 9.5±1.1%. Thus, anhydrous conditions (dry tissue samples and anhydrous acetone are crucial factors for optimal in situ ganglioside detection using acetone pre-treatment. This ensures effective physical fixation, especially in tissues rich in polar lipids (precipitation, prevention of in situ diffusion, and removal of cholesterol, which can act as a hydrophobic blocking barrier.

  13. The Formation of 2,2,4-Trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-Benzodiazepine from 1,2-Diaminobenzene in the Presence of Acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Odame


    Full Text Available In an attempt to synthesize a 2-substituted benzimidazole from the reaction of o-phenylenediamine and isophthalic acid in the presence of acetone and ethanol under microwave irradiation, a salt of the isophthalate ion and 2,2,4-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-5-ium ion was obtained. The condensation of two moles of acetone with the amine groups resulted in the formation of the benzodiazepine which crystallized as an iminium cation forming a salt with the isophthalate anion. The formation of benzodiazepine was also confirmed by performing the reaction of o-phenylenediamine with excess acetone in ethanol under conventional heating conditions. The compounds were characterized by NMR, FTIR, HRMS and microanalysis as well as X-ray crystallography. The reaction mechanism leading to the formation of benzodiazepine is also discussed.

  14. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang


    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  15. Acetone Sensors Based on La~(3+) Doped ZnO Nano-rods Prepared by Solvothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangfeng Chu; Xiaohua Zhu; Yongping Dong; Xiutao Ge; Shouquan Zhang; Wenqi Sun


    La3+ doped ZnO nano-rods with different doping concentration were prepared via solvothermal method.The doped ZnO nano-rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM),respectively.The effect of La3+ doping on the gas-sensing properties was investigated.The results revealed that the sensor based on 6 mol% La3+ doped ZnO nano-rods exhibited high response to dilute acetone,and the responses to 0.01×10-6 acetone reached 2.4 when operating at 425 ℃.The response time and the recovery time for 0.01×10-6 acetone were only 16 and 3 s,respectively.

  16. Key Roles of Lewis Acid-base Pairs on ZnxZryOz in Direct Ethanol/Acetone to Isobutene Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Baylon, Rebecca A.; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Martin, Kevin J.; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong


    The effects of surface acidity on the cascade ethanol-to-isobutene conversion were studied using ZnxZryOz catalysts. The ethanol-to-isobutene reaction was found to be limited by the secondary reaction of the key intermediate, acetone, namely the acetone-to-isobutene reaction. Although the catalysts with coexisting Brønsted acidity could catalyze the rate-limiting acetone-to-isobutene reaction, the presence of Brønsted acidity is also detrimental. First, secondary isobutene isomerization is favored, producing a mixture of butene isomers. Second, undesired polymerization and coke formation prevail, leading to rapid catalyst deactivation. Most importantly, both steady-state and kinetic reaction studies as well as FTIR analysis of adsorbed acetone-d6 and D2O unambiguously showed that a highly active and selective nature of balanced Lewis acid-base pairs was masked by the coexisting Brønsted acidity in the aldolization and self-deoxygenation of acetone to isobutene. As a result, ZnxZryOz catalysts with only Lewis acid-base pairs were discovered, on which nearly a theoretical selectivity to isobutene (~88.9%) was successfully achieved, which has never been reported before. Moreover, the absence of Brønsted acidity in such ZnxZryOz catalysts also eliminates the side isobutene isomerization and undesired polymerization/coke reactions, resulting in the production of high purity isobutene with significantly improved catalyst stability (< 2% activity loss after 200 h time-on-stream). This work not only demonstrates a balanced Lewis acid-base pair for the highly active and selective cascade ethanol-to-isobutene reaction, but also sheds light on the rational design of selective and robust acid-base catalyst for C-C coupling via aldolization reaction.

  17. Binary and ternary complexes of some inner transition metal ions with amino acids and acetyl acetone (United States)

    Abu-Eittah, R. H.; Abdou, M. M.; Salem, M. B.


    The stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 (whenever possible) complexes formed between La3+, Ce3+, Th4+ and the amino acid anions L-alaninate, L-phenylalaninate and L-histidinate were determined by potentiometric titration in aqueous solution (25± 1 ^circC, I = 0.1 M KCl) and compared together with the constants previously determined. The various formation degree of the resulting M(L) and M(L)2 were determined. In order to relate the formation degree of M(L) and M(L)2 with the basicity of the amino acid anion (L^-), the acidity constants of the protonated amino acids, H2L^+, were also measured. The main results of this work prove that Th4+ ion forms the strongest complex with the studied amino acids. It is the only ion which forms a 1:2 complex. The heterocyclic ring of histidine plays a significant role in complexing with the studied metal ions as is clearly seen from the distribution of the degree of formation of the different complexes. The stability constants of the 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 complexes formed between La3+, Ce3+, Th4+ and the anions L-alaninate, L-phenylalaninate and L-histidinate together with the acetyl acetonate ion were also determined following the same experimental set up used in the study of the simple complexes. The mixed-ligand complexes turned out to be very much stronger than the simple ligand complexes. Formation of a mixed ligand complex can be considered as a type of senergism. Les constantes de stabilité des complexes 1:1 et 2:2 (lorsque cela est possible) formés entre La3+, Ce3+, Th4+ et les anions aminoacides L-alaninate, L-phénylalaninate et L-histidinate ont été déterminées par dosage potentiométrique en solution aqueuse (25± 1 ^circC, I = 0,1 M KCl), et comparées à celles de la littérature. Les différents degrés de formation de M(L) et M(L)2 ont été quantifiés. Pour mettre en évidence la relation entre le degré de formation de M(L) et M(L)2 et la basicité des anions aminoacides (L^-), les constantes d

  18. Acetone-butanol fermatative production using cellobiose%纤维二糖发酵生产丙酮丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莲; 潘微; 陈新德; 唐绿蓉; 马隆龙


    分别考察C.acetobutylicum 810705、810706以不同浓度的麸皮和玉米粉添加物作为营养元素,纤维二糖直接进行丙酮丁醇(ABE)发酵的结果,发现2株菌对于玉米粉和麸皮的浓度变化趋势一致,C.acetobutylicum 810706转化率较高.纤维二糖ABE发酵工艺条件表明:玉米粉添加量为总糖含量的30%、底物糖质量浓度60 g/L,pH 6.5、温度35℃时,C.acetobutylicum 810706转化率达到37.38%,总溶剂质量浓度22.43 g/L,比葡萄糖、木糖ABE发酵转化率高.模拟纤维素酶水解产物配制混合糖培养基,其溶剂转化率较单独的葡萄糖、木糖发酵的转化率高,为34.95%.对比纤维素酶水解条件,C.acetobutylicum 810706具有优良的纤维素酶水解同步糖化ABE发酵能力.%Fermantative production of acetone-butanol by C. Acetobutylicum 810705 and C. Acetobutylicum 810706 was studied from cellobiose with different additive amounts of bran and corn starch. The same variation tendency of solvent concentration and substrate conversion was testified, and substrate conversion of C. Acetobutylicum 810706 was a little higher. Corn starch was proved to be better nutritional supplements than bran, and the optimum additive ratio was 30% of total sugar. Based on the optimization of culture conditions, C. Acetobutylicum 810706 achieved a 37. 38% substrate conversion and 22. 43 g/L solvent concerntration, and it was better than fermantative production of acetone-butanol from glucose and xylose while cultured at 35 ℃ with 60 g/L sugar concentration of substrate and initial pH 6. 5. Mixed sugar substrate prepared by imitating the concentration of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis was fermented. 34. 95% of substrate conversion was obtained, and it was higher than any single sugar. Results showed that C. Acetobutylicum 810706 had excellent potential of cellulose saccharified by enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol fermentation simultaneously.

  19. Acute and Subacute Toxicity study of the Acetone Leaf extract of Centella asiatica in Experimental Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PK Chauhan; V Singh


    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of the acetone extract of Centella asiatica (Brahmi). Methods: Toxicity of Centella asiatica was evaluated in Swiss mice after ingestion of the extract during one day (acute model) and during 15 days (subacute model). The Biochemical parameters evaluated included creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed using commercial kits. Results: The results of the present investigation revealed that the LD50 of the extract is higher than 4000mg/kg and subacute treatment did not shows any change in corporal weight and hematological parameters. However, a change in liver weight but not in hepatic enzymes was observed. This suggested that the liver function is not altered by Centella asiatica. Some changes in the creatinine content were observed but could not be relative with the extract dose.Conclusions:The results suggest that the plant seems to be destitute of toxic effects in mice.

  20. A comparison of the energy use of in situ product recovery techniques for the Acetone Butanol Ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Outram, Victoria; Lalander, Carl-Axel; Lee, Jonathan G M; Davis, E Timothy; Harvey, Adam P


    The productivity of the Acetone Butanol Ethanol (ABE) fermentation can be significantly increased by application of various in situ product recovery (ISPR) techniques. There are numerous technically viable processes, but it is not clear which is the most economically viable in practice. There is little available information about the energy requirements and economics of ISPR for the ABE fermentation. This work compares various ISPR techniques based on UniSim process simulations of the ABE fermentation. The simulations provide information on the process energy and separation efficiency, which is fed into an economic assessment. Perstraction was the only technique to reduce the energy demand below that of a batch process, by approximately 5%. Perstraction also had the highest profit increase over a batch process, by 175%. However, perstraction is an immature technology, so would need significant development before being integrated to an industrial process.

  1. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali


    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  2. Ultrasound promoted catalytic liquid-phase dehydrogenation of isopropanol for Isopropanol-Acetone-Hydrogen chemical heat pump. (United States)

    Xu, Min; Xin, Fang; Li, Xunfeng; Huai, Xiulan; Liu, Hui


    The apparent kinetic of the ultrasound assisted liquid-phase dehydrogenation of isopropanol over Raney nickel catalyst was determined in the temperature range of 346-353 K. Comparison of the effects of ultrasound and mechanical agitation on the isopropanol dehydrogenation was investigated. The ultrasound assisted dehydrogenation rate was significantly improved when relatively high power density was used. Moreover, the Isopropanol-Acetone-Hydrogen chemical heat pump (IAH-CHP) with ultrasound irradiation, in which the endothermic reaction is exposure to ultrasound, was proposed. A mathematical model was established to evaluate its energy performance in term of the coefficient of performance (COP) and the exergy efficiency, into which the apparent kinetic obtained in this work was incorporated. The operating performances between IAH-CHP with ultrasound and mechanical agitation were compared. The results indicated that the superiority of the IAH-CHP system with ultrasound was present even if more than 50% of the power of the ultrasound equipment was lost.

  3. L-Proline catalyzed aldol reactions between acetone and aldehydes in supercritical fluids:An environmentally friendly reaction procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The direct asymmetric aldol reaction between various aldehydes and acetone catalyzed by L-proline catalyst was successfully carried out in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) fluids.The enantioselectivity of 84% ee to the targeted product was achieved under 20 MPa,40 °C,and 15 mol% of the catalyst in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluid.The effects of reaction parameters,such as temperature,pressure,catalyst loading and different substituted aldehydes on both enantioselectivity and aldol yield were discussed.The titled reaction was also performed in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane,and the obtained results were compared with those in scCO2.This new reaction procedure provides an environmental asymmetric aldol reaction system as compared with that in organic solvents.

  4. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process. (United States)

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei


    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping.

  5. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species. (United States)

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi


    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds. (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A


    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  7. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Tao


    Full Text Available Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4], a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis.

  8. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan


    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  9. Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition. (United States)

    Chwa, Jun-Won; Kim, Wook Jin; Sim, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min


    Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2 . However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase (Pta) pathway. Because of strong correlations between the metabolic pathways of acetate and acetone, supplying the acetyl-CoA directly from CO2 in the engineered strain, led to sole production of acetone (22.48 mg/L ± 1.00) without changing nutritional constraints, and without an anaerobic shift. Our engineered S. elongatus strains, designed for acetone production, could be modified to create biosolar cell factories for sustainable photosynthetic production of acetyl-CoA-derived biochemicals.

  10. Effect of using acetone and distilled water on the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe (OLPHP) with different filling ratios (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad


    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.

  11. Combining Phytate/Ca2+Fractionation with Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Improved Separation of Low-Abundant Proteins of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Leaf for Proteomic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad A R F Sultan; LIU Hui; CHENG Yu-Feng; ZHANG Pei-pei; ZHAO Hui-xian


    Proteomic assessment of low-abundance leaf proteins is hindered by the large quantity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) present within plant leaf tissues. In the present study, total proteins were extracted from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves by a conventional trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone method and a protocol first developed in this work. Phytate/Ca2+fractionation and TCA/acetone precipitation were combined to design an improved TCA/acetone method. The extracted proteins were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The resulting 2-DE images were compared to reveal major differences. The results showed that large quantities of Rubisco were deleted from wheat leaf proteins prepared by the improved method. As many as (758±4) protein spots were detected from 2-DE images of protein extracts obtained by the improved method, 130 more than those detected by the TCA/acetone method. Further analysis indicated that more protein spots could be detected at regions of pI 4.00-4.99 and 6.50-7.00 in the improved method-based 2-DE images. Our findings indicated that the improved method is an efficient protein preparation protocol for separating low-abundance proteins in wheat leaf tissues by 2-DE analysis. The proposed protocol is simple, fast, inexpensive and also applicable to protein preparations of other plants.

  12. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk ß-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der S.G.A.; Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Teweldemedhn, T.G.; Jorritsma, R.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.M.


    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-day

  13. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk beta-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, S.G. van der; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Teweldemedhn, T.G.; Jorritsma, R.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.


    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-d

  14. In vitro activities of acetonic extracts from leaves of three forage legumes (Calliandra calotyrsus,Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena diversifolia) on Haemonchus contortus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Pon J; Kenne Tameli Florence; Mpoame Mbida; Pamo Tedonkeng E; Bilong Bilong CF


    Objective:To assess ovicidal activity of three acetonic extracts from the leaves of three forage legume,Calliandra calotyrsus (C. calotyrsus),Gliricidia sepium (G. sepium) andLeucaena diversifolia (L. diversifolia) in vitro onHaemonchus contortus (H. contortus).Methods: Eggs were exposed for 24 hours to five different concentrations (0.075, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and1.25mg/mL) of acetonic extracts at room temperature (24 ℃). Distilled water and0.4% Tween were used in the bioassay as negative controls.Results: The later did not affect embryonation and egg hatching ofH. contortus. Conversively, significant effects were obtained with the acetonic extracts of leaves of all three plants and the maximum activity was observed with the highest concentration (1.25 mg/mL). The acetonic extract ofG. sepium was found to be more active (2.9% and0.0% for embryonation and egg hatching, respectively) than the other substances16.5% and33.5%, respectively forC. calothyrsus,33.7% and33.3%, respectively forL. diversifolia.Conclusions:These results suggest that the three forage legumes do possess ovicidal properties and further studies on larvae should be carried out.

  15. Electrowinning of Nickel from ammonical sulphate bath and effect of acetone on morphology of nickel deposit and its correlation with kinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borikar, D. K.


    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of nickel from nickel sulphate bath was studied in ammonia medium. The electrolytic conditions for nickel deposition was optimized at room temperature. The effect of acetone on current efficiency, morphology, stability and particle size of deposited nickel powder was studied. The effect of organic additive Tribenzyl ammonium chloride (TBAC on the morphology of nickel powder was also studied. The kinetics of electrodeposition was studied and the results were utilized in developing mathematical model. During electrodeposition the current efficiency was found to increase with increase in acetone concentration up to 15% V/V in bath solution. On further increase of acetone concentration in bath solution current efficiency decreases. The stability of the electrowon deposited nickel powder was found to be in the range of 85 to 89 %. Powder morphology was found to be dentritic, porous and irregular. The morphology was also found to be underdeveloped dentritic to rounded aggregate as the concentration of organic additive TBAC increases. The average particle size of the deposited powder was found to be decreasing as the concentration of the acetone increases. The average size of the particle is in the range of 13-16 m.

  16. On the role of the activation procedure of supported hydrotalcites for base catalyzed reactions: Glycerol to glycerol carbonate and self-condensation of acetone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez, M.G.; Frey, A.M.; Bitter, J.H.; Segarra, A.M.; de Jong, K.P.; Medina, F.


    Bulk and carbon nanofiber supported MgAl hydrotalcites have been investigated as solid base catalysts for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate and dicarbonate and for the self-condensation of acetone. The supported materials exhibited a 300 times higher activity compared to bulk activated hydrotalcit

  17. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260 (United States)

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  18. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (United States)

    Tao, Wenyan; Lin, Peng; Liu, Sili; Xie, Qingji; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong


    Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis. PMID:28117697

  19. 丙酮缩合制异佛尔酮研究进展%Research progress in the synthesis of isophorone by acetone self-condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 吕建刚; 金照生


    In recent years,the acetone production keeps growing,resulting in excess production capacity in China. On the other hand,high value-added applications of acetone are relatively limited. The process of making acetone self-condensation into isophorone,and subsequently into isophorone diamine,isophorone diisocyanate,can greatly enhance the added value of acetone. The paper reviewed the production routes of isophorone by acetone self-condensation and the research progress of the catalysts. We emphasized to introduce the representative industrial production processes and catalysts, such as acetone liquid phase condensation with alkaline hydroxide as catalyst and acetone gas condensation with hydrotalcite as catalyst. Then,we further discussed the factors influencing the catalytic performance of Mg-Al solid base,and compared the advantages and disadvantages of the production routes of isophorone. Finally,the prospects of isophorone is forecasted.%近年来我国丙酮产量持续增长,丙酮产能逐渐过剩,与此同时,丙酮的高附加值利用相对较少;丙酮缩合制异佛尔酮,随后生产异佛尔酮二胺、异佛尔酮异氰酸酯等能够大大提高丙酮利用的附加值。本文对目前丙酮缩合制异佛尔酮的生产路线及催化剂研究进展进行了总结,重点介绍了有工业化应用的代表性工艺及催化剂,如以碱性氢氧化物为催化剂的丙酮液相缩合法以及以镁铝水滑石为催化剂的气相缩合法;在此基础上,进一步介绍了镁铝固体碱催化剂催化效果的影响因素,并对现有异佛尔酮合成工艺方法进行了分析、比较。最后对异佛尔酮的发展前景进行了展望。

  20. A new approach to detect local correlations of tropospheric acetone and carbon monoxide sampled onboard the IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft (United States)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Neumaier, Marco; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas


    Since 2005 a Lufthansa passenger aircraft is regularly used as a platform for in-situ measurements in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLMS). Accommodated in a modified airfreight container 15 instruments are deployed in the cargo bay of the aircraft on four selected intercontinental flights per month measuring ~100 species and aerosol parameters. In contrast to other projects of this scope, using a chemical mass spectrometer also volatile organic compounds like acetone (CH3COCH3) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) are detected enabling an investigation of their relationship with other tracers. On a global scale acetone is predominantly emitted from the biosphere (~37 Tg/a; MEGAN-MACC, Sinderarova et al. 2014) and comparably small amounts are directly emitted from biomass burning (~2 Tg/a; GFED3, Van der Werf et al. 2010) and other anthropogenic sources (~1 Tg/a; MACCity, Granier et al. 2011). However, at local levels the contributions from the different sources can strongly differ. Acetone is also secondarily produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of various precursors, e.g. pinene and propane. The emissions of these precursors and their contribution to the total acetone source are not well known and a topic of ongoing discussions. In this context it is initially surprising that generally a good correlation between acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) has been observed in the lower atmosphere by different authors (e.g. de Reus et al. 2003). As a product of incomplete combustion CO is regularly used as a tracer for anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning. In this study we present an improved method to detect local correlations in IAGOS-CARIBIC flights instead of mixing data from different flights or measured over great distances. Furthermore, a cluster analysis is applied to prevent the consideration of artificial correlations between two well separated clouds of data points. We use the concept of enhancement ratios (EnR) and a simple box model to

  1. Single-step synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads and their acetone-sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Department of Chemistry, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires decorated with TeO{sub 2} nanobeads were synthesized by a facile single-step thermal evaporation process, and their acetone-gas-sensing properties were examined. The diameters and lengths of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires ranged from 10 to 20 nm and up to 100 μm, respectively, whereas the diameters of the TeO{sub 2} beads ranged from 50 to 200 nm. The TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor showed stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor. The pristine and TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires exhibited sensitivity of ∝10.13 and ∝24.87, respectively, to 200 ppm acetone at 300 C. The decorated nanowire sensor also showed much more rapid response and recovery than the latter. Both sensors showed the strongest response to acetone gas at 300 C, respectively. The mechanism and origin of the enhanced acetone-gas-sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor compared to the pristine In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire sensor were discussed in detail. The enhanced sensing performance of the TeO{sub 2}-decorated In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire is mainly due to the modulation of the potential barrier height at the TeO{sub 2}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, high catalytic activity of TeO{sub 2,} and creation of active adsorption sites by incorporation of TeO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  2. Ab initio Study of Mechanism of Cycloaddition Reaction be- tween Germylene Silylene (H2Ge=Si:) and Acetone%Ab initio Study of Mechanism of Cycloaddition Reaction be- tween Germylene Silylene (H2Ge=Si:) and Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu, Xiuhui; Han, Junfeng; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Zhina


    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet germylene silylene (H2Ge =Si:) and acetone has been investigated with CCSD(T)/6-31G*//MP2/6-31 G* method. From the potential energy profile, we could predict that the reaction has two competitive dominant reaction channels. The present rule of this reaction is that the [2 +2] cycloaddition reaction of the two π-bonds in germylene silylene and acetone generates a four-membered ring silylene with Ge. Because of the unsaturated property of Si atom in the four-membered ring silylene with Ge, it could further react with acetone, resulting in the generation of a bis-heterocyclic compound with Si and Ge. Simul- taneously, the ring strain of the four-membered ring silylene with Ge makes it isomerize to a twisted four-membered ring product.

  3. Pure colloidal metal and ceramic nanoparticles from high-power picosecond laser ablation in water and acetone. (United States)

    Bärsch, Niko; Jakobi, Jurij; Weiler, Sascha; Barcikowski, Stephan


    The generation of colloids by laser ablation of solids in a liquid offers a nearly unlimited material variety and a high purity as no chemical precursors are required. The use of novel high-power ultra-short-pulsed laser systems significantly increases the production rates even in inflammable organic solvents. By applying an average laser power of 50 W and pulse durations below 10 ps, up to 5 mg min(-1) of nanoparticles have been generated directly in acetone, marking a breakthrough in productivity of ultra-short-pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The produced colloids remain stable for more than six months. In the case of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic, the nanoparticles retain the tetragonal crystal structure of the ablated target. Laser beam self-focusing plays an important role, as a beam radius change of 2% on the liquid surface can lead to a decrease of nanoparticle production rates of 90% if the target position is not re-adjusted.

  4. Self-organization of nickel nanoparticles dispersed in acetone: From separate nanoparticles to three-dimensional superstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-Pérez


    Full Text Available Sonochemical synthesis of monodisperse nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs by reduction of Ni acetylacetonate in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilizer is reported. The Ni-NPs size is readily controlled to 5 nanometer diameter with a standard deviation of less than 5%. The as-prepared Ni-NPs sample was dispersed in acetone, for 4 weeks. For structural analysis was not applied to a magnetic field or heat treatment as key methods to direct the assembly. The transition from separate Ni-NPs into self-organization of three dimensions (3D superstructures was studied by electron microscopy. Experimental analysis suggests that the translation and rotation movement of the Ni-NPs are governed by magnetic frustration which promotes the formation of different geometric arrangements in two dimensions (2D. The formation of 3D superstructures is confirmed from scanning electron microscopy revealing a layered domain that consists of staking of several monolayers having multiple well-defined supercrystalline domains, enabling their use for optical, electronic and sensor applications.

  5. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal. (United States)

    Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans Peter


    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and gas stripping product recovery system using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and fermentation gases (CO(2) and H(2)). In this system, the bioreactor was fed with a concentrated sugar solution (250-500 g L(-1) glucose). The bioreactor was bled semi-continuously to avoid accumulation of inhibitory chemicals and products. The continuous system was operated for 504 h (21 days) after which the fermentation was intentionally terminated. The bioreactor produced 461.3 g ABE from 1,125.0 g total sugar in 1 L culture volume as compared to a control batch process in which 18.4 g ABE was produced from 47.3 g sugar. These results demonstrate that ABE fermentation can be operated in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and product recovery system for a long period of time, if butanol and other microbial metabolites in the bioreactor are kept below threshold of toxicity.

  6. Substrate dependent modulation of butanol to ethanol ratio in non-acetone forming Clostridium sporogenes NCIM 2918. (United States)

    Kaushal, Mehak; Ahlawat, Saumya; Mukherjee, Mayurketan; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Goswami, Gargi; Das, Debasish


    Present study reports a non-acetone producing Clostridium sporogenes strain as a potential producer of liquid biofuels. Alcohol production was positively regulated by sorbitol and instant dry yeast as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. Media optimization resulted in maximum butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 12.1 and 7.9 respectively. Depending on the combination of carbon sources, the organism was found to manipulate its metabolism towards synthesis of either ethanol or butanol, thereby affecting the total alcohol titer. Among various dual substrate combinations, glucose-glycerol mixture in the ratio of 60:40 resulted in maximum butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 11.9 and 12.1 respectively with total alcohol productivity of 0.59gL(-1)h(-1). In the mixture, when pure glycerol was replaced with crude glycerol, butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 11.2 and 11.7 was achieved. Hence, the strain shows immense potential for biofuels production using crude glycerol as cheap substrate.

  7. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta


    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  8. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and gas production under slight pressure in a membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Guoqing; Liu, Yucheng; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina


    Two rounds of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation under slight pressure were carried out in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. Spores of the clostridium were observed and counted, with the maximum number of 2.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(8)ml(-1) separately. The fermentation profiles were comparable with that at atmospheric pressure, showing an average butanol productivity of 0.14 and 0.13 g L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the average gas productivities of 0.28 and 0.27 L L(-1)h(-1) were obtained in two rounds of CCCF, and the cumulative gas production of 52.64 and 25.92 L L(-1) were achieved, with the hydrogen volume fraction of 41.43% and 38.08% respectively. The results suggested that slight pressures have no obvious effect on fermentation performance, and also indicated the significance and feasibility of gas recovery in the continuous ABE fermentation process.

  9. Modulation of the Acetone/Butanol Ratio during Fermentation of Corn Stover-derived Hydrolysate by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yong; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ze-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Li, Fu-Li


    Producing biobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass has shown promise to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases and alleviate the global energy crisis. However, because of the recalcitrance of a lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment of the substrate is needed which in many cases releases soluble lignin compounds (SLCs), which inhibit growth of butanol-producing clostridia. In this study, we found that SLCs changed the acetone/butanol ratio (A/B ratio) during butanol fermentation. The typical A/B molar ratio during Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 batch fermentation with glucose as the carbon source is about 0.5. In the present study, the A/B molar ratio during batch fermentation with a lignocellulosic hydrolysate as the carbon source was 0.95 at the end of fermentation. Structural and redox potential changes of the SLCs were characterized before and after fermentation by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electrochemical analyses, which indicated that some exogenous SLCs were involved in distributing electron flow to C. beijerinckii, leading to modulation of the redox balance. This was further demonstrated by the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and trxB gene expression profile assays at the onset of solventogenic growth. As a result, the A/B ratio of end-products changed significantly during C. beijerinckii fermentation using corn stover-derived hydrolysate as the carbon source compared to that with glucose. These results revealed that SLCs not only inhibited cell growth, but also modulated the A/B ratio during C. beijerinckii butanol fermentation.

  10. Calculations for the properties and reactions of the NH, PH, and AsH counterparts of dimethyl ether and acetone. (United States)

    Wiberg, Kenneth B


    The properties and reactions of compounds in which the O of dimethyl ether or acetone has been replaced by NH, PH, or AsH have been studied computationally using CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, G4, and W1BD. The properties include the bond dissociation energies and ionization potentials, and the reactions include those with with protons, methyl cations, and lithium cations. The effect on keto-enol equilibria also was examined. In all cases there was good agreement with the available experimental data. The agreement between these methods suggests that the least computationally costly model (CBS-QB3) should be of general use in studying organic compounds. The double-bond dissociation enthalpies of CH2═XHn were linearly related to those of the corresponding CH3-XHn+1 single bonds with a slope of 2.5. With the exception of C-C, the order corresponded to the electronegativity of X, suggesting that the differences are largely determined by internal Coulombic interactions. The differences in the electronegativities of the heteroatoms are largely responsible for the differences in the properties and reactions. Oxygen has a significantly higher electronegativity than the others, and as a result, the oxygen-substituted compounds are often different than the others.

  11. Impact of Hot-Water Extraction on Acetone-Water Oxygen Delignification of Paulownia Spp. and Lignin Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gong


    Full Text Available A hardwood-based biorefinery process starting with hot-water extraction (HWE is recommended in order to remove most of the hemicelluloses/xylans before further processing. HWE may be followed by delignification in acetone/water in the presence of oxygen (AWO for the production of cellulose and lignin. In this study, the HWE-AWO sequence was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing lignin from the fast-growing species Paulownia tomentosa (PT and Paulownia elongata (PE, in comparison with the reference species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, SM. HWE might lead to a remarkable increase in lignin accessibility, and as a result, a greater AWO delignification degree was observed for extracted PT, PE, and SM than for unextracted ones. Organosolv lignin was recovered from the spent liquor of AWO delignification of PT with/without prior HWE and characterized to evaluate the benefits of HWE on the lignin structure and purity. The lignin recovered from the spent liquor of HWE-AWO sequence is of higher purity and lighter color than that recovered from the AWO spent liquor. These properties along with low sulfur content are desirable for lignin high-value applications.

  12. Quantitative Temperature Imaging in Gas-Phase Turbulent Thermal Convection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this paper, an acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for nonintrusive, temperature imaging is demonstrated in gas-phase (Pr = 0.72) turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection at Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.3 x 10{sup 5}. The PLIF technique provides quantitative, spatially correlated temperature data without the flow intrusion or time lag associated with physical probes and without the significant path averaging that plagues most optical heat-transfer diagnostic tools, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, thus making PLIF an attractive choice for quantitative thermal imaging in easily perturbed, complex three-dimensional flow fields. The instantaneous (20-ns integration time) thermal images presented have a spatial resolution of 176 x 176 x 500 {micro}m and a single-pulse temperature measurement precision of {+-}5.5 K, or 5.4 % of the total temperature difference. These images represent a 2-D slice through a complex, 3-D flow allowing for the thermal structure of the turbulence to be quantified. Statistics such as the horizontally averaged temperature profile, rms temperature fluctuation, two-point spatial correlations, and conditionally averaged plume structures are computed from an ensemble of 100 temperature images. The profiles of the mean temperature and rms temperature fluctuation are in good agreement with previously published data, and the results obtained from the two-point spatial correlations and conditionally averaged temperature fields show the importance of large-scale coherent structures in this turbulent flow.

  13. Optimization and validation of a GC-FID method for the determination of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation products. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Fan, Jiansheng; Wen, Qingshi; Li, Renjie; Jin, Xiaohong; Wu, Jinglan; Qian, Wenbin; Liu, Dong; Xie, Jingjing; Bai, Jianxin; Ying, Hanjie


    An improved, simple gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method was developed for measuring the products of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and the combined fermentation/separation processes. The analysis time per sample was reduced to less than 10 min compared to those of a conventional GC-FID (more than 20 min). The behavior of the compounds in temperature-programmed gas chromatographic runs was predicted using thermodynamic parameters derived from isothermal runs. The optimum temperature programming condition was achieved when the resolution for each peak met the analytical requirement and the analysis time was shortest. With the exception of acetic acid, the detection limits of the presented method for various products were below 10 mg/L. The repeatability and intermediate precision of the method were less than 10% (relative standard deviation). Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method is a sensitive, reliable and fast alternative for conventional investigation of the adsorption-coupled ABE fermentation process.

  14. Effective multiple stages continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by immobilized bioreactors: Making full use of fresh corn stalk. (United States)

    Chang, Zhen; Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Fu, Chaohui; Wang, Guoqing; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei


    In order to make full use of the fresh corn stalk, the sugar containing juice was used as the sole substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production without any nutrients supplement, and the bagasse after squeezing the juice was used as the immobilized carrier. A total 21.34g/L of ABE was produced in batch cells immobilization system with ABE yield of 0.35g/g. A continuous fermentation containing three stages with immobilized cells was conducted and the effect of dilution rate on fermentation was investigated. As a result, the productivity and ABE solvents concentration reached 0.80g/Lh and 19.93g/L, respectively, when the dilution rate in each stage was 0.12/h (corresponding to a dilution rate of 0.04/h in the whole system). And the long-term operation indicated the continuous multiple stages ABE fermentation process had good stability and showed the great potential in future industrial applications.

  15. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua


    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production.

  16. Evaluation of a seed-treatment method with acetone for delivering systemic nematicides with wheat and rye. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Kabana, R; Hoveland, C S; Haaland, R L


    Seeds of 'Coker 68-15' wheat and 'Maton' rye were immersed for 5 min in acetone solutions of oxamyl, carbofuran, or phenamiphos containing 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0% (w/v) nematicide; after drying, seeds were planted in pots containing 500 gm of sandy loam naturally infested with Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni. In sterilized soil, only the 5% concentrations of all nematicides were toxic to rye, whereas both the 2.5 and 5% concentrations were damaging to wheat. Phenamiphos was generally the most phytotoxic compound. Numbers of T. claytoni in soil declined sharply in response to seed treatment with all nematicides. In soil planted with wheat, numbers were reduced 80% by the 1.25% treatment; little additional control was shown with higher concentrations. Soil with rye showed a 40-60% reduction in numbers of T. claytoni with the 1.25% solutions and little change at higher concentrations. Hoplolaimus galeatus developed only in pots with rye; root populations were suppressed (30-50%) by treatment with 1.25% or higher concentrations of all nematicides.

  17. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts. (United States)

    Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P


    Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources.

  18. [The effect of the inhalation of ethanol and acetone on the indices of the antioxidant protection system and on lipid peroxidation in the brain tissue and blood serum of rats]. (United States)

    Burmistrov, S O; Mashek, O N; Stepanova, I I


    Ethanol or acetone inhalation resulted in a reduction in motor activity in rats, affecting largely their explorative behavior. The biochemical parameters of free-radical processes (catalyse and SOD activities, LPO levels) remained unchanged in the inhaling animals. Ethanol or acetone inhalation caused a significant decrease in blood catalyse activity and serum LPO levels. The acetone- and ethanol-induced changes in the activity of ceruloplasmin were heterodirectional. It can be concluded that it is useful to study the biochemical parameters of serum free-radical processes and to employ the findings in the therapy of inhalation toxicomanias.

  19. 6-APA中残留丙酮、甲基异丁基酮的测定%Determination on Residual Acetone and MIBK in 6-APA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 宋雅丽; 郭云英


    采用直接进样色谱法测定,并用内标法(2-戊酮作内标物)定量,确定6-APA中残留丙酮、甲基异丁基酮的检测方法。经验证此法可准确测定6-APA中丙酮、甲基异丁基酮的残余量。%To develop a method for determination of residual acetone and MIBK in 6-APA through using injection chromatographic method and internal standard (2-pentanone) method. This method established on basis of verifica tion to determinate residual acetone and MIBK in 6-APA accurately.

  20. Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Nan; Li, Zhenjian; Li, Bingbing; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie


    Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (production.

  1. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin. (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng


    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution.

  2. Development of Fourier transform mid-infrared calibrations to predict acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate contents in bovine milk through a European dairy network. (United States)

    Grelet, C; Bastin, C; Gelé, M; Davière, J-B; Johan, M; Werner, A; Reding, R; Fernandez Pierna, J A; Colinet, F G; Dardenne, P; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F


    To manage negative energy balance and ketosis in dairy farms, rapid and cost-effective detection is needed. Among the milk biomarkers that could be useful for this purpose, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been proved as molecules of interest regarding ketosis and citrate was recently identified as an early indicator of negative energy balance. Because Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry can provide rapid and cost-effective predictions of milk composition, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of this technology to predict these biomarkers in milk. Milk samples were collected in commercial and experimental farms in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. Acetone, BHB, and citrate contents were determined by flow injection analysis. Milk mid-infrared spectra were recorded and standardized for all samples. After edits, a total of 548 samples were used in the calibration and validation data sets for acetone, 558 for BHB, and 506 for citrate. Acetone content ranged from 0.020 to 3.355mmol/L with an average of 0.103mmol/L; BHB content ranged from 0.045 to 1.596mmol/L with an average of 0.215mmol/L; and citrate content ranged from 3.88 to 16.12mmol/L with an average of 9.04mmol/L. Acetone and BHB contents were log-transformed and a part of the samples with low values was randomly excluded to approach a normal distribution. The 3 edited data sets were then randomly divided into a calibration data set (3/4 of the samples) and a validation data set (1/4 of the samples). Prediction equations were developed using partial least square regression. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of cross-validation was 0.73 for acetone, 0.71 for BHB, and 0.90 for citrate with root mean square error of 0.248, 0.109, and 0.70mmol/L, respectively. Finally, the external validation was performed and R(2) obtained were 0.67 for acetone, 0.63 for BHB, and 0.86 for citrate, with respective root mean square error of validation of 0.196, 0.083, and 0.76mmol/L. Although

  3. Selective acetone gas sensors using porous WO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Peng; Ji Huiming, E-mail:; Zhou Yugui; Li Xiaolei


    WO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconducting thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. Acetone gas sensing properties were investigated. Monoclinic phase was obtained as determined by X-ray diffraction after WO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were sintered in oxygen atmosphere for 1 h at 500 Degree-Sign C (quenched after sintering). Porous structure was observed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical properties were studied by conductivity measurement. The acetone vapor sensing properties of these thin films were found strongly influenced by the porous structure, the content of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the sintering temperature, and the cooling way. As-prepared WO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films exhibit excellent acetone vapor sensing properties with the maximum sensitivity {approx} 8.91 at 320 Degree-Sign C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery time. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous structure was prepared to improve the thin film's gas-sensing properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissymmetrical monoclinic structure was obtained to improve selectivity to acetone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching after sintering enables obtain dissymmetrical structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of the sintering temperature and the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} content were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As prepared sensors can diagnose diabetes based on human breath analysis.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军利; 韩学文; 施荫锐


    Serial commercial activated carbon for acetone recovery was inspected by surface area and pore distribution analysis instrument(AS-703).It illuminated the main factors influencing acetone recovery from the aspect of microstructure.Domestic sample of activated carbon with similar adsorption capability and lower price comparing with imported commercial activated carbons was provided.The pore suitable for the adsorption of acetone is micropore.The size of micropore volume determines the adsorption capacity of acetone,without relating to total pore volume.Micropore volume of the activated carbon is in the range of 0.40~0.50cm3/g and mean pore radius is 1nm.%利用AS-703比表面积、孔径分布测定仪对几种回收丙酮溶剂的商品活性炭进行了比较深入的剖析,从微观结构上阐明了影响丙酮回收用活性炭的主要因素,并提供了国产化样品,与进口商品活性炭相比较具有价格低吸附性能好等优点.微孔容积的大小决定了丙酮吸附量的多少,而与总孔容积关系不大.丙酮回收用活性炭的孔径主要集中在1nm左右,微孔容积在0.40~0.50cm3/g.

  5. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle. (United States)

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee


    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  6. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres for high-sensitivity acetone sensors (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Boqun; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Chen; Sun, Peng; Li, Xiaowei; Hu, Xiaolong; Lu, Geyu


    Metal oxides with hierarchical microstructures have attracted tremendous attention with respect to their enhanced gas sensing properties. Herein, we reported the facile synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres via a template-free solvothermal strategy and the subsequent annealing and chemical etching process. Electron microscopy images undoubtedly demonstrated that the novel ZnFe2O4 architecture was constructed of a large number of nanosheet subunits with a thickness around 20 nm. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the function, when evaluated as gas sensing materials, the as-prepared ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres manifested an extremely high response and a low detection limit to acetone at the operating temperature of 200 °C. Significantly, the response to 20 ppm acetone was retained well even after 200 cycles and continuous measurement for 30 days, indicating superior cyclability and long-term stability.Metal oxides with hierarchical microstructures have attracted tremendous attention with respect to their enhanced gas sensing properties. Herein, we reported the facile synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres via a template-free solvothermal strategy and the subsequent annealing and chemical etching process. Electron microscopy images undoubtedly demonstrated that the novel ZnFe2O4 architecture was constructed of a large number of nanosheet subunits with a thickness around 20 nm. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the function, when evaluated as gas sensing materials, the as-prepared ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres manifested an extremely high response and a low detection limit to acetone at the operating temperature of 200 °C. Significantly, the response to 20 ppm acetone was retained well even after 200 cycles and continuous measurement for 30 days, indicating superior cyclability and long-term stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06308f

  7. 微波辅助丙酮提取大蒜油工艺的研究%Study on the Microwave-Assisted Acetone Extraction of Garlic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金华; 陈莫林; 董加宝; 胡娜


    In order to increase the garlic oil yield and add value of garlic,this article made a study on the extraction technology of garlic oil by using microwave-assisted acetone extraction method.Through single factor and orthogonal design of microwave power,garlic and acetone ratio,microwave extraction time and acetone concentration on garlic oil extraction rate effects.The results showed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of garlic oil were the microwave power of 100W,microwave extraction time of 75s,ratio of solvent to material of 25∶1 and acetone concentration of 90%,and the highest rate of the garlic oil was 3.85%,and the ratio of solvent to material was a major influence factor for the extraction yield of garlic oil.%为提高大蒜油的得率,增加大蒜的附加值,采用微波辅助、丙酮提取的方法进行大蒜油提取工艺.通过单因素和正交试验考察微波的功率、大蒜和丙酮的配比、微波提取的时间和丙酮的浓度对大蒜油提取得率的影响.结果表明,大蒜和丙酮的配比为大蒜油提取工艺的最显著影响因素;最佳的工艺条件是,微波功率100 W、微波提取时间75 s、液料比25∶1、丙酮体积分数为90%时,大蒜油的提取率最高,提取率为3.85%.

  8. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice


    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future.

  9. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity. (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos


    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone.

  10. Unexpected photoproduct generated via the acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a water/isopropanol solution: experimental and computational studies. (United States)

    Polska, Katarzyna; Zielonka, Justyna; Chomicz, Lidia; Czerwicka, Małgorzata; Stepnowski, Piotr; Guzow, Katarzyna; Wiczk, Wiesław; Smużyńska, Maria; Kasprzykowski, Franciszek; Żylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Skowron, Piotr; Rak, Janusz


    The acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (5-BrdU) in a water/isopropanol solution with 300 nm photons leads to the formation of 2'-deoxyuridine (dU) and a comparable amount of another photoproduct that has not been reported in the literature so far. The negative and positive mass spectra recorded for this species indicate that they originate from the molecular mass of 286 Da, which corresponds to an adduct of 2'-deoxyuridine and 2-propanol. Quantum chemical calculations carried out at the DFT and TDDFT levels reveal both the structure and the UV spectrum of that adduct. The latter computational characteristic matches well the experimental UV spectrum of the new photoproduct. Our findings indicate that the acetone-sensitized photolysis of 5-BrdU is more complicated than has hitherto been assumed. Nevertheless, since electron transfer is one of the pathways responsible for 5-BrdU decay, acetone-sensitized photolysis of the halogen derivatives of nucleobases could be a convenient tool for studying their radiosensitivity in aqueous solutions.

  11. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Acetone in Phenol Waste Water%气相色谱法对苯酚废水中丙酮含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邦利; 王雪晴; 范玉丽; 陈亚军


    A method for analyzing acetone m phenol waste water from phenol-acetone device used in Petroehina Jilin Petrochemical Company dyestuff factory by gas chro-matography was presen~l. The experimental results showed that the method can determinate acoton .The average recovery was between 95 % and 100 %, and Relative Standard Difference (RSD) was less than 5 %. The method was sensitive and accurate. It could be used as the determination Acetone in phenol waste water and production control.%采用气相色谱法对吉林石化公司染科厂苯酚丙酮装置苯酚废水中丙酮含量进行测定.测定结果表明,采用该方法能够准确的测定丙酮含量,平均回收率95%~100%,RSD不大于5%.该法操作灵敏、准确,适合于对苯酚丙酮装置苯酚废水中丙酮含量的测定和生产控制.

  12. A longitudinal study of ammonia, acetone and propanol in the exhaled breath of 30 subjects using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. (United States)

    Turner, Claire; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David


    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, has been used to monitor the volatile compounds in the exhaled breath of 30 volunteers (19 males, 11 females) over a 6 month period. Volunteers provided breath samples each week between 8:45 am and 1 pm (before lunch), and the concentrations of several trace compounds were obtained. In this paper the focus is on ammonia, acetone and propanol. It was found that the concentration distributions of these compounds in breath were close to log-normal. The median ammonia level estimated as a geometric mean for all samples was 833 parts per billion (ppb) with a multiplicative standard deviation of 1.62, the values ranging from 248 to 2935 ppb. Breath ammonia clearly increased with increasing age in this volunteer cohort. The geometric mean acetone level for all samples was 477 parts per billion (ppb) with a multiplicative standard deviation of 1.58, the values ranging from 148 to 2744 ppb. The median propanol level for all samples was 18 ppb, the values ranging from 0 to 135 ppb. A weak but significant correlation between breath propanol and acetone levels is apparent in the data. The findings indicate the potential value of SIFT-MS as a non-invasive breath analysis technique for investigating volatile compounds in human health and in the diseased state.

  13. Synthesis of Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of acetone in air (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoke; Wang, He; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Junting; Liu, Jin


    The Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber (CTOA) nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile method and was used for photocatalytic degradation of acetone in air under UV light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement. The results showed that the structure of organo-attapulgite (OAT) had no obvious change as compared to unmodified attapulgite (AT) and the attapulgite fibers in the OAT were well-dispersed. Both micropores and mesopores exist in the CTOA catalyst. The CTOA catalysts prepared at the Cu/TiO2 molar ratio of 0.003 shows an excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of acetone in air. The synergistic effect of Cu species and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modification can be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CTOA catalyst. The mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of acetone by the CTOA catalyst was discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde


    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  15. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya. (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri


    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets.

  16. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu


    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks.

  17. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw. (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang


    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h(-1)) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content.

  18. An acetone extract of Clausena anisata may be a potential control agent for flies encountered in cutaneous myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Mukandiwa


    Full Text Available Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. The impact of C. anisata leaf extracts on populations of different fly species on farms in Mpumalanga, South Africa was investigated in this study under field conditions. Flies were exposed to liver baits treated with acetone leaf extracts of C. anisata (150 mg/mL. Fly numbers and composition on two farms, with and without C. anisata treated liver, were compared during a period of 12 weeks when fly populations were expected to be high. Observations were made on fly behaviour and development, adult sizes and numbers. The flies exposed to liver treated with the leaf extract of C. anisata had a decreased rate of development, prolonged larval period, smaller body sizes and more sluggish behaviour compared to those subjected to the control treatment. No significant differences were, however, found between the numbers and sizes of flies on the treated and on the control farm, which was most likely due to the limited nature of the baiting programme we followed. The effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly behaviour and development observed in previous laboratory studies were confirmed in this field evaluation. Although the extracts did not have a significant effect on the overall population size in this experiment, we believe that the C. anisata leaf extract could be useful in integrated pest management based on its effect on larval development. In addition, species such as Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya marginalis seemed to have been repelled by the C. anisata treated liver; as a result, further work should explore this aspect and how it can be used for the protection of animals.

  19. 乙醇和丙酮对绿色荧光蛋白强度作用的对比%The Comparison of the Effects of Alcohol and Acetone on Green Fluorescent Protein Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常新; 郭泾; Yasuaki Shibata


    Objective To find out a proper way to detect green fluorescent protein (GFP). Methods Kidneys, livers and femurs from GFP transgenic mice and C57BL/6J wild type mice were employed for in vivo study.The samples were dehydrated with alcohol and acetone individually before embedding, then frozen, paraffin and resin sections were made for the detection of GFP. C3 P12 cells which derived from calvaria bone cells of GFP transgenic mouse were used for the detection of GFP in vitro. Cells were exposed to alcohol, acetone and PBS after paraformaldehyde fixation. Laser scanning microscopy was employed for GFP detection. Results In frozen sections, both kidney and liver samples which exposed to 4% buffered paraformaldehyde fixation had strong GFP signals, while GFP signal disappeared completely in fresh frozen sections without fixation. Much stronger GFP intensity was found in acetone treated samples than in alcohol treated paraffin sections, but without apparent difference in GFP intensity in acetone and alcohol treated resin samples. Acetone and alcohol made no difference in fixed C3 cells in different time courses. Conclusion Acetone treated paraffin sections are preferable for GFP detection.

  20. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 高晓冲; 夏庆宁; 高瑞昶


    Dichloromethane and acetone can form the highest azeotrope, so it can not be separated by conventional distillation. Extractive distillation for separation of dichloromethane and acetone was simulated by computer. Wilson model and NRTL model were used for predicting VLE and LLE. The influence of operation factors such as stage number, reflux ratio, extractant feed rate, location, temperature and material feed location, temperature were analyzed. The optimal parameters of column were proposed: the theoretical total plate number of extraction column is 36, the reflux ratio is 3, the raw material is fed at 16th plate, the extractant is fed at 7th plate and the feed rate is 1 500 kg/h. Di-chloromethane-water azeotrope was obtained at the top of the extraction column. The dichloromethane layer was 99. 9%. Acetone-water mixture which was obtained at the bottom of extraction column was put into the acetone column, the theoretical total plate number of acetone column is 35, the reflux ratio is 4, and the raw material is fed at 25th plate. A top product of acetone with 99. 7% concentration and a bottom product of almost pure water which can be recycled as extraction water after cooling could be obtained. These results are useful for construction design and improvement.%以水为萃取剂对二氯甲烷丙酮混合物进行了萃取精馏过程模拟,体系的气-液平衡和液液平衡分别采用Wilson模型和NRTL模型预测.分析了总理论板数,回流比,萃取剂进料速率、塔板数、温度和原料进料塔板数、温度等操作参数对精馏过程的影响.并取得了最佳工艺参数为:萃取塔采用36块理论板,回流比为3,原料在第16块板进料,萃取剂用量1 500 kg/h,第7块板进料时塔顶得到二氯甲烷-水的共沸物,分层得99.9%的二氯甲烷,塔釜得到丙酮-水的混合物进入丙酮塔;丙酮塔为简单精馏塔,采用35块理论板,回流比为4,第25块板进料,塔顶可得99.7%的丙酮,塔釜得到几乎

  2. Au-modified three-dimensional In2O3 inverse opals: synthesis and improved performance for acetone sensing toward diagnosis of diabetes (United States)

    Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Xia, Lei; Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Jiahuan; Xie, Yi; Song, Hongwei


    Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath effectively is crucial to medical treatment, which can provide a fast and noninvasive way to diagnose disease. Well-designed materials with controlled structures have great influence on the sensing performance. In this work, the ordered three dimensional inverse opal (3DIO) macroporous In2O3 films with additional via-hole architectures were fabricated and different amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were loaded on the In2O3 films aiming at enhancing their electrical responses. The gas sensing to acetone toward diabetes diagnosis in exhaled breath was performed with different Au/In2O3 electrodes. Representatively, the best 3DIO Au/In2O3 sensor can detect acetone effectively at 340 °C with response of 42.4 to 5 ppm, the actual detection limit is as low as 20 ppb, and it holds a dynamic response of 11 s and a good selectivity. Moreover, clinical tests proved that the as-prepared 3DIO Au/In2O3 IO sensor could distinguish acetone biomarkers in human breath clearly. The excellent gas sensing properties of the Au/In2O3 electrodes were attributed to the ``spillover effects'' between Au and In2O3 and the special 3DIO structure. This work indicates that 3DIO Au/In2O3 composite is a promising electrode material for actual application in the monitoring and detection of diabetes through exhaled breath.Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath effectively is crucial to medical treatment, which can provide a fast and noninvasive way to diagnose disease. Well-designed materials with controlled structures have great influence on the sensing performance. In this work, the ordered three dimensional inverse opal (3DIO) macroporous In2O3 films with additional via-hole architectures were fabricated and different amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were loaded on the In2O3 films aiming at enhancing their electrical responses. The gas sensing to acetone toward diabetes diagnosis in exhaled

  3. 萃取精馏分离丙酮-四氢呋喃的研究%Separation of acetone-tetrahydrofuran by extractive distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 白鹏


    In order to separate acetone-tetrahydrofuran mixture, ethylbenzene as the solvent for separating acetone-tetrahydrofuran mixture by extractive distillation was chosen according to the basic selection rules. The simulation of vapor-liquid equilibrium using NRTL model for acetone-tetrahydrofuran system with and without ethylbenzene under atmospheric pressure and the vapor-liquid equilibrium experiment were performed. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data. The effectiveness of the solvent selected was also investigated by the batch extractive distillation experiments. The results show that ethylbenzene can eliminate the azeotropic point of acetone-tetrahydrofuran system. The batch distillation was carried out in a packed column of 40 theoretical plates. With the reflux ratio of 5 and the solvent mole ratio of 2. 5 : 1 ,the product mass fraction of acetone reaches 99. 34% , which reveals that the extractive distillation with ethylbenzene as solvent is useful in the separation of acetone-tetrahydrofuran. At last,the flow sheet of separating this azeotrope by batch and continual extractive distillation were simulated. The technological parameters obtained can provide the theoretical basis for further industrial application.%为了分离丙酮-四氢呋喃共沸混合物,研究了萃取精馏在丙酮-四氢呋喃物系中的应用.通过溶剂选择原理初选出乙苯作为萃取精馏分离此共沸物系的溶剂,同时采用NRTL模型对常压下丙酮-四氢呋喃物系和加入溶剂乙苯后的汽液平衡进行模拟和实验验证,模拟结果与实验数据吻合较好.然后进行了间歇萃取精馏分离此共沸物的实验研究来进一步考察所选萃取剂的效果.结果表明:乙苯能够消除丙酮-四氢呋喃共沸物系的共沸点,采用有40块理论板的填料塔,回流比为5,溶剂摩尔比为2.5∶1时塔顶可以得到质量分数为99.34%的丙酮产品,说明采用乙苯作萃取剂分离丙

  4. Ultrafast α -CC bond cleavage of acetone upon excitation to 3p and 3d Rydberg states by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging (United States)

    Hüter, O.; Temps, F.


    The radiationless electronic relaxation and α -CC bond fission dynamics of jet-cooled acetone in the S1 (n π* ) state and in high-lying 3p and 3d Rydberg states have been investigated by femtosecond time-resolved mass spectrometry and photoelectron imaging. The S1 state was accessed by absorption of a UV pump photon at selected wavelengths between λ = 320 and 250 nm. The observed acetone mass signals and the S1 photoelectron band decayed on sub-picosecond time scales, consistent with a recently proposed ultrafast structural relaxation of the molecules in the S1 state away from the Franck-Condon probe window. No direct signatures could be observed by the experiments for CC dissociation on the S1 potential energy hypersurface in up to 1 ns. The observed acetyl mass signals at all pump wavelengths turned out to be associated with absorption by the molecules of one or more additional pump and/or probe photons. In particular, absorption of a second UV pump photon by the S1 (n π* ) state was found to populate a series of high-lying states belonging to the n = 3 Rydberg manifold. The respective transitions are favored by much larger cross sections compared to the S1 ← S0 transition. The characteristic energies revealed by the photoelectron images allowed for assignments to the 3p and 3dyz states. At two-photon excitation energies higher than 8.1 eV, an ultrafast reaction pathway for breaking the α -CC bond in 50-90 fs via the 3dyz Rydberg state and the elusive π π* state was observed, explaining the formation of acetyl radicals after femtosecond laser excitation of acetone at these wavelengths.

  5. HPLC-MS Determination of Acrolein and Acetone Generated from 13C3 -Labeled Glycerol Added to Cigarette Tobacco Using Two Machine-Smoking Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip SH


    Full Text Available The extent of blend glycerol degradation in a burning cigarette to form acrolein and acetone has been quantitatively determined by the addition of glycerol-13C3 to three styles of a leading commercial cigarette brand. Multiple Cambridge pads soaked with a solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH were employed to trap hydrazone derivatives of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with negative ion mass spectrometry was used to isolate DNPH derivatives of the volatile carbonyl products of combustion and to ascertain their concentration. Acrolein, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the principal compounds of interest. The DNPH derivatives of acrolein-13C3 and acetone-13C3 were independently synthesized, and they served as external standards for absolute quantitation. The cost of fully labeled propionaldehyde precluded its use in this study. The brand styles selected for study represent the cigarette design features that are most prevalent in the U.S. market today and afford a representative range of standardized “tar” yields (14, 10, and 5 mg/cig, respectively by the Cambridge Filter Method. The brand styles studied are part of a commercial cigarette brand family that does not contain additives to the tobacco blend, including glycerol. Mainstream smoke was generated by an automated smoking machine employing the standard Cambridge Filter Smoking Regime and a more intense regime requiring larger, more frequent puffs and 100% vent blocking that is specified for regulatory purposes by the Canadian federal government. The research indicated that only a small fraction of added glycerol (~0.25%-0.30%, w/w was converted to the two compounds of interest, with the larger portion generally observed in sidestream smoke. Less than 0.1% of the added glycerol was converted to acrolein in mainstream smoke for all cigarette designs and smoking regimes studied.

  6. Analysis of the origin and importance of acetone and isopropanol levels in the blood of the deceased for medico-legal testimony


    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko; Agnieszka Siwińska-Ziółkowska; Michał Piotrkowicz; Marta Wysmołek; Marta Demkow


    The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of acetone and isopropanol in the blood of the deceased, and to assess cases in which the compounds have been detected with a focus on their origin and usefulness for medico-legal testimony. Material and methods: The study material consisted of results of tests detecting ethyl alcohol and reports of autopsies performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 2008 to April 2009 – a total of 2,...

  7. Formation of negative hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH+ + Ar and OH+ + acetone collisions: a general process for H-bearing molecular species

    CERN Document Server

    Juhász, Zoltán; Rangama, Jimmy; Bene, Erika; Sorgunlu-Frankland, Burcu; Frémont, François; Chesnel, Jean-Yves


    We demonstrate that the formation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) occurs in a wide class of atomic and molecular collisions. In our experiments, H- emission from hydroxyl cations and acetone molecules was observed in keV-energy collisions. We show that hydride (H-) anions are formed via direct collisional fragmentation of molecules, followed by electron grabbing by fast hydrogen fragments. Such general mechanism in hydrogen-containing molecules may significantly influence reaction networks in planetary atmospheres and astrophysical media and new reaction pathways may have to be added in radiolysis studies.

  8. Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone on anatase TiO2 and niobium doped TiO2 thin films. (United States)

    Mattsson, Andreas; Leideborg, Michael; Larsson, Karin; Westin, Gunnar; Osterlund, Lars


    Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone was studied on nanostructured anatase TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 films made by sol-gel methods (10 and 20 mol % NbO2.5). A detailed characterization of the film materials show that films contain only nanoparticles with the anatase modification with pentavalent Nb oxide dissolved into the anatase structure, which is interpreted as formation of substituted Nb=O clusters in the anatase lattice. The Nb-doped films displayed a slight yellow color and an enhanced the visible light absorption with a red-shift of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for the pure TiO2 film to 411 nm for 20 mol % NbO2.5. In-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy shows that acetone adsorbs associatively with eta1-coordination to the surface cations on all films. On Nb-doped TiO2 films, the carbonyl bonding to the surface is stabilized, which is evidenced by a lowering of the nu(C=O) frequency by about 20 cm(-1) to 1672 cm(-1). Upon solar light illumination acetone is readily decomposed on TiO2, and stable surface coordinated intermediates are formed. The decomposition rate is an order of magnitude smaller on the Nb-doped films despite an enhanced visible light absorption in these materials. The quantum yield is determined to be 0.053, 0.004 and 0.002 for the pure, 10% Nb:TiO2, and 20%Nb:TiO2, respectively. Using an interplay between FTIR and DFT calculations we show that the key surface intermediates are bidentate bridged formate and carbonate, and H-bonded bicarbonate, respectively, whose concentration on the surface can be correlated with their heats of formation and bond strength to coordinatively unsaturated surface Ti and Nb atoms at the surface. The oxidation rate of these intermediates is substantially slower than the initial acetone decomposition rate, and limits the total oxidation rate at t>7 min on TiO2, while no decrease of the rate is observed on the Nb-doped films. The rate of degradation of key surface

  9. An In-Vitro Investigation of the Antibacterial Effects of the Acetone and Ethanol Extracts and the Supernatant of the Algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 on Some of the Gram-Negative Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Asadi


    Full Text Available Algae are rich sources of amino acids, terpenoids, florentines, alkanes, halogenated ketones, steroidal compounds, fatty acids, and phenols that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry. The acetone and ethanol extracts, and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1, were used in this study. After culturing the Algae, and preparing the supernatant and extracts, the antibacterial effects of the extracts and supernatant of this algae against some of the gram-negative bacterial foodborne pathogens were determined using the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. According to the study conducted, the acetone and ethanol extracts and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 showed acceptable antibacterial properties against some of the bacteria being studied, at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/ml in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. The maximum inhibition zone diameters in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods, were 36.8 and 35.4 mm, respectively, which were related to the bacterium Proteus mirabilis PTCC 1776 and were observed at a 10 mg/ml concentration of the acetone extract. By comparing the mean inhibition zone diameters among the acetone and ethanol extracts and a mixture of the two extracts using the well plate method, it can be concluded that the acetone and ethanol extracts of Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 are indifferent to each other. This analysis was also true of the agar disk diffusion method.

  10. In vitro Inhibition of Acetyl Cholinesterase, Lipoxygenase, Xanthine Oxidase and Antibacterial Activities of Five Indigofera (Fabaceae Aqueous Acetone Extracts from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Lamien


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the inhibition of oxidative stress related enzymes of aqueous acetone extracts, as well as antibacterial activity from five Indigofera species well-known medicinal plant from Burkina. Also are investigated in this study the potential contribution of tannins and of flavonol in these activities Particularly, aqueous acetone extracts were investigated for their Lipoxygenase (LOX, Xanthine Oxidase (XO and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitions that are implied in inflammation, gout and Alzheimer’s etiology diseases. Interestingly, I. macrocalyx which had the highest flavonol content (of all showed more inhibition against LOX and XO (51.16 and 77.33% respectively. Our study showed a significant correlation between XO inhibition and total flavonol content (R2 = 0.9052. AChE was low sensible to all extracts. In contrast, the extracts were rich in tannin compounds especially in I. tinctoria extract. And results of the in vitro antibacterial activities of these extracts against five bacteria showed that all bacteria were sensible to all extracts particularly S. typhimurium and B. cereus. Our results suggest that the five studied species prove to be good sources of inhibition of the three enzymes involved in oxidative stress and also to have some antibacterial properties. That is what probably explains their uses in folk medicine, singularly, in the treatment of gout, dysentery and anti-inflammatory diseases.

  11. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. (United States)

    Barsi, Alpar; Jager, Tjalling; Collinet, Marc; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie


    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information is provided regarding test design for TKTD modeling. A case study is presented for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to the narcotic compound acetone, in which the data on all endpoints were analyzed together using a relatively simple TKTD model called DEBkiss. Furthermore, the influence of the data used for calibration on accuracy and precision of model parameters is discussed. The DEBkiss model described toxic effects on survival, growth, and reproduction over time well, within a single integrated analysis. Regarding the parameter estimates (e.g., no-effect concentration), precision rather than accuracy was affected depending on which data set was used for model calibration. In addition, the present study shows that the intrinsic sensitivity of snails to acetone stays the same across different life stages, including the embryonic stage. In fact, the data on egg development allowed for selection of a unique metabolic mode of action for the toxicant. Practical and theoretical considerations for test design to accommodate TKTD modeling are discussed in the hope that this information will aid other researchers to make the best possible use of their test animals.

  12. Synthesis of defect-rich, (001) faceted-ZnO nanorod on a FTO substrate as efficient photocatalysts for dehydrogenation of isopropanol to acetone (United States)

    Tan, Sin Tee; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat


    Highly oriented ZnO nanorod was successfully synthesised on Ag nanoseed coated FTO substrate via a microwave hydrolysis approach. It was found that the morphology and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorod are strongly influenced by the power of the microwave irradiation used during the growth process. The aspect ratio of the nanorods changed from high to low with the increasing of microwave power. It was also found that the optical band gap of the ZnO nanorod red shifted with the increasing of the microwave power, reflecting an excellent tune ability of the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The photocatalytic activity of these unique nanorod was evaluated by a dehydrogenation process of isopropanol to acetone in the presence of ZnO nanorod. It was found that the ZnO nanorod exhibited an excellent catalytic performance by showing an ability to accelerate the production of 0.031 mol L-1 of acetone within only 35 min or 0.9 mmol L-1 min-1 from isopropyl alcohol dehydrogenation. It was almost no conversion from isopropyl alcohol when ZnO nanorods was absence during the reaction. In this report, a detailed mechanism of ZnO nanorod formation and the relationship between morphology and optical energy band gap are described.

  13. Direct fermentation of gelatinized cassava starch to acetone, butanol, and ethanol using Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma. (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-bin


    The mutant strain designated as ART18, obtained from the wild-type strain Clostridium acetobutylicum PW12 treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma, showed higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than that of the wild-type strain. The production of butanol was 11.3 ± 0.5 g/L, 31 % higher than that of the wild-type strain when it was used for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation in P2 medium. Furthermore, the effects of cassava flour concentration, pH regulators, and vitamins on the ABE production were also investigated. The highest butanol production of 15.8 ± 0.8 g/L and butanol yield (0.31 g/g) were achieved after the above factors were optimized. When acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by ART18 was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor, the butanol production, the productivity of butanol, and the total solvent were 16.3 ± 0.9, 0.19, and 0.28 g/L(/)h, respectively. These results indicate that ART18 is a promising industrial producer in ABE fermentation.

  14. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode. (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi


    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  15. Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of Cycloaddition Reaction between Silylene Silylene (H2Si=Si:) and Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪智娜; 时乐义; 李永庆; 卢秀慧


    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet silylene silylene (H2Si = Si:) and acetone has been investigated with the CCSD (T)//MP2/6-31 G* method, According to the potential energy profile, it can be predicted that the reaction has two competitive dominant reaction channels. The present rule of this reaction is that the [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of the two ~-bonds in silylene silylene (H2Si=Si:) and acetone leads to the formation of a four-membered ring silylene (E3). Because of the unsaturated property of Si: atom in E3, it further reacts with ace- tone to form a silicic bis-heterocyclic compound (P7). Simultaneously, the ring strain of the four-membered ring silylene (E3) makes it isomerize to a twisted four-membered ring product (P4).

  16. Validation of an analytical method for quality control of residual solvents (n-hexane and acetone) in D-002: new active ingredient from beeswax. (United States)

    Antolín, Ernesto Méndez; Quiñónez, Yaisme Balcinde; Canavaciolo, Víctor González; Cruz, Esperanza Rodríguez


    D-002 is a new natural product consisting of a mixture of aliphatic fatty alcohols, which shows antioxidant and anti-ulcer effects in experimental models. A new validated methodology for determining simultaneously residual n-hexane and acetone in D-002 using the headspace gas chromatography (HS/GC) is described. The very poor solubility of D-002 in most solvents did necessary sample preparations in solid state. Limit test conditions allowed a detection of residual n-hexane and acetone more sensitively than that recommended for such purposes in the general method of the European Pharmacopoeia. Validation assays, applied to both D-002 residual solvents, proved: suitable sensitivity; very high linearity (correlation coefficients > or =0.999, R.S.D. of slopes < or =0.8% and R.S.D. of response factors < or =5% and no biases) and accuracy (average recoveries between 94.7 and 100.1%); and precision was < or =2.1%. The method was found suitable for quality control and stability studies of this new product.

  17. 10-Formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[,9.03,11]dodecane acetone solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxiong Chen


    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H7N11O11·C3H6O, consisting of one molecule of 10-formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[,9.03,11]dodecane (pentanitromonoformylhexaazaisowurtzitane, PNMFIW and one acetone solvent molecule, is a member of the caged hexaazaisowurtzitane family. PNMFIW has a cage structure which is constructed from one six-membered and two five-membered rings which are linked by a C—C bond, thus creating two seven-membered rings. In the PNMFIW molecule, one formyl group is bonded to the N heteroatom of the six-membered cycle, and five nitro groups are appended to other five N heteroatom of the caged structure. The acetone solvent molecule is arranged beside a five-membered plane of PNMFIW with an O atom and an H atom close (with respect to the sum of the van der Waals radii to the neighbouring nitro O atom [O...O = 2.957 (3 and 2.852 (3 Å; O... H = 2.692 (2, 2.526 (3 and 2.432 (3 Å].

  18. The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of ethylene oxide, acetone and propanal toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Lykke, J M; Jørgensen, J K; van der Wiel, M H D; Garrod, R T; Müller, H S P; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Calcutt, H; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; van Dishoeck, E F; Wampfler, S F


    One of the open questions in astrochemistry is how complex organic and prebiotic molecules are formed. Aims. Our aim is to start the process of compiling an inventory of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules toward the solar-type Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS16293-2422 from an unbiased spectral survey with ALMA (PILS). Here we focus on the new detections of ethylene oxide (c-C$_2$H$_4$O), acetone (CH$_3$COCH$_3$), and propanal (C$_2$H$_5$CHO). Methods. With ALMA, we surveyed the spectral range from 329 to 363 GHz at 0.5$"$ (60 AU diameter) resolution. Using a simple model for the molecular emission in LTE, the excitation temperatures and column densities of each species were constrained. Results. We successfully detect propanal (44 lines), ethylene oxide (20 lines) and acetone (186 lines) toward one component of the protostellar binary, IRAS16293B. The high resolution maps demonstrate that the emission for all investigated species originates from the compact central region close to the protostar. This, ...

  19. Structural and micro structural studies of PbO-doped SnO2 sensor for detection of methanol,propanol and acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.K.Srivastava; Preeti Pandey; V.N.Mishra; R.Dwivedi


    In the present work the structural information of PbO-doped SnO2 thick film sensor has been investigated with X-ray diffractometer(XRD)and scanning electron microscope(SEM).Initially,SnO2 powder was derived using sol-gel process and was subsequently doped with PbO and ground up to nanosized particles.A suitable gas sensor structure was fabricated on 1"× 1"alumina substrate using thick film technology.The necessary paste for screen printing was also developed.SEM results showed sol-gel derived powder gets more agglomerated in the thick film form.The sensitivity of the sensor has been investigated at different temperatures(150℃-350℃)upon exposure to methanol,propanol and acetone,yielding a maximum at 250℃ for acetone with 1 wt% PbO-doping while at 350℃ for propanol with 3 wt% PbO-doping of the sensor.The reduction of particle size to nanometers(validated through XRD)leads to a dramatic improvement in sensitivity of sensors for the chosen organic vapors.The results also correlate well with the microstructural properties of the material and the dopant.

  20. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the differential elastic scattering cross sections for acetone by electron impact energy of 7.0-50 eV (United States)

    Pastega, D. F.; Lange, E.; Ameixa, J.; Barbosa, A. S.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.


    We report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interactions with acetone, C3H6O . The incident electron energy range was 7.0-50 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varied from 10° to 120°. The calculated cross sections were obtained with two different methodologies, the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP), and the independent-atom method with screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculations above 20 eV, and also with the SMC calculations below 30 eV. Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. Comparison with previous DCSs shows good agreement albeit the present data is extended down to lower electron impact energies. We find a low-lying π* shape resonance located at 2.6 eV, in agreement with recent results on electron collisions with acetone [M. G. P. Homem et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 032711 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.032711]. The presence of a σ* resonance is also discussed.

  1. The Torsional Fundamental Band and Rotational Spectra up to 940 GHz of the Ground, First and Second Excited Torsional States of Acetone (United States)

    Ilyushin, V.; Armieieva, Iuliia; Dorovskaya, Olga; Alekseev, E. A.; Tudorie, Marcela; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Pirali, Olivier; Drouin, Brian


    A new global study of the acetone (CH_3)_2CO spectrum is reported. The new microwave measurements covering the frequency range from 34 GHz to 940 GHz have been carried out using spectrometers in IRA NASU (Ukraine) and PhLAM Lille (France). The far infrared spectrum of acetone has been recorded on the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer coupled to a long path cell. The transitions belonging to the three lowest torsional states as well as to the observed fundamental band associated with the methyl-top torsion mode (νb{17} = 1) have been analyzed using recently developed model for the molecules with two equivalent methyl rotors and C2v symmetry at equilibrium (PAM_C2v_2tops program). The dataset consisting of more than 26100 microwave and 1100 FIR line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 89 was fit using a model consisting of 119 parameters and weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.89 has been achieved. In the talk the details of this new study will be discussed. V. Ilyushin, J.T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 289 (2013) 41-49.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Acetone in An Unusual Death%非正常死亡案件中丙酮含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娟; 赵培铎; 张广华


    ObjectiveTo solve an unusual death case and develop a method for determining concentration of acetone in blood or urine samples from the dead body by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), which is quite helpful under certain circumstance when autopsy can’t be performed because of social customs, religious belief or other reasons.MethodsA 67-year-old man, who had diabetes, was found dead in a hotel room and his family didn’t agree to perform an autopsy. In order to determine the cause of death, the blood and urine samples were sent to laboratory for poison and drugs analysis, but no common poison was found. Based on the excellent volatility, acetone in blood or urine samples was analyzed by a head-space gas chromatography system with hydrogen ifre ionization detector (HS-GC/FID). Qualitative analysis result was obtained according to retention time, and quantitative analysis was performed by internal standard (tert-butyl alcohol) method. The average peak area derived from three replicate injections of each sample was used for the calculation of acetone concentration in blood or urine.ResultsConcentration of acetone in blood and urine was 6.89 mg/100mL and 57.1 mg/100mL respectively, both were much higher than the normal value.ConclusionsDetermination of acetone in blood or urine by HS-GC/FID provides a useful evidence for determining the manner of death, which is especially effective when short of pathology data. In such casework, thorough information about the dead should be taken into consideration to ensure the scientiifc deduction.%目的:利用顶空气相色谱分离分析方法,在无法实施尸体解剖时,通过测定血液或尿液中丙酮的含量为某些非正常死亡案件提供死因判定的依据。方法利用丙酮易挥发性,用顶空气相色谱/氢火焰离子化检测器(HS-GC/FID)进行分离检测;通过与平行操作的对照品比较,以保留时间为依据进行定性分析;以峰面积为依据,采用内标

  3. Effect of Magnetic Field on the Extraction Process of Acetone-Water-Trichloroethane System%磁场对丙酮-水-三氯乙烷物系萃取过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永利; 刘勇; 吴松海; 贾绍义


    In order to investigate the effect of magnetic field on the liquid-liquid extraction, the extraction in the acetone-water-trichloroethane system was studied under magnetic field with different magnetic induction intensity.The results showed that the effect of magnetic field was positive in the extraction process, and the partition coefficient and the yield of acetone increased with the increasing magnetic induction intensity by 5.16%-8.35% and 1.85%-5.70% respectively. The effect of magnetic field on the extraction was intensified when the temperature became higher. The experimental data of the partition coefficient of acetone were correlated by the method of least square in terms of a power-law correlation.

  4. The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of ethylene oxide, acetone and propanal toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 (United States)

    Lykke, J. M.; Coutens, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Calcutt, H.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wampfler, S. F.


    Context. One of the open questions in astrochemistry is how complex organic and prebiotic molecules are formed. The unsurpassed sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) takes the quest for discovering molecules in the warm and dense gas surrounding young stars to the next level. Aims: Our aim is to start the process of compiling an inventory of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules toward the solar-type Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 from an unbiased spectral survey with ALMA, Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). Here we focus on the new detections of ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O), acetone (CH3COCH3), and propanal (C2H5CHO). Methods: With ALMA, we surveyed the spectral range from 329 to 363 GHz at 0.5″ (60 AU diameter) resolution. Using a simple model for the molecular emission in local thermodynamical equilibrium, the excitation temperatures and column densities of each species were constrained. Results: We successfully detect propanal (44 lines), ethylene oxide (20 lines) and acetone (186 lines) toward one component of the protostellar binary, IRAS 16293B. The high resolution maps demonstrate that the emission for all investigated species originates from the compact central region close to the protostar. This, along with a derived common excitation temperature of Tex ≈ 125 K, is consistent with a coexistence of these molecules in the same gas. Conclusions: The observations mark the first detections of acetone, propanal and ethylene oxide toward a low-mass protostar. The relative abundance ratios of the two sets of isomers, a CH3COCH3/C2H5CHO ratio of 8 and a CH3CHO/c-C2H4O ratio of 12, are comparable to previous observations toward high-mass protostars. The majority of observed abundance ratios from these results as well as those measured toward high-mass protostars are up to an order of magnitude above the predictions from chemical models. This may reflect either missing reactions or uncertain rates in the

  5. 丙酮肟甲醚饱和蒸气压测定及关联%Vapor Pressure Measurement and Correlation of Acetone Oxime Methyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶长燊; 董佳; 李玲


      采用动态法,利用Rose釜测定了丙酮肟甲醚在307.75~344.05 K的饱和蒸气压,并应用Antoine方程进行关联,获得Antoine常数A、B、C分别为20.64,2338.72和−88.86,Antoine方程计算值与饱和蒸气压实验测定值之间的平均相对误差为0.45%.在此基础上,通过Clausius-Clapeyron方程计算得到丙酮肟甲醚在307.75~344.05 K温度范围内的平均摩尔蒸发热为36479.24 kJ⋅kmol−1.所得饱和蒸气压方程对丙酮肟甲醚精馏分离过程的设计与操作具有重要意义.%Saturated vapor pressures of acetone oxime methyl ether(AOME) were measured in the temperature range of 307.75~344.05 K by dynamic method in a Rose still. The measured saturated vapor pressures and temperatures were correlated by Antoine equation and the constants of equation were determinated as A=20.64, B = 2338.72, and C = −88.86 by nonlinear regression method. The averaged relative error between saturated vapor pressures calculated from the Antoine equation and the experimental data is 0.45%. Based on the experimental data of vapor pressures, the latent heat of vaporization of acetone oxime methyl ether was also obtained by Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its value is 36479.24 kJ⋅kmol−1 in the temperature range of 307.75~344.05 K. It is very important to provide the Antoine constants and latent heat of acetone oxime methyl ether for the design and operation of its distillation separation process.

  6. A novel in situ gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for hyper n-butanol production. (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian


    Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the second-stage using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Compared to batch fermentation without butanol recovery, more ABE (27.5 g/L acetone, 75.5 g/L butanol, 7.0 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced in the fed-batch fermentation, with a higher butanol productivity (0.34 g/L · h vs. 0.30 g/L · h) due to reduced butanol inhibition by butanol recovery. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 155.6 g/L butanol (199.9 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 610.8 g/L butanol (656.1 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 85.6 g/L butanol (129.7 g/L ABE). Fed with the aqueous phase of the condensate from first-stage gas stripping, the second-stage pervaporation using the CNTs-PDMS MMM produced a condensate containing 441.7 g/L butanol (593.2 g/L ABE), which after mixing with the organic phase from gas stripping gave a highly concentrated product containing 521.3 g/L butanol (622.9 g/L ABE). The outstanding performance of CNTs-PDMS MMM can be attributed to the hydrophobic CNTs giving an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface of CNTs. This gas stripping-pervaporation process with less contaminated risk is thus effective in increasing butanol production and reducing energy consumption.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous detection of malonaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde to monitor the oxidative stress in heart. (United States)

    Cordis, G A; Bagchi, D; Maulik, N; Das, D K


    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with the production of lipid hydroperoxides, cyclic peroxides, cyclic endoperoxides, and finally fragmentation to ketones and aldehydes (including malonaldehyde, MDA). Estimation of LPO through MDA formation measured by assaying thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive products remains the method of choice to study the development of oxidative stress in tissues. However, MDA estimation by TBA reactive products is non-specific and often gives erroneous results. In this report we describe a method using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation to estimate MDA, formaldehyde (FDA), acetaldehyde (ADA), acetone, and propionaldehyde (PDA), the degradation products of oxygen-derived free radicals (ODFR) and PUFA, as presumptive markers for LPO. Oxidative stress was induced in the tissue by perfusing an isolated rat heart with hydroxyl radical generating system (xanthine + xanthine oxidase + FeCl3 + EDTA). The coronary effluents were collected, derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and extracted with pentane. Aliquots of 25 microliters in acetonitrile were injected onto a Beckman Ultrasphere C18 (3 microns) column. The products were eluted isocratically with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (40:60:0.1, v/v/v), measured at three different wavelengths (307, 325 and 356 nm) using a Waters M-490 multichannel UV detector and collected for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The peaks were identified by cochromatography with DNPH derivatives of authentic standards, peak addition, UV pattern of absorption at the three wavelengths, and by GC-MS. The retention items of MDA, FDA, ADA, acetone, and PDA were 5.3, 6.6, 10.3, 16.5, and 20.5 min, respectively. The results of our study indicated progressive increase of all five lipid metabolites as a function of the duration of ODFR perfusion. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, superoxide

  8. Dependence of the enthalpies of alanyl-alanine dissolution on the composition of mixed water + acetone and water + DMSO solvents at 298.15 K (United States)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.


    The enthalpies of dissolution of two dipeptides, DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine and β-alanyl-β-alanine, in mixed solvents H2O + acetone (AC) and H2O + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are measured via calorimetry at an organic component concentration of x 2 = 0-0.25 mole fraction at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H po) and the transfer (Δtr H po) of dipeptides from water to the mixed solvent and the enthalpic coefficients of pairwise interactions ( h xy ) with AC and DMSO molecules are calculated from these data. The effect the composition of aqueous organic mixtures has on the enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine and β-alanyl-β-alanine is considered. A comparative analysis of h xy values is performed for alanine dipeptides in the investigated mixed solvents.

  9. Efficient carbon dioxide utilization and simultaneous hydrogen enrichment from off-gas of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by succinic acid producing Escherichia coli. (United States)

    He, Aiyong; Kong, Xiangping; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Ouyang, Pingkai


    The off-gas from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was firstly used to be CO2 source (co-substrate) for succinic acid production. The optimum ratio of H2/CO2 indicated higher CO2 partial pressures with presence of H2 could enhance C4 pathway flux and reductive product productivity. Moreover, when an inner recycling bioreactor was used for CO2 recycling at a high total pressure (0.2Mpa), a maximum succinic acid concentration of 65.7g·L(-1) was obtained, and a productivity of 0.76g·L(-1)·h(-1) and a high yield of 0.86g·g(-1) glucose were achieved. Furthermore, the hydrogen content was simultaneously enriched to 92.7%. These results showed one successful attempt to reuse the off-gas of ABE fermentation which can be an attractive CO2 source for succinic acid production.

  10. Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis

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    Benjamas Cheirsilp


    Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

  11. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu


    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  12. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units. (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond


    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  13. DFT Study on the Origin of the Enantioselectivity of (S)-4-HydroxyIproline-Catalyzed Direct Aldol Reaction between Acetone and 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN,Jian-Fen; WU,Li-Fen; SUN,Yun-Peng


    DFT-B3LYP calculations were carried out to study the enantioselectivity of the(S)-4-hydroxylproline-catalyzed direct aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde.Four transition structures associated with the stereo-controlling step of the reaction have been determined.They are corresponding to the anti and syn arrangements of the methylene moiety related to the carboxylic acid group in enamine intermediate and the si and re attacks to the aldehyde carbonyl carbon.The effect of DMSO solvent on the stereo-controlling step was investigated with polarized continuum model(PCM).The computed energies of the transition states reveal the moderate enantioselectivity of the reaction.

  14. Investigation of the Crystallization Kinetics of Zn(Met)(AcO)2·H2O in Mixed Solution of Water and Acetone by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN,Yi-Xia(任宜霞); GAO,Sheng-Li(高胜利); CHEN,San-Ping(陈三平); JIAO,Bao-Juan(焦宝娟); HU,Rong-Zu(胡荣祖); SHI,Qi-Zhen(史启祯)


    The crystal growth process of Zn(Met)(AcO)2·H2O from the mixed solution of water and acetone has been investigated using a Calvet microcalorimeter. The heat produced and the rate of heat production during the crystal growth process at 298.15, 301.15, 304.15, 307.15 and 310.15 K have been measured. On the basis of experimental and calculated results, the thermodynamics parameters (the apparent activation enthalpy, the activation entropy, and the activation free energy), the rate constant and the kinetic parameters (the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor) during the crystal growth process have been obtained. The results show that the crystal growth proceeds in accordance with the Burton-Cabrera-Frank dislocation theory.

  15. Determination of Ascorbic Acid Using a New Oscillating Chemical System of Lactic Acid-Acetone-BrO3--Mn2+-H2SO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Shu-Tao(杨树涛); LIN,Zhi-Xin(林智信); CAI,Ru-Xiu(蔡汝秀); GAN,Nan-Qin(甘南琴)


    Analyte pulse perturbation ( APP ) technique was applied to the study of the perturbation of ascorbic acid (AA) on the lactic acid-acetone-BrO3--Mn2+-H2SO4 oscllating reaction, and AA was determined using this new oscillating chemical system. Influence of experimental variables was investigated. The linear range lies between 5.0 × 10-7-5.5 × 10-5 mol/L, and the precision and throughput were quite good (2.43% as RSD,and 8-10 samples/h, respectively). This method was applied to the determination of real samples and the results were satisfactory. Some aspects of the potential mechanism of action of AA on the oscillating systems are discussed.

  16. Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmoїdes L. (United States)

    Jallali, Ines; Zaouali, Yosr; Missaoui, Ibtissem; Smeoui, Abderrazek; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh


    This work aimed to assess the richness of the food halophytes Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmoїdes on phenolics and essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of these metabolites. Results displayed that extract of I. crithmoїdes possesses considerable contents of phenolic compounds (14.1mg GAE.g⁻¹ DW) related to important antioxidant activities (IC₅₀ = 13 μg ml⁻¹ for the DPPH test) as compared to C. maritimum. C. maritimum EOs composition is dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, while I. crithmoїdes one is mainly consisted by monoterpene hydrocarbons. EOs have low antioxidant activity as compared to acetone extracts; nevertheless, they show best antimicrobial activity. A significant variability is also depicted between the provenances of each species and depended on the chemical nature of antioxidant and antibacterial molecules as well as the used tests.

  17. Poly[[μ-aqua-aqua-[μ(4)-ethyl (dichloro-methyl-ene)diphospho-nato]sesqui-calcium(II)] acetone hemisolvate 4.5-hydrate]. (United States)

    Jokiniemi, Jonna; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Ahlgrén, Markku


    The title compound, {[Ca(1.5)(C(3)H(5)Cl(2)O(6)P(2))(H(2)O)(2)]·0.5CH(3)COCH(3)·4.5H(2)O}(n), has a two-dimensional polymeric structure. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent Ca(2+) cations connected by a chelating and bridging ethyl (dichloro-methyl-ene)diphos-pho-n-ate(3(-)) ligand and an aqua ligand. One of the Ca atoms, lying on a centre of symmetry, has a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry, while the other Ca atom is seven-coordinated in a distorted monocapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The polymeric layers are further connected by extensive O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. The acetone solvent mol-ecule and one uncoordin-ated water mol-ecule are located on twofold rotation axes.

  18. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae, medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Kiessoun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  19. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples. (United States)

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin


    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous.

  20. Separación de la Mezcla Azeotrópica Acetona-Metanol con Cloruro de Litio Separation of an Azeotropic Acetone - Methanol Mixture Using Lithium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anguebes-Franseschi


    Full Text Available Se ha determinado el efecto que tiene el cloruro de litio usado como agente extractivo para separar la mezcla azeotrópica acetona-metanol. La metodología establece la preparación de dos mezclas con diferentes concentraciones másicas de acetona-metanol, por debajo del punto azeotrópico: 85-15% y 75- 25%. En cada destilación realizada, se dosificó cloruro de litio a diferentes concentraciones para determinar el efecto de éste sobre la concentración de las mezclas y el punto azeotrópico. Los resultados determinan que a una concentración de 2.3 moles de cloruro de litio por kilogramo de solución, se obtiene el mayor efecto sobre el punto azeotrópico, considerando la manipulación del reflujo y la concentración de la sal. Se concluyó que es posible separar esta mezcla azeotrópica usando cloruro de litio como agente extractivoThe effect of lithium chloride when used as an extractive agent for separating the azeotropic mixture composed of acetone and methanol, was determined. The methodology included the preparation of two mixtures with different acetone-methanol mass concentrations, below the azeotropic point: 85-15% and 75-25%. For each distillation carried out, lithium chloride was added in different measured dosages to determine its effect on the composition of the mixtures and the azeotropic point. The results suggested that a concentration of 2.3 moles of lithium chloride per kg of solution produced the greatest effect on the azeotropic point, considering the reflux manipulation and salt concentration. It was concluded that it is possible to separate this azeotropic mixture using lithium chloride as an extractive agent

  1. An in vitro study to evaluate the effect of two ethanol-based and two acetone-based dental bonding agents on the bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide

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    Deepa Basavaraj Benni


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Carbamide peroxide bleaching has been implicated in adversely affecting the bond strength of composite to enamel. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 bond, Kuraray, Adper Single bond 2, 3M ESPE dental products and acetone-based (Prime and Bond NT, Dentsply, One Step, Bisco bonding agents on the shear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 extracted human noncarious permanent incisors were randomly divided into two groups (control and experimental. Experimental group specimens were subjected to a bleaching regimen with a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching system (Opalescence; Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, USA. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to the specimens using four bonding agents and shear bond strength was determined with universal testing machine. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength between control and experimental groups with both ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 Bond and Adper Single Bond 2 and acetone-based bonding agent (Prime and Bond NT and One Step. Interpretation and Conclusion: The adverse effect of bleaching on bonding composite to enamel can be reduced or eliminated by using either ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent. Clinical Significances: Immediate bonding following bleaching procedure can be done using ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent without compromising bond strength.

  2. 丙酮法提取菜籽饼多酚及体外抗氧化性研究%Polyphenols of Repeseed Meal by Acetone Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤务霞; 田景元; 汤超


    以菜籽饼为原料,探讨了采用丙酮法提取菜籽饼多酚的工艺及丙酮多酚提取液的体外抗氧化性。以多酚得率为考察指标,选择丙酮体积分数、提取温度、料液比及提取时间进行单因素及正交试验,确定了丙酮法提取菜籽饼多酚的最优工艺条件:提取温度70℃,料液比1∶12,提取时间30 min,丙酮体积分数35%,在此条件下菜籽饼多酚得率为20.64 mg/g。以鞣酸、维生素C为对照,通过测定丙酮多酚提取液的还原能力及对DPPH.的清除能力,结果表明,丙酮多酚提取液具有一定的体外抗氧化能力。%Using rapeseed meal as material,technology of extracting polyphenols with acetone and antioxidant activity of polyphenols extract of acetone in vitro were discussed.According to the yield of polyphenols,optimal extraction conditions of polyphenols of rapeseed meal by acetone were determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment to select the volume fraction of acetone,extraction temperature,extraction time,liquid-solid rate.The result demonstrated the yield of polyphenol reached 20.64 mg/g on the optimal extraction conditions that the extraction temperature was 70 ℃,the solid-liquid rate was 1∶12,the extracting time was 30 min and the volume fraction of acetone was 35%.With tannic acid and vitamin C as the control,measure the reduction ability and scavenging capacity of DPPH· of polyphenol extract of acetone.The results showed that polyphenol extract of acetone had certain antioxidant activity in vitro.

  3. 丙酮一步法合成甲基异丁基酮的工业化生产及技术分析%Commercial production and technical analysis of melthyl isobutyl ketone by acetone one -step hydrogenation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双九; 包宗宏


    泰州东联化工有限公司15 kt/a甲基异丁基酮(MIBK)装置采用的是从韩国引进的丙酮一步法生产技术.反应单元使用三相列管式反应器,反应压力为3.0 MPa,反应温度为90 ~110℃,反应器轴向温差为5~10℃.精馏系统采用7塔工艺流程,由丙酮精馏单元、MIBK精制单元、丙酮回收及二异丁基酮纯化3部分组成.3年多运行结果表明,装置的丙酮单耗[m(丙酮)/m(MIBK)]为1.30~1.35 t/t,产品质量全部达到优级品标准.%The methyl isobutyl ketone ( MIBK ) was produced in a 15 kt/a unit of Taizhou United East Petrochemical Co Ltd by the acetone one - step hydrogenation technology introduced from South Korea. The reaction system was a three - phase tube reactor with pressure 3. 0 Mpa, temperature 90 -110℃ and axial temperature difference 5 - 10 ℃. The rectification system consisted of 7 columns, such as acetone rectifying unit, MIBK refining unit, ace-tone recovery and diisobutyl ketone purification unit. The operation results in three years showed that the acetone unit consumption [ m ( acetone) /m ( MIBK )] was 1. 30 - 1. 35 t/t, and the product quality all met the needs of superior grade product standard.

  4. 新型镀锌光亮剂糠叉丙酮合成的研究%Study of the Synthetic Method of a New Type Zinc Plating Brightener Furfural Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭安顺; 张永顺; 付广云


    With furfuraldehyde and acetone as raw materials,furfural acetone was synthesized in the presence of Ando's catalyst.Primary influencing factors of the reaction were investigated.The optimum production conditions were as follows.n(Acetone)∶n(furfuraldehyde)=3.0∶1.0,m(catalyst)∶m(raw materials)=4.1∶100.0,reaction temperature was 40 ℃,and reaction time was 4.0 h.Under the optimum conditions,yield of furfural acetone could reach 87.8%.The structure of furfural acetone was proved by elementary analysis and IR spectrum data.It was used as zinc plating brightener in acidic sodium chloride or potassium chloride based zinc plating solution to obtain bright and fine zinc deposit.%以丙酮和糠醛为原料,在Ando催化剂存在下合成了糠叉丙酮。对影响反应的因素作了考察,确定出反应的最佳工艺条件为:n(丙酮)∶n(糠醛)=3.0∶1.0,m(催化剂)∶m(反应物)=4.1∶100.0,反应温度40 ℃,反应时间4.0 h,收率可达87.8%。产物用元素分析和红外光谱进行了确证。并将其用于酸性氯化钾和氯化钠镀锌液中均获得光亮、细致的镀锌层。

  5. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of ginseng powders using acetonitrile- or acetone-based extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). (United States)

    Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Tech, Katherine; Hayward, Douglas G; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Cassias, Irene; Schenck, Frank J; Banerjee, Kaushik; Dasgupta, Soma; Brown, Don


    A multiresidue method for the analysis of 168 pesticides in dried powdered ginseng has been developed using acetonitrile or acetone mixture (acetone/cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, 2:1:1 v/v/v) extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup with octyl-bonded silica (C(8)), graphitized carbon black/primary-secondary amine (GCB/PSA) sorbents and toluene, and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The geometric mean limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 53 and 6 microg/kg for the acetonitrile extraction and 48 and 7 microg/kg for the acetone-based extraction for GC-MS/SIM and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Mean percent recoveries and standard deviations from the ginseng fortified at 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg using GC-MS/SIM were 87 +/- 10, 88 +/- 8, and 86 +/- 10% from acetonitrile extracts and 88 +/- 13, 88 +/- 12, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone mixture extracts, respectively. The mean percent recoveries from the ginseng at the 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg levels using GC-MS/MS were 83 +/- 19, 90 +/- 13, and 89 +/- 11% from acetonitrile extracts and 98 +/- 20, 91 +/- 13, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone extracts, respectively. Twelve dried ginseng products were found to contain one or more of the following pesticides and their metabolites: BHCs (benzene hexachlorides, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane), dacthal, diazinon, iprodione, quintozene, and procymidone ranging from 4000 microg/kg. No significant differences were found between the two extraction solvents, and GC-MS/MS was found to be more specific and sensitive than GC-MS/SIM. The procedures described were shown to be effective in screening, identifying, confirming, and quantitating pesticides in commercial ginseng products.

  6. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans (United States)


    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  7. Biological activity of palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of the acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate and the X-ray crystal structure of the [Pd(asme)2] (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) complex. (United States)

    Akbar Ali, Mohammad; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Butcher, Raymond J; Tarafder, M T H; Keat, Tan Boon; Ali, A Manaf


    Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of general empirical formula, [M(NS)(2)] (NS=uninegatively charged acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate; M=Pt(II) and Pd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Based on conductance, IR and electronic spectral evidence, a square-planar structure is assigned to these complexes. The crystal and molecular structure of the [Pd(asme)(2)] complex (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The complex has a distorted cis-square planar structure with the ligands coordinated to the palladium(II) ions as uninegatively charged bidentate NS chelating agents via the azomethine nitrogen and the mercaptide sulfur atoms. The distortion from a regular square-planar geometry is attributed to the restricted bite angles of the ligands. Antimicrobial tests indicate that the Schiff bases exhibit strong activities against the pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (mutant defective DNA repair), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis (wild type) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi, Candida albicans (CA), Candida lypotica (2075), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20341) and Aspergillus ochraceous (398)-the activities exhibited by these compounds being greater than that of the standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs, streptomycin and nystatin, respectively. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes are inactive against most of these organisms but, the microbe, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows strong sensitivity to the platinum(II) complexes. Screening of the compounds for their cytotoxicities against T-lymphoblastic leukemia cancer cells has shown that the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate (Hasme) exhibits a very weak activity, whereas the S-benzyl derivative (Hasbz) is inactive. However, the palladium(II) complexes exhibit strong cytotoxicities against this cancer; their

  8. Acetone gas sensor based on NiO/ZnO hollow spheres: Fast response and recovery, and low (ppb) detection limit. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhao, Liupeng; Wang, Boqun; Sun, Peng; Wang, Qingji; Gao, Yuan; Liang, Xishuang; Zhang, Tong; Lu, Geyu


    NiO/ZnO composites were synthesized by decorating numerous NiO nanoparticles on the surfaces of well dispersed ZnO hollow spheres using a facile solvothermal method. Various kinds of characterization methods were utilized to investigate the structures and morphologies of the hybrid materials. The results revealed that the NiO nanoparticles with a size of ∼10nm were successfully distributed on the surfaces of ZnO hollow spheres in a discrete manner. As expected, the NiO/ZnO composites demonstrated dramatic improvements in sensing performances compared with pure ZnO hollow spheres. For example, the response of NiO/ZnO composites to 100ppm acetone was ∼29.8, which was nearly 4.6 times higher than that of primary ZnO at 275°C, and the response/recovery time were 1/20s, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit could extend down to ppb level. The likely reason for the improved gas sensing properties was also proposed.

  9. Determination of hidden hazelnut oil proteins in extra virgin olive oil by cold acetone precipitation followed by in-solution tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio


    Adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HO) is an illegal practice that could have severe health consequences for consumers due to the possible exposure to hidden hazelnut allergens. Here, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used as a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of a low concentration of hazelnut proteins in oil samples. Different protocols were tested for protein extraction, and the most efficient (cold acetone) was applied to HO and EVOO adulterated with HO. The subsequent in-solution tryptic digestion of protein extracts and MALDI-MS analysis, using α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix, allowed the detection of stable hazelnut peptide markers (i.e., the m/z ions 1002.52, 1356.71, 1394.70, 1440.81, 1453.85, 1555.76, 1629.83, 1363.73, and 1528.67) attributable to the main hazelnut proteins Cor a 9, Cor a 11, and Cor a 1. Thus, the approach might allow the direct detection of specific hazelnut allergens in EVOO at low concentration without time-consuming pretreatments.

  10. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography. (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong


    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  11. Puffing and micro-explosion behavior in combustion of butanol/Jet A-1 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 fuel droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, D Chaitanya Kumar; Som, S K


    The present investigation deals with the puffing and micro-explosion characteristics in the combustion of a single droplet comprising butanol/Jet A-1, acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 blends, and A-B-E. The onset of nucleation, growth of vapor bubble and subsequent breakup of droplet for various fuel blends have been analyzed from the high-speed images. Puffing was observed to be the dominant phenomenon in 30% butanol blend, while micro-explosion was found to be the dominant one in other fuel blends (blend with 50% butanol or 30% A-B-E or 50% A-B-E). It was observed that puffing always preceded the micro-explosion. The probability of micro-explosion in droplets with A-B-E blends was found to be higher than that of butanol blends. Although the rate of bubble growth was almost similar for all butanol and A-B-E blends, the final bubble diameter before the droplet breakup was found to be higher for 50/50 blends than that of 30/70 blends. The occurrence of micro-explosion shortened the droplet lifetime, and...

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 and in situ recovery by PDMS/ceramic composite membrane. (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Gong-Ping; Jiang, Min; Guo, Ting; Jin, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Da-Wei


    PDMS/ceramic composite membrane was directly integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 at 37 °C and in situ removing ABE from fermentation broth. The membrane was integrated with batch fermentation, and approximately 46 % solvent was extracted. The solvent in permeates was 118 g/L, and solvent productivity was 0.303 g/(L/h), which was approximately 33 % higher compared with the batch fermentation without in situ recovery. The fed-batch fermentation with in situ recovery by pervaporation continued for more than 200 h, 61 % solvent was extracted, and the solvent in penetration was 96.2 g/L. The total flux ranged from 0.338 to 0.847 kg/(m(2)/h) and the separation factor of butanol ranged from 5.1 to 27.1 in this process. The membrane was fouled by the active fermentation broth, nevertheless the separation performances were partially recovered by offline membrane cleaning, and the solvent productivity was increased to 0.252 g/(L/h), which was 19 % higher compared with that in situ recovery process without membrane cleaning.

  13. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol). (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng


    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  14. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production. (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari


    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  15. Enhanced sugar production from pretreated barley straw by additive xylanase and surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Junhua; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Soininen, Pasi; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari


    This study aims to improve enzymatic sugar production from dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated barley straw for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The effects of additive xylanase and surfactants (polyethylene glycol [PEG] and Tween) in an enzymatic reaction system on straw hydrolysis yields were investigated. By combined application of 2g/100g dry-matter (DM) xylanase and PEG 4000, the glucose yield was increased from 53.2% to 86.9% and the xylose yield was increased from 36.2% to 70.2%, which were considerably higher than results obtained with xylanase or surfactant alone. The ABE fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate produced 10.8 g/L ABE, in which 7.9 g/L was butanol. The enhanced sugar production increased the ABE yield from 93.8 to 135.0 g/kg pretreated straw. The combined application of xylanase and surfactants has a large potential to improve sugar production from barley straw pretreated with a mild acid and that the hydrolysate showed good fermentability in ABE production.

  16. Production of butanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 from palm kernel cake in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using an empirical model. (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Anuar, Nurina; Rahman, Norliza Abd; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid


    Palm kernel cake (PKC) was used for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PKC was subjected to acid hydrolysis pretreatment and hydrolysates released were detoxified by XAD-4 resin. The effect of pH, temperature and inoculum size on butanol production was evaluated using an empirical model. Twenty ABE fermentations were run according to an experimental design. Experimental results revealed that XAD-4 resin removed 50% furfural and 77.42% hydroxymethyl furfural. The analysis of the empirical model showed that linear effect of inoculums size with quadratic effect of pH and inoculum size influenced butanol production at 99% probability level (Pproduction were pH 6.28, temperature of 28°C and inoculum size of 15.9%. ABE fermentation was carried out under optimum conditions which 0.1g/L butanol was obtained. Butanol production was enhanced by diluting PKC hydrolysate up to 70% in which 3.59g/L butanol was produced.

  17. Improvement in the bioreactor specific productivity by coupling continuous reactor with repeated fed-batch reactor for acetone-butanol-ethanol production. (United States)

    Setlhaku, Mpho; Brunberg, Sina; Villa, Eva Del Amor; Wichmann, Rolf


    In comparison to the different fermentation modes for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) researched to date, the continuous fermentation is the most economically favored. Continuous fermentation with two or more reactor cascade is reported to be the most efficient as it results in a more stable solvent production process. In this work, it is shown that a continuous (first-stage) reactor coupled to a repeated fed-batch (second stage) is superior to batch and fed-batch fermentations, including two-stage continuous fermentation. This is due to the efficient catalyst use, reported through the specific product rate and rapid glucose consumption rate. High solvents are produced at 19.4 g(ABE) l⁻¹, with volumetric productivities of 0.92 g(butanol) l⁻¹ h⁻¹ and 1.47 g(ABE) l ⁻¹ h⁻¹. The bioreactor specific productivities of 0.62 and 0.39 g g⁻¹(cdw) h⁻¹ obtained show a high catalyst activity. This new process mode has not been reported before in the development of ABE fermentation and it shows great potential and superiority to the existing fermentation methods.

  18. Saccharification of polysaccharide content of palm kernel cake using enzymatic catalysis for production of biobutanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Rahman, Norliza A; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid


    In this work, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose content of palm kernel cake (PKC) by different types of hydrolytic enzymes was studied to evaluate monomeric sugars released for production of biobutanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Experimental results revealed that when PKC was hydrolyzed by mixed β-glucosidase, cellulase and mannanase, a total simple sugars of 87.81±4.78 g/L were produced, which resulted in 3.75±0.18 g/L butanol and 6.44±0.43 g/L ABE at 168 h fermentation. In order to increase saccharolytic efficiency of enzymatic treatment, PKC was pretreated by liquid hot water before performing enzymatic hydrolysis. Test results showed that total reducing sugars were enhanced to 97.81±1.29 g/L with elevated production of butanol and ABE up to 4.15±1.18 and 7.12±2.06 g/L, respectively which represented an A:B:E ratio of 7:11:1.

  19. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  20. Crystal structures of the water and acetone monosolvates of bis-[4'-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-manganese(II) bis-(hexa-fluorido-phosphate). (United States)

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Fernandes, José A


    The crystal structures of bis-[4'-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-man-gan-ese(II) bis-(hexa-fluorido-phosphate) monohydrate, [Mn(C20H14N4)2](PF6)2·H2O, (1), and bis-[4'-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-manganese(II) bis(hexa-fluorido-phosphate) acetone monosolvate, (2), [Mn(C20H14N4)2](PF6)2·CH3COCH3, are described. At 150 K, (1) and (2) have monoclinic (P21/c) and ortho-rhom-bic (C2221) symmetries, respectively. Both structures exhibit octahedrally coordinated Mn(II) atoms and disorder. They display weak inter-actions, such as C-H⋯F, C-H⋯N, C-H⋯π, F⋯π and π-π. The twofold rotation axis in the molecule of (2) is coincident with a twofold rotation axis of the crystal.

  1. Study on nonlinear kinetic and thermodynamics of oscillating reaction of amino Acid-BrO{3/-}-Mn2+-H2SO4-acetone system (United States)

    Li, Zongxiao; Yuan, Chunlan


    With the help of the kinetic parameters (the rate constant ( k in k p) and the apparent activation energy ( E in E p) of the oscillatory induction period and oscillation period) of the oscillating reaction using thirteen amino acids, leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), arginine (Arg), lysine (Lys), histidine (His), alanine (Ala), glutamine (Glu), glycine (Gly), methionine (Met), cystine (Cys), tryptophan (Trp), serine (Ser) and tyrosine (Tyr), as organic substrates in amino acid-BrO{3/-}-Mn2+-H2SO4-acetone system, then based on the Oregonator model and the thermodynamics theory on irreversible process, the thermodynamic function (Δ H in, Δ G in, Δ S in and Δ H p, Δ G p, Δ S p) of these oscillating system are studied. The results indicate the entropy Δ S of these oscillating reaction are negative, thereby it is proved that the oscillating reaction is a noequilibrium system with dissipation structure in agreement with the character of the oscillating reaction from disorder to order in irreversible thermodynamics. These are satisfactorily to explain the experimental phenomena.

  2. Nano MgBi₂O₄: A Novel Green Catalyst for the One-step Cascade Condensation of Arylamines, Acetone and Isatins in Water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nano-size MgBi₂O₄ has been synthesized for the first time via a simple co-precipitation method using the surfactant N-cetyl-N, N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to characterize the nano-catalyst. Additionally, the reactivity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated in the synthesis of 1'-aryl-2'-(2-oxoindolin-3-yl)spiro[indoline-3,5'-pyrroline]-2,3'-diones in a one-pot, one-step and pseudo four-component condensation of arylamine, acetone, and isatins at 50◦C in water. Five new compounds were synthesized and identified. This procedure has various advantages such as, short reaction times, mild eco-friendly conditions and excellent yields to prepare a novel class of heteroaromatic compounds. MgBi₂O₄ possess superior qualities such as easy and economic preparation procedure and handling, stability, and non-toxicity. Its reusability has also been examined upto 4 runs without activity loss.

  3. 甲醇-丙酮体系的间歇萃取精馏研究%Study on batch extractive distillation for methanol-acetone system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益辉; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜


    The methanol-acetone azeotrope was separated by batch extractive distillation with distilled water as extracting agent. The effect of factors of extractant, total reflux time, azeotrope composition, volume ratio of sol-vent and compound, saline and alkaline on batch extractive distillation azeotrope system was investigated. The best extraction conditions were obtained.%在常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置中,研究了以蒸馏水为萃取剂间歇萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸物的过程。考察了萃取剂、全回流时间、共沸物组成、溶剂与混合物的体积比、加盐、加碱等因素对萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸体系的影响,从而得出最佳的萃取条件。

  4. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred M. Otang


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f. O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM. Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.

  5. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei


    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively.

  6. Kinetic Model of Resin-Catalyzed Decomposition of Acetone Cyanohydrin in Organic Solvent%有机溶剂中树脂催化丙酮氰醇分解反应的动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章亭洲; 杨立荣; 朱自强; 吴坚平


    Decomposition of acetone cyanohydrin is the first-step reaction for preparing (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (CPBA) by the one-pot method in organic media. Considering the compatibility of bio-catalysts with chemical catalysts and the successive operation in the bioreactor, anion exchange resin (D301) wasused as catalyst for this reaction. External diffusion limitation was excluded by raising rotational speed to higherthan 190r@min-1 in both solvents. Internal diffusion limitation was verified to be insignificant in this reactionsystem. The effect of acetone cyanohydrin concentration on the reaction was also investigated. An intrinsic kineticmodel was proposed when the mass transfer limitation was excluded, and the average deviation of the model is10.5%.

  7. 木质素磺酸钠接枝改性脂肪族高减水剂的研究%Study on preparation of grafted lignosulfonate sulfonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国新; 杜志芹; 沈燕平; 杨立志; 徐唯唯; 祝烨然


    Aiming at the price rising of the raw materials for sulfonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer and recycling utilization of paper pulp liquor, a modified sulfonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer HLC-RS (M) was prepared by the grafting compolymerization of sulfonated acetone formaldehyde polycondensate with lignosulfonate. Hie best factors of grafting com-polymerization were studied by single factor means. The effects of HLC-RS (M), HLC-RS and mixing product of HLC-RS and lignosulfonate (RS-FZ) on concrete are compared experimentally. The results indicate that the properties of HLC-RS (M) are better than ordinary sulfonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer.%针对脂肪族减水剂原材料价格上涨与纸浆废液的资源化利用,在传统脂肪族减水剂中引入草本木质素磺酸钠(木钠)进行接枝共聚,设计合成了木钠接枝改性脂肪族高效减水剂HLC-RS(M).采用单因素法研究影响HLC-RS(M)分散性的主要参数,得出接枝共聚的最佳参数,并与传统脂肪族减水剂及脂肪族减水剂-木钠物理复配的性能进行比较表明,HLC-RS (M)的综合性能优于传统脂肪族减水剂.

  8. Simultaneous total antioxidant capacity assay of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the same acetone-water solution containing 2% methyl-beta-cyclodextrin using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. (United States)

    Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Güçlü, Kubilay; Güngör, Nilay; Apak, Reşat


    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This work reports the capacity assay of both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants simultaneously, by making use of their 'host-guest' complexes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), a cyclic oligosaccharide, in acetonated aqueous medium using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Thus the order of antioxidant potency of various compounds irrespective of their lipophilicity could be established in the same solvent medium. M-beta-CD was introduced as the water solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. Two percent M-beta-CD (w/v) in an acetone-H(2)O (9:1, v/v) mixture was found to sufficiently solubilize beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamin E, vitamin C, synthetic antioxidants and other phenolic antioxidants. This assay was validated through linearity, additivity, precision, and recovery. The validation results demonstrate that the CUPRAC assay is reliable and robust. In acetonated aqueous solution of M-beta-CD, only CUPRAC and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were capable of measuring carotenoids together with hydrophilic antioxidants. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of a wide range of polyphenolics and flavonoids were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in the CUPRAC assay, and compared to those found by reference methods, ABTS/horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H(2)O(2) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.

  9. 浅议丙酮肟在引进分厂锅炉给水系统中的应用%Application of acetone oxime in the boiler feed system in Injin Natural Gas Purification Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浠; 瞿杨; 蒋宇; 吴高亮; 秦婧


    Because of the reasons that hydrazine is flammable and explosive ,slowly reacts with oxygen ,toxic ,etc .,it is substituted by acetone oxime as deoxidant in Yinjin Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General .Analysis results show that the acetone oxime has better deoxidization effect and lower toxicity than hydrazine ,and it does not affect the water vapor system ,so that it can protect the equipment and has inhibit effect .Further more ,acetone oxime can also reduce the production cost ,therefore ,it is more economical and practical .%重庆天然气净化总厂引进分厂原来在锅炉给水系统中一直使用联氨作为除氧剂,但由于联氨易燃易爆、除氧速度慢、具有毒性等原因,则采用丙酮肟代替联氨进行除氧。分析使用丙酮肟除氧后的数据,丙酮肟较联氨而言,除氧效果更好,毒性更低,不影响水汽系统,对设备有保护作用和缓蚀效果,并减少了生产成本,更具有经济效益和实用性。

  10. 短脉冲激光作用下丙酮液池的温度场计算%Temperature Calculation in Acetone Pool Under Short Pulsed Laser - heated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁喜; 华顺芳; 刘登瀛; 张正芳


    采用短脉冲激光加热浸没在丙酮液体里的钥薄膜电阻,并结合数值模拟计算,研究了高温升率条件下丙酮液体温度场随时间的变化规律及汽泡行为,得到丙酮液池温度过界层的数量级大约为30~40μm。认为薄汽膜的形成和热边界层外移是激光脉冲过后很长一段时间内汽泡依然长大的主要原因,确定了铂薄膜电阻的激光反射损失。%Extremely small platinum film that is immersed in acetone pool is heated by short pulsed laser. Acetone temperature variations and its boiling bubble behavior are studied experimentally and by two -dimensional heat conduction numerical simulation. It shows that the thermal boundary layer in acetone is an order of 30~ 40μm, and the formation of vapor and thermal boundary layer being thicker are the main reasons that vapor bubble still grows up long after laser pulse shorts. Laser reflection loss by platinum film is calculated.

  11. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1. (United States)

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul


    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio.

  12. 无热源法生产脂肪族高效减水剂的磺化剂研究%Study on the sulfonating agent of sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde superplasticizer incorporating selfheating productive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何廷树; 桂根生


    Based on sulfonating agent of sodium sulfite with seven crystal water,sodium sulfite,sodium bisulfite and sodium metabisulfite,selfheating productive technology was adopted to synthetize sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde superplasticizer and the method of single factor assessment was applied to study impact of the four kinds of sulfonating agent on the sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde superplasticizer. With the test results,the sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde synthetized by sodium sulfite with seven crystal water performs the better property on cement paste dispersibility and fluidity loss.%以七水亚硫酸钠、无水亚硫酸钠、亚硫酸氢钠、焦亚硫酸钠4种无机盐为磺化剂,采用无热源工艺合成了脂肪族高效减水剂,并以单因素方法研究了4种无机盐磺化剂对脂肪族高效减水剂性能的影响.结果表明,以七水亚硫酸钠为磺化剂合成的脂肪族高效减水剂具有较优的水泥净浆分散性和分散保持性.

  13. Use of ion mobility spectroscopy with an ultraviolet ionization source as a vanguard screening system for the detection and determination of acetone in urine as a biomarker for cow and human diseases. (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, R; Arce, L; Pérez-Marín, C C; Valcárcel, M


    An ion mobility spectrometer equipped with an ultraviolet lamp was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of acetone in urine samples. This analyte can be used as a biomarker for some fat metabolism-related diseases in humans and cows. Samples require no pretreatment other than warming at 80 degrees C for 5 min, after which an N(2) stream is used to drive volatile analytes to the ion mobility spectrometer. The precision of the ensuing method, expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD), is better in all cases than 6.7% for peak height and calculated at three levels of concentration. The analyte concentration range studied was from 5 to 80 mg L(-1), its limit of detection in the aqueous matrix 3 mg L(-1) and recoveries from spiked urine samples 109+/-3%. The calculated reduced mobility for acetone in the urine samples, 1.75+/-0.04 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), was similar to previously reported values. Also, the results were consistent with those provided by test strips used for reference. The proposed method provides a new vanguard screening system for determining acetone in urine samples.

  14. H/D isotopic and temperature effects in the polarized IR spectra of hydrogen-bond cyclic trimers in the crystal lattices of acetone oxime and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole. (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T; Hachuła, Barbara; Garbacz, Aleksandra


    Polarized IR spectra of hydrogen-bonded acetone oxime and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole crystals were measured at 293 and 77 K in the ν(X-H) and ν(X-D) band frequency ranges. These crystals contain molecular trimers in their lattices. The individual crystal spectral properties remain in a close relation with the electronic structure of the two different molecular systems. We show that a vibronic coupling mechanism involving the hydrogen-bond protons and the electrons on the π-electronic systems in the molecules determines the way in which the vibrational exciton coupling between the hydrogen bonds in the trimers occurs. A strong coupling in 3,5-dimethylpyrazole trimers prefers a "tail-to-head"-type Davydov coupling widespread via the π-electrons. A weak through-space exciton coupling in acetone oxime trimers involves three adjacent hydrogen bonds in each cycle. The relative contribution of each exciton coupling mechanism in the trimer spectra generation is temperature and the molecular electronic structure-dependent. This explains the observed difference in the temperature-induced evolution of the compared spectra. The mechanism of the H/D isotopic "self-organization" processes in the crystal hydrogen bonds was also analyzed. The two types of the hydrogen-bond trimers exhibit the same way, in which the H/D isotopic recognition mechanism occurs. In acetone oxime and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole trimers, identical hydrogen isotope atoms exist in these entire hydrogen-bond systems.

  15. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). One Year of Clinical Follow-up (United States)

    Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Bocchi, Edimar A.


    Background The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. Objectives To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. Results The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56–6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. Conclusions High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients. PMID:28030609

  16. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta


    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  17. Kinetics and time dependence of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]- and formalin [HS]-fixed Toxoplasma tachyzoites by serum of mice with experimental toxoplasmosis. (United States)

    Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Habib, Khaled Sayed Mohamed


    Researches to specify a serologic diagnostic test capable of determining the stage of toxoplasmosis, whether recent or latent, have been hampered by lack of knowing the real time of infection. Studying the precise kinetics of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]-fixed versus that of formalin [HS]-fixed tachyzoites (differential agglutination test or AC/HS test) by sera of mice during the course of toxoplasmosis and assessment of its value in the differentiation between recent and latent infections in mice were the aims of the present work. Experimental toxoplasmosis was induced in mice, sera were collected sequentially and AC/HS test, FAST-ELISA to determine levels of IgM and IgG and microscopic examination of brain for Toxoplasma cysts were done. Both AC and HS specific patterns in the AC/HS test were noted to be dependent on the time from the onset of infection. Acute patterns of the AC/HS test were observed early in infection till before the appearance of brain cysts. Non-acute patterns were obtained late on 28th day post infection coinciding with the disappearance of IgM, persistence of IgG and presence of cysts in brains. The AC antibody was high in the recent phase of infection, and then it declined to be replaced by high sustained level of HS antibody late in infection. In conclusion, in the presence of both IgM and IgG, the appearance of either equivocal pattern or the non-acute pattern in the AC/HS test is significant in ruling out acute infection in mice.

  18. Photodissociation of acetone from 266 to 312 nm: Dynamics of CH3 + CH3CO channels on the S0 and T1 states (United States)

    Lee, Kin Long Kelvin; Nauta, Klaas; Kable, Scott H.


    The photodissociation dynamics of acetone (CH3)2CO, cooled in a molecular beam, have been explored over the wavelength range 266-312 nm. Nascent CH3 fragments were detected by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, followed by mass-selected ion imaging. For photolysis at λ = 306 nm, the image shows a sharp ring, which, when converted to a translational energy distribution, reveals a narrow Gaussian peak with a maximum at 90% of the available energy. As the photolysis energy is increased, the distribution slowly broadens and shifts to higher recoil translational energy. The fraction of available energy in translation energy decreases in favour of internal energy of the CH3CO fragment. These observations are consistent with a dynamical model in which the energy of the exit channel barrier on the T1 surface evolves mostly into relative translational energy. Energy in excess of the barrier is partitioned statistically into all degrees of freedom. No evidence was found for any other dynamical pathway producing CH3 fragments, including reaction on S0 or S1, for dissociation between 306 and 266 nm. For λ > 306 nm, a diffuse, slow recoil component to the image appears. The translational energy distribution for this component is fit well by a statistical prior distribution of energy. We attribute this component to dissociation on the S0, ground state surface; to our knowledge, this is the first direct observation of this channel. The appearance of S0 dynamics and the disappearance of the T1 component are consistent with previously inferred barrier height on T1 for the production of CH3CO + CH3. The possible atmospheric implications of our findings are discussed.

  19. Absorption of ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane through human skin in vitro: a test of diffusion model predictions. (United States)

    Gajjar, Rachna M; Kasting, Gerald B


    The overall goal of this research was to further develop and improve an existing skin diffusion model by experimentally confirming the predicted absorption rates of topically-applied volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on their physicochemical properties, the skin surface temperature, and the wind velocity. In vitro human skin permeation of two hydrophilic solvents (acetone and ethanol) and two lipophilic solvents (benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane) was studied in Franz cells placed in a fume hood. Four doses of each (14)C-radiolabed compound were tested - 5, 10, 20, and 40μLcm(-2), corresponding to specific doses ranging in mass from 5.0 to 63mgcm(-2). The maximum percentage of radiolabel absorbed into the receptor solutions for all test conditions was 0.3%. Although the absolute absorption of each solvent increased with dose, percentage absorption decreased. This decrease was consistent with the concept of a stratum corneum deposition region, which traps small amounts of solvent in the upper skin layers, decreasing the evaporation rate. The diffusion model satisfactorily described the cumulative absorption of ethanol; however, values for the other VOCs were underpredicted in a manner related to their ability to disrupt or solubilize skin lipids. In order to more closely describe the permeation data, significant increases in the stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, Ksc, and modest changes to the diffusion coefficients, Dsc, were required. The analysis provided strong evidence for both skin swelling and barrier disruption by VOCs, even by the minute amounts absorbed under these in vitro test conditions.

  20. Improvement on the catalytic performance of Mg-Zr mixed oxides for furfural-acetone aldol condensation by supporting on mesoporous carbons. (United States)

    Faba, Laura; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador


    A new procedure for improving the performance of the most common catalysts used in aqueous-phase aldol condensation (Mg-Zr mixed oxides) reactions is presented. This reaction is of interest for upgrading carbohydrate feedstocks. The procedure involves supporting Mg-Zr oxides on non-microporous carbonaceous materials, such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) or high-surface-area graphites (HSAGs), using either incipient wetness or coprecipitation procedures. The use of HSAGs together with the coprecipitation method provides the best performance. Results obtained for the cross-condensation of acetone and furfural at 323 K reveal that the catalyst performance is greatly improved compared to the bulk oxides (96.5 % conversion vs. 81.4 % with the bulk oxide; 87.8 % selectivity for C13 and C8 adducts vs. 76.2 % with the bulk oxide). This difference is even more prominent in terms of rates per catalytically active basic site (four and seven times greater for C8 and C13 adducts, respectively). The improved performance is explained in terms of a more appropriate basic site distribution and by greater interaction of the reactants with the carbon surface. In addition, deactivation behavior of the catalyst is improved by tuning the morphology of the carbonaceous support. An important enhancement of the catalytic stability can be obtained selecting a HSAG with an appropriate pore diameter. With HSAG100 the activity decreased by less than 20 % between successive reaction cycles and the selectivity for the condensation products remained almost unaltered. The decrease is greater than 80 % for the bulk oxides tested at these conditions, with important increases in the selectivity for by-product formation.

  1. 丙酮肟水解可逆反应的进程分析和过程工艺%Process analysis and process technology for the reversible hydrolysis of acetone oxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严生虎; 林春昕; 沈介发; 刘建武; 张跃


    以丙酮肟、盐酸为原料,经水解反应合成盐酸羟胺,研究建立了对水解可逆反应进程作定量检测的HPLC-氧化还原滴定组合分析方法,分析结果的平均回收率达99.64%,相对标准偏差≤2.04%(n=6)。建立了反应-蒸馏耦合工艺装置,研究和优化了丙酮肟水解反应制备盐酸羟胺的反应-蒸馏过程工艺条件,结果表明,当丙酮肟与盐酸的摩尔比为1∶2,盐酸质量分数为38%,加热温度为130℃,反应时间为3h时,丙酮肟原料转化率达到89%左右,盐酸羟胺产品收率达到84%左右。%Using acetone oxime and hydrochloric acid as raw materials,the hydrolysis of acetone oxime was carried out to prepare hydroxylamine hydrochloride. A quantitative analysis method by combining HPLC detection and redox titration was set up for the analysis of the reversible hydrolysis reaction equilibrium. The obtained analysis data of the combined method had a recovery of 99.64%and a RSD of no more than 2.04% (n=6). After that,a reactive distillation device was set up for the hydrolysis of acetone oxime,and the process technology of the reactive distillation was studied and optimized. The result showed that,at condition when the molar ratio of acetone oxime to HCl=1∶2, HCl mass fraction at 38%,heating temperature at 130℃ and reaction time at 3h,the raw material conversion of acetone oxime approached around 89% and the product yield of hydroxylamine hydrochloride reached about 84%.

  2. Lignin separation and antioxidant capacity from Acanthopanax senticosus remainders using acetone%刺五加根茎剩余物丙酮有机溶剂提取木质素及抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明华; 方桂珍; 韩世岩; 张彦华; 荣海宏; 郭军; 史永纯


    Lignin was extracted from Acanthopanax senticosus remainders coming from pharmaceutical production process with acetone as extracting reagent.Lignin antioxidant capacity and yield were tested under single-factor experiment,such as reaction temperature,reaction time,solid-liquid ratio,acetic acid concentration,and solution concentration of acetone.The optimal conditions by a four-level orthogonal array design were as followings:reaction temperature 180 ℃,solution concentration of acetone 80%,solid-liquid ratio 1:20,and reaction time 80 min.The EC50 of the acetone organic lignin on DPPH was 1.518 mg/mL by verification experiments.The results indicate that the acetone organic lignin antioxidant capacity is better than that of Kraft lignin,but much lower than that of butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA).%以制药废弃物刺五加根茎剩余物为原料,采用丙酮有机溶剂法提取木质素,探讨了反应温度、反应时间、料液比、乙酸体积分数、丙酮体积分数等工艺条件对木质素得率和木质素抗氧化活性的影响。结果表明:反应温度对丙酮有机木质素抗氧化性能影响最显著,其他因素不显著。优化工艺条件为反应温度180℃、丙酮体积分数80%、料液比1:20、反应时间80min。重复性验证实验得知,丙酮有机木质素DPPH去除能力EC50值为1.518mg/mL,丙酮有机木质素抗氧化活性比常规碱法木质素抗氧化活性高,但低于商业合成抗氧化剂BHA。

  3. Measurement and Correlation of Glycine Solubility in Acetone-Water Mixture%甘氨酸在丙酮-水混合溶剂中溶解度的测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨久利; 沙作良; 杨立斌; 王彦飞; 朱亮


    The solubility of glycine in pure water and in acetone-water mixed solvent was measured at 278.15~313.15 K by the equilibrium method and was respectively correlated by Apelblat empirical equation and (CNIBS)/Redlich-Kister equation. The effect of temperature on solubility in (CNIBS)/Redlich-Kister equation was analyzed. It was found that the solubility of glycine in pure water increases with increase of temperature, while in acetone-water mixed solvent, decreases with increase of quantity ratio of acetone and water. The solubility of glycine is close to zero when the quantity ratio of acetone and water in the mixed solvent is 4 which is the highest quantity rato of acetone and water used in this work , and under the same the quantity ratio of acetone and water, the solubility of glycine increases with the increase of temperature. The standard deviations of the correlated models of glycine solubility in water and in acetone-water mixed solvent are in the level of 0.0001, which is satisfactory to the requirement of engineering process. The data and models obtained in this work would be useful for design and process analysis of glycine crystallization.%采用平衡法测定了278.15~313.15 K甘氨酸在纯水及丙酮-水混合溶剂中的溶解度;采用 Apelbla t经验方程和(CNIBS)/Redlich-Kister方程分别对甘氨酸在纯水和丙酮-水体系中的溶解度数据进行了关联,并对(CNIBS)/Redlich-Kister方程进行了温度影响分析。结果表明,甘氨酸在纯水中的溶解度随着温度的升高而增大;甘氨酸在丙酮-水混合溶剂中的溶解度随着丙酮与水的质量比的增加而变小;当丙酮与水的质量比达到实验中最大值即4时,甘氨酸的溶解度接近于0;在相同丙酮与水的质量比下,甘氨酸的溶解度随着温度升高而有所增大。甘氨酸在纯水及丙酮-水混合溶剂中的溶解度模型关联的标准方差均能达到1×10-4

  4. 丙酮-水-丙酮连氮体系汽液平衡测定与关联%Measurement and correlation of vapor-liquid equilibria for acetone-water-azine system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柏春; 王琮; 黄岩; 张文林


    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetone-azine binary system and parts of acetone water azine ternary system were determined in an Othmer equilibrium at atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa). The experimental data was verified by Herington method and were consistent with thermodynamics. The data of acetone-azine binary system were correlated with the NRTL,Wilson and UNIQUAC models by using chemical engineering analogue software. Respectively,all the models were correlated well with the VLE data. NRTL model produced best data,with the average deviations of temperature of 0.0639 K and vapor-phase mole fraction of methanol of 0.0048. The NRTL model was used to correlate the VLE data of the ternary system,and the interaction parameters of acetone-azine,water-azine,and acetone-water were obtained. In order to verify the reliability of the VLE data of the ternary system and these interacting binary parameters,the vapor compositions were calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental VLE data of acetone-azine binary system. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data was satisfactory. The experimental and correlative data could provide a basis for distillation separation of acetone-water-azine’s VLE system.%采用汽液双循环平衡釜,在常压(101.3 kPa)下测定了丙酮-丙酮连氮二元组分物系以及部分丙酮-水-丙酮连氮三元组分物系的汽液平衡数据。实验数据经Herington面积积分法检验符合热力学一致性。通过化工过程模拟软件,分别采用 Wilson、NRTL、UNIQUAC 活度系数模型对丙酮-丙酮连氮二元组分物系实验数据进行关联得到模型参数。并对汽液平衡的计算值与实验值进行比较,3种模型都吻合良好,其中由NRTL方程关联得到的计算结果最为适合,平均温度偏差和汽相组成偏差分别为0.0639 K和0.0048。从三元汽液相平衡数据中拟合出了丙酮-丙酮连氮、丙酮-

  5. From dihydrated iron(III) phosphate to monohydrated ammonium-iron(II) phosphate: Solvothermal reaction mediated by acetone-urea mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, Belen F., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Trobajo, Camino [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pique, Carmen [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Jose R. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    By reaction between synthetic phosphosiderite FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, urea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO, and acetone (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, we report a novel solvothermal synthesis of polycrystalline NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. The preparation of other two individual phases, NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is also described. The obtained product is a function of the reaction time and the N/P molar ratio in the reagent mixture, and the existence of structural memory in the dissolution-precipitation processes is discussed. Below 25 K, NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O behaves magnetically in a complex way, because both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic signals are superimposed, suggesting the existence of a canting of iron(II) magnetic moments. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal synthesis of polycrystalline NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O is presented. The preparation of other two individual phases, NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as a function of the N/P molar ratio in the reagent mixture and the reaction time, is also described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvothermal synthesis of NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O from an Fe(III) phosphate: reduction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of two intermediate metastable phases: phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition in two steps: mass loss of both water and ammonia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic behaviour: AF+constant spontaneous magnetization.

  6. 丙酮连氮催化水解反应精馏工艺的研究%Process of hydrazine hydrate production by acetone azine hydrolysis via catalytic distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柏春; 吴晓旺; 许沉娜


    The process of hydrazine hydrate produced by acetone azine hydrolysis via catalytic distillation was simulated and experimented.By using NTRL equation and RadFrac module,as well as the data obtained from dynamics and phase equilibrium,the process of producing hydrazine hydrate by acetone azine hydrolysis via catalytic distillation was simulated.The effects of process parameter,such as reflux ratio,mole ratio of acetone azine to water and feeding location on the acetone azine hydrolysis reaction were investigated.The optimized process parameters obtained were as follows:theoretical tray number 5 for rectifying,theoretical tray number 14 for reaction,reflux ratio 2,the mole fraction of acetone azine to water 1:7,feed tray 9th tray.Under such conditions,the hydrolysis rate of acetone azine was over 99%,the mass fraction of hydrazine hydrate at bottom was 34% and the temperature and mass fraction distributions of whole column were got.It provides a reference for industry production.%对丙酮连氮催化水解反应精馏制水合肼的工艺过程进行了模拟与实验.采用NRTL方程与RadFrac模型,使用实验回归得到的动力学方程与汽液平衡参数,对丙酮连氮催化水解精馏制水合肼的工艺进行模拟计算.考察了回流比、丙酮连氮与水的摩尔比、进料位置等工艺条件对丙酮连氮水解反应的影响,并通过实验验证了模型的准确性和可靠性.在模拟和实验的基础上,确定了最优工艺条件:精馏段理论板数为5,反应精馏段理论板数为14,回流比为2,丙酮连氮与水的摩尔比为1:7,原料进料位置为第9块板.在此条件下,丙酮连氮的水解率可达99%以上,塔釜肼质量分数为34%,并且得到了全塔的温度和质量分数分布曲线,为工业生产提供了依据.

  7. 杂质对丙酮-水吸收过程传质效率的影响%Effect of impurities on mass transfer efficiency of acetone-water absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉磊; 高前进; 江燕斌


    丙酮是一种广泛应用的有机溶剂,其回收具有重要的经济和环境意义.传统的活性炭吸附-解吸-精馏回收工艺存在工艺耗能高、工艺安全性和稳定性差等缺点,新型的水吸收-精馏回收丙酮工艺近年得到重视.但丙酮水吸收过程吸收用水的水质对吸收效果有较大影响,从而影响到后续精馏工艺的能耗.为此,考察了几种典型分散剂、表面活性剂和铵盐等杂质对丙酮水吸收效果的影响.结果表明,除六偏磷酸钠对吸收有弱增强作用外,所选择的表面活性剂和铵盐都不同程度地降低了吸收效果,因此,在吸收过程保持水质的纯净非常重要.同时,文中结合抑制气泡聚并、界面阻力、盐析等机理对杂质对丙酮-水吸收过程的影响进行了相应分析.上述实验结果对工业试验有很好的指导作用.%As an important solvent, acetone is widely used in many chemical industries, thus the recycling of acetone is very important for economic and environmental considerations of these industries. However,the traditional process for recovery of acetone,i.e. activated carbon adsorption-desorption-distillation technology,is high energy consumption with less process safety and stability. Recently, great attentions are paid to retrofits of water absorption-distillation flowsheet,it shows that the impurities have great effect on the absorption efficiency and the energy consumption in subsequent distillation process. Several typical impurities including surfactant, dispersant and ammonium salt were selected and added into absorption water for investigating the effects of impurities on the absorption efficiency of acetone-water system. The experimental results show that only sodium hexametaphosphate has weak advantage for acetone absorption, and surfactant and ammonium salts have disadvantage for acetone absorption, thus maintaining water purity is very important during absorption process. Furthermore, the

  8. A randomized triple-blind clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of oral lichen planus (United States)

    Sivaraman, Shivakumar; Santham, Krishnamoorthy; Nelson, Aruldoss; Laliytha, Bijaykumar; Azhalvel, Pandian; Deepak, John Hearty


    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is believed to result from an abnormal T-cell mediated immune response. The most useful agent in the treatment is corticosteroids. The present study will be aimed at evaluation of therapeutic efficiency of two corticosteroids triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%) and clobetasol propionate with tacrolimus orabase (0.03%), an immunomodulator in the management of OLP. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of OLP and also to compare which has less recurrence. Study Design: The study comprises 30 patients, all were diagnosed with OLP clinically and histopathologically. They are randomly divided into three groups: Group A - triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), Group B - clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and Group C - tacrolimus (0.03%). A formal informed consent was obtained from all of them who participated in the study. Results and Conclusion: Subjects in the Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%) and Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) show a significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group C (tacrolimus 0.03%). Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) shows a better significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%). The overall treatment response was significant better in the Group B (clobetasol 0.05%). No recurrence was observed in any of the three groups at the end of 3 months. It is concluded that clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment has higher efficacy when compared to triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment and tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in the management of OLP. It was also inferred that triamcinolone 0.1% has better effects than tacrolimus 0.03%. PMID:27829754

  9. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone. (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos


    This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF4] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4] or [omim][BF4], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC50 values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF4] was more toxic than [bmim][BF4] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF4]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF4] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF4]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest concentration tested (10mgL(-1)), while [omim][BF4]-mediated effects were enhanced at lower concentrations (0.01-0.05mgL(-1)). Overall, the present study showed that [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4] could induce not only lethal but also nonlethal effects on mussel M. galloprovincialis. The extent of [bmim][BF4] and/or [omim][BF4]-mediated effects could be ascribed to the length of each IL alkyl chain, as well as to their lipophilicity. Moreover, the role of acetone on the obtained toxic effects of the specific ILs was

  10. Online quantitative gas chromatography analysis of isophorone from acetone condensation by external standard method%丙酮缩合制异佛尔酮产物的气相色谱在线外标定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾劲锋; 崔咪芬; 陈献; 汤吉海; 乔旭


    采用气相色谱在线外标定量分析丙酮催化缩合制备异佛尔酮的产物.将配制的丙酮催化缩合制备异佛尔酮产物的标准样品(或与惰性气体混合)由液体进料精密计量泵计量后加入未装催化剂的反应器中,测得各组分的质量分数与峰面积之间的关系,拟合出各组分的标准曲线.在相同的色谱分析条件下,将反应原料丙酮和惰性气体混合后加入反应器中,在线测得反应条件下各组分的峰面积.根据各组分的标准曲线,计算出各组分的质量分数及质量流量、丙酮的转化率及各产物的选择性.%Isophorone prepared from acetone by condensation,dehydration and cyclization was analyzed quantitatively by online chromatography method.The isophorone standard prepared from acetone liquid sample (or mixed with inert gas) was pumped into the reactor without catalyst by a precision metering pump for liquid feed metering.The relationship between the mass fraction of each component and the peak area was measured and fitted to the standard curve.Under the same chromatographic conditions,the reaction raw materials such as acetone mixed with inert gas were pumped into the reactor,and the peak area of each component under the reaction conditions was online measured.According to the standard curve for each component,the mass fraction and the mass flow of each component,the acetone conversion and the product selectivity were calculated.

  11. 连续精馏分离乙酸乙酯与丙酮体系的模拟研究%Simulation of ethyl acetate-acetone mixtures separation by continuous distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马振叶; 吴如军; 顾正桂


    The separation of ethyl acetate-acetone mixtures from waste liquid in superfine ammonium perchlorate preparation was simulated. The effect of continuous distillation process parameters, including the stage numbers of distillation column, the number of feed stage, reflux ratio, and the amount of top products on ethyl acetate-acetone separation was investigated by using RadFrac module of Aspen Plus software. The results show that when the flow rate of ethyl acetate-acetone mixed solvent is 3 kg/h, the optimum operation parameters are as follows: the stage numbers for distillation column is 40; the feed stage is No. 16; reflux ratio (volume ratio) is 5 and the flow of top products is 0. 28 kg/h. Under the optimized parameters, the mass fraction of ethyl acetate at the bottom is enhanced to 99.67%, and the yield can achieve 99.40%; the mass fraction of acetone at the top is enhanced to 94.25%, and the yield can achieve 96.66%. The result of simulation provides fundamental guide for the experimental study and industrialization design.%对制备超细高氯酸铵产生的废液即乙酸乙酯-丙酮混合液的分离过程进行了模拟研究.采用Aspen Plus化工模拟软件中的RadFrac模块进行连续精馏模拟,分别考察了塔板数、进料位置、回流比及塔顶出料量对分离效果的影响.结果表明:对于处理流量3 kg/h乙酸乙酯-丙酮的混合液,精馏塔在塔板数40,进料位置第16块塔板,回流比(体积比)5,塔顶出料量0.28 kg/h的优化条件下,可以将塔釜乙酸乙酯质量分数提高到99.67%,收率为99.40%.同时塔顶丙酮的质量分数提高到94.25%,收率为96.66%.模拟结果对实验研究及工业化具有一定的指导意义.

  12. Lewis 酸催化加氢合成天然茴香基丙酮及工艺优化%Synthesis and Process Optimization of Hydrogenation of Natural Anisyl Acetone Using Lewis Acid as Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 吴光耀; 马莉; 朱凯


    以天然亚茴香基丙酮为原料,Lewis酸为催化剂,环己烷为氢源,研究了天然茴香基丙酮的合成工艺,并探讨反应机理和反应的选择性。对不同Lewis酸催化剂与溶剂进行筛选,确定AlCl3为催化剂,CH2 Cl2为溶剂,采用正交试验方法对茴香基丙酮合成工艺进行优化,得到最佳工艺条件。在反应温度35℃,反应时间4 h, n(AlCl3)∶n(亚茴香基丙酮)4∶1,n(环己烷)∶n(亚茴香基丙酮)4∶1的条件下反应稳定性较好,产物得率达95.1%。采用IR、GC-MS和1H NMR等分析技术对合成所得产物进行了表征。%Synthesis of natural anisyl acetone was investigated by using natural base to Asia anisyl acetone as raw material , Lewis acid as catalyst , cyclohexane as a source of hydrogen .Different Lewis acid catalysts with different solvents were screened .The optimum synthesis conditions were determined based on the orthogonal test results as follows :the reaction temperature is 35 ℃, n(AlCl3)∶n(asia anisyl acetone)4∶1 and n(cyclohexane)∶n(asia anisyl acetone)4∶1.Three experiments were carried out under these conditions .A good stability was obtained .The yield of the product 4-( 4-methoxyphenyl )-2-butanone could reach 95%.Reaction mechanism and selective of product were discussed .The structure of the product was identified by FT-IR, GC-MS and 1H NMR spectrum.

  13. 丙酮缩二乙酰基二茂铁二肼腙Schiff碱的合成及抑菌活性%Synthesis and antibacterial activities of acetone diacetylferrocene dihydrazone Schiff base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉婷; 田智杰; 尹大伟


    以二乙酰基二茂铁为原料,合成了二乙酰基二茂铁二肼腙,继而将其与丙酮反应合成了目标产物丙酮缩二乙酰基二茂铁二肼腙Schiff碱.中间体及目标产物的结构经IR、1H NMR及元素分析得以确证.通过体外抑菌活性研究结果表明,目标产物对大肠杆菌(E.Coli,金黄色葡萄球菌(S.Aureus),枯草杆菌(B.Subtilis)均有较好的抑菌活性.%Diacetylferrocene dihydrazone was synthesized by diacetylferrocene and hydrazine; then acetone diacetylferrocene dihydrazone schiff base was obtained by acetone and diacetylferrocene dihydrazone. The structures of intermediate and the product were confirmed by IR,1H NMR and elemental analysis. Initial activity evaluation of intermediate and the product indicated that the product had better antibacterial activity to E. Coli ,S. Aureus and B. Subtilis.

  14. 二异丁腈肼母液残留丙酮氰醇的测定%Determination of Acetone Cyanohydrin in 1,2-Bis(2-cyano-2-propyl)-hydrazine Crystallization Mother Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      以丙酮氰醇和水合肼为原料缩合生成二异丁腈肼,结晶母液一般作为废水处理。通过对二异丁腈肼结晶母液特殊处理,用配位滴定法测定了丙酮氰醇的残留量,并对母液中水合肼的含量作出推算,为优化偶氮二异丁腈工艺,进行清洁工艺设计提供相关基础数据。%In the production of 1,2-bis(2-cyano-2-propyl)-hydrazine from acetone cyanohydrin and hydrazine hydrate by condensation reaction, crystallization mother liquor is generally treated as wastewater. In this paper, after special treatment of 1,2-bis(2-cyano-2-propyl)-hydrazine crystallization mother liquor, residual amount of acetone cyanohydrin was determined by complexometric titration method, and calculation of hydrazine hydrate content in the mother liquor was carried out, which provide relevant data for the optimization of azobisisobutyronitrile process and the design of cleaner process.

  15. 单乙醇胺(MEA)间歇萃取精馏甲醇-丙酮研究%Study on Batch Extractive Distillation of Methanol and Acetone by Using MEA as Extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春元; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜


    s:Batch extractive distillation process of methanol-acetone binary azeotrope in the conventional batch extractive distillation experimental device with MEA as extracting agent was studied. Effect of extractant, total reflux time, azeotrope composition,volume ratio of solvent and mixture,reflux ratio and other factors on the extractive distillation separation of methanol - acetone azeotropic system was investigated, and the best extraction conditions were determined.%用常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置,研究了以单乙醇胺(MEA)为萃取剂间歇萃取精馏分离甲醇—丙酮恒沸物的过程。考察了萃取剂、全回流时间、共沸物组成、溶剂与混合物的体积比、回流比等因素对萃取精馏分离甲醇—丙酮共沸体系的影响,从而得出最优的萃取条件。

  16. 顶空-气相色谱法测定水质中的丙酮和丁酮%Determination of Acetone and Methyl Ethyl Ketone in Water by Gas Chromatography(GC) with Headspace Sampler(HSS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文建立顶空-气相色谱法测定水和废水中的丙酮和丁酮的方法,水样测定结果的相对偏差小于5.0%,加标回收率在91%~103%之间,最低检出浓度0.006 mg.L-1。该方法简便,灵敏度更高,重现性好,线性范围宽,精密度和准确度满意,尤其是避免了消耗大量有机试剂,避免二次污染。旨在为实验分析人员提供技术参考依据。%This paper studied a method of determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water using a gas-chromatograph with a headspace sampler.The relative deviations of the results are less than 5.0%,the percent recoveries of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in samples are about 91%~103%,and the detection limit of them are both about 0.006 mg.L-1.This methods is sensitive,simple,precise,its repeatability and linearity are much better and avoids using toxic organic solvents.Also,the purpose was to provide lab workers with technical basis.

  17. Dinâmica complexa no sistema bromato/hipofosfito/acetona/manganês e ferroína Complex Dynamics in the bromate/hypophosphite/acetone/manganese and ferroin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Tokoro


    Full Text Available New chemical systems have been recently designed for the study of complex phenomena such as oscillatory dynamics in the temporal domain and spatiotemporal pattern formation. Systems derived from oscillators based on the chemistry of bromate are the most extensively studied, with the celebrated Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction being the most popular example. Problems such as the formation of bubbles (CO2 and solid precipitate in the course of the reaction and the occurrence of simply short-lived oscillations under batch conditions are very common and, in some cases, compromise the use of some of these systems. It is investigated in this paper the dynamic behavior of the bromate/hypophosphite/acetone/dual catalyst system, which has been sugested as an interesting alternative to circumvent those inconvenients. In this work, manganese and ferroin are employed as catalysts and the complete system (BrO3-/H2PO2-/acetone/Mn(II-ferroin is studied under batch conditions. Temporal symmetry breaking was studied in a reactor under agitation by means of simultaneous records of the potential changes of platinum and Ag/AgBr electrodes, both measured versus a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, spatio-temporal formation of target patterns and spiral waves were obtained when the oscillating mixture was placed in a quasi two-dimensional reactor.

  18. A Multiphoton Ioniation Study of Acetone Using Time-of-Flight Mass Spectromentry%用飞行时间质谱技术研究丙酮的多光子电离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季学韩; 马乃玉; 董炳玲; 张科; 甘慧兰; 程阳阳; 陈晓虎


    Spectroscopy of 3p Rydberg states of acetone and photodissociation of acetone cation are studied using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The 3p Rydberg state spectroscopy of acetone is investigated with linearly polarized 2-photon resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) in the wavelength range of 320 - 337nm, resulting in the observation of several new transition bands. In addition to the CH3COCH3 ion, CH3CO+ and CH+3 fragments are observed. The laser power dependences suggest that the CUCOCH3 , CH3CO+ and CH3+ ions are produced in 3 - , 4 - , and 4-photon processes, respectively. Production of CH3CO+ and CH3+ involve excitation of the ground state acetone cation by an additional photon and subsequent decomposition of the excited acetone ion. The average translational energy of CH3CO+ and CH3+ from dissociation in CH3COCH3+ (X) + 1· hv→CH3CO+ + CH3 and CH3OOCH3+ (X) + 1· hv→CH3+ + CH3GO are derived from the ion TOF peak profiles.%基于飞行时间质谱(TOF)研究了丙酮分子3p里德堡态光谱和丙酮离子的光解离.在320-337nm激光波长范围内,采用线极化双光子共振增强多光子电离技术研究丙酮分子3p里德堡态的的光谱,观察到了新的跃迁谱带.除母体CH3COCH3+离子之外,同时观察到了碎片离子CH3CO+和CH3+.由CH3COCH3+、CH3CO+和CH3+离子信号强度与激光能量的依赖关系导出这些离子产生的光子级数,分别为三光子、四光子、四光子过程.CH3CO+和CH3+是由基态的CH3COCH3+离子再吸收一个光子后裂解产生的.对CH3COCH+3(X)+1·hv→CH3CO++ CH3和CH3COCH3+(X)+1·hv→CH3++ CH3CO解离通道,分别由CH3CO+和CH3+离子TOF峰形获得了这两个解离通道的平均平动能释放.

  19. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The toxic effects of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}] on mussels were investigated. • Both ILs could induce lethal and nonlethal effects on Mytilus galloprovincialis. • Different extent of IL-mediated adverse effects was observed in mussel hemocytes. • The alkyl chain length and lipophilicity of ILs are crucial for their toxicity. • Acetone influences the oxidative and genotoxic effects of [omim][BF{sub 4}]. - Abstract: This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF{sub 4}] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] or [omim][BF{sub 4}], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96 h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC{sub 50} values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF{sub 4}] was more toxic than [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF{sub 4}]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF{sub 4}]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest

  20. Heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipes with water-acetone mixtures%水、丙酮混合工质振荡热管传热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱悦; 崔晓钰; 韩华; 孙慎德; 李治华


    Experiments of pulsating heat pipes (PHP) were conducted, with water, acetone and water/acetone binary mixtures at different ratios (13:1, 4:1, 1:1, 1:4, 1:13) under various filling ratios (35%-70%) and heat inputs (10-100 W). The experimental results were analyzed with the feature of physical property and phase change for mixture. The results show that because of lower boiling point, specific heat and latent heat for evaporation, the mixture solution requires lower heating power to initial PHP than water. At low filling ratios, compared to mixtures except that with relatively low acetone concentration (e.g. water/acetone 13:1), pure working fluids are relatively easier to dry out in PHP. With the heat input of 50 W, PHPs with pure working fluid are dried, while those with mixtures maintain relatively low thermal resistance. The mixture with a little water (e.g. water/acetone 1:13) can significantly improve the dry state in PHP, while that with a little acetone (e.g. water/acetone 13:1) does not significantly improve the dry situation. At high filling ratios, heat transfer performance of PHP with pure working fluids are better than mixtures. In the range from 35 W to 50 W, the PHPs with pure working fluids present lower thermal resistance. At higher heat input (50-100 W), the PHP with water has lower thermal resistance compared to that with mixture. The study on heat transfer performance of PHP provides references for further research on the heat transfer mechanism of PHP and establishment of theoretical models on heat transfer characteristics.%采用水、丙酮以及其二元混合工质对振荡热管进行实验研究,选取35%~70%充液率,10~100 W加热功率以及水/丙酮13:1、4:1、1:1、1:4、1:13配比,将实验数据与混合工质物性、相变特点结合以研究其振荡热管传热性能。结果表明:混合溶液振荡热管启动所需功率小于水;小充液率时,除较低丙酮比例配比(如水/丙酮13:1

  1. 288.15K-308.15K(Poloxamerl88+乙醇/丙酮+水)三元体系的密度和黏度%Density and Viscosity of Ternary Systems (Poloxamer 188 + Ethanol/Acetone + Water) at Temperatures from 288.15 K to 308.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谦; 张颂红; 沈绍传; 贠军贤; 姚克俭


    The densities and viscosities of ternary systems (Poloxamer 188 + ethanol/acetone + water) were measured at 288. i 5, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure for different mass fractions of Poloxamer 188 (0 to 0.02) in aqueous solution and different solvent volume fractions of ethanol/acetone (0 to 0.3) in Poloxamer 188 aqueous solution. The densities were measured by a pycnometer, while the viscosities were measured using two Ubbelohde capillary viscometers. The correlations of density and viscosity of these ternary systems are obtained by fitting the experimental data at different temperatures, mass fractions and volume fractions.

  2. Photochemical Growth and Dissolution of Gold Nanorods Promoted by Acetone%丙酮促进的金纳米棒的光化学生长和溶解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董守安; 杨辅龙; 李季; 何晓光; 张荧荧


    在含有高浓度的 HAuCl4单组份表面活性剂的溶液体系中,研究了由丙酮促进的金纳米棒晶种媒介的光化学生长和溶解。结果表明,在晶种媒介的生长溶液中,当丙酮/生长溶液之比高于0.1/25(V/V)时,高产率的金纳米棒(长径比为3.5,平均直径14 nm)能够快速形成;当丙酮/生长溶液之比等于或低于这一临界值时,在化学陈化阶段已形成的金纳米棒则在紫外光照射下溶解。在溶解过程中,金纳米棒发生一系列的形态变化,包括缩短,形成纳米球和完全溶解。进一步的紫外照射最终使溶液成为无色的初始Au(I)-CTAB络合物溶液状态。%The seed-mediated photochemical growth and dissolution of Au NRs promoted by acetone were studied in a single-component surfactant system containing high concentration of HAuCl4. The results showed that when the ratio of acetone-to-growth solution was higher than 0.1/25(V/V) in the seed-mediated growth solution, Au NRs of higher yield with an aspect ratio of 3.5 (the average diameter of 14 nm) could be rapidly formed;when the acetone-to-growth solution ratio was equal to or lower than this critical value, in contrast, Au NRs formed at chemical aging stage could be dissolved by UV light. In the process of the dissolution, Au NRs underwent a series of changes on the morphology, including the shortening, forming nanospheres and entire dissolution. Further UV irradiation finally made the solution colorless initial state of Au(I)-CTAB complex solution.

  3. Effects and Mechanism of Psoralen Acetone Extract on Osteoporosis%补骨脂丙酮提取物对骨质疏松症的治疗作用及其机制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study preventive effects and mechanism of Psoralen acetone extract on osteoporosis. Methods Ovariectomized rats were used as the model of osteoporosis,and preventive effects and mechanism of Psoralen acetone extract on osteoporosis were investigated by the methods of radiology, morphology, molecular biology.Result The BMD of model group decreased signiifcantly(P<0.05) , while H0 groups with high dose and middle dose were signiifcantly increased (P<0.05). HE staining showed that: femoral trabecular bone of model group was severely damaged, but that of Xianlinggubao group, H0 groups with high dose and middle dose had kept a well shape of mesh. Fluorescent quantitation PCR showed that right femur of rats of β-type estrogen receptor mRNA levels were not signiifcantly different comparing with the control group. Conclusion The Psoralen acetone extract H0 at high dose and middle dose showed effects against osteoporosis of rats. The mechanism of anti-osteoporosis of H0 component had nothing to do with the β-type estrogen receptor in osteoblasts.%目的:考察补骨脂丙酮提取物的抗骨质疏松作用及其机制。方法采用大鼠去卵巢骨质疏松模型,通过影像学、形态学、分子生物学方法考察补骨脂丙酮提取物的抗骨质疏松作用及其机制。结果模型组的骨密度明显下降(P<0.05);而H0高、中剂量组则显著提升(P<0.05)。HE染色显示:模型组股骨骨小梁遭到严重破坏,而仙灵骨葆组、H0高、中剂量组骨小梁网状结构的完整性好。荧光定量PCR显示,模型组股骨β-ERmRNA水平与对照组没有显著差异。结论补骨脂丙酮提取物H0组分高、中剂量组初步显示抗骨质疏松特性,其机制与骨组织里β型雌激素受体无关。

  4. 顶空-气相法测定废水中甲醇、丙酮、异丙醇和甲苯%Headspace-gas Chromatography Method for the Determination of Wastewater in Methanol, Acetone, Isopropanol and Toluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵燕; 张炎; 黄春梅


    A method for the determination of methanol, acetone, isopropanol, toluene in chemical wastewater by headspace gas chromatography was established. In chemical wastewater of methanol, acetone, isopropanol and toluene matter was measured by DB-624 (30 m×320 μm×1. 80 μm) capillary column gas phase separation, the retention time was qualitative quantified by external standard method. The experimental results showed that t methanol, acetone, isopropanol and toluene concentration showed a good linear relationship with the peak area corresponding in 0. 2 ~100. 0 mg/L range, the limits of detection were 1. 1, 0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 01 mg/L. The precision and accuracy of the method was high, the relative standard deviation was less than 2%, and the recovery of standard addition was 95. 7% ~105. 0%.%建立了顶空-气相色谱法测定化工废水中甲醇、丙酮、异丙醇、甲苯的分析方法。化工废水中甲醇、丙酮、异丙醇和甲苯经DB-624(30 m×320μm×1.80μm)毛细管柱气相分离,用保留时间定性,外标法定量。实验结果表明,甲醇、丙酮、异丙醇和甲苯的浓度在2~100 mg/L范围内与对应的峰面积呈良好的线性关系,检出限分别为0.2、0.5、1.1、0.1 mg/L。该方法的精密度和准确度较高,相对标准偏差小于2%,加标回收率在95.7%~105.0%之间。

  5. 高海拔地区丙酮空气混合气爆炸极限计算及分析%Acetone Explosion Limit Calculation in High Altitude and Affecting Factors Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Acetone Explosion limit is one of most important parameters in cigarette tow production. Oxygen concentration is different with different altitude; By comparison the difference between calculation resuits and experimental values, analyses on affecting factors of explosion limit are made. And corrective measures are proposed in tow production in higher altitude area.%烟用醋酸纤维丝束生产中,丙酮作为溶剂,其爆炸极限是控制的重要参数之一。对高海拨地区丙酮爆炸的极限做了计算分析,提出了保证安全生产的措施。

  6. Simulation of Extractive Distillation Separation Process for Acetone-chloroform Mixture%丙酮-氯仿混合物萃取精馏分离过程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to increase the relative volatility of the key components and be in favor of their separation , the simulation calculation was conducted for extractive process of acetone -chloroform mixture stream with flow rate of 78.788 88 kmol/h using benzene as solvent .The entire separation process is composed of two columns , i.e, an extractive column and a solvent recovery column .The distillates in the top and bottom product of the former are acetone and a mixture of chloroform , benzene and trace of acetone , respectively .The distillates in the top and bottom product of the latter are chloroform and a mixture of benzene with trace of chloroform , respectively . The bottom product of the latter column is recycled to the former column with the makeup solvent .The extractive column contains 65 theoretical stages.The makeup solvent(0.410 76 kmol/h)and the fresh feed mixture enters the extractive column at the 30 th theoretical tray .The reflux ratio of the extractive column is set at 10 the distill-ate flow rate is set at 42.84kmol/h.The solvent recovery tower is simple distillation tower containing 70 theoreti-cal stages.The feed location is also the 30th theoretical tray, while the reflux ratio is set at 15and the distillate to feed ratio is set at 0.11.The simulation converged and the purity of acetone product from the top of extractive column is 99 .95%and the purity of chloroform from the solvent recovery column reaches 97 .87%.%为增大关键组分的相对挥发度以有利于分离,用苯作为溶剂对流量为78 .788 88 kmol/h的丙酮-氯仿混合物进行萃取精馏过程的模拟计算. 精馏流程采用两塔结构,即萃取精馏塔和溶剂回收塔,前者塔顶馏出产物为丙酮,塔底产物为氯仿、苯和微量丙酮的混合物;后者塔顶馏出产物为氯仿,塔底为溶剂苯和少量氯仿,此塔底产物作为回流与补充溶剂合并返回萃取精馏塔. 萃取精馏塔总共65块理论板(包括塔

  7. Oxidation of Fluoroalkanesulfonyl fluoride/hydrogen peroxide/base/acetone System with Benzyl Alcohol Derivatives%氟烷磺酰氟/双氧水/碱/丙酮体系与苄醇衍生物的氧化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严兆华; 胡伟; 田伟生; 许云


    Oxidation of fluoroalkanesulfonyl fluoride/hydrogen peroxide/base/acetone system with six benzyl alcohol derivative substrates was reported. Fluoroalkanesulfonyl fluorides(RfSO2F) include 5-H-3-oxa-l ,1,2, 2,4,4,5, 5-octafluoropentanesulfonyl fluoride ( HCF2CF2OCF2CF2SO2F ) , perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (n-C4F9SO2F) and perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride( n-C8F17SO2F). The optimized reaction condition was n ( Substrate) : n ( Rf SO2 F):n(H2O2):?( NaOH) = 1 : 4 : 8 : 8, solvent was acetone, reaction temperature was 20 °C and reaction time was 24 h. Yield of product ketones was 23%—92%. A plausible mechanism was proposed. Experimental results showed that in-situ generated fluorinatedalkano persulfonic acid intermediate could efficiently oxidize acetone and resulted dimethyl dioxirane could oxidize benzyl alcohol derivatives yielding corresponding ketones. The oxidizing ability of fluoroalkanesulfonyl fluoride/hydrogen peroxide/base/acetone system for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol derivatives is similar to that of the traditional Oxone/CH3COCH3 system. A novel method for the in-situ generation of dimethyl dioxirane was developed.%研究了氟烷磺酰氟/双氧水/氢氧化钠/丙酮体系与6个苄醇衍生物的氧化反应,其中氟烷磺酰氟包括HCF2CF2OCF2 CF2SO2F,n-C4F9 SO2F和n-C8F17SO2F.最优反应条件为n(苄醇衍生物)∶n(氟烷磺酰氟)∶n(双氧水)∶n(氢氧化钠)=1∶4∶8∶8,溶剂为丙酮,反应温度为20℃,反应时间为24 h.产物酮的收率为23% ~92%.探讨了该氧化反应的机理,原位生成的氟烷基过氧磺酸中间体可将丙酮氧化为二甲基二氧杂环丙烷,进而将反应体系中共存的苄醇衍生物氧化成相应的产物酮.氟烷磺酰氟/双氧水/氢氧化钠/丙酮体系原位生成的二甲基二氧杂环丙烷氧化苄位羟基的能力和传统的Oxone/CH3COCH3体系相当.本研究提供了一种新颖的原位制备二甲基二氧杂环丙烷的方法.

  8. Measurement and correlation of vapor-liquid equilibria for dichloromethane-methanol-acetone-water system%二氯甲烷-甲醇-丙酮-水体系汽液平衡测定和关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵少花; 顾正桂


    In the chemical and medicine industry,the dichloromethane-methanol-acetone-water quaternary system is commonly existed in the liquid waste. It is essential of the vapor-liquid equilibrium ( VLE ) data for this system to recover them by separating process. Isobaric VLE data on the six pairs of binary mixtures of dichloromethane, methanol, acetone and water were determined with single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium still at atmospheric pressure. The result shows that the thermodynamic consistency of the experimental data is satisfied by means of point to point method. In the experiment, the vapor-liquid phase compositions were analyzed by using SP-6800 gas chromatograph. Six pairs of correlation parameters of Wilson model and the calculated values of vapor-phase compositions were observed by using non-linear least square method procedure of Matlab. Besides, the vapor-liquid equilibria in this quaternary system were measured experimentally at 100 kPa, correlated by the six pairs of model parameters, and compared with the experimental data. The results obtained show that the absolute deviation of experiment and calculation is less than 0. 05. It means that the Wilson model is reliable for the prediction and correlation of the VLE data of the dichloromethane-methanol-acetone-water quaternary system as to its exact fitting accuracy. The experimental and correlative data can provide a basis for extractive distillation separation of dichloromethane-methanol-acetone-water system.%二氯甲烷-甲醇-丙酮-水四元体系常见于化工、医药等行业生产的废液中,该体系分离回收的前提是进行汽液平衡数据的测定.现利用单级循环汽液平衡釜测定了二氯甲烷、甲醇、丙酮、水混合液中的6组二元体系在常压下的汽液平衡数据,同时对其进行了点对点法热力学一致性校验.实验中采用SP-6800型气相色谱仪分析汽液相组成,并运用Matlab中的非线性最小二乘法分别关联6

  9. Crystal Structure of Poly[(acetone-O-3-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylmethyl-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olatesodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Penkova


    Full Text Available The structure of Poly[(acetone-O-3-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylmethyl-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olatesodium] was determined by X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic system and was characterized thus P 21 21 21, a=9.967(2 Å, b=11.473(3 Å, c=22.176(5 Å. Z=4, V=2535.9(10 Å3. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares on F2 to final values of R1=0.0601 and wR2=0.1515.

  10. Extraction of doxycycline hydrochloride using anhydrous alcohol and acetone binary aqueous two phase system%醇和小分子有机物二元双水相体系萃取盐酸多西环素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关卫省; 邓江华; 韩娟


    基于小分子醇双水相体系和小分子有机物双水相体系,建立了乙醇与丙酮和( NH4) 2SO4形成的二元双水相体系萃取盐酸多西环素的新方法.研究了(NH4)2SO4浓度、pH值、温度、乙醇与丙酮用量和盐酸多西环素浓度对盐酸多西环素分配行为的影响.结果表明,体系的(NH4)2SO4浓度为41%,pH值在4.5 ~5.0,温度25℃,且盐酸多西环素的质量浓度70 mg/L时,萃取率可达93.61%,分配系数可达83.081.%Based on the molecular alcohol aqueous two-phase system and the small molecular organic two-phase system,the new method of using anhydrous alcohol and small molecular organic (acetone) with ( NH4)2SO4 binary aqueous two phase system for extracting doxycycline hydrochloride was set up. The influence factors on partition behaviors of doxycycline hydrochloride were studied, including the concentration of (NH4)2SO4,anhydrous alcohol and acetone consumption,pH value,temperature and doxycycline hydrochloride. The results showed that when (NH4)2SO4 concentration of 41% ,pH value of 4.5~5.0, and the temperature of 25℃ ,mass concentration of doxycycline hydrochloride 70 mg/L,the extraction rate up to 93.61% and 83.081 .respectively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春山; 孙保帅; 井新利; 李冬光; 张璟蕾


    由自制的磺化丙酮-甲醛缩聚物(sulphonated acetone-formaldehyde plymer,SAF)作为分散剂制备了浇注碳化硅(SiC)砂轮水基浆料.通过红外光谱,简要分析了SAF的分散机理,并以含10%(质量含量)聚乙烯醇水溶液作为分散介质,研究了不同用量SAF和不同pH值对体系沉降性的影响.采用沉降法和吸光光度法评价了SAF在SiC浆料中的分散性能.结果表明:当SAF添加的质量分数为5%,pH为10左右,体系的相对沉降层高度和吸光度均达到最大,得到了分散稳定性较好的砂轮浆料.%A silicon carbide (SiC) slurry as a casting abrasive material was prepared by sulphonated acetone-formaldehyde polymer (SAF) as a dispersant. Its dispersive mechanism was studied briefly with infrared spectrography. The effects of different pH value and SAF dosage on the sedimentation behavior of SiC in the slurry were studied using 10% (in mass) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) water solution as a medium. Moreover, the dispersive performance of SAF was estimated by the measurement of sedimentation and absorbency of SiC slurry. The results show that dispersive and steady slurry is obtained with 5% (in mass) SAF, and at a pH value of 10.0, the maximum relative sedimentation height and absorbency of the slurry can be reached

  12. Residual Determination of Ethanol and Acetone in Nimodipine Sustained-release Tablet by HS-GC%HS-GC法同时测定尼莫地平缓释片中乙醇和丙酮的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓琴; 韩春


    目的:建立同时测定尼莫地平缓释片中乙醇和丙酮残留量的方法。方法:采用顶空气相色谱法。色谱柱为以6%氰丙基苯基-94%二甲基聚硅氧烷(DB-624)为固定液的毛细管柱,程序升温,进样口温度为230℃,检测器为氢火焰离子化检测器,检测器温度为250℃,载气为氮气,流速为2.0 ml/min,分流比为5∶1,顶空加热温度为90℃,平衡时间为20 min,顶空进样量为1.0 ml。结果:乙醇、丙酮检测质量浓度线性范围分别为1.25~500.0μg/ml(r=0.9999)、0.50~202.0μg/ml(r=0.9992);定量限分别为5.01、2.02μg/ml,检测限分别为1.67、0.67μg/ml;精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD<3.0%;加样回收率分别为96.81%~102.00%(RSD=1.89%,n=9)、96.64%~102.31%(RSD=1.82%,n=9)。结论:该方法简便、快速、准确,可用于同时测定尼莫地平缓释片中乙醇和丙酮的残留量。%OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the residual determination of ethanol and acetone in Nimodipine sus-tained-release tablet. METHODS:Headspace GC was on the column of capillary column with fixative solution of 6% cyanopropyl phenyl-94% dimethyl polysiloxane(DB-624)by temperature programming,injector temperature was 230 ℃,detector was a flame ionization detector,detector temperature was 250 ℃,carrier gas was nitrogen gas,flow rate was 2.0 ml/min,split ratio was 5∶1, equilibrium temperature was 90 ℃,equilibrium time was 20 min,and volume of sample was 1.0 ml. RESULTS:The linear range was 1.25-500.0 μg/ml for ethanol (r=0.999 9) and 0.50-202.0 μg/ml for acetone (r=0.999 2);limits of quantitative were 5.01, 2.02μg/ml,limits of detection were 1.67,0.67μg/ml,respectively;RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were low-er than 3.0%;recoveries were 96.81%-102.00%(RSD=1.89%,n=9),96.64%-102.31%(RSD=1.82%,n=9),respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple

  13. 绿色低成本脂肪族高效减水剂的合成及性能%Preparation and properties of green low-cost sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde superplasticizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国新; 祝烨然; 沈燕平; 杨立志; 杜志芹


    通过使用粗亚硫酸钠含量为65%的工业副产品部分取代无水亚硫酸钠作为磺化剂,降低了原料成本.通过甲醛的分步控制滴加,使反应热得到控制释放,提供了合成所需热量,达到产品的无热源法生产;通过水的分步加入即变浓度法生产工艺的应用,进一步节约能耗.通过原材料配比及合成工艺对产物减水性能的研究,确定了合成低成本绿色脂肪族高效减水剂HLC-RS的最佳原材料配比为:n(甲醛):n(丙酮):n(无水亚硫酸钠):n(粗亚硫酸钠)=2.6:1.0:0.5:0.6;合成工艺为:缩合温度80℃,缩合时间4h,其中水分3次加入,甲醛分步控温滴加.%The industrial by-product containing 65% rough sodium sulfite was used as sulfonating agent to partly replace the anhydrous sodium sulfite to reduce the cost of raw material. The formaldehyde was dropped by several steps to control the heat of chemical reaction, provide the heat required for synthetics and achieve non heat source process production.The concentrationchanging method was applied during the process to depress the consumption of energy.The optimum prescription of the HLC-RS low-cost green sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde superplasticizer was as follows:n(formaldehyde)∶n(acetone)∶n(anhydrous sodium sulfite) ∶n (rough sodium sulfite)=2.6∶1.0∶0.5∶0.6. The reaction temperature was 80 ℃ and the reaction time was 4 hours. The water was added in three times and the formaldehyde was dropped by several steps.

  14. Research on Curing of a Silicon-containing Arylacetylene Resin with Nickelous Diacetyl Acetonate%乙酰丙酮镍催化含硅芳炔树脂的固化反应行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海帆; 邓诗峰; 黄发荣; 杜磊


    The curing reaction of silicon-containing arylacetylene resin (PSA) with nickelous diacetyl acetonate (NIAA) was studied, the curing behavior was characterized by gelation time and DSC analysis, curing kinetic parameters were calculated, the curing was traced by FT-IR. The results indicated that the catalytic effect of NIAA on PSA resin was obvious. When 0.2%(ω) nickelous diacetyl acetonate was added in the resin, the apparent activity energy of curing reaction was decreased from 121.2 kJ/mol for PSA resin to 104.2 kJ/mol for PSA-NAA resin and the initial curing temperature decreased by 35℃. Glaser coupling, Strauss coupling, cyclotrimerization and Diels-Alder reaction occurred at different cuing stages of PSA-NIAA resin. The cured PSA-NIAA resin possessed excellent thermal stability. The temperature at 5% weight loss and char yield at 1000℃ of the cured resin with 0.2% NIAA were 620℃ and 87.8% under nitrogen, respectively.%通过凝胶时间测定、差示扫描量热分析、FT-IR分析研究了乙酰丙酮镍催化含硅芳炔树脂体系的固化反应行为,并计算了反应动力学参数.结果表明,乙酰丙酮镍对含硅芳炔树脂固化有显著的催化作用,加入0.2%(ω)乙酰丙酮镍(nJ)较大幅度降低树脂固化反应的活化能和温度,初始固化温度降低约35℃,固化反应活化能为104.2 kJ/mol,比含硅芳炔树脂的固化活化能(121.2 kJ/mol)低;乙酰丙酮镍催化含硅芳炔树脂可发生Glaser偶合、Strauss偶合、环三聚、Diels-Alder和固化反应;树脂固化物保持优异的热稳定性,在氮气气氛下5%失重温度为620℃,1000℃时残留率为87.8%.

  15. Acetone-Enhanced Negative Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Explosives%丙酮增强的真空紫外光电离负离子质谱快速检测爆炸物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦健; 花磊; 侯可勇; 蒋蕾; 程沙沙; 齐国臣; 李庆运; 田地; 李海洋


    实验基于10.6 eV的真空紫外灯设计了大气压下的丙酮增强负离子光电离源,结合自行研制的飞行时间质谱仪,用于痕量爆炸物的快速检测。在丙酮增强负离子光电离源中,丙酮分子吸收10.6 eV的光子,通过单光子电离释放出一个电子,光电子与大气中的O2、CO2等反应,最终生成了以CO-3为主的试剂离子。该电离源可在不经样品前处理的情况下,实现对常见爆炸物吉纳( DINA)、特屈儿( Tetryl)、2,4,6-三硝基甲苯( TNT)、黑索金( RDX)的高灵敏度检测,其中TNT的检出限达到2 pg。基于真空紫外灯的丙酮增强负离子光电离源结构简单,灵敏度高,具有较为广泛的应用前景。%In this article, an acetone-enhanced negative photoionization (AENP) source based on a 10. 6 eV vacuum ultraviolet ( VUV) lamp was developed and coupled to a home-made time-of-flight mass spectrometer for rapid detection of trace explosives. In the AENP source, acetone molecules absorbed 10. 6 eV photons and were ionized by single photon ionization to emit photoelectrons. The photoelectrons reacted with O2 , CO2 , etc. in the atmosphere to produce mainly CO-3 negative reactant ions. With this ionization source, common explosives, N-nitrobiz ( 2-hyolorolroxy ethyl )-amine dinitrate ( DINA ) , Tetryl, trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), could be detected sensitively, and the limit of detection of 2 pg ( TNT) with a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude was achieved. The simple structure, high sensitivity characteristics make the AENP source as a promising ionization source for mass spectrometry.

  16. A calculation of acetone temperature field under extremely high heat flux within a short time%超急速温升下丙酮液池的温度场计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁喜; 华顺芳; 刘登瀛; 张正芳


    According to the experiment and numerical simulation, the temperature field and its variation law of acetone and the tiny metal grains are studied under the transient and extremely high heat flux condition, while the platinum film resistance is overlaid with tiny metal grains or nothing. The speed of temperature rise, temperature grads and the thickness of heat layer are calculated numerically. Some stranger phenomena that are different from abnormal boiling are observed. It points out that it is easy to get higher speed of temperature rise while the platinum film is overlaid with nothing than with tiny metal grains despite of its vehemently boiling behavior.%通过实验和数值模拟计算,研究了瞬时、强热流极端条件下铂薄膜表面覆盖和不覆盖细小金属颗粒时丙酮液体和金属颗粒温度场分布及其变化规律.确定了温升速率、温度梯度和温度边界层厚度,发现了常规沸腾难以解释的现象,并指出覆盖金属颗粒后虽然沸腾极为激烈,但难以达到极高的温升速率,而不覆盖金属颗粒却容易产生爆发沸腾.

  17. 高掺比ABE/柴油混合燃料的喷雾与燃烧特性%Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Diesel Blend with High ABE Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 林亦律; 肖国炜; Lee Timothy; 李佳峰; 张春化


    The acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE)/diesel blend with high ABE ratio as alternative fuel was studied and the experiments were conducted in a pre-combustion type constant volume chamber.ABE solution with typical volu-metric ratios of 30%, acetone,60%, butanol,and 10%, ethanol was blended with diesel at 80%, volume and was tested.The ambient temperature was set to be 1,100,K and 900,K,which represent normal temperature combustion mode and low temperature combustion mode,respectively,andthe ambient oxygen concentrations were set to be 21%,,16%, and 11%,,respectively,which represent different EGR conditions for diesel engine.In-cylinder pres-sure was recorded by using a pressure transducer and the time-resolved Mie-scattering image and natural flame lumi-nosity were captured by using a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser as a light source.The results show that,due to the high percentage of ABE in the blend,the liquid penetration and intensity of natural flame lu-minosity are reduced significantly,which indicates a high potential to reduce soot level when it is used as an alterna-tive fuel for internal combustion engine.Furthermore,a soot-free combustion is achieved by combing the low tem-perature combustion with blended fuel with a high percentage of ABE.Hence,in terms of soot emission,high ABE ratio blends are a very promising alternative fuel which can be directly used in diesel engines.%针对丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(ABE)/柴油混合燃料的喷雾蒸发和燃烧过程展开了试验研究.试验在预燃加热式定容燃烧弹中进行,燃料为体积分数80%的ABE和20%,的柴油混合物,且ABE溶液中丙酮、丁醇、乙醇的体积分数分别为30%,、60%,和10%,.试验过程中燃烧弹内喷雾环境温度分别控制在1,100,K和900,K以代表普通燃烧模式和低温燃烧模式,环境氧体积分数分别控制在21%,、16%,和11%,以对应发动机不同的 EGR 工况.由高速摄相机配合激光束的使用,拍摄喷雾

  18. (乙醇+丙酮)-硫酸铵二元双水相分离萃取盐酸四环素%Ethanol and acetone-ammonium sulfate binary aqueous two-phase extraction separation of tetracycline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关卫省; 邓江华; 韩娟


    基于小分子醇双水相体系和小分子有机物双水相体系,建立了(乙醇+丙酮)-(NH4)2SO4形成的二元双水相体系萃取盐酸四环素的新方法.研究了分相盐、醇及小分子有机物的类型、用量及比例、温度、溶液酸度、共存物质对盐酸四环素分配行为的影响.结果表明,硫酸铵浓度为41%、无水乙醇与丙酮体积比为2:1、溶液酸度在pH 4.5-5范围、温度为25℃二元双水相体系对四环素有较高萃取率可达90%,分配系数达到57.当测试允许相对误差为±7%时,浓度为75 mg·L-1的盐酸四环素,K+、Na+、F-、Cl-、NO3-、Br-浓度均为10%对测定结果无干扰,1.5倍的盐酸美他环素、35倍的氯霉素、青霉素和红霉素、80倍的淀粉和蔗糖、400倍的葡萄糖和果糖对测定结果不发生干扰.%Based on small molecule alcohol and organic molecule aqueous two -phase system, a new method was developed for extraction of tetracycline hydrochloride in ethanol-acetone-ammonium sulfate binary aqueous system. Several factors on the tetracycline hydrochloride allocation behavior was studied, including the type, amounts and relative proportions of salt-alcohol-small molecular organics, temperature, pH and the coexisting substances. The results showed that when ammonium sulfate was 41% , the volume ratio of absolute ethyl alcohol and acetone was 2:1, and the solution pH was 4. 5-5, the extraction rate and the distribution coefficient of tetracycline hydrochloride were 90% and 57 respectively. The relative error was ±7% , the ions including K+ , Na+ , F- , Cl- , NO3- , Br- , the hydrochloride metacycline, and other components in the system such as chloramphenicol penicillin, erythromycin, starch and sucrose, glucose and fructose have not any effect on the extraction behavior.

  19. 水滑石的合成及其对催化丙酮合成异佛尔酮的影响%Hydrotalcite synthesis and the effect on acetone catalytic condensation to isophorone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自力; 刘艳; 陆柏楼


    In this paper, we first prepare the Mg-Al LDHs by using co-precipitation method, and then derive Mg-Al composite oxides from the calcination of Mg-Al LDHs. Via continuous micro-reactor to generate acetone condensation reaction of isophorone as a probe, the effect that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite synthesis of mixed oxides on their catalytic properties is discussed. Moreover, the characteristics of Mg-Al LDHs and Mg-Al composite oxides are analyzed by useing XRD, TG-DTA. The experimental results demonstrate that the synthesis of hydrotalcite has a greater impact on the micro-crystal structure of hydrotalcite. When Mg/A1 = 1 : 1, Mg-Al hydrotalcite has good crystallinity and crystal shape complete. Meanwhile, the optimal preparation parameters are obtained. Under optimal synthesis conditions, the catalyst TGA results show that the layered hydrotalcite structure is completely destroyed when calcination temperature is over 500℃, and the memory effect is not available, Meanwhile, thermal stability significantly improved. According to the active evaluation results, the suitability temperature for hydrotalcite calcination is determined to be 550℃. Under these conditions, the ratios for acetone conversion and isophorone selectivity are 19.74% and 55.91%, respectively.%用共沉淀法合成铁铝水滑石,焙烧制得镁铝复合氧化物催化剂.采用连续微反装置,以丙酮缩合生成异佛尔酮为探针反应,探讨了镁铝水滑石的合成对镁铝复合氧化物催化性能的影响,采用.XRD、TG—DTA等分析手段对催化利前体镁铝水滑石进行表征.结果表明,镁铝水滑石的合成工艺对水滑石的微观晶体结构有较大影响,镁铝比是较为重要的影响因素,在镁铝比为1:1时水滑石结晶度较好,晶形完整.活性评价结果表明,适宜的合成参数为:镁铝比为1:1,金属离子总浓度为0.2mol·L-1,沉淀剂用量为1.5倍.对优化合成工艺条件下制备的催

  20. Ultrastructural effects of acetone and benzalkonium chloride on the stratum corneum lipids in murine epidermis%丙酮和氯化苯甲烃铵对角质层脂质超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜少军; 周晓军


    本文用裸鼠作为实验动物对化学刺激性物质导致角质层脂态的变化进行超微结构的研究.裸鼠表皮经丙酮和氯化苯甲烃铵处理后,样品用四氧化钌固定.超微结构观察表明由于丙酮和氯化苯甲烃铵的刺激作用导致角质层脂质形态的变化、角质层脂质的抽提以及在角质细胞之间形成腔隙.结果表明四氧化钌对角质层脂质有良好的固定作用,并清晰地展示出丙酮和氯化苯甲烃铵对角质层脂质的影响.%To gain a better understanding of the interaction of chemically different irritants with the stratum corneum lipids, the morphological changes of the stratum corneum lipids resulting from the chemical irritants in murine epidermis were investigated. Node mice were treated topically with either acetone or 2% benzalkonium chloride, the visualization of the stratum corneum was carried out using a special fixation method utilizing 0.25% ruthenium tetroxide as the post-fixative. Ultrastructural observation demonstrated obvious distortions within the intercellular domains of the stratum corneum, including disorganization of lipid bilayers, lipid extraction, and lacunae formation. The results of this study indicated that ruthenium tetroxide is a preferable post-fixative for the study of the stratum corneum lipids, and provide evidence that different irritants induce distinct alterations within the stratum corneum to reflect the specific interaction with the stratum corneum lipids.

  1. Pretreatment of plasma samples by a novel hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration technique for the determination of plasma protein binding of three coumarins using acetone as protein binding releasing agent. (United States)

    Li, Junmei; Shi, Qingwen; Jiang, Ye; Liu, Yan


    A novel and practical sample pretreatment method based on hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HFCF-UF) was developed to determine plasma protein binding by using HPLC. The samples for analyzing unbound and total concentrations could be prepared in parallel simultaneously by the same device. It only required centrifugation for a short time and the filtrate could be injected directly for HPLC analysis without further treatment. Coumarins were selected as the model drugs. Acetone was chosen as the releasing agent to free the binding drug from the drug-protein complex for the total drug concentration determination. Non-specific bindings (NSBs) between the analytes and hollow fiber membrane materials were investigated. The type and volume of protein binding releaser were optimized. Additionally, centrifugal speed and centrifugal time were considered. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute recovery rates of the unbound and total concentrations were in the range of 97.5-100.9% for the three analytes. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.0135-0.0667μgmL(-1). In vitro plasma protein binding of the three coumarins was determined at three concentrations using the validated method and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 3.4%. Compared with traditional method, the HFCF-UF method is simple to run, no specialized equipment requirement and is a more accurate plasma pretreatment procedure with almost excellent drug-protein binding equilibrium. Therefore, this method can be applied to determine the plasma protein binding in clinical practice. It also provides a reliable alternative for accurate monitoring of unbound or total drug concentration in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  2. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation from cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422%一株拜氏梭菌利用甘蔗废糖蜜发酵生产丙酮丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珊; 汪维云; 倪晔; 王云; 宋钢; 孙志浩


    以甘蔗废糖蜜作为原料,利用Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422菌株进行丙酮丁醇发酵的初步研究.结果表明:采用H2SO4预处理糖蜜,初糖质量浓度60 g/L,(NH4)2SO4 2g/L,CaCO3 10 g/L,温度30℃,pH 5.5~7.0,接种量6%(体积分数),在5L发酵罐中发酵培养96 h,总溶剂产量为16.17 g/L,其中丁醇质量浓度为10.07 g/L,总溶剂产率为30.2%,糖利用率为89.3%.%Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using sugar cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422 was studied. The molasses were pretreated with H2SO4 and the fermentation conditions including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature and pH, etc. , were optimized. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions was as follows; initial sugar concentration 60 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 2 g/L, CaCO3 10 g/L, inoculation amount 6% ( V/V), pH 5. 5-7. 0, fermented at 30 ℃, for 96 h. Under these conditions, the total solvent, butanol ratio, solvent productivity, and sugar utilization in the 5-L bioreac-tor were 16. 17 g/L, 10. 07 g/L, 30. 2% , and 89. 3%, respectively.

  3. Combined IR/NIR and density functional theory calculations analysis of the solvent effects on frequencies and intensities of the fundamental and overtones of the C ═ O stretching vibrations of acetone and 2-hexanone. (United States)

    Chen, Yujing; Morisawa, Yusuke; Futami, Yoshisuke; Czarnecki, Mirosław A; Wang, Hai-Shui; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    Vibrational overtone studies primarily focus on X-H stretching overtone transitions, where X is an atom like C, O, N, or S. In contrast, the studies on the C ═ O stretching overtones are very scattered. To advance the research in this field, we measured the fundamental, first, and second overtones of the C ═ O stretching vibration of acetone and 2-hexanone in n-hexane, CCl4, and CHCl3, as well as in the vapor phase using FT-IR/FT-NIR spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have also been performed to help the assignment of the C ═ O stretching bands and to guide interpretation of the experimental results. It was found that the wavenumbers, absorption intensities, and oscillator strengths of the C ═ O stretching bands show marked solvent dependence. In the fundamental and the first overtone regions, the intensities of the C ═ O stretching vibration were found to be pronouncedly more intense than those of the C-H stretching vibration. In the second overtone region, the intensities of the C-H stretching vibration are comparable to those of the C ═ O stretching vibration. The theoretical and observed decrease in integrated intensity upon going from the fundamental to the first overtone of the C ═ O stretching vibration is around 50, which is significantly larger than those of the O-H, C-H, and S-H stretching vibration. Both the calculated and experimental results suggest that excessive weakness in the C ═ O stretching overtone was shown to be a result of both a low anharmonicity and a substantial reduction in the oscillator strength. These results provide new insight into our understanding of the C ═ O stretching vibration.

  4. The Effect of pH Control on Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with Xylose and D-Glucose and D-Xylose Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Zhiqiang Wen; Mianbin Wu; Hong Li; Jun Yang; Jianping Lin; Yijun Lin; Lirong Yang; Peilin Cen


    D-Glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose, and cellobiose are saccharification products of lignocellulose and important carbon sources for industrial fermentation. The fermentation efficiency with each of the five sugars and the mixture of the two most dominant sugars, D-glucose and D-xylose, was evaluated for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The utilization efficacy of the five reducing sugars was in the order of D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose and cellobiose. D-Xylose, the second most abundant component in lignocellulosic hydrolysate, was used in the fermentation either as sole carbon source or mixed with glucose. The results indicated that maintaining pH at 4.8, the optimal pH value for solventogenesis, could increase D-xylose consumption when it was the sole carbon source. Different media con-taining D-glucose and D-xylose at different ratios (1:2, 1:5, 1.5:1, 2:1) were then attempted for the ABE fermenta-tion. When pH was at 4.8 and xylose concentration was five times that of glucose, a 256.9%increase in xylose utilization and 263.7%increase in solvent production were obtained compared to those without pH control. These results demonstrate a possible approach combining optimized pH control and D-glucose and D-xylose ratio to increase the fermentation efficiency of lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

  5. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules. (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon


    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (R air/R gas = 12.8) compared to that (R air/R gas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  6. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.


    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  7. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides. (United States)


    ... 100 grams of the additive, plus carrier, for use in dough conditioning. (c) It is used or intended for...; and (2) as a dough-conditioning agent in bread and roll production at not to exceed the quantity of...) Adequate use directions to provide a final product that complies with the limitations prescribed...

  8. An improvement of separation and response applying post-column compensation and one-step acetone protein precipitation for the determination of coenzyme Q10 in rat plasma by SFC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Yang, Rujie; Li, Yingchao; Liu, Cuiru; Xu, Youjun; Zhao, Longshan; Zhang, Tianhong


    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) solid dispersion was prepared to improve its oral bioavailability due to the poor solubility of CoQ10. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of CoQ10 solid dispersion, a simple, rapid, sensitive and environment friendly method for the determination of CoQ10 in rat plasma was developed. In this study, samples were prepared by one-step protein precipitation with acetone and then the supercritical fluid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used. The separation was achieved by an ACQUITY UPC(2)™ BEH 2-EP column (100mm×3mm, 1.7μm) maintained at 35°C, using carbon dioxide (≥99.99%) and methanol (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. To improve the response and sensitivity, the compensation solvent of methanol with 2mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.2ml/min was used and the total analysis time was only 1.5min for each sample. The detection was carried out on a tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the mass transition ion pair was m/z 881.0→197.0 and 285.1→193.0 for CoQ10 and diazepam, internal standard (IS), respectively. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 2.00-500.00ng/ml (r(2)≥0.998) with a lower limit of quantification of 2.00ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were below 15% for all quality control samples. The proposed method was rapid, accurate and reproducible, which was suitable to compare the pharmacokinetic behaviors in rats after a single oral dose of 100mg/kg CoQ10 solid dispersion or tablets.

  9. 实施PID参数整定提高苯酚丙酮装置自控水平%Tuning of PID Parameters to Improve the Automatic Control Level of Phenol-acetone Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Automatic control level is an important indicator for secure operation and efficient production of petrochemical enterprises production device,which directly impact on energy consumption and product quality.The PID parameters of the control loop decide the use of automatic control in control loop and the usage effect.In order to improve the automation level,Yanshan Petrochemical Company cooperated with Beijing University of Chemical Technology implement PID parameter tuning(according to the controlled variable characteristics,choose appropriate parameters of regulator to obtain the best control effect and ensure the automatic safe operation of control loop) of 41 sets of production device.On this basis,we implement automatic control rate monitor to ensure the PID optimization.This article introduced the application of PID parameters tuning in phenol acetone production device.%自控水平是企业生产装置安稳运行、高效生产的重要指标,直接影响能耗和产品质量。控制回路能否投用自控、投用效果好坏取决于控制回路的PID参数设置,为了提高自控水平,燕山石化公司与北京化工大学合作陆续对41套生产装置实施了PID参数整定(根据被控变量的特性,合理选择调节器的参数,获得最佳的控制效果,确保控制回路自动安稳运行)。在此基础上实施了自控率监控,保证了PID优化成果。本文以此为背景,介绍PID参数整定在苯酚丙酮装置的应用情况。

  10. 木薯和玉米原料丁醇发酵中丁醇丙酮质量比的图论理论计算及其验证%Theoretical calculation of butanol acetone mass ratio by graph theory and its experimental verification in cassava and corn media based butanol fermentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乐; 李志刚; 李鑫; 史仲平


    在丁醇发酵产溶剂阶段,乙酸和丁酸的生成途径、消耗途径同时存在,各自形成一个闭环路径.本研究利用图论对丁醇发酵中丁醇丙酮质量比进行了理论计算,并对以木薯和玉米为原料的丁醇发酵进行了模拟计算,结果表明:丁酸闭环路径(L2环)的代谢强度是影响丁醇丙酮质量比的主要因素,并且L2环的代谢强度越弱,丁醇丙酮质量比越高;与玉米原料丁醇发酵相比,木薯原料发酵的m(丁醇)/m(丙酮)提高了16.7%.实验结果证实了以上计算结果:在传统发酵、油醇萃取发酵和生物柴油萃取发酵中,以木薯(适时添加酵母浸粉)为原料的发酵批次与以玉米为原料的发酵批次相比,由于其丁酸闭环路径代谢强度较弱,相应发酵方式下丁醇丙酮质量比分别提高了12.9%、61.4%和6.7%,而且两种原料相应发酵方式的丁醇总产量和生产效率基本持平.另外,高丁醇丙酮质量比的木薯发酵所得改良型生物柴油中丁醇浓度与玉米发酵的相比提高了16%,性能得到进一步提高.%ABE fermentation is characterized with acetate butyrate formation and re-assimilation in multiple closed reaction loops during solventogenesis phase.In this study,we estimated butanol acetone mass ratio using graph theory for bio-butanol production utilizing cassava and corn based media.Theoretical calculations revealed that the metabolic strength of butyrate loop (L2) dominantly influenced butanol acetone mass ratio and lower metabolic strength in butyrate loop led to a higher butanol acetone mass ratio,and the ratio could be increased by 16.7% when using cassava based medium.Experimental results confirmed the theoretical estimations:weakened metabolic strength in butyrate loop using cassava based medium led to higher butanol acetone mass ratios in traditional fermentation and extractive fermentations with oleyl alcohol and biodiesel as the extractants,and butanol acetone mass ratios

  11. 郁李仁(R)-醇腈酶高效催化乙酰基三甲基硅烷与丙酮氰醇不对称转氰%Highly Efficient Asymmetric Transcyanation of Acetyltrimethylsilane with Acetone Cyanohydrin Catalyzed by (R)-Oxynitrilase from Prunus Japonica Seed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄舜荣; 吴虹; 宗敏华


    Highly efficient asymmetric transcyanation of acetyltrimethylsilane with acetone cyanohydrin in an aqueous/organic biphasic system catalyzed with (R)-oxynitrilase from defatted Prunus Japonica seed meal for the preparation of optically active (R)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl- propionitrile was successfully carried out for the first time. For better understanding of the reaction, various influential variables were examined with respect to the initial reaction rate, the substrate conversion and the product enantiomeric excess (e.e.). Diisopropyl ether was found to be the best organic phase for this reaction among all the organic solvents tested. The optimal concentrations of Prunus Japonica seed meal powder, acetyltrimethylsilane and acetone cyanohydrin, volume ratio of aqueous phase 13% (by volume), 5.0 and 30℃, respectively, while the initial reaction rate, the substrate conversion and the product enantiomeric excess were 1.34mmol. L-1.h-1, 99.0% and 99.0%, respectively. The comparative study demonstrated that silicon atom in substrate showed great effect on the reaction and acetyltrimethylsilane was a much better substrate for (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Prunus Japonica seed than its carbon analogue 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone.

  12. 吸附管采样-毛细管柱气相色谱法测定环境空气和工业废气中的丙酮%Determination of acetone in ambient air and exhaust air by tube adsorption and capillary gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章建立了以活性炭为填料的吸附管采集环境空气或工业废气中的丙酮,CS2进行解吸,并用毛细管柱气相色谱进行定性定量的方法。结果表明该方法简单灵敏,线性范围良好,检出限低,精密度好,定性定量准确;经实际样品测定,完全能满足环境空气和工业废气中丙酮的监测要求。%The method of determination of acetone in ambient air and exhaust air was established in the pa-per, which was using activated charcoal tube adsorption/carbon disulfide desorption and determined by capillary gas chromatography. The method was simple and sensitive, it also had broad linear scale, low MDL, good precision, accuracy qualitative and quantitative accuracy. The method can satisfy the demand of monitoring of acetone in am-bient air and exhaust air via the sample test.

  13. 丙酮肟氧化偶联合成2,3-二甲基-2,3-二硝基丁烷反应的研究%Synthesis of 2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane by Oxidative Coupling of Acetone Oxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜建; 赵迎宪; 张洪


    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) was prepared by oxidative coupling of acetone oxime with H2O2 over the modified TS-1 catalyst. In one-pot operation, the ammoximation of acetone followed by catalytic oxidative coupling over TS-1 produced the DMNB with yield of 43.2%. The operation is simple and safe. The structures of products were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.%以丙酮肟为原料,在改性TS-1(钛硅分子筛)催化剂催化下,可用H2O2氧化偶联合成2,3-二甲基-2,3-二硝基丁烷(DMNB).在此基础上以丙酮为原料,在改性TS-1催化剂催化下,一锅法进行丙酮氨肟化和氧化偶联反应可制备收率43.2%的DMNB.该方法简便易操作,操作安全.产物结构经1H NMR,13C NMR表征.

  14. Separation of the Mixed Solvent Including Methanol,Acetone and Ethyl acetate in Cefotaxime sodium Production%头孢噻肟钠生产中甲醇、丙酮与乙酸乙酯混合溶媒的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚其; 李科


    通过萃取精馏、精馏对甲醇、丙酮与乙酸乙酯的混合溶媒加以分离,通过对生产数据的调整,确定了萃取精馏过程中混合溶媒与萃取水加入比例为1∶1,此条件下,萃取效果最好。萃取塔顶可以得到丙酮与乙酸乙酯和水的共沸物,塔底可以得到纯度为99.5%的甲醇。%To separate the mixture solvent including methanol,acetone and ethyl acetate by extractive distillation and distillation.Through adjusting production data,to determine the ratio of the mixture solvent to water was 1∶1 in the the extractive distillation process,and under the conditions,the extraction results were the best.To obtain the azeotrope including acetone ethyl acetate and water in the top of the tower,99.5% methanol in the bottom.

  15. Determination of Dichloromethane and Acetone Residues in Azithromycin by Headspace Liquid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography%顶空液相微萃取-气相色谱法测定阿奇霉素中二氯甲烷和丙酮残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云丹; 王凯莹


    采用液相微萃取与气相色谱联用技术测定阿奇霉素中二氯甲烷和丙酮的残留量. 以苯乙酮为萃取溶剂,萃取时间30 min,萃取温度60℃,萃取液滴体积2μL. 在浓度为20. 0μg/g ~120. 0μg/g范围内,二氯甲烷的外标曲线为Y=0. 009 9X -0. 088 2,相关系数R2 =0. 983 1;丙酮的外标曲线为Y=0. 029 1X-0. 040 5,相关系数R2 =0. 986 5;阿奇霉素中丙酮测定结果的相对标准偏差(RSD%)为1. 19,加标回收率为93. 49% ~101. 1%;方法的最低检测限:二氯甲烷为0. 298 μg/g,丙酮为0. 059 μg/g.%A method was used for the determination of residual dichloromethane and trichloromethane in raniti-dine hydrochloride by liquid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography( GC) . Acetophenone was as ex-traction solvent, the extraction time was 30 min, the extraction temperature was 60 ℃,the extraction liquid drop vol-ume was 2 μL. The external standard curve of dichloromethane was Y=0. 009 9X-0. 088 2, the correlation coeffi-cient was R2 =0. 983 1 and the external standard curve of acetone was Y=0. 029 1X-0. 040 5,the correlation coeffi-cient was R2 = 0. 9865 within the concentration ranges of dichloromethane(20. 0 μg/g ~120. 0 μg/g). The relative standard deviation ( RSD%) of the determination of acetone in azithromycin was 1 . 19 . The recovery rate was in the range of 93 . 49% ~101 . 1%. The lowest detection limit of method were as follows: the dichloromethane was 0 . 298μg/g,the acetone was 0. 059 μg/g.

  16. Observation of the curative effect of mifepristone combined with infertility caused left levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system in acetone in treatment of adenomyosis%米非司酮联合左炔诺孕丙酮宫内缓释系统治疗子宫腺肌病导致不孕症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察米非司酮联合左炔诺孕丙酮缓释系统(LNG-IUS)治疗子宫腺肌病导致不孕症的临床疗效。方法将本院2010年5月~2011年8月收治的子宫腺肌病导致的不孕症患者60例,随机分成治疗组和对照组两组。治疗组:予以米非司酮25mg,每日一次口服,连服3个月。并且所有患者均在签署知情同意书后自愿使用左炔孕丙酮宫内缓释系统。经彩超检查后,由专人于月经第3~7天在用药同时放置左炔诺孕丙酮宫内缓释系统。6个月后取出。对照组:单独给予米非司酮25mg,每日一次口服,连服3个月。观察停药后1、3、6、12个月的怀孕成功率。结果随访至12个月时统计,治疗组平均受孕率79%,对照组平均受孕率57%,治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论使用米非司酮联合左炔诺孕丙酮宫内缓释系统治疗子宫腺肌病可以明显提高患者的受孕率,对于子宫腺肌病导致的不孕症疗效好于其他方法,而且经济、安全,便于患者接受。%Objective To observe the curative effect of mifepristone combined with infertility caused left levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system in acetone in treatment of adenomyosis. Methods 60 infertility patients in our hospital from 2010 May to 2011 August were adenomyosis in patients, randomly divided into treatment group and control group two groups.Treatment group was given mifepristone 25mg orally, once a day, and even served three months. And all the patients after informed consent voluntary use of levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system in acetone, by color Doppler ultrasound examination, by hand in 3-7 days in the menstrual medication at the same time, place left levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system in acetone, removed after 6 months. Control group was given mifepristone 25mg orally, once a day, and even served three months. The pregnancy, 3, 6, 1 and 12 months were

  17. “白木香通体造香技术”所结沉香质量评价及苄基丙酮的含量测定%Quality assessment of Chinese Eaglewood by the technique of Aquilaria sinensis quintana making incense and the determination of benzyl acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳艳; 房志坚


    目的 对“白木香通体造香技术”所结沉香进行质量研究.方法 从沉香的性状、显微、理化、浸出物含量等多方面开展研究,并采用气相色谱法测定沉香中特征性有效成分苄基丙酮的含量.结果 “白木香通体造香技术”所结沉香除性状外,其他各项检测结果均符合2010年版《中国药典》“沉香”项下的规定,各样品中苄基丙酮的质量分数在0.026 8~2.54 mg/g范围内.结论 所结沉香与天然品类似.%Objective To study on the quality of Chinese Eaglewood by the new technique of Aquilaria sinensis quintana making incense.Methods The characteristics,microscopic,physics,chemistry and extracts' contents of Chinese Eaglewood were evaluated and the content of benzyl acetone,the index active component in Chinese Eaglewood,was determined by GC.Results All experimental results of Chinese Eaglewood by the technique could meet the standards in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 except the characteristics.The contents of benzyl acetone of all the samples were between 0.026 8-2.54 mg/g.Conclusion The Chinese Eaglewood by the technique is similar to the natural product.

  18. 1,1′,4,5-Tetrahydrotrispiro[1,3,2-diazaphosphole-2,2′-[1,3,5,2,4,6]triazatriphosphinine-4′,6′′-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepine-6′,6′′′-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepine] acetone monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal R. Fontenot


    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H22N5O4P3·C3H6O, has been achieved in a two-step synthesis that does not require chromatography. This molecule contains a seven-membered spirocyclic ring at two P-atom positions and a five-membered ring containing new P—N bonds at the other P-atom position. Endocyclic torsion angles about the central biphenyl C—C bonds are −41.5 (3 and −44.4 (3°, and P—N bonds of the central P3N3 ring are within the range 1.5665 (17–1.6171 (17 Å, while the P—O distances are in the range 1.5940 (14–1.6041 (14 Å. One N—H group makes an intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond, forming centrosymmetric dimers, while the other N—H group makes an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the acetone solvent molecule. The crystal was a two-component non-merohedral twin with ratio 0.811/0.189.

  19. Allelopathic effects of fresh parsley root acetone extracts on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum and allelochemicals identification%西芹鲜根丙酮浸提物层析流分对黄瓜枯萎病菌的化感作用以及化感物质鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓敏; 王琚钢; 李杰; 马立国; 郝静; 云兴福


    为探明西芹鲜根中化感物质成分,利用柱层析法对西芹鲜根丙酮浸提液进行4次层析,每次层析后获得的流分与黄瓜枯萎病菌共培养,测定菌落直径与孢子萌发率,以化感抑制效果筛选最佳流分,然后通过GC-MS对第4次层析最佳流分中化感物质进行鉴定。结果表明,各次层析最佳流分均对黄瓜枯萎病菌菌丝生长及孢子萌发有较强抑制作用,第4次层析获得的最佳流分(RA3246、RA3344、RA9889、RA91064)对枯萎病菌菌丝生长的化感抑制效果[相对于第4次层析丙酮对照(ACK4)]分别升高至28.69%、37.83%、42.44%、33.83%,孢子萌发抑制率分别升高至50.72%、50.66%、55.02%、59.37%。通过GC-MS共鉴定出有机酸、酚、醇、酯类、杂环有机物及含氮化合物6类12种化感物质,分别为3-羟基扁桃酸、硫代乙醇酸、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚、十二烷醇、2-甲基-2-丙烯酸十三烷酯、2-丙烯酸十二烷基酯、2-丙稀酸十五烷基酯、二甲基环己酯、3,4-环氧呋喃、十六烷基二甲基叔胺、(Z)-9-十八烯酸酰胺和二丁氨腈。研究获得结果可为利用西芹提取物防控黄瓜枯萎病提供理论基础。%In field production of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), it is relatively difficult to control wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum. However, the extent of infection is reduced by crop rotation with parsley (Apium graveloens). To identify inhibitory allelochemicals released into the soil by parsley crop, acetone extracts from fresh parsley roots were examined after a repeated series of purification (four cycles) in column chromatography (10 mm × 300 mm) using a column with silicone coating. We used a bioassay that incor-porated the various column fractions into PDA medium and co-cultured the plates with F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum. By measuring colony diameter and spore germination rate, we screened the best fractions in terms of allelopathic inhibition effect and identified further

  20. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari


    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  1. 不同分子量磺化丙酮-甲醛缩聚物在煤上的吸附及水煤浆流变性能%Effects of molecular weight of sulphonated acetone-formaldehyde polymer on its adsorption and rheological properties of coal-water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华; 李元博; 朱军峰; 王睿


    A water‐soluble aliphatic polycondensate ,sulfonated acetone‐formaldehyde (SAF) was prepared by sulfonation and polycondensation reations using acetone ,formaldehyde and sodium sulfite as raw material .Characterized its structure ,it was a containing sulfonic acid groups and hydroxyl hydrophilic aliphatic flexible chain polymer .The effects of molecular weight of SAF on its adsorption behaviors and rheological property in CWS were investiga‐ted .The results show that ,the relative molecular weight is moderate (Mw=38 541) ,SAF‐2 is best for reducing viscosity on the coal‐water slurvy ,dispersibility and stability are better than naphthalene dispersants .Adsorption results show that all the adsorption isotherms of SAF and NSF on coal surface are belonging to Langmuir monolayer adsorption .With the in‐crease of molecular weight ,the adsorption amounts on coal surface decrease .The rheological properties of different SAF were fitted by using the Herschel‐Bulkley model .The results showed all rheological properties of CWS that added different molecular weight SAF were the shear thinned and pseudoplastic fluids .T he adsorption capacity w as closely related to the liquidity of CWS .%以丙酮、甲醛及亚硫酸钠为原料,采用磺化缩聚法,通过控制缩合时间和温度合成了一系列具有不同分子量的磺化丙酮‐甲醛(SAF)水煤浆分散剂,并对其分子结构进行了表征,证明了它是一个含有磺酸基和羟基亲水基团的脂肪族柔性链高分子。同时研究了它们对彬长煤的吸附和水煤浆流变性能的影响,并与萘系进行了对比。结果表明,相对分子量适中(M w=38541)的S A F‐2对水煤浆的分散降黏性最好,其分散性和稳定性均优于萘系分散剂;通过吸附等温线的测定,得出SAF在彬长煤上呈Langmuir单分子层吸附,且SAF分子量越小,其吸附能力K越大,吸附量也越大;用Herschel‐Bulkley模型对浆体流变

  2. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.


    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  3. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene (United States)

    Kirby, C. E.


    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  4. Base-catalyzed condensation of citral and acetone at low temperature using modified hydrotalcite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.C.A.A.; Dillen, A.J. van; Jong, K.P. de


    A study on the catalytic properties of properly activated hydrotalcite (HT) with special attention to the nature and amount of active sites present in this solid base catalyst has been undertaken. Only a small fraction (5%) of the available basic sites in the rehydrated calcined HT is active in liqu

  5. Genome shuffling of Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC 8012 for improved production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Guohua; He, Kaize; Jin, Yanling


    Genome shuffling was applied to increase ABE production of the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum CICC 8012. By using physical and chemical mutagenesis, strains with superior streptomycin sulfate, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and butanol tolerance levels were isolated. These strains were used for genome shuffling. The best performing strain F2-GA was screened after two rounds of genome shuffling. With 55 g glucose/l as carbon source, F2-GA produced 22.21 g ABE/l in 72 h and ABE yield reached 0.42 g/g which was about 34.53 % improvement compared to the wild type. Fermentation parameters and gene expression of several key enzymes in ABE metabolic pathways were varied significantly between F2-GA and the wild type. These results demonstrated the potential use of genome shuffling to microbial breeding which were difficult to deal with traditional methods.

  6. Desorption of acetone from alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolite after propane selective oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jiang; Mojet, B.L.; Ommen, van J.G.; Lefferts, L.


    The desorption of products from a series of alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolites after room-temperature propane selective oxidation was investigated by in situ infrared and mass spectroscopy. The intermediate product, isopropylhydroperoxide (IHP), did not desorb during temperature-programmed-desorpti

  7. Waste valorization: Recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent


    Patel, Sanjay; Murthy, Z.V. Panchakshari


    International audience; The treatment of dairy wastewater which conforms to environmental regulations is a crucial problem due to its high biological oxygen demand (BOD). The main cause of the BOD in dairy wastewater is due to residual whey which consists mainly of lactose. Recovery of lactose from the whey would solve the problems of whey utilization as well as pollution reduction as lactose recovery itself can reduce the BOD of whey by > 80%. In the present study, the recovery of lactose fr...

  8. Acetone and the precursor ligand acetylacetone : distinctly different electron beam induced decomposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warneke, Jonas; Van Dorp, Willem F.; Rudolf, Petra; Stano, Michal; Papp, Peter; Matejcik, Stefan; Borrmann, Tobias; Swiderek, Petra


    In focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) acetylacetone plays a role as a ligand in metal acetylacetonate complexes. As part of a larger effort to understand the chemical processes in FEBID, the electron-induced reactions of acetylacetone were studied both in condensed layers and in the ga

  9. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover by Clostridium species: present status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Li, Jianzheng; Baral, Nawa Raj; Jha, Ajay Kumar


    Sustainable vehicle fuel is indispensable in future due to worldwide depletion of fossil fuel reserve, oil price fluctuation and environmental degradation. Microbial production of butanol from renewable biomass could be one of the possible options. Renewable biomass such as corn stover has no food deficiency issues and is also cheaper in most of the agricultural based countries. Thus it can effectively solve the existing issue of substrate cost. In the last 30 years, a few of Clostridium strains have been successfully implemented for biobutanol fermentation. However, the commercial production is hindered due to their poor tolerance to butanol and inhibitors. Metabolic engineering of Clostridia strains is essential to solve above problems and ultimately enhance the solvent production. An effective and efficient pretreatment of raw material as well as optimization of fermentation condition could be another option. Furthermore, biological approaches may be useful to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize butanol production. In this context, this paper reviews the existing Clostridium strains and their ability to produce butanol particularly from corn stover. This study also highlights possible fermentation pathways and biological approaches that may be useful to optimize fermentation pathways. Moreover, challenges and future perspectives are also discussed.

  10. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use. (United States)

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann


    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design.

  11. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.


    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  12. Design of PolyMUMPS device for diabetes screening via acetone vapor detection in exhaled breath (United States)

    Rabih, Almur A. S.; Dennis, J. O.; Khir, M. H. Md; Ahmed, Mawahib Gafare; Mian, Muhammad Umer


    Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs due to deficiency or improper use of insulin by body tissues. It is currently diagnosed invasively by measuring blood glucose. This paper reports modelling and simulation of a PolyMUMPS device proposed for a non-invasive screening of diabetes. The device is electromagnetically driven at its resonance frequency using Lorenz force, while the output is detected by capacitive means. The resonance frequency of the first mode was obtained by CoventorWare software and it was found to be 18.552 kHz compared to its modelled value of 17.211 kHz, within an error of 7.2 %. Maximum displacement of 8.35 µm and capacitance of 29.57 fF were obtained when the device was driven by applying 15 mA current and 50 mT magnetic field.

  13. Study of the hydrolysis of protactinium (V), at tracer scale, by solvent extraction method with thenoyl-tri-fluoro-acetone (TTA) as chelating agent. Characterization of the partition of TTA in the system TTA / H{sub 2}O / toluene / Na{sup +} / H{sup +} / ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; Contribution a l'etude thermodynamique de l'hydrolyse de Pa(V) a l'echelle des traces par la technique d'extraction liquide-liquide avec la thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). Caracterisation du partage de la thenoyltrifluoroacetone dans le systeme TTA / H{sub 2}O / toluene / Na{sup +} / H{sup +} / ClO{sub 4}{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussaud, Ch


    Hydrolysis of protactinium (V) according to the reactions: PaO(OH){sup 2+} +H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} PaO(OH){sub 2}{sup +} + H{sup +} (K{sub 2}] PaO(OH){sup 2+} +2H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} PaO(OH){sub 5} + H{sup +} (K{sub 3}) has been studied, at tracer scale, by solvent extraction method, with thenoyl-tri-fluoro-acetone (TTA) as chelating agent. A previous study concerning the partition of TTA between two immiscible phases (corresponding to TTA/toluene/Na{sup +}/H{sup +}/ClO{sub 4}{sup -} system) has allowed a complete characterization of this system (partition constants, standard thermodynamic values, TTA hydration degree in toluene). Owing to specific properties of protactinium (V) (sorption onto various materials, formation of colloids), an extremely rigorous protocol has been established, protocol which could be used for other hydrolysable elements. Hydrolysis constants were deduced from a systematic study of partition of Pa(V) as a function TTA and proton concentration, ionic strength and temperature. Extrapolations to zero ionic strength were performed using SIT model and the specific interaction coefficients {epsilon}{sub (i,j)} as well as the Pitzer parameters {beta}{sup (0)} and {beta}{sup (1)} were determined. Standard thermodynamic data relative to hydrolysis equilibriums of Pa(V) were also estimated. (author)

  14. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates. (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa


    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media.

  15. Increased productivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by pervaporation through supported ionic liquid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izak, P.; Schwarz, K.M.; Ruth, W.; Bahl, H.; Kragl, U.


    Pervaporation proved to be one of the best methods to remove solvents out of a solvent producing Clostridium acetobutylicum culture. By using an ionic liquid (IL)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) ultrafiltration membrane (pore size 60 nm), we could guarantee high stability and selectivity during all meas

  16. Composition tunable cobalt–nickel and cobalt–iron alloy nanoparticles below 10 nm synthesized using acetonated cobalt carbonyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Campos-Cuerva, Carlos; Pet, Jeroen; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; van Rijssel, Jos; Meijerink, Andries; Erne, Ben H.; de Groot, Frank M. F.


    A general organometallic route has been developed to synthesize CoxNi1-x and CoxFe1-x alloy nanoparticles with a fully tunable composition and a size of 4–10 nm with high yield. In contrast to previously reported synthesis methods using dicobalt octacarbonyl (Co2(CO)8), here the cobalt–cobalt bond i


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    teneurs en insaponifiables et en phospholipides. L’analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse montre que les huiles extraites sont riches en acides gras insaturés et sont composées principalement d’acide oléique

  18. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse. (United States)

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min


    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1).

  19. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu


    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved.

  20. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from gelatinized cassava flour by a new isolates with high butanol tolerance. (United States)

    Li, Han-Guang; Ofosu, Fred Kwame; Li, Kun-Tai; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Bin


    To obtain native strains resistant to butanol toxicity, a new isolating method and serial enrichment was used in this study. With this effort, mutant strain SE36 was obtained, which could withstand 35g/L (compared to 20g/L of the wild-type strain) butanol challenge. Based on 16s rDNA comparison, the mutant strain was identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum. Under the optimized condition, the phase shift was smoothly triggered and fermentation performances were consequently enhanced. The maximum total solvent and butanol concentration were 23.6% and 24.3%, respectively higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the correlation between butanol produced and the butanol tolerance was investigated, suggesting that enhancing butanol tolerance could improve butanol production. These results indicate that the simple but effective isolation method and acclimatization process are a promising technique for isolation and improvement of butanol tolerance and production.