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Sample records for acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation progress

  1. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  2. The spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Corey T.

    Progressive derechos are severe mesoscale convective systems that often form east of the Rocky Mountains during the warm season (May--August) and cause, by definition, straight-line wind damage along paths upwards of 400 km long. This study develops a subjective, seven-category classification scheme that spans the spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments from those dominated by robust upper-level ridges to those characterized by vigorous upper-level troughs. A climatology of 256 progressive derecho events is created for 1996--2013 and is categorized according to the developed classification scheme. Derecho initiation-relative composites are constructed for each of the seven groups using 0.5° Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to document the environmental characteristics unique to each group as well as those shared among them. Finally, two in-depth case studies and five cursory case studies provide examples of the seven categories and reveal important nuances in mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structure inherent to all derecho cases. Results of the climatology show progressive derecho activity increases from 1 May through 1 July before decreasing again through the end of August and follows a northward trend in latitude from 1 May through 1 August before shifting slightly southward through the end of the warm season. Upslope flow in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains initiates 28 percent of progressive derechos, upper-level troughs initiate 20 percent, 47 percent form in benign synoptic environments, and 5 percent are unclassifiable. Composite results show all progressive derecho initiation environments are marked by a long axis of instability caused by the overlap of high atmospheric moisture content and steep midlevel lapse rates, but the relative positions and strengths of upper-level troughs and ridges are crucial in determining how the instability axis develops and what its orientation in space will be. Case studies reveal instability

  3. THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32605 (United States); Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Unidad Academica de Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wang Junfeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Feigelson, Eric D., E-mail: jybarra@astro.ufl.edu [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Using Spitzer Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory data, we identify young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC). By being able to select cluster members and classify them into YSO types, we are able to track the progression of star formation locally within the cluster environments and globally within the cloud. We employ the nearest neighbor method analysis to explore the density structure of the clusters and YSO ratio mapping to study age progressions in the cloud. We find a relationship between the YSO ratios and extinction that suggests star formation occurs preferentially in the densest parts of the cloud and that the column density of gas rapidly decreases as the region evolves. This suggests rapid removal of gas may account for the low star formation efficiencies observed in molecular clouds. We find that the overall age spread across the RMC is small. Our analysis suggests that star formation started throughout the complex around the same time. Age gradients in the cloud appear to be localized and any effect the H II region has on the star formation history is secondary to that of the primordial collapse of the cloud.

  4. Role of ADAMs in cancer formation and progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) comprise a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. One of their best-established roles is the release of biologically important ligands, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin. Because these ligands have been implicated in the formation and progression of tumors, it might be expected that the specific ADAMs involved in their release would also be involved in malignancy. Consistent with this hypothesis, emerging data from model systems suggest that ADAMs, such as ADAM-9, ADAM-12, ADAM-15, and ADAM-17, are causally involved in tumor formation\\/progression. In human cancer, specific ADAMs are up-regulated, with levels generally correlating with parameters of tumor progression and poor outcome. In preclinical models, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 have been shown to synergize with existing therapies in decreasing tumor growth. The ADAMs are thus a new family of potential targets for the treatment of cancer, especially malignancies that are dependent on human epidermal growth factor receptor ligands or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  5. The Effect of Trabeculectomy on Cataract Formation or Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma. METHODS: This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had well-controlled intraocular pressure with medication(s. The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA, and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III photographs and scores. RESULTS: Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50-75 years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02, LOCS III photo-graphs (P=0.05 and LOCS III scores (P=0.01. However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023 and LOCS III scores (P=0.057 but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or

  6. Measurement of Sinkhole Formation and Progression with InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Blom, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayou Corne Sinkhole initially formed in August 2012 from sidewall collapse of a brine cavern within the Napoleonville Salt Dome in southeastern Louisiana. The sinkhole, initially ~1 hectare in size, has expanded to ~10 hectare surface coverage by July 2013, as material continued to fill the subterranean void. Here we show that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) could have reliably forecast the formation and location of the Bayou Corne Sinkhole at least a month in advance from the large precursory surface deformation that occurred in the area where the sinkhole later formed. The Mississippi delta region has been imaged since 2009 using the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), and radar data over the Napoleonville Salt Dome had been acquired on 2 July 2012, only a month before the sinkhole developed. Using radar interferometry, we show significant surface deformation of up to 250 mm occurred between 23 June 2011, and 2 July 2012, in an extended area encompassing the sinkhole site. The InSAR results show no measurable deformation prior to 23 June 2011. The measured precursory deformation pattern is consistent with compressive loading at the surface due to removal of support caused by a vertically oriented subsurface fracture. The measured strains relate directly to subsurface geology, salt rock properties, and internal stresses caused by the salt dome sidewall collapse. Measurements made with UAVSAR since the sinkhole formation, between August 2012 and July 2013, show progression of the surface deformation well beyond the limited extent of the sinkhole itself, with growth of the sinkhole following the direction of maximum surface deformation. These results show that even in radar-challenging environments such as the swamplands of Bayou Corne, L-band InSAR can be used to study the underlying geophysics of sinkhole formation and, furthermore, that InSAR data collected operationally for hazard monitoring could

  7. The Influence of Item Formats when Locating a Student on a Learning Progression in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning progressions are used to describe how students’ understanding of a topic progresses over time. This study evaluates the effectiveness of different item formats for placing students into levels along a learning progression for carbon cycling. The item formats investigated were Constructed Response (CR items and two types of two-tier items: (1 Ordered Multiple-Choice (OMC followed by CR items and (2 Multiple True or False (MTF followed by CR items. Our results suggest that estimates of students’ learning progression level based on OMC and MTF responses are moderately predictive of their level based on CR responses. With few exceptions, CR items were effective for differentiating students among learning progression levels. Based on the results, we discuss how to design and best use items in each format to more accurately measure students’ level along learning progressions in science.

  8. Progresses in the ice formation of glaciers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangying LI; Shiyin LIU; ,Donghui SHANGGUAN1; Aigang LU

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers,formed by snowfall and characterized by movement and size,are the most sensitive indicators to climate change.The ice formation of glaciers(the processes,mechanisms and results of transformation from snow to ice)can indicate the growth condition,the formation process and the physical characteristics of glaciers.Its spatial variation can also reflect glacier change,and further reveal climate change.Studies on ice formation of glaciers in China were initiated in 1962,when Xie and others studied the ice formation of Glacier No.1 at the Urumqi River head,Tianshan Mountain.Other researchers followed suit and did studies on ice formation of glaciers in Qilian Mountain.As time goes by,the concept of ice formation came into being in China.This paper reviews the development history of glacier zones,and the studies of ice formation of glaciers in China since the 1960s.These studies mainly focus on Qilian Mountain,Tianshan Mountain,Altay Mountain,and the western Kunlun Mountain,Himalaya Mountain,the southeastern Tibetan and Hengduan Mountains.The paper also discusses the significance of ice formation studies,the limitation and deficiency of previous studies,and the prospects and suggestions for future studies.

  9. Progress in NMR Applications to Well Logging and Formation Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since its discovery in 1946, NMR has become a valuable tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. With the invention of NMR logging tools that take the medical MRI or laboratory NMR equipment and turn it inside-out, the application of sophisticated laboratory techniques to determine formation properties in situ is now available. The capability has opened a new era in formation evaluation just as the introduction of NMR has revolutionized the other scientific areas.

  10. Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

  11. Development of a Learning Progression for the Formation of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Palma, Christopher; Flarend, Alice; Rubin, KeriAnn; Ong, Yann Shiou; Botzer, Brandon; McDonald, Scott; Furman, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of defining a hypothetical learning progression (LP) for astronomy around the big idea of "Solar System formation." At the most sophisticated level, students can explain how the formation process led to the current Solar System by considering how the planets formed from the collapse of a rotating cloud of…

  12. Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was... not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to 'rehost' each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone. This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats.

  13. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is not fully understood how much growth stresses affect the final quality of solid timber products in terms of e.g. shape stability. It is for example difficult to predict the internal growth stress field within the tree stem. Growth stresses are progressively generated during the tree growth...... and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new...... annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The material model used is based on the theory of small strains (where strains refer to the undeformed configuration which is good approximation for strains less than 4%) where so-called biological maturation strains (growth...

  14. Progress in the standardization of DSM terminology, reporting formats, and evaluation protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.

    1994-10-01

    Evaluations of demand-side management programs are numerous and serve many purposes: assessing effectiveness, promoting program improvements, guiding planning processes, and determining the level of shareholder incentives. Although many program evaluations are available, it is difficult to combine or compare results because of inconsistencies in definitions, reporting formats, and evaluation methods. The increased use of explicit and standardized definitions of terms, consistent data reporting formats, and comparable methods is needed to make combining and comparing results across a range of programs, utilities, and state jurisdictional boundaries possible. Producing consistent and accurate comparisons of program experience is an important, although challenging and, therefore, under utilized, means of identifying the key elements of effective programs and of improving future programs. In spite of the importance of arriving at standard terminology and data reporting conventions, progress is slow. The purpose of this report is to assess progress toward standardization by reviewing attempts to promote standardization and by determining the degree of consistency in various sources. There are a number of efforts to promote standardization including regional utility efforts such as Northeast Regional DSM Data Exchange and NU-Trak in the Pacific Northwest, state regulatory commission requirements, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory databases and publications, which are national in scope. A variety of other organizations such as the Association of Demand-Side Management Professionals, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the Energy Information Administration, the Synergic Resources Corporation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies have publications and/or training courses designed to promote greater standardization.

  15. The Wnt11 Signaling Pathway in Potential Cellular EMT and Osteochondral Differentiation Progression in Nephrolithiasis Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to nephrolithiasis are extremely complex. Previous studies demonstrated that calcium and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 may participate in the pathogenesis of stone formation, but the explicit mechanism has not been defined. Using a self-created genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS rat model, we observed that the increased level of serous/uric TGF-β1 and elevated intracellular calcium in primary renal tubular epithelial cells (PRECs was associated with nephrolithiasis progression in vivo. In the setting of high calcium plus high TGF-β1 in vitro, PRECs showed great potential epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT progression and osteochondral differentiation properties, representing the multifarious increased mesenchymal and osteochondral phenotypes (Zeb1, Snail1, Col2A1, OPN, Sox9, Runx2 and decreased epithelial phenotypes (E-cadherin, CK19 bythe detection of mRNAs and corresponding proteins. Moreover, TGF-β-dependent Wnt11 knockdown and L-type Ca2+ channel blocker could greatly reverse EMT progression and osteochondral differentiation in PRECs. TGF-β1 alone could effectively promote EMT, but it had no effect on osteochondral differentiation in NRK cells (Rat kidney epithelial cell line. Stimulation with Ca2+ alone did not accelerate differentiation of NRK. Co-incubation of extracellular Ca2+ and TGF-β1 synergistically promotes EMT and osteochondral differentiation in NRK control cells. Our data supplied a novel view that the pathogenesis of calcium stone development may be associated with synergic effects of TGF-β1 and Ca2+, which promote EMT and osteochondral differentiation via Wnt11 and the L-type calcium channel.

  16. Age-related characteristics of risky decision-making and progressive expectation formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Zsófia; Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; File, Bálint; Molnár, Márk

    2016-10-01

    During daily encounters, it is inevitable that people take risks. Investigating the sequential processing of risk hazards involve expectation formation about outcome contingencies. The present study aimed to explore risk behavior and its neural correlates in sequences of decision making, particularly in old age, which represents a critical period regarding risk-taking propensity. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used in an electrophysiological setting with young and elderly age groups. During the task each additional pump on a virtual balloon increased the likelihood of a balloon burst but also increased the chance to collect more reward. Event-related potentials associated with rewarding feedback were analyzed based on the forthcoming decisions (whether to continue or to stop) in order to differentiate between states of expectation towards gain or loss. In the young, the reward positivity ERP component increased as a function of reward contingencies with the largest amplitude for rewarding feedback followed by the decision to stop. In the elderly, however, reward positivity did not reflect the effect of reward structure. Behavioral indices of risk-taking propensity suggest that the performance of the young and the elderly were dissociable only with respect to response times: The elderly was characterized by hesitation and more deliberative decision making throughout the experiment. These findings signify that sequential tracking of outcome contingencies has a key role in cost-efficient action planning and progressive expectation formation. PMID:27385088

  17. Age-related characteristics of risky decision-making and progressive expectation formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Zsófia; Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; File, Bálint; Molnár, Márk

    2016-10-01

    During daily encounters, it is inevitable that people take risks. Investigating the sequential processing of risk hazards involve expectation formation about outcome contingencies. The present study aimed to explore risk behavior and its neural correlates in sequences of decision making, particularly in old age, which represents a critical period regarding risk-taking propensity. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used in an electrophysiological setting with young and elderly age groups. During the task each additional pump on a virtual balloon increased the likelihood of a balloon burst but also increased the chance to collect more reward. Event-related potentials associated with rewarding feedback were analyzed based on the forthcoming decisions (whether to continue or to stop) in order to differentiate between states of expectation towards gain or loss. In the young, the reward positivity ERP component increased as a function of reward contingencies with the largest amplitude for rewarding feedback followed by the decision to stop. In the elderly, however, reward positivity did not reflect the effect of reward structure. Behavioral indices of risk-taking propensity suggest that the performance of the young and the elderly were dissociable only with respect to response times: The elderly was characterized by hesitation and more deliberative decision making throughout the experiment. These findings signify that sequential tracking of outcome contingencies has a key role in cost-efficient action planning and progressive expectation formation.

  18. Can you relate? : the importance of need satisfaction for the quality and progressive union formation process of intimate relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Schmahl; Sabine Walper

    2012-01-01

    "This article deals with the significance of autonomy and relatedness as central needs in intimate relationships. It examines the influences of need satisfaction on relationship quality and progressive union formation ('institutionalization') processes of intimate relationships. Using a random sample of 1,914 couples in a longitudinal, dyadic survey design, we ascertained the actor and partner effects of autonomy and relatedness on relationship quality and the union formation process. A clust...

  19. Can You Relate? The Importance of Need Satisfaction for the Quality and Progressive Union Formation Process of Intimate Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Schmahl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the significance of autonomy and relatedness as central needs in intimate relationships. It examines the influences of need satisfaction on relationship quality and progressive union formation (“institutionalisation” processes of intimate relationships. Using a random sample of 1,914 couples in a longitudinal, dyadic survey design, we ascertained the actor and partner effects of autonomy and relatedness on relationship quality and the union formation process. A cluster analysis resulted in four types of relationship need satisfaction, distinguished by high values in both domains, high values in only one of the domains, or low need satisfaction in both domains. Balanced fulfilment of autonomy and relatedness predicts the comparatively highest values of relationship satisfaction and future orientation (commitment. Moreover, low need satisfaction in relationships reduces the progress of union formation processes (cohabitation, marriage, childbirth. Women demonstrate more intense actor and partner effects of relationship need satisfaction than men.

  20. Monitoring the progress of build-up formation in fatty alcohol plant pipelines using gamma-ray scanning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to monitor the progress of material build-up formation in fatty acid alcohol pipelines using gamma ray absorption techniques. The investigation was periodically performed at few selected location which has been defined as critical area. Before performing a scan, the intensity of the gamma ray as a reference at the clean pipe should be determined. From the gamma ray absorption principle, the intensity of the radiation initial and the radiation after it pass through a material should be different, so the thickness of the build-up in the pipeline can be determined. As a result, base on this early information of the actual condition of the build-up formation, the more effective maintenance schedule can be planned. From that, the maintenance cost which is due to the build-up formation could be minimise as low as possible. (Author)

  1. Humanized mouse model of ovarian cancer recapitulates patient solid tumor progression, ascites formation, and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Bankert

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological cancer. Understanding the biology of this disease, particularly how tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts contribute to the progression and metastasis of the tumor, has been impeded by the lack of a suitable tumor xenograft model. We report a simple and reproducible system in which the tumor and tumor stroma are successfully engrafted into NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null (NSG mice. This is achieved by injecting tumor cell aggregates derived from fresh ovarian tumor biopsy tissues (including tumor cells, and tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts i.p. into NSG mice. Tumor progression in these mice closely parallels many of the events that are observed in ovarian cancer patients. Tumors establish in the omentum, ovaries, liver, spleen, uterus, and pancreas. Tumor growth is initially very slow and progressive within the peritoneal cavity with an ultimate development of tumor ascites, spontaneous metastasis to the lung, increasing serum and ascites levels of CA125, and the retention of tumor-associated human fibroblasts and lymphocytes that remain functional and responsive to cytokines for prolonged periods. With this model one will be able to determine how fibroblasts and lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment may contribute to tumor growth and metastasis, and will make it possible to evaluate the efficacy of therapies that are designed to target these cells in the tumor stroma.

  2. Progress in the Study on the Formation of the Summertime Subtropical Anticyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹岷; 吴国雄

    2004-01-01

    The studies in China on the formation of the summertime subtropical anticyclone on the climate timescale are reviewed. New insights in resent studies are introduced. It is stressed that either in the free atmosphere or in the planetary boundary, the descending arm of the Hadley cell cannot be considered as a mechanism for the formation of the subtropical anticyclone. Then the theories of thermal adaptation of the atmosphere to external thermal forcing and the potential vorticity forcing are developed to understand the formation of the subtropical anticyclone in the three-dimensional domain. Numerical experiments are designed to verify these theories. Results show that in the boreal summer, the formation of the strong South Asian High in the upper troposphere and the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific in the middle and lower troposphere is, to a great extent, due to the convective latent heating associated with the Asian monsoon, but affected by orography and the surface sensible heating over the continents.On the other hand, the formation of the subtropical anticyclone at the surface over the northern Pacific and in the upper troposphere over North America is mainly due to the strong surface sensible heating over North America, but affected by radiation cooling over the eastern North Pacific. Moreover, in the real atmosphere such individual thermal forcing is well organized. By considering the different diabatic heating in synthesis, a quadruple heating pattern is found over each subtropical continent and its adjacent oceans in summer. A distinct circulation pattern accompanies this heating pattern. The global summer subtropical heating and circulation may be viewed as "mosaics" of such quadruplet heating and circulation patterns respectively. At last, some important issues for further research in understanding and predicting the variations of the subtropical anticyclone are raised.

  3. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Our serial studies from 1970s on chemical composition, structure determination and formation mechanism of gallstones were reviewed. The chemical component investigation of brown-pigment gallstone demonstrated that it consists of macromolecules such as proteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, bilirubin polymers and pigment polymers, and biomolecules such as cholesterol, bile salts, calcium salts of carbonate, phosphate, fatty acids and bilirubinate as well as various metal ions. The binding of metal ions with bile salts and bilirubin plays important roles in gallstone formation, i.e., calcium bilirubinate complex is the major constitute of brown-pigment gallstones, and copper bilirubinate complex is critical in the black color appearance of black-pigment gallstone. The cross section of many gallstones exhibits a concentric ring structure composed of various small particles with a fractal character. This is nonlinear phenomenon in gallstone formation. A typical model system of metal ions-deoxycholate (or cholate)-gel was chosen to mimic an in vitro pattern formation system. The experimental results suggested that a nonlinear scientific concept should be considered in understanding gallstone formation. Minor changes in the chemical composition and/or the microenvironment may lead to very different precipitate patterns with a variety of shapes, colors, appearances, and structures. A new model was suggested that periodical templets of periodical and fractal patterns were formed in the initial stage, then the spatio-temporal patterns grew gradually on it. Furthermore, the interaction between divalent metal ions and bile salts in vitro was investigated, and the results indicated that non-stoichiometric M(DC)2-NaDC mixed complexes with mixed micelles structure can be formed in physiological condition.

  4. Progressive star formation in the young galactic super star cluster NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, Giacomo; De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Andersen, Morten; Panagia, Nino; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2010-01-01

    Early release science observations of the cluster NGC3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished HST allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Halpha excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Halpha excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  5. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x1016. Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm2. Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  6. The fragile X protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; La Fata, Giorgio; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert; Kuchnio, Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Piacentini, Mauro; De Strooper, Bart; Achsel, Tilmann; Neri, Giovanni; Neven, Patrick; Evans, D Gareth; Carmeliet, Peter; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Bagni, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS while a patient-case with FXS showed an unusual decrease of tumour brain invasiveness. However, a role for FMRP in regulating cancer biology, if any, remains unknown. We show here that FMRP and FMR1 mRNA levels correlate with prognostic indicators of aggressive breast cancer, lung metastases probability and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We establish that FMRP overexpression in murine breast primary tumours enhances lung metastasis while its reduction has the opposite effect regulating cell spreading and invasion. FMRP binds mRNAs involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion including E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNAs, hallmarks of EMT and cancer progression. PMID:24092663

  7. A cell-regulatory mechanism involving feedback between contraction and tissue formation guides wound healing progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Valero

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a process driven by cells. The ability of cells to sense mechanical stimuli from the extracellular matrix that surrounds them is used to regulate the forces that cells exert on the tissue. Stresses exerted by cells play a central role in wound contraction and have been broadly modelled. Traditionally, these stresses are assumed to be dependent on variables such as the extracellular matrix and cell or collagen densities. However, we postulate that cells are able to regulate the healing process through a mechanosensing mechanism regulated by the contraction that they exert. We propose that cells adjust the contraction level to determine the tissue functions regulating all main activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and matrix production. Hence, a closed-regulatory feedback loop is proposed between contraction and tissue formation. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations that simulates the evolution of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor, as well as the deformation of the extracellular matrix. This model is able to predict the wound healing outcome without requiring the addition of phenomenological laws to describe the time-dependent contraction evolution. We have reproduced two in vivo experiments to evaluate the predictive capacity of the model, and we conclude that there is feedback between the level of cell contraction and the tissue regenerated in the wound.

  8. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  9. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Ying

    2001-01-01

    [1]Soloway, R. D., Trotman, B. W., Maddrey, W. C. et al., The influence of hemolysis, infection and stasis on the calcium salts in pigment gallstones, Dig. Dis. Sci., 1986, 31: 454-460.[2]Cheng, L. J., Zhang, Y., Ma, J. S. et al., Chemical preparation and properties of ditaurobilirubin disodium salt, Chemical Reagents, 2000, 22(2): 70-71.[3]Ma. J. S., Wang, C. Q., Yan F., Hypocrellin A-sensitized photooxidation of bilirubin in aprotic solvents, Photographic Science and Photochemistry, 1991, 9(1): 58-61.[4]Yang, Z. H., Wang, K., Liu, X. T., Studies of electron-spin-resonance on bilirubin free radicals, Science in China, Series B,1992, 35(9): 1093-1100.[5]Ostrow, J. D., Overview the bile pigment metabolism, in Bile Pigments and Jaundice: Molecular, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects (ed. Ostrow, J. D.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 1986, 1-6.[6]Ouyang, J. M., Li, C., Li, Y. Q. et al., Monolayer and Langmuir-Blodgett films of bilirubin dihexadecyl ester, Thin Solid Films, 1999, 348: 242-247.[7]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X, S. et al., Structure characteristics of bilirubin gallstone, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1979,24: 1054-1056.[8]Zhou, X. S., Wang, S. S., Wu, J. G. et al., Pigment gallstones study, Chinese Medical Journal, 1982, 95(12): 905-911.[9]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X. S. et al., Study on the composition, structure and mechanism of formation of bilirubin gallstone, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1980, 1: 34-43.[10]Zhou, X. S., Shen, G. R., Wu, J. G. et al., A spectroscopic study of pigment gallstone in China, Biospectroscopy, 1997,3(3): 371-380.[11]Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G., Analysis of Gallstones, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: CRC Press, 1995, 167-190.[12]Yang, Z. L., Weng, S. F., Wu, J. G., Study on the composition of pigment gallstones, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1998, 34(4): 429-434.[13]Soloway, R. D., Song, Y. Y., Wu, J. G. et al., Serial Fourier

  10. Development of a competency-based formative progress test with student-generated MCQs: Results from a multi-centre pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progress tests provide students feedback on their level of proficiency over the course of their medical studies. Peer-assisted learning and competency-based education have become increasingly important in medical education. Although progress tests have been proven to be useful as a longitudinal feedback instrument, there are currently no progress tests that have been created in cooperation with students or that focus on competency in medical education.In this study, we investigated the extent to which students can be included in the development of a progress test and demonstrated that aspects of knowledge related to competency can be represented on a competency-based progress test.Methods: A two-dimensional blueprint for 144 multiple-choice questions (MCQs covering groups of medical subjects and groups of competency areas was generated by three expert groups for developing the competency-based progress test. A total of 31 students from seven medical schools in Germany actively participated in this exercise. After completing an intensive and comprehensive training programme, the students generated and reviewed the test questions for the competency-based progress test using a separate platform of the ItemManagementSystem (IMS. This test was administered as a formative test to 469 students in a pilot study in November 2013 at eight medical schools in Germany. The scores were analysed for the overall test and differentiated according to the subject groups and competency areas.Results: A pool of more than 200 MCQs was compiled by the students for pilot use, of which 118 student-generated MCQs were used in the progress test. University instructors supplemented this pool with 26 MCQs, which primarily addressed the area of scientific skills. The post-review showed that student-generated MCQs were of high quality with regard to test statistic criteria and content. Overall, the progress test displayed a very high reliability. When the

  11. Diagnostic Learning Progressions Framework: Developing an Embedded Formative and Summative Assessment System to Improve Learning Outcomes for Elementary and Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeratan, Kavita L.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number…

  12. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  13. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver. PMID:26893346

  14. Defective inhibition of dream event memory formation: a hypothesized mechanism in the onset and progression of symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P H

    1998-06-01

    An average person normally spends at least 90 min to 2 h per night dreaming. Nevertheless, memories of dream events are not retrieved while awake unless the person awoke shortly after a dream. It is hypothesized here that schizophrenic delusions initially arise because a system that normally inhibits the formation of memories of dream events is defective. Therefore, memories of dream events or fragments would be occasionally made and placed in the normal memory store. The only reason that we really know anything happened to us in the past is that we have a memory of it, and having a memory of an event is sufficient to really believe it. Therefore, the schizophrenic would believe that the dream events actually happened. It is proposed that this is the basis of primary delusions. Because memories are represented by strengthened neural connections there will be an accumulation of connections that do not correspond to reality. This accumulation may account for other symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder, loosening of associations, and hallucinations. The brain trying to draw conclusions from several memories may be the basis of secondary delusions. Evidence is presented for the ideas that primary delusions are due to memories of dream events, that a substance, with vasotocin-like bioactivity, is released in the brain during dreaming and inhibits memory formation, that the lateral habenula is a brain area involved in vasotocin actions and is affected by neuroleptics, and that brain mechanisms involved in vasotocin actions show pathological alterations in schizophrenia. PMID:9667811

  15. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  17. Progresses in Research of the Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Formation%骨骼肌肌纤维形成机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯江; 李平华; 吴望军; 李齐发; 黄瑞华; 刘红林

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, the most important component of animal body, constitutes 40%of the animal body, while muscle fibers as the primary part of muscle, its differences is one of the critical factors affecting meat quality. Therefore, the growth, development of the skeletal muscles and their physiological and biochemical characteristics will directly affect the meat quantity and quality. Generally, the number of the muscle fibers is fixed during the embryonic development, while the increase of the muscle mass is due to the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers after birth. Moreover, the skeletal muscle fibers types are not completely fixed, the change will be occurred according the metabolism and the functional demand during the growth and development of the skeletal muscle. The biological processes of the skeletal muscle growth and development, and the formation of muscle fibers are quite complex, involving in many genes and signal pathway. With the development of molecular biological technologies, many methods are applied to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of the formation of many complex biological phenomena. To date, a great progress has been made in study of the molecular mechanisms related to the skeletal muscle development, and many key factors involved in the skeletal muscle growth and development have been identified. In the early study, the researches on the skeletal muscle fibers were focused on the identification of muscle fibers types and their physiological and biochemical characteristics, whereas the studies on the molecular mechanisms are relatively rare. Recently, a breakthrough has been made in the molecular regulatory mechanisms involved in the formation of skeletal muscle fibers. So, it is necessary to completely review the types and properties of muscle fiber, molecular regulatory mechanisms and the relationship between the muscle fibers types and meat quality. In this review, the types and properties of muscle fiber are summarized firstly

  18. 水泥混凝土中碳硫硅钙石的生成机制和防治技术研究进展%Research Progress on Formation Mechanism and Prevention Measures of Thaumasite in Cement Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培铭; 徐玲琳; 张国防

    2013-01-01

    The investigation progress and development trends of thaumasite especially on the formation mechanism, prevention measures at home and abroad are presented, which mainly contain the formation mechanisms, formation methods, and the influence factors of thaumasite and also the prevention measures of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA).%重点阐述了国内外在水泥混凝土中碳硫硅钙石的生成机制和防治技术方面的研究现状和未来发展趋势,主要包括碳硫硅钙石的生成机理、生成途径、影响因素和碳硫硅钙石型硫酸盐侵蚀的预防措施等.

  19. Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  20. CO2 laser irradiation enhances CaF2 formation and inhibits lesion progression on demineralized dental enamel-in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancopé, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Lívia P; Parisotto, Thais M; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated if Carbon dioxide (CO2) (λ 10.6 μm) laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application (APF gel) enhances "CaF2" uptake by demineralized enamel specimens (DES) and inhibits enamel lesion progression. Thus, two studies were conducted and DES were subjected to APF gel combined or not with CO2 laser irradiation (11.3 or 20.0 J/cm(2), 0.4 or 0.7 W) performed before, during, or after APF gel application. In study 1, 165 DES were allocated to 11 groups. Fluoride as "CaF2 like material" formed on enamel was determined in 100 DES (n = 10/group), and the surface morphologies of 50 specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after "CaF2" extraction. In study 2, 165 DES (11 groups, n = 15), subjected to the same treatments as in study 1, were further subjected to a pH-cycling model to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The progression of demineralization in DES was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness and polarized light microscopy analyses. Laser at 11.3 J/cm(2) applied during APF gel application increased "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface. Laser irradiation and APF gel alone arrested the lesion progression compared with the control (p enamel surface and a synergistic effect was found. However, regarding the inhibition of caries lesion progression, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the results have shown that irradiation with specific laser parameters significantly enhanced CaF2 uptake by demineralized enamel and inhibited lesion progression.

  1. Replication Stress-Induced Chromosome Breakage Is Correlated with Replication Fork Progression and Is Preceded by Single-Stranded DNA Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or “collapsed” replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, ac...

  2. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock-fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1982-August 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1983-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from the recent activities in Long Valley, California; theoretical study on a source model for the long-period events and volcanic tremor observed at Mount St. Helens; calculation of synthetic seismograms for the tremor source model; analysis of the Easter Island tremor records; testing and application of the Gaussian beam synthetic method to observations at Mount St. Helens; and field testing and development of a high-temperature borehole seismograph.

  3. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1981-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)

  4. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-31

    Although there are many publications pertaining to gas hydrates, their formation and stability in various geological conditions are poorly known. Therefore, for the same reasons and because of the very broad scope of our research, limited amount and extremely dispersed information, the study regions are very large. Moreover, almost without exception the geological environments controlling gas hydrates formation and stability of the studied regions are very complex. The regions studied (completed and partially completed - total 17 locations) during the reporting period, particularly the Gulf of Mexico and the Middle America Trench, are the most important in this entire research project. In the past, both of these regions have been extensively studied, the presence of gas hydrates confirmed and samples recovered. In our investigation it was necessary not only to review all previous data and interpretations, but to do a thorough analysis of the basins, and a critical evaluation of an previously reported and publicly available but not published information.

  5. Formation, modern problems and progress of health gymnastics trends, its role in the system of physical education of students in higher institute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlenko T.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timely questions of becoming and progress of health gymnastics trend are examined, to its role and health orientation in the process of teaching of students in higher educational establishments. It is set that such important tasks cost before the departments of physical education: increase of level of physical preparedness of students taking into account their future profession and explained in relation to employments by a health gymnastics, necessity of ground and development of the system scientifically methodical providing, subsequent study of influence of facilities of health gymnastics on the organism of students. Directions of expedient choice of individual facilities of health gymnastics are shown for making healthy of students. Classification, directions and types of health gymnastics, is recommended for the leadthrough of reading with students. More attention is offered to spare the external forms of motions, to purposefulness of employments on a rhythmic gymnastics, account of its influence on functional possibilities of organism.

  6. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1979-09-01

    An interpretation theory based on the fluid-filled crack model of geothermal systems is being developed and tested against a variety of data from various geothermal areas. Progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) analysis and interpretation of seismic data obtained from the bore holes at the LASL Hot Dry Rock geothermal site. (2) Collection, analysis and interpretation of data on deep volcanic tremors at the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory. (3) Development of a new method for determining seismic attenuation at frequencies higher than 1HZ, and initiation of a cooperative work with Mexican seismologists on the attenuation measurements at various geothermal areas in Baja, California using the method. (4) Installation of 3-component digital event-recorders at four stations in the Newberry Peak volcano, Oregon. (5) Developing a computer program for calculating seismic motion generated by the vibration of fluid-filled crack in a layered medium.

  7. S100A4-neutralizing antibody suppresses spontaneous tumor progression, pre-metastatic niche formation and alters T-cell polarization balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Beck, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    the mode of action of 6B12, a S100A4 neutralizing antibody. METHODS: The therapeutic effect of the 6B12 antibody was evaluated in two different mouse models. First, in a model of spontaneous breast cancer we assessed the dynamics of tumor growth and metastasis. Second, in a model of metastatic niche......, decreased vessel density and inhibition of metastases. CONCLUSION: The S100A4 blocking antibody (6B12) reduces tumor growth and metastasis in a model of spontaneous breast cancer. The 6B12 antibody treatment inhibits T cell accumulation at the primary and pre-metastatic tumor sites. The 6B12 antibody acts......BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a determinative role in stimulating tumor progression and metastasis. Notably, tumor-stroma signals affect the pattern of infiltrated immune cells and the profile of tumor-released cytokines. Among the known molecules that are engaged in stimulating...

  8. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Baussan Christiane; Gonzales Emmanuel; Davit-Spraul Anne; Jacquemin Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appea...

  9. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression through the suppression of Ras-Ral signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D

    2010-06-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers in which it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers in which metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in the profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression via suppression of Ras-Ral signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J.; Ball, Douglas W.; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers where it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers where metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20484029

  11. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. III. Photometric Catalog and Resulting Constraints on the Progression of Star Formation in the 30 Doradus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; De Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (˜0.5 M⊙) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color-magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. III. PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; Marel, R. P. van der; Panagia, N.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Arab, H.; Gordon, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA—European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Associate Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marchi, G. De [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); III, J. S. Gallagher [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Tosi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boyer, M. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Mink, S. E. de, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,”University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2016-01-15

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (∼0.5 M{sub ⊙}) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color–magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  13. Progress of formation mechanisms and emission reduction methods of PCDD/Fs%二英生成机理及减排方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗阿群; 刘少光; 林文松; 谷东亮; 陈成武

    2016-01-01

    二英作为一种具有剧毒并且对生态环境和人类健康有着巨大危害的持久性有机污染物,引起了国际社会的广泛关注,为了减少二英对生态环境以及人类健康产生的潜在威胁,世界各国的学者对二英理化性质以及生成机理进行了深入的研究。本文详细介绍了二英相关的理化性质以及生成二英的3种机理,包括高温气相机理、前体合成机理以及从头合成机理。高温气相机理属于高温同相合成反应,需在相对较高的温度下进行,合成量很小;前体合成机理和从头合成机理均属于低温异相催化合成反应,且在有飞灰的情况下,在较低的温度下就能合成大量的二英,不同的燃烧状态对这两种合成机理有很大的影响;而根据二英的生成机理采取有效的过程控制方法可以极大地减少二英的生成量,本文为抑制二英的合成介绍了几种可行的过程控制方法。%Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PCDD/Fs) are a series of persistent organic pollutants with acute toxicity that trigger a great number of negative effects on the ecological environment and human physical health which have aroused wide attentions of international community. In order to eliminate the potential threaten to the ecological and human physical health caused by the PCDD/Fs,the academicians from various countries have been intensively studying the physicochemical properties and formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs. The detailed physicochemical properties and three types of the formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs are given in this paper,including high temperature gas-phase mechanism,precursor synthesis mechanism and de novo synthesis mechanism. The high temperature gas-phase mechanism applies to homogeneous synthesis reaction which needs relative high temperature to synthesize a trace amount of PCDD/Fs. The precursor synthesis mechanism and de novo synthesis mechanism both apply

  14. Recent progress in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1984--September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-31

    During the reported year we have enhanced our knowledge on and gained considerable experience in assessment of the gas hydrate resources in the offshore environments. Specifically, we have learned and gained experience in the following: Efficiently locating data sources, including published literature and unpublished information. We have established personal communication extremely critical in data accessability and acquisition. We have updated information pertinent to gas hydrate knowledge, also based on thorough study and evaluation of most Russian literature and additional publications in languages other than English. Besides critical evaluation of widely spread literature, in many cases our reports include previously unpublished information (e.g. BSRs from the Gulf of Mexico). The assessment of the gas resources potential associated with the gas hydrates, although in most cases at a low level of confidence, appears also very encouraging for further, more detailed, study. We are also confident that, because of the present reports` format, new data and a concept-oriented approach, the result of our study will be of strong interest to various industries, research institutions and numerous governmental agencies.

  16. 鸟粪石法去除废水中氨氮的影响因素及应用%Review and Progress on Ammonia Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater through Struvite Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单宝杰; 刘建广

    2013-01-01

    以鸟粪石沉淀的形式去除废水中的氨氮,操作简便,反应速度快,是一种较有效的方法。介绍了鸟粪石晶体的性质、反应机理,总结了鸟粪石法反应的主要影响因素及应用,对存在问题进行了分析,并在此基础上对该方法的未来趋势进行了展望。%Ammonia nitrogen removal from wastewater through struvite formation is an effective method. It is easy to oper-ate and fast response. In this paper, the characteristics and the formation mechanism were introduced, the influence factors of struvite and the progress were also summarized. The existing problems are analyzed as well. Finally, the future researches on this reaction were proposed .

  17. Der Progress Test Medizin

    OpenAIRE

    Osterberg, K.; Kölbel, S; Brauns, K

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then.The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant.After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well est...

  18. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  19. Progress in the Formation of Carbon-Hetero Bond Based on 2(5H)-Furanones%基于2(5H)-呋喃酮的碳-杂成键反应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭越河; 李建晓; 洪文坤; 汪朝阳

    2011-01-01

    2(5H)-呋喃酮结构单元广泛存在于天然产物中,同时许多2(5H)-呋喃酮类化合物也是重要的有机合成中间体.因此,基于常见2(5H)-呋喃酮(1)的有机合成研究近年来引起了人们的关注.根据在有机合成反应中成键方式的不同,综述了在2(5H)-呋喃酮(1)环上形成C-O,C-N,C-S,C-P,C-Se,C-Si等碳-杂键的反应研究进展.%Recently, the organic synthesis based on 2(5H)-furanones (1) has attracted much attention owing to the unique carbon skeleton of 2(5H)-furanone which is widely present in a variety of natural products and their utility as valuable synthetic intermediates.Classified as different bond kinds, the progress in the formation reactions of carbon-oxygen bond, carbon-nitrogen bond, carbon-sulfur bond, carbon-phosphorus bond, carbon-selenium bond and carbon-silicon bond on 2(5H)-furanone ring is reviewed.

  20. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  1. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    OpenAIRE

    Osterberg, Katrin; Kölbel, Sebastian; Brauns, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is...

  2. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  3. 非晶态给药体系的形成机制与制备工艺的研究进展%The progress of research on the formation mechanism and preparation process of amorphous drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杏林; 王频; 尹东东

    2013-01-01

    At high-energy state,amorphous drug delivery system can improve the solubility and bioavail-ability of poorly water-soluble drugs effectively.The balance between thermodynamics and kinetics is the natural reason for amorphous drug delivery system to maintain stable,and also determines the difficulty of preparing process.The new preparing technologies such as supercritical CO2-mediated method,lyophilization monophase solution technique,electro-spinning,microwaves irradiation,acoustic levitation and the application of new materials as porous media and new coagulants play important roles in improving dynamic and thermodynamic stability of amorphous drug delivery system.This article gives an overview on the formation mechanism,research on stability,and progress in preparing technology of the amorphous drug delivery system.%非晶态作为一种高能态的给药形式,能够有效地改善水难溶性药物的水溶性和生物利用度.热力学和动力学的平衡是非晶态给药体系保持稳定的本质,也是非晶态制备过程中决定制备工艺难易的主导因素.超临界CO2介导、单相低压冷冻干燥、静电纺丝、微波辐射、超声悬浮等新型技术以及多孔介质和新型混凝剂等新型材料的应用,在改善非晶态给药体系的动力学和热力学稳定性方面发挥了较为优势的作用.在本文中,对非晶态给药体系的形成机制与稳定性的相关研究以及制备工艺的新进展进行综述.

  4. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, I argue that a growing focus on frontier technologies in the life sciences in discussions about bio-power today has come at the cost of empirical investigations into how, for example, 'quality of life' came to be a crucial object of bio-power in the 20th century. Just as Foucault outlined......In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  5. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  6. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected Torus [HIT] experiment). Progress report No. 2, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.

    1992-06-01

    In the paper we will detail the progress of the HIT experiment construction, including the following components: preliminary data and interpretation; diagnostic systems; vacuum vessel and pumping system; helicity source and power supplies; toroidal field coil and power supply; data acquisition system; collaboration with general atomics, with a brief summary given on each.

  7. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  8. Recent progress in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to survey recent developments in ion sources, particularly work reported at the ''Symposium on Ion Sources and the Formation of Ion Beams'' held in Berkeley in October 1974. The approach here will be to subdivide this topic into three main areas; briefly list and discuss notable progress in each; and finally add some additional detail through a few specific, selected examples. The major items of progress discussed include development of large-area plasma surfaces for multiple- aperture ion sources, a significant increase in available negative-ion current densities, and improved general agreement between extraction electrode design and performance. (U.S.)

  9. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  10. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  11. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  12. Research progress in the anabolic mechanism of parathyroid hormone in bone formation%甲状旁腺激素促进骨形成机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立强; 王坤正

    2011-01-01

    Objective Recently, animal experiments and clinical studies for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis show that parathyroid hormone ( PTH) strongly stimulates bone formation and reduces the incidence of bone fracture. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone is the only drug on the market for stimulating bone formation. This paper reviews its anabolic mechanism in bone formation.%近年甲状旁腺激素( Parathyriod hormone,PTH)在预防和治疗骨质疏松方面的动物实验和临床研究结果,观察到PTH有强力促进骨形成、降低骨折发生率的作用,重组人甲状旁腺激素是唯一上市的促进骨形成药物,本文对其促骨形成机制做一综述.

  13. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  14. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  15. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  16. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  17. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterberg, Katrin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well established and accepted feedback instrument and the results of the last years confirmed that knowledge increase of different semesters and different curricula can be shown through a progress test. Since 2000 the workgroup “Progress Test Medizin” cooperates with the university in Witten /Herdecke, and since 2003 the progress test is also performed at four additional medical faculties. This minimizes the effort per participant and therefore allows further development and research. [german] Seit 1999 wird an der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin ein fächerübergreifender, formativer Progress Test für Medizinstudierende durchgeführt. Er beinhaltet 200 MC-Fragen auf Absolventenniveau und wird zu Anfang jedes Semesters durchgeführt. Die erhobenen Daten werden detailliert in bezug auf die Vergleichsgruppe ausgewertet und als Rückmeldung an die Teilnehmer ausgegeben. Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten vor allem bei der Gewinnung neuer Fragenautoren und der effizienten Verwaltung der Testfragen ist der Progress Test Medizin an der Charité mittlerweile ein etabliertes und anerkanntes Feedbackinstrument. Die Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit dem Progress Test der Wissenszuwachs über mehrere Semester und verschiedene Curricula dargestellt werden kann. Seit 2000 kooperiert die Arbeitsgruppe Progress Test Medizin mit der Universität Witten/Herdecke und seit Herbst 2003 wird der Progress Test an vier weiteren deutschen Fakult

  18. Progress in Research of Yield Formation of Ratooning Rice and Its High-Yielding Key Regulation Technologies%再生稻产量形成特点与关键调控技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐富贤; 熊洪; 张林; 朱永川; 蒋鹏; 郭晓艺; 刘茂

    2015-01-01

    The development of ratooning rice is a vital way to achieve a full utilization of the solar-thermal resources in autumn, and promote the profit of rice field. On the basis of the reported data and the research results of the author’s study for more than 20 years, the research reviews and the research progress of yield formation mechanism and key control techniques of ratooning rice were summarized. The main results include that: (1) Compared with the lower regeneration buds, the mid-upper regeneration buds of main crop had an earlier heading date, a fewer number of leaves, a faster speed of leaf emergence, shorter growth period, higher bearing panicle rate and grain filing percentage. The mechanism of a large number of regeneration buds’death after full heading of main crop was mainly due to main photosynthate allocation to grains and fewer to regeneration buds during the main crop grain filling period. Regeneration bud growth depends upon not only the improved light condition at the base of main crop plant population, but also the biomass supply. The difference in ratooning ability among cultivars varied with the leaf-grain ratio of main crop. The higher the leaf-grain ratio at heading stage, the more the photosynthetic matter remained in the basic stems for ratooning rice growing at harvesting date of main crop, as a consequence, the better ratooning ability was gained as well. There was a high and significant negative correlation between the ratooning ability and the spikelets per panicle among varieties. (2) The ratooning ability could be divided into 4 stages based on the sink-source characteristics of the main crop and grain yield of ratooning rice. The high-yielding cultivars for main crop and ratooning rice would have the following sink-source traits:160-190 spikelets per panicle, the ratio of leaf area to grain weight 0.0737-0.0827 cm2 per mg, panicles 232.12×104-249.40×104per ha, grain filling percentage 81.54%-85.74%, 1000-grain weight 28

  19. Learning numerical progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  20. Herschel/HIFI reveals the first stages of stellar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Boissier, S.; Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Samadi, R.; Valls-Gabaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case: even the time order of observational phenomena

  1. Maillard反应中杂环香味化合物形成机理的研究进展%Research Progress on the Formation Mechanism of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds in Maillard Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祥英; 胡军; 曾世通; 赵明月

    2012-01-01

    Maillard反应是指氨基化合物与羰基化合物发生的一类复杂反应.综述了Maillard反应中呋喃、吡咯、吡啶、吡嗪、吡唑、噻唑和噻嗪七种杂环香味化合物的形成机理.%The formation mechanism of ten heierocyclic flavor compounds in Maillard reaction is reviewed in this paper, including furan, pyrrole, pyridinc, pyrazinc, pyrazolc, thiazinc and thiazole.

  2. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof-the-art...

  3. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  4. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  5. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baussan Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP. Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3, impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation

  6. 新疆东准泥盆系卡拉麦里组研究新进展%New Progress on the Study of Kalamaili Formation of Devonian in Dongzhun,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雄飞; 樊光明; 王富明; 廖全安; 田键

    2015-01-01

    Kalamaili Formation in the past has been a quasi-Devonian East synonymous,a long time no one involved.The Devonian is the key period of the collision with Cara.In the chronology,based mainly on coral and brachiopod ancient fos-sils and detrital zircon geochronology also indicates the age for the next,Middle Devonian;sedimentary characteristics, according to the macro and micro (microscopic)combined with the method of Cara,found in the wheat group gravity flow channel facies in lower part of gravity flow turbidite sequence and,the micro with gravel,sand and granule structure,de-termination of sedimentary environment for slope facies and semi deep sea sedimentary environment,change the past long thought that “Binhai traditional understanding”.Bottom Kalamaili Formation opposed by deep shallow facies evolution. This Kalamaili Formation tectonic and sedimentary evolution of closely related early and mid relatively active,gravity flow relatively large,there are many unstable components,mainly feldspar and tuffaceous component based.Late feldspar,tuf-faceous component gradually reduced to a final component to stabilize the marked increase in quartz.Kalamaili Formation biology,sedimentology series of new discoveries in the table Minka Lamech collision zone in the next,Middle Devonian period,oceanic basin system does not turn off,and the completion time of the collision should be in the middle,between the Late Devonian,After the deposition stage into the board.%泥盆纪是新疆卡拉麦里碰撞带的关键时期,在碰撞带南侧广泛发育的泥盆系地层是卡拉麦里组,因此对其研究具有十分重要的意义。本文报道了近年来作者对卡拉麦里组研究的一些主要成果,包括:根据珊瑚和腕足类化石结合以及所测定的碎屑锆石年龄,指示其沉积时期为下、中泥盆世;根据沉积学研究,推断卡拉麦里组下段为重力流浊流沉积序列以及重力流水道相沉积类型,沉积环境为

  7. 微乳形成机理及其药物增溶作用的研究进展%Research Progress in Formation Mechanism of Microemulsion and Its Applications in Drug Solubility Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢静; 张迎庆; 皮建斌; 糜志远

    2011-01-01

    The microemulsion systems are widely used for their thermodynamic stability, low viscosity, translucent appearance and low price. In this paper,theories about formation mechanism of microemulsions were introduced,the application proceeding of solubility enhancement for insoluble drugs by the microemulsions in injection,orally and transdermal administration system were reviewed,and the current problems and prospects of microemulsion drug delivery system were analyzed.%概述了微乳形成机理的主要学说,对微乳增溶难溶药物在注射、口服和经皮给药中的应用进展进行了综述,并对目前存在的问题和发展进行了分析.

  8. The research progress on the functions of microRNA in bone formation%microRNA对骨形成的调控作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦珺; 刘璐; 李荣荣; 张琰; 刘东旭

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs ( miRNAs) are a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules composed of approximately 20-24 nucleo-tides. These small miRNAs can negatively regulate gene expression through 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs bound to the tar-get genes. Bone organogenesis is a complex process, which involves the differentiation and crosslinking of multiple cell types for the formation and remodeling of the skeleton. The existing evidence indicates that miRNAs control multiple layers of gene regulation for bone development and postnatal functions. Currently, inhibition of mRNA translation by miRNAs has been regarded as an important regulator for bone development and homeostasis. This review focused on the current knowledge of miRNAs and their involvement in the regulation of bone formation and bone resorption.%microRNAs是一类由20~24个核苷酸组成的非编码单链RNA,通过结合于靶基因的mRNA的3’ UTR,负向调控基因表达。骨形成是一个复杂的过程,其中涉及了多种细胞的分化和交联来完成骨的形成和重塑。研究证明,miRNA调控骨发生发展和出生后的功能的多个层面。目前,miRNA已被认为是调控骨发育与维持骨稳态的重要调节因子。该文主要针对目前关于miRNA调控骨形成和骨吸收的研究及其进展作一综述。

  9. Physics of primordial star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  10. Progress in front propagation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  11. Progress in front propagation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined

  12. Progress in front propagation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Pujol, Toni [Departament de Mecanica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  13. Quarterly Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  14. Star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-09-27

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.

  15. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  16. Diagenetic evolution and its effect on reservoir-quality of fan delta sandstones during progressive burial:Evidence from the upper part of the fourth member of Shahejie formation, Bonan sag, Jiyang depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奔奔; 张少敏; 操应长; 贾艳聪; 王艳忠

    2015-01-01

    Petrographic analysis combined with various techniques, such as thin section identification, fluid inclusions, isotopic data, petro-physical property testing and oil testing results, was used to study diagenetic evolution and its effect on reservoir-quality of fan delta reservoirs of Es4s in the Bonan sag. The diagenesis is principally characterized by strong compaction, undercompaction, multi-phase of dissolution and cementation. Compaction played a more important role than cementation in destroying the primary porosity of the sandstones. The reservoirs have experienced complicated diagenetic environment evolution of “weak alkaline− acid−alkalinity−acid−weak alkalinity” and two-stage of hydrocarbon filling. The diagenetic sequences are summarized as “early compaction/early pyrite/gypsum/calcite/dolomite cementation→feldspar dissolution/the first stage of quartz overgrowth→ early hydrocarbon filling→quartz dissolution/anhydrite/Fe-carbonate cementation→Fe-carbonate dissolution/feldspar dissolution/ the second stage of quartz overgrowth→later hydrocarbon filling→later pyrite cementation. In the same diagenetic context, the diagenetic evolution processes that occurred in different sub/micro-facies during progressive burial have resulted in heterogeneous reservoir properties and oiliness. The braided channel reservoirs in fan delta plain are poorly sorted with high matrix contents. The physical properties decrease continually due to the principally strong compaction and weak dissolution. The present properties of braided channel reservoirs are extremely poor, which is evidenced by few oil layers developed in relatively shallow strata while dry layers entirely in deep. The reservoirs both in the underwater distributary channels and mouth bars are well sorted and have a strong ability to resist compaction. Abundant pores are developed in medium-deep strata because of modifications by two-stage of acidic dissolution and hydrocarbon filling. The

  17. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  18. Research progress of the formation mechanism and reduction of chloropropanol in edible oil%油脂中氯丙醇形成机制及控制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维曼; 胡志雄; 齐玉堂; 张维农

    2013-01-01

    食品中的氯丙醇污染是目前国际上广为关注的食品安全问题之一,最初在酸水解植物蛋白加工中被检出,近年来发现氯丙醇及其酯类化合物广泛存在于油脂及其加工品中,成为危害消费者身体健康的又一隐性因素,从而引起人们的再次高度关注。本文较为全面地介绍了氯丙醇的定义、分类,分析了氯丙醇的潜在毒性及在食品中的污染现状,总结了氯丙醇特别是3-氯-l,2-丙二醇(3-monochloropropanol-l,2-diol,3-MCPD)的可能形成途径,并归纳了油脂加工过程中可行的控制方法。%Chloropropanol, as a well known food contaminant first found in hydrolyzed vegetable protein, has become a widespread international concern on food safety issues. In recent years, chloropropanol and its esters were found widely existing in oil and its processed products, which has become a implicit factor that threats the health of consumers, and thus causing the people’s deep concern again. The characteristics of chlo-ropropanols such as definition, classification, potential toxicity, and possible formation mechanisms were in-troduced in this paper. The feasible strategies for the reduction of chloropropanols during the oil processing were also summarized.

  19. 花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的研究进展%Research Progress in the Formation of Congou Black Tea Quality with Flowery-fruity Flavour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一斌; 孙云

    2014-01-01

    近年来,以乌龙茶栽培品种为原料,传统红茶工艺结合乌龙茶晒青、做青技术生产的花果香型工夫红茶,深受广大消费者青睐。其品质突破传统红茶甜香甜醇,带馥郁花果香,滋味鲜爽。本文就栽培品种、加工原料、加工技术和季节性等方面对花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的影响进行总结,以期为今后生产香型独特的红茶产品提供理论依据。%In recent years, Congou black tea with flowery-fruity flavour has been favored by consumers in general, which was processed with Oolong tea cultivars in the way of drawing on the traditional technology of black tea, combined with the sunlight withering and rocking of Oolong tea. It made a breakthrough in strong flowery-fruity flavour and brisk taste, compared to sweet aroma and taste of traditional black tea. In this paper, influencing factors were summarized in the formation of flowery-fruity flavour, present in Congou black tea, including tea cultivars, processing materials, processing technology and seasonal characteristics, so as to provide theoretical basis for the further developments of black tea with outstanding aroma in future.

  20. Research progress of Precambrian iron formations abroad and some problems deserving further discussion%国外前寒武纪铁建造的研究进展与有待深入探讨的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长乐; 张连昌; 刘利; 代堰锫

    2012-01-01

    Iron formation (IF), formed during the early Precambrian period, is an iron-rich (TFe> 15%) and siliceous chemical sedimentary rock. It consists chiefly of iron oxides (magnetite and hematite) and quartz. According to its petrographic features, IF can be classified into two types: Banded Iron Formation (BIF) and Granular Iron Formation (GIF); BIF can also be further divided into Algoma type related to volcanic rocks and Superior type related to fine clastic-carbonate rocks on the basis of sedimentary environment. IF began its production at 3.8 Ga, mainly occurred from 2.8 Ga to 1.8 Ga, continuously disappeared after 1.8 Ga, and reappeared in small amounts at about 0.8 Ga because of the Snowball Event. Algoma type BIF was dominantly pro-duced in Meso-Neoarchean, whereas Superior-type BIF was much more common in Paleoproterozoic. The former, mainly formed before cratonization, was closely related to marine volcanic activity and continental accretion while the latter, mainly formed after cratonization, was related to stable craton basins and increasing atmospheric oxygen content. Algoma-type iron deposits are often characterized by smaller-size in terms of single ore body, lower grade and multilayer development, whereas the Superior-type ones have features of larger-size single ore bodies, higher grade and fairly stable layers. Due to extensive production and unrepeatable nature of IF, the research on IF has not only economic value but also important scientific significance. The research trend of IF seems to further focus on such problems as the relationship between IF and early tectonic (mantle plumes and early plate tectonics) evolution, the composition and evolution of hydrosphere and atmosphere, the activity of early organisms in the earth, the genesis of IF and the regularity of its temporal and spatial distribution.%形成于早前寒武纪的铁建造,是一种富铁[ω(TFe)>15%]的硅质化学沉积岩,其主要矿物组成是铁氧化物(磁铁矿和赤

  1. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  2. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies

  3. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  4. 金属离子对在饮用水氯化过程中形成消毒副产物的影响的研究进展%Progress of the Effect of Metal Ions on the Formation of Disinfection By-products during Chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊陈锋; 朱志良; 刘绍刚

    2011-01-01

    The safety issue of chlorination disinfection in drinking water has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. Since mineral ions exist widely in natural water and the slight pollution of heavy metals happens frequently, it is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the formation of disinfection by-products ( DBPs) to study the effect of metal ions on DBPs formation. In this paper, the research progress on the formation of the DBPs during drinking water chlorination in the presence of different metal ions was reviewed, and the investigation results in literatures about some typical metal ions and oxides, such as ferric ions, copper ions, manganese dioxide and lead oxide were introduced. The forming species, reaction mechanisms and affecting ways of DBPs formation were discussed. Authors hope to provide useful information for understanding and investigating the possible mechanisms and influence factors of DBPs during chlorination, and help the control of DBPs and the guarantee of drinking water safety.%饮用水氯化消毒的安全性问题一直是水处理领域的研究热点之一.由于天然水体中矿物质的普遍存在以及微量重金属污染的经常发生,开展金属离子对消毒副产物形成的影响规律研究,对于实际饮用水消毒副产物的控制及其对人类健康的影响评价都具有重要意义.本文以目前研究较多的一些典型金属离子和金属氧化物(如铜离子、铁离子、二氧化锰和二氧化铅等)为例,从饮用水消毒过程中副产物形成种类、反应机理、影响途径等几个方面,综述分析了近年来国内外有关金属离子对消毒副产物影响的研究进展,旨在为进一步了解和研究饮用水消毒副产物形成的影响因素及规律,科学控制饮用水消毒副产物并保障饮用水安全,提供参考和支持.

  5. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  6. Cataract formation following vitreoretinal procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Feng H; Adelman RA

    2014-01-01

    Hao Feng, Ron A Adelman Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of cataract formation, progression, and extraction in patients that underwent vitreoretinal procedures and to evaluate factors that can potentially predispose patients to postoperative cataracts.Materials and methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery at the Yale Eye Cent...

  7. Progressive fractal coding

    OpenAIRE

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  8. Synapse formation and remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Synapses are specialized structures that mediate information flow between neurons and target cells,and thus are the basis for neuronal system to execute various functions,including learning and memory.There are around 1011 neurons in the human brain,with each neuron receiving thousands of synaptic inputs,either excitatory or inhibitory.A synapse is an asymmetric structure that is composed of pre-synaptic axon terminals,synaptic cleft,and postsynaptic compartments.Synapse formation involves a number of cell adhesion molecules,extracellular factors,and intracellular signaling or structural proteins.After the establishment of synaptic connections,synapses undergo structural or functional changes,known as synaptic plasticity which is believed to be regulated by neuronal activity and a variety of secreted factors.This review summarizes recent progress in the field of synapse development,with particular emphasis on the work carried out in China during the past 10 years(1999-2009).

  9. Treatment of progressive IgA nephropathy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2013-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide. About 25-30% of IgAN patients will progress to end-stage kidney disease in 20-25 years. Early-onset symptoms that are highly suggestive of progressive IgAN include massive proteinuria, hypertension, renal damage, glomerular sclerosis, crescent formation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Progressive IgAN may progress to renal failure in a short time. Optimized supportive therapy is the fundamental treatment for progressive IgAN patients, and includes renin-angiotensin system blockers, blood pressure control, antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs, statins, and allopurinol. In progressive IgAN patients whose clinical and pathological manifestations are more severe, active therapy may be considered including glucocorticoid therapy, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and other immunosuppressants. However, there are currently controversies on the definition and treatment of progressive IgAN. PMID:23689569

  10. Progression i musikundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Annelise

    Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning......Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning...

  11. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre...

  12. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  13. Potential well formation in electrostatic confinement devices. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large (2' diameter) spherical electrostatic confinement device has been constructed to test the feasibility of using inertial electrostatic forces to confine energetic plasmas capable of sustaining fusion reactions. Electron injection under high vacuum has produced negative wells that completely depress the potential in the center and approach the classical Langmuir virtual cathode. Electron injection into low pressure deuterium reproduces our previous results of an ion rich region within the negative well. Additional theoretical studies incorporating electrons with very narrow angular momentum (corresponding to trapped electrons in the center) has shown that an additional electron rich region (or ion rich if the polarities are reversed) can be produced within the ion rich region for presumably realistic ranges of parameters

  14. The study on the fibroblasts biology in the hypertrophic scar formation and progression%增生性瘢痕发生和演变过程中成纤维细胞生物学功能变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江万里; 林炜栋; 钱雄; 刘伟伟; 吴昊; 王西樵; 陆树良; 陈向芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of fibroblast biology in the progression of human hypertrophic scar progression. Methods The human hypertrophic scar of different stage as early, proliferative,regressive and mature scars were harvested and processed for HE staining and cell isolation. The isolated fibroblasts were cultured, and the total RNA was extracted for mRNA detection of TGF- β1, VEGF and collagen Ⅰ,Ⅲ. Normal skin as control was included in the analysis. Results HE staining showed that in normal skin there was small amount of fibroblasts and microvessels which increased in early scar, and some inflammatory cells could be seen in this stage. There was a large amount of microvessels and fibroblasts in proliferative scar and decreased in regressive scar with microvessels partially or totally occluded. In mature scar, there was a small amount of microvessels and fibroblasts which was more like normal skin. RT-PCR detection revealed that in normal fibroblasts there was lower expression of TGF-β1, VEGF, collagen Ⅰ, and collagen Ⅲ mRNA and increased in early scar. In hypertrophic scar, four cytokines mRNA expression reached a peak, and then decreased significantly in the regressive scar. The lowest level of expression was seen in mature scar. Conclusion The fibroblast biology changed in the scar progression which elevated in scar f'ormation and decreased in scar progression.%目的 探索增生性瘢痕在发生和演变过程中,成纤维细胞生物学功能变化的规律及其意义.方法 选取人不同时期增生性瘢痕组织和正常皮肤组织,进行HE染色观察.另外,分离和培养不同时期瘢痕和正常皮肤中成纤维细胞,RT-PCR分别检测成纤维细胞在转移生长因子(TGF-β1)、血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)、和Ⅰ、Ⅲ胶原mRNA表达水平的变化.结果 HE染色可见正常皮肤细胞和微血管数目较少,早期瘢痕增多,炎症细胞浸润明显.增生期瘢痕成纤维细胞和微血管增多.

  15. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  16. Physics of Structure Formation in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, T. Roy

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented progress in observational cosmology has revealed a great deal of information about the formation and evolution of structures in the universe. This, in turn, has raised many challenging issues for the theorists. In the thesis, we have addressed two such key issues, namely, (a) the formation of baryonic structures and (b) the nature of dark matter and dark energy and the limitations in determining their nature from observations. The main results from the thesis ar...

  17. Progress in plant protoplast research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Tom; Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Deryckere, Dieter; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2013-12-01

    In this review we focus on recent progress in protoplast regeneration, symmetric and asymmetric hybridization and novel technology developments. Regeneration of new species and improved culture techniques opened new horizons for practical breeding in a number of crops. The importance of protoplast sources and embedding systems is discussed. The study of reactive oxygen species effects and DNA (de)condensation, along with thorough phytohormone monitoring, are in our opinion the most promising research topics in the further strive for rationalization of protoplast regeneration. Following, fusion and fragmentation progress is summarized. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have led to better insights in fundamental processes such as cell wall formation, cell development and chromosome rearrangements in fusion products, whether or not obtained after irradiation. Advanced molecular screening methods of both genome and cytoplasmome facilitate efficient screening of both symmetric and asymmetric fusion products. We expect that emerging technologies as GISH, high resolution melting and next generation sequencing will pay major contributions to our insights of genome creation and stabilization, mainly after asymmetric hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate agricultural valorization of somatic hybridization through enumerating recent introgression of diverse traits in a number of commercial crops. PMID:23955146

  18. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  19. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physicians’ progress notes, an artifact that, in spite of its obvious importance in the coordination of cooperative work in clinical settings, has not been subjected to systematic study under CSCW auspices. While several studies have addressed the role of the medical record...... in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  20. Progress for the Paralyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  1. Progress report for '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 Progress Report presents the most important scientific and technical achievements of the Nuclear Research Institute's research work. Some specialized products prepared at or fabricated by the NRI are mentioned as well. (author). 24 figs., 8 tabs., 101 refs

  2. Progress report, Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews events and progress in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; radionuclide standardization; condensed matter research; applied mathematics; and computer facility operation

  3. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report of the nuclear physics institute includes five basic subjects: theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics, combined research physics and instrumentation (microelectronics, imaging, multidetectors, scintillators,...)

  4. Comparison of spectacle classical progressive and office progressive lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlík, Marek; Knollová, Libuse Nováková

    2013-04-01

    This paper elaborates on analysis of progressive spectacle lenses, to correct presbyopia, which are nowadays offered at the market. The paper describes different types of progressive lenses, their parameters, length and width of their progressive segments. It also describes degressive spectacles lenses--progressive lenses on middle and near distance. The main part of the paper is a comparison of functional differences among different types of progressive spectacles lenses. The paper also addresses correctness of choice of progressive lenses for different works and professions. Lastly, it elaborates on differences of centration of different types of progressive lenses and parameters for correct choice of glasses frame for progressive spectacles lenses. PMID:23837232

  5. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  6. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  7. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  8. Progressive Dwindling in Multiple Sclerosis: An Opportunity to Improve Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica E.; Raffel, Joel; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general ageing population, 40% of deaths occur following a prolonged trajectory of “progressive dwindling,” characterised by chronic accumulation of disability and frailty, and associated with increased dependency and reduced reserves. Those who progressively dwindle are poorly catered for by current healthcare systems and would benefit from a coordinated approach to their medical and social care, known as formative care. People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) may be more likely to progressively dwindle, and may be appropriate targets for formative care pathways. Objectives To determine the proportion of pwMS who follow a progressive dwindling trajectory prior to death. To relate trajectory to place of death, and examine what factors predict the progressively dwindling trajectory. Methods A retrospective observational study of 582 deceased pwMS enrolled in the UK MS Tissue Bank, including death certificates and extensive clinical summaries. Results 73.7% of pwMS had a “progressively dwindling” trajectory of dying. This was predicted by those who reach MS disease milestones earlier. 72.5% of pwMS died an MS-related death, which was predicted by an aggressive disease course from onset. Those who progressively dwindled were equally likely to die in hospital as those with other trajectories to death. Conclusions The progressively dwindling trajectory of dying is very common in pwMS, and can be predicted by earlier disease milestones. Pathways could target pwMS in these years prior to death, to improve care. PMID:27441557

  9. A Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiny, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Sparking a flame of mutual professional development at Twin Groves Middle School, in Illinois' Kildeer District 96 was a formative assessment. "Formatives," as the practitioners call them, are a technique usually adopted as a safety net for struggling students. But as districts are finding out, they are also effective at honing teacher practice.…

  10. Comparison of Spectacle Classical Progressive and Office Progressive Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlík, Marek; Nováková Knollová, Libuše

    2013-01-01

    This paper elaborates on analysis of progressive spectacle lenses, to correct presbyopia, which are nowadays offered at the market. The paper describes different types of progressive lenses, their parameters, length and width of their progressive segments. It also describes degressive spectacles lenses – progressive lenses on middle and near distance. The main part of the paper is a comparison of functional differences among different types of progressive spectacles lenses. The paper also add...

  11. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  12. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  13. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management

  14. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1982. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  15. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information

  16. Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients had symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities; The lesions in all of them had appeared during infancy, and after a brief period of progression, had remained static, All of them had no family history of similar skin lesions. They responded well to topical applications of 6% salicylic acid in 50% propylene glycol. Unusual features in these cases of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma were the sparing of palms and soles, involvement of the trunk and absence of erythema.

  17. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report deals with service oriented work performed at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Services provided by the Engineering Services Division, the Safety Department, Site Information Services Department and Commercial Applications are described

  18. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  19. Progress in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for high gain in inertial confinement are given in terms of target implosion requirements. Results of experimental studies of the laser/target interaction and of the dynamics of laser implosion. A report of the progress of advanced laser development is also presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Stellarator theory: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses progress in the following areas: The propagator method; ripple transport in tokamaks; self-consistent bounce-averaged numerical transport; computations: The bootstrap current; comparisons of stellarator ripple transport calculations; and plasma transport in IMS using a 1D fluid transport code

  1. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  2. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  3. Managing Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area of assistive devices for personal hygiene and bathroom adjustments that make toilet functions more effective and safe. They have extensive practical information on devices and techniques. 27 | Managing Progressive MS If you need help with basic activities, get advice and inform ...

  4. Research progress of RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    the double stranded RNA into cell could cause homologous gene silencing, a phenomenon called RNA interference (RNA interference, RNAi). Research progress of RNA interference characteristics, in this paper, the mechanism of RNA interference technology, RNA interference and existing problems are summarized.

  5. Progress on Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An exhibition in Beijing highlights achievements in China’s autonomous regions An exhibition on social progress in China’s five autonomous re-gions, including Inner Mongolia,Xinjiang, Guangxi, Ningxia and Tibet, opened at the Cultural Palace of Nationalities in Beijing on August 25. It runs until September 17.

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  7. Has Macro Progressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Ray C.

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recent papers arguing that there has been considerable convergence in macro research and to the good. This paper considers the question whether what has been converged to is good. Has progress been made in understanding how the macro economy works?

  8. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 30 January 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2007 until 31 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/74128

  9. Progress report of CJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the progress report of the Russian Nuclear Data Center at F.E.I., Obninsk. Evaluations have been made for dosimetry reactions and neutron reactions. Analysis of the spectra and the production cross sections were made. (a.n.)

  10. BARC progress report - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  11. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Work done in the following research divisions is reported: Applied Maths and Computing, Chemical Technology, Engineering Research, Environmental Science, Instrumentation and Control, Isotope, Materials and Physics

  12. BARC progress report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  13. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  14. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.  Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  15. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. MAPK Usage in Periodontal Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In periodontal disease, host recognition of bacterial constituents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS, induces p38 MAPK activation and subsequent inflammatory cytokine expression, favoring osteoclastogenesis and increased net bone resorption in the local periodontal environment. In this paper, we discuss evidence that the p38/MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2 signaling axis is needed for periodontal disease progression: an orally administered p38α inhibitor reduced the progression of experimental periodontal bone loss by reducing inflammation and cytokine expression. Subsequently, the significance of p38 signaling was confirmed with RNA interference to attenuate MK2-reduced cytokine expression and LPS-induced alveolar bone loss. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, a negative regulator of MAPK activation, was also critical for periodontal disease progression. In MPK-1-deficient mice, p38-sustained activation increased osteoclast formation and bone loss, whereas MKP-1 overexpression dampened p38 signaling and subsequent cytokine expression. Finally, overexpression of the p38/MK2 target RNA-binding tristetraprolin (TTP decreased mRNA stability of key inflammatory cytokines at the posttranscriptional level, thereby protecting against periodontal inflammation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of p38 MAPK signaling in immune cytokine production and periodontal disease progression.

  17. Internationalisering og progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I Danmark har vi traditionelt tænkt universiteternes femårige kandidatuddannelser som sammenhængende forløb, hvor den studerende gradvist opbygger en stadig mere specialiseret viden inden for et givet fagområde. Denne idé om progression er i de senere år blevet udfordret fra flere sider. Især er progressionsidéen blevet diskuteret i forhold til tværfaglige uddannelsesforløb, men også de mange internationale uddannelser, der etableres, udfordrer den måde, hvorpå vi traditionelt har forstået progression i det danske uddannelsessystem. På internationale kandidatuddannelser finder vi nemlig typisk både studerende, for hvem kandidatuddannelsen er en forlængelse af en grunduddannelse, og studerende, der har taget deres grunduddannelse et andet sted og muligvis endda i et andet fag. I denne artikel undersøger vi, hvordan undervisere på kandidatuddannelser som både er tværfaglige og internationale forholder sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet.University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The

  18. Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Chan

    2008-01-01

    We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the `energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.

  19. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohide Hori; Justin H. Nguyen; Shinji Uemoto

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) have been identiifed, but their etiologies include unknown mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search on "progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis" and "PFIC" was performed on the topic, and the relevant articles were reviewed. RESULTS: The etiologies of the three PFIC types still include unknown mechanisms. Especially in PFIC type 1, enterohepatic circulation of bile acid should be considered. Ursodeoxycholic acid, partial external biliary diversion and liver transplantation have been used for the treatment of PFIC patients according to disease course. CONCLUSIONS: Since the etiologies and disease mechanisms of PFIC are still unclear, detailed studies are urgently required. Strategies for more advanced therapies are also needed. These developments in the future are indispensable, especially for PFIC type 1 patients.

  20. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  1. CNGS Progress Report 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Elsener, K; Gaillard, H; López-Hernandez, L A; Meddahi, M; Rangod, Stephane; Roesler, S; Spinks, Alan; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The CNGS project is progressing according to schedule, with the aim to be ready for beam in spring 2006. In this paper, the project status and recent changes to the design of systems and components are summarized. The actions taken in response to the recommendations of the 2003 CNGS Review are described. This report has been drafted in view of the third CNGS Review, held in June 2004.

  2. Three year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following studies: x-ray and uv effects in photosynthetic organisms; effects of alcohols and oxygen concentration on transforming DNA; free radical studies; sensitization by metal ions; role of the solvated electron in radiation damage to cells; effectiveness of organic and inorganic compounds in sensitizing bacterial spores to high energy radiation; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of enzyme systems in Chlorella; and effects of pre-irradiation of solutions on spores

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  4. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  6. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi......-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The article summarizes their opinions and distinguishes In this article we explore how Danish university professors teaching at interdisciplinary international master programs at Danish...

  7. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Herbert J

    2012-02-06

    The BIOMOL grant was for 'Local System Support for PDB Biological Unit Search and Display' to augment Rasmol's [Bernstein 2000] [Sayle, Milner-White 1995] existing macromolecular display functions with new capabilities by taking advantage of recent increases in local computing power in order to move functionality that is now scattered among various local and remote systems into one local package. Work included new algorithms for molecular surface display, an extended format for Protein Data Bank Entries, work on issues relating to the integration of multiple diffraction images formats.

  8. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  9. Recent progress in surface science 3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  10. Extreme Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, JL

    2010-01-01

    Extreme star formation includes star formation in starbursts and regions forming super star clusters. We survey the current problems in our understanding of the star formation process in starbursts and super star clusters - initial mass functions, cluster mass functions, star formation efficiencies, and radiative feedback into molecular clouds - that are critical to our understanding of the formation and survival of large star clusters, topics that will be the drivers of the observations of t...

  11. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  12. Mathematics Framework for the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board, New York, NY.

    This framework document describes the content and format of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessments of 1996, 2000, and 2003. Five content strands are discussed in the NAEP mathematics assessment: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) measurement; (3) geometry and spatial sense; (4) data analysis,…

  13. Cyst initiation, cyst expansion and progression in ADPKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happé, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by large fluid-filled cysts and progressive deterioration of renal function necessitating renal replacement therapy. In this thesis different phases of ADPKD were studied. First, we studied the initiation of cyst formation. We sh

  14. MEIC Design Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  15. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  16. PROGRESS IN HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This is an overview of progresses in heliospheric physics made in China in the period of June, 2000 to May, 2002. The report is focused on theoretical studies,modelling and observational analysis of interplanetary physical phenomena, and consists of five sections: the acceleration and heating of the solar wind, corona structures, coronal mass ejections, magnetic reconnection phenomena, and in terplanetary transient phenomena. The main achievements made recently by Chinese scientists in related areas are simply listed in corresponding sections without any priority, only certain editorial consideration.

  17. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  18. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  19. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP2-800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment

  20. The Progressive Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  1. Features of Formation of the National Income

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Alexandrovich SURKOV; Ellen G. Trofimova

    2015-01-01

    Significant indicator of economic progress of the country is the specific income per capita. Experts consider such indicator important from the point of view of forecasting of economic development. Influence of various factors is presented in references, but influence of psychological indicators, in particular, influence of personal characteristics of the population isn't considered. On material of the population of various countries of the world features of formation of the national specific...

  2. Numerical simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite under transverse loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.; Shmegera, S.V.; Brøndsted, Povl;

    2011-01-01

    . Then, the effect on debonding progress of local stress redistribution due to interaction between the fibers was studied in the framework of two-inclusion model. Simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite using the many-fiber models of composite has been performed. It has been...... shown that the developed model provides detailed analysis of the progressive debonding phenomenon including the interface crack cluster formation, overall stiffness reduction and induced anisotropy of the effective elastic moduli of composite....

  3. Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  4. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  5. BRIF and CARIF progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is currently constructing Beijing rare ion beam facility (BRIF) and is proposing China advanced rare ion beam facility (CARIF). This paper is aiming at introducing the progress of BRIF project and the con ceptual design CARIF. The ISOL type facility BRIF under construction is composed of a 100 MeV 300 ?A proton cyclotron, an ISOL with mass resolution of 20000, and a super-conducting LINAC of 2 MeV/q, and will be commissioned in 2013. CARIF facility proposed is planned to use both ISOL and PF techniques. It is based on a China advanced research reactor CARR that was critical, with ISOL separation of fission fragment, post acceleration to 150 MeV/u, and fragmentation of neu tron-rich fission fragment beam like 132Sn. Such unique combination will allow CARIF to deliver beam intensity better than the best world facilities by more than one order of magnitude.

  6. Vivitron - Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 activity report of the Strasbourg Nuclear Research, concerning the Vivitron project, is presented. After having mounted all the Van de Graaff elements of the Vivitron needed for the generator tests, the tank was closed in July 1990. It was then put under vacuum, leaks were searched for and repaired. Voltage tests started in December and a voltage of 17.6 MV was reached in February. Modifications on the charging system and to improvement of the column protection against sparks are necessary before the voltage tests can be carried on. Great progress has been made in the setting up of the new Vivitron injector and analysing magnet. In this report are included the description of project different development steps, the Vivitron budget and the list of publications, congress contributions and internal reports. 18 figs

  7. Progress report 1981 - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report describes the research activities of the Atom-institute of the Austrian Universities of the period 1981-1983. The chapter headings are: (1) Electron- and X-ray physics, thermoluminescence and archeometry. (2) Nuclear physics. (3) Nuclear techniques, electronics and EDP. (4) Neutron- and solid state physics with neutron scattering, low temperature physics, theoretical solid state physics and preparation technique. (5) Radiation chemistry. (6) Radiation protection and dosimetry. Each chapter gives a comprimated overview about the research work done in the described period, illustrated by diagrams and tables, a comprehensive list of publications, each citation provided with an (mostly English) Abstract and a comprehensive list of thesis, which are completed or under preparation in the corresponding working group. Additional chapters give lists of educational work, verbal presentation, cooperations with other institutions and personnel. An annex of photos gives an additional impression of the institute. (A.N.)

  8. Progress in nanophotonics 2

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and advanced systems. It begins with a review of near-field excitation dynamics in molecules. Further topics include: wavelength up-converting a phonon-assisted excitation process with degenerate beams and non-degenerate beams in dye grains, a fabrication method of semiconductor quantum dots including self-assembly of InAs quantum dots based on the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy for studying novel excitonic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The striking features of ecxitons in the carbon nanotube, multiple-exciton states, and microfluidic and extended-nano fluidic techniques. These topics are reviewed by nine leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  9. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  10. RDBE Development and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, A.; Bark, M.; Beaudoin, C.; Brisken, W.; Frej, H. Ben; Doeleman, S.; Durand, S.; Guerra, M.; Hinton, A.; Luce, M.; McWhirter, R.; Morris, K.; Peck, G.; Revnell, M.; Rogers, A.; Romney, J.; Ruszczyk, C.; Taveniku, M.; Walker, R.; Whitney, A.

    2010-01-01

    A digital backend based on the ROACH board has been developed jointly by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and MIT Haystack Observatory. The RDBE will have both Polyphase Filterbank and Digital Downconverter personalities. The initial configuration outputs sixteen 32-MHz channels, comprised of half the channels from the PFB processing of the two IF inputs, for use in the VLBI2010 geodetic system and in the VLBA sensitivity upgrade project. The output rate is 2x109 bits/second (1x10(exp 9) bits/sec = 1 Gbps) over a 10 GigE connection to the Mark 5C with the data written in Mark 5B format on disk.

  11. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...... score. We applied the proposed algorithm on 27 patients with severe emphysema with CT scans acquired five time points, at baseline, after 3, after 12, after 21 and after 24 or 30 months. The results showed consistent emphysema progression with time and the overall progression score correlates...

  12. Project Progress Monitoring and Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Progress monitoring and reporting is a useful tool to project management and control for tracking project performance, producing forecasts and supporting to plan corrective actions during project execution. Additionally progress report is an effective tool for communicating with different project stakeholders. Comprehensive progress monitoring practice is difficult to observe since practices are usually industry and task specific. However literature expresses different methods that are suitab...

  13. Thematic Progression and Textual Coherence in Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云鹤

    2014-01-01

    Thematic progression can affect the flow of information and directly affect the discourse coherence. This paper analyzes thematic progression patterns of a speech about“people and nature” in the “CCTV Cup”English Speaking Contest and finds that there are three progression patterns in this text, which are parallel progression, continuous progression, and crossing progression.

  14. Using Learning Progressions to Monitor Progress across Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karin K.

    2010-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs)--descriptive continuums of how students develop and demonstrate more sophisticated understanding over time--have become an increasingly important tool in today's science classrooms. Here the author discusses some of the research behind learning progressions and presents The Science Inquiry Profile for PreK-4. This is a…

  15. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  17. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  18. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Milosavljevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  19. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  20. [How to follow communicative competence progress in nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Eliana Mara; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2006-09-01

    This work is aimed at suggesting methodological foundations for following Nursing student's progress in communicative competence. Using qualitative methodology and theoretical reference of interpersonal communication, the research was developed through interviews with 13 professors with experience both in teaching activities and communication research in Nursing. Interviewees reported that they follow their students' progress in communicative competence through the observation of their communicative abilities with patients; by fostering moments for the expression of thoughts, feelings and perceptions; by giving feedback on the development of communicative abilities; by stimulating their communication abilities; by performing formative assessments and tutoring.

  1. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP)

  2. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellyn, W. [ed.] [Nesbit (William) and Associates, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Jennings, C. [ed.] [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  3. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  4. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation

  5. 1993 PVUSA progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in module technology. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, review the status and performance of all PV installations during 1993, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year. The PVUSA project has five objectives designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV, and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side-by-side at a single location; to assess PV system operation and maintenance (O and M) in a utility setting; to compare PV technologies in diverse geographic areas; to provide US utilities with hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and to document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  6. Progress of AMOLED technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Young

    2005-01-01

    We report the technical progress of AMOLED at Samsung SDI, comparing with other technologies. We introduce the voltage-compensational TFT circuit structure to improve the brightness uniformity of AMOLED, which is based on the low temperature poly-silicon. We have developed not only small molecule emitters (phosphorescence and fluorescence) but also polymeric emitters. From red and green phosphors, we achieved longer lifetime and higher efficiency than fluorophors. With the shadow mask patterning and the bottom-emission structure, 20,000-hour lifetime of QCIF device and the power consumption less than 150 mW at 100 cd/m2 (30% on condition) were obtained. In the case of the top-emission structure, we could get high efficiency also by maximizing the light out-coupling efficiency and enhance the color purity to the level of the NTSC. We have developed another patterning technology, "LITI: Laser Induced Thermal Imaging" and fabricated 17-inch full color AMOLED, which is the largest AMOLED based on the low temperature poly-Silicon.

  7. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  8. Construction Progress of CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in 2011 with respect to CYCIAE-100, a key task for the BRIF project. All the work has been fully accomplished in line with the schedule and goals set for the year. 1 General progress for CYCIAE-100

  9. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...... progress because it identified theoretical mechanisms at levels lower than those that were usually investigated in strategy research prior to the RBV. Unfortunately, the micro-emphasis of the RBV gave way during the 1990s to more aggregative modes of theorizing (i.e., the capabilities approach). Thus...

  10. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  11. 1997 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L.; Ghezzi, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Nuclear fusion division

    1997-12-31

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  12. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hoffman, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United S

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  13. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.E.; Bai, R.Y.; Chen, X.M.; Liu, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meier, W.R. [Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center_dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  14. 1997 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  15. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2Be4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW· in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost

  16. 2004 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  17. 2004 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  18. THE FORMATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Alekseevna Kurenkova

    2015-01-01

    Human development is the basis of social progress in the modern world. University education has an important role in the formation of human capital. The form of human capital has tangible and intangible investments. Intangible investment is higher education. The aim of the article is to show the formation of the human capital in university education. The modern university is a dynamic category, aimed at training competent mobile specialists ready to continuous self-education, self-improvement...

  19. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, Valeri [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-05-29

    The research in this program involves theoretical investigations of electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene and its derivatives, such as bi-layer graphene, graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, strained graphene, as well as graphene on various surfaces. One line of research has been development of theoretical models that support graphene’s large array of possible technological applications. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of surface plasmons and spin relaxation mechanisms in graphene, related to novel optoelectronics and spintronics applications. Our current research focus is on understanding the role of correlations in graphene under mechanical deformations, such as strain. The main goal is to describe the mutual interplay between strain and electron-electron interactions which could lead to the formation of novel elec- tronic phases with strongly modified electronic, magnetic and optical properties. This direction of research contributes to deeper understanding of interactions in graphene and related atomically-thin materials - a subject at the forefront of research on graphene and its derivatives.

  20. Progress report. P6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CJD the current work continued concerning EXFOR compilation and fulfillment of NRDC-2000 Recommendations and Actions. Much efforts were applied for restoring CJD Web page. Evaluation works were also in process. Compilation into EXFOR continues on steadily. Since March 2000 up to April 2001 four TRANS tapes containing 69 Entries were prepared and sent to other centers. 25 new EXFOR Entries were compiled. An analysis and an evaluation are made for the threshold reactions cross sections leading to production of the long-lived radioactive nuclides on the irradiation of steel by thermonuclear neutron spectrum. Fifty excitation functions were evaluated. Many of them are considerably different from available evaluations of other libraries. During two years, together with JAERI, comparative analysis was performed of (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions for 150 fission products from available evaluated data libraries. The result of analysis will be published this year. The joint work on consistent evaluation of some (n,2n) and (n,np) excitation functions for even-even isotopes was made on the basis of empirical systematics. The work was completed on evaluation of the spectra and production cross sections of gamma-rays in inelastic interactions of 14-Mev neutrons with the number of nuclei: Li-6, Li-7, Al, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, Bi, U-235. CJD continues the work on evaluation of neutron data for minor actinides. This year Am-242m will be evaluated, and Np-237, Am-241, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244 will be tested and improved. Full file of Bi was prepared. Full files for Pb isotopes are in process of preparation. There exist a plan to analyze full files for isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni from existing evaluated data libraries, to select more reliable cross sections, and to create improved files for these isotopes. Together with the Theoretical Department the work is in progress on the determination of uncertainties of existing evaluated data and development of covariance matrices for some important

  1. Progress in ITER Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the entry into force of the ITER Agreement in October 2007, the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies have made significant progress in the finalization of the ITER design and the establishment of the baseline. This paper will describe the main advances and achievements since the last IAEA conference. The Integrated Project Schedule has gone through a number of iterations following interactions with Domestic Agencies and their industries. With operating a First Plasma at the end of 2019 construction will be finished and the functionality of all major components will be demonstrated. Through a series of operation and installation campaigns in the following seven years full DT operation should be reached by 2026. The associated resource estimate for the cost of the ITER Organization has been reviewed by an independent panel and has been developed using common project management practices. Attention has been paid to the development of risk based assessments of the schedule giving confidence that this schedule can be achieved if no major unforeseen events happen. The ITER platform has been prepared by Agence ITER France and was finalized by the summer of 2009. The next stage will be the start of the excavation and construction of the anti-seismic support structure for the tokamak building. The road between the harbor of Marseille and the Cadarache site is ready to receive the first test convoys. Just under 90% of the components for ITER will provided in-kind by the Members through so-called Procurement Arrangements, which are bi-lateral agreements between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies. Until now 34 Procurement Arrangements have been signed, representing almost half of the value of the total in-kind contributions. The first Procurement Arrangements concentrated on the long-lead items, such as the Magnet systems, Buildings and the Vacuum Vessel. Most of the Procurement Arrangements for these long-lead items have now been

  2. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III

    2012-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  3. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  4. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  5. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  6. Progressive Care of Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambaugh, Lori A; Ecklund, Margaret M

    2016-08-01

    Obese patients have complex needs that complicate their care during hospitalization. These patients often have comorbid conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, pressure ulcers, and difficulty with mobility. Obese patients may be well served in the progressive care setting because they may require more intensive nursing care than can be delivered in a general care unit. Progressive care nurses have core competencies that enable them to safely and effectively care for obese patients. A plan of care with interdisciplinary collaboration illustrates the integrative care for obese progressive care patients. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:58-63). PMID:27481802

  7. STAR FORMATION ACROSS THE W3 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana–Ensenada, Ensenada 22860 (Mexico); Megías, Guillermo D. [Facultad de Física. Universidad de Sevilla. Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla, E-41080 (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, FL 32611 (United States); Alves, Joáo F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  8. Evasion of Cell Senescence Leads to Medulloblastoma Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Wu, Chia-Lun; Bouchard, Nicolas; Khedher, Ahmed; Swikert, Shannon M; Remke, Marc; Skowron, Patryk; Taylor, Michael D; Charron, Frédéric

    2016-03-29

    How brain tumors progress from precancerous lesions to advanced cancers is not well understood. Using Ptch1(+/-) mice to study medulloblastoma progression, we found that Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is an early event that is associated with high levels of cell senescence in preneoplasia. In contrast, advanced tumors have evaded senescence. Remarkably, we discovered that the majority of advanced medulloblastomas display either spontaneous, somatic p53 mutations or Cdkn2a locus inactivation. Consistent with senescence evasion, these p53 mutations are always subsequent to Ptch1 LOH. Introduction of a p53 mutation prevents senescence, accelerates tumor formation, and increases medulloblastoma incidence. Altogether, our results show that evasion of senescence associated with Ptch1 LOH allows progression to advanced tumors. PMID:26997276

  9. Evasion of Cell Senescence Leads to Medulloblastoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Tamayo-Orrego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available How brain tumors progress from precancerous lesions to advanced cancers is not well understood. Using Ptch1+/− mice to study medulloblastoma progression, we found that Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity (LOH is an early event that is associated with high levels of cell senescence in preneoplasia. In contrast, advanced tumors have evaded senescence. Remarkably, we discovered that the majority of advanced medulloblastomas display either spontaneous, somatic p53 mutations or Cdkn2a locus inactivation. Consistent with senescence evasion, these p53 mutations are always subsequent to Ptch1 LOH. Introduction of a p53 mutation prevents senescence, accelerates tumor formation, and increases medulloblastoma incidence. Altogether, our results show that evasion of senescence associated with Ptch1 LOH allows progression to advanced tumors.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-07-01

    Spondyloarthritis comprise a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterized by its association to HLA-B27 and the presence of arthritis and enthesitis. The pathogenesis involves both an inflammatory process and new bone formation, which eventually lead to ankylosis of the spine. To date, the intrinsic mechanisms of the pathogenic process have not been fully elucidated, and our progress is remarkable in the identification of therapeutic targets to achieve the control of the inflammatory process, yet our ability to inhibit the excessive bone formation is still insufficient. The study of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis has been mostly conducted in animal models of the disease and only few experiments have been done using human biopsies. The deregulation and overexpression of molecules involved in the osteogenesis process have been observed in bone cells, mesenchymal cells, and fibroblasts. The signaling associated to the excessive bone formation is congruent with those involved in the physiological processes of bone remodeling. Bone morphogenetic proteins and Wnt pathways have been found deregulated in this disease; however, the cause for uncontrolled stimulation remains unknown. Mechanical stress appears to play an important role in the pathological osteogenesis process; nevertheless, the association of other important factors, such as the presence of HLA-B27 and environmental factors, remains uncertain. The present review summarizes the experimental findings that describe the signaling pathways involved in the new bone formation process in spondyloarthritis in animal models and in human biopsies. The role of mechanical stress as the trigger of these pathways is also reviewed. PMID:26838262

  11. Controls of tor formation, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.; Skelton, Alasdair; Martel, Stephen J.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansson, Krister N.; Hättestrand, Clas

    2014-02-01

    Tors occur in many granitic landscapes and provide opportunities to better understand differential weathering. We assess tor formation in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, by examining correlation of tor location and size with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer a control on these relationships and explore its potential broader significance for differential weathering and tor formation. We also assess the relationship between the formation of subhorizontal joints in many tors and local topographic shape by evaluating principle surface curvatures from a digital elevation model of the Cairngorms. We then explore the implications of these joints for tor formation. We conclude that the Cairngorm tors have formed in kernels of relatively coarse grained granite. Tor volumes increase with grain size and the spacing of steeply dipping joints. We infer that the steeply dipping joints largely formed during pluton cooling and are more widely spaced in tor kernels because of slower cooling rates. Preferential tor formation in coarser granite with a wider joint spacing that is more easily grusified indicates that joint spacing is a dominant control on differential weathering. Sheet jointing is well developed in tors located on relatively high convex surfaces. This jointing formed after the gross topography of the Cairngorms was established and before tor emergence. The presence of closely spaced (tens of centimeters), subhorizontal sheeting joints in tors indicates that these tors, and similarly sheeted tors elsewhere, formed either after subaerial exposure of bedrock or have progressively emerged from a regolith only a few meters thick.

  12. Suppression of glioma progression by Egln3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Sciorra

    Full Text Available Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma has a poor clinical outcome that can be linked to hypoxia, invasiveness and active vascular remodeling. It has recently been suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors, Hifs, increase glioma growth and aggressiveness [1], [2], [3]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Egl 9 homolog 3 (Egln3, a prolyl-hydroxylase that promotes Hif degradation, suppresses tumor progression of human and rodent glioma models. Through intracranial tumorigenesis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate for the first time that Egln3 was sufficient to decrease the kinetics of tumor progression and increase survival. We also find that Klf5, a transcription factor important to vascular remodeling, was regulated by hypoxia in glioma. An analysis of the tumor vasculature revealed that elevated Egln3 normalized glioma capillary architecture, consistent with a role for Egln3 in eliciting decreases in the production of Hif-regulated, angiogenic factors. We also find that the hydroxylase-deficient mutant, Egln3(H196A partially maintained tumor suppressive activity. These results highlight a bifurcation of Egln3 signaling and suggest that Egln3 has a non-hydroxylase-dependent function in glioma. We conclude that Egln3 is a critical determinant of glioma formation and tumor vascular functionality.

  13. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  14. Gender progress and government expenditure as determinants of femicide

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Solís, Marco Antonio; Vives Cases, Carmen; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to explore the effect of economic/political factors and gender progress on femicide. Methods: An ecological and retrospective study was undertaken that focused on 61 countries and analyzed the relationships of femicide with the following statistics from the period 1990 to 1999: economic indicators (domestic consumption, gross capital formation, imports and exports per capita, unemployment rate and percentage of urban population), political indicators (government final co...

  15. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality. PMID:27455023

  16. Biomarkers of progression in mirroring models of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons and formation of Lewy bodies composed of a-synuclein aggregates in substantia nigra. Other than the rarely inherited autosomal forms, the causes of most cases of idiopathic PD are not known. Increasing numbers of study are implicating the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD. The neuronal susceptibility in PD is multifactorial...

  17. Cyst initiation, cyst expansion and progression in ADPKD

    OpenAIRE

    Happé, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by large fluid-filled cysts and progressive deterioration of renal function necessitating renal replacement therapy. In this thesis different phases of ADPKD were studied. First, we studied the initiation of cyst formation. We showed that the proliferative status of the renal tissue is important for the rate at which cysts are formed after Pkd1 conditional deletion. In addition we concluded that improper positioning of cent...

  18. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste; Dossier 2001 argile: sur l'avancement des etudes et recherches relatives a la faisabilite d'un stockage de dechets a haute activite et a vie longue en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  19. CBM progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, N.; Rami, F.; Roehrich, D.; Stroth, J.; Wessels, J.; Zaitsev, Yu

    2008-02-15

    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to D{sub s}{sup +} and {lambda}{sub c}, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA

  20. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  1. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  2. Ultrasound clinical progress monitoring: Who, where and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gill

    2015-11-01

    Prior to assessment of final ultrasound clinical competency it is important to monitor clinical progress, provide high quality feedback and encourage skills development. The role of the supervisor, mentor and assessor are fundamental to the on-going progress monitoring of ultrasound trainees. This article forms the second part of a larger project which was to elicit ultrasound practitioners' opinions on how progress should be monitored, where and by whom. An on-line questionnaire was used to gain opinions from ultrasound practitioners. Totally, 116 responses were received from professionals with an interest in ultrasound assessment. Results suggested that experienced, qualified ultrasound practitioners should undertake the role of supervisor and assessor, having been prepared for that role by the training centre. Formative monitoring should take place both within the clinical department and possibly the training centre, using a range of methods. Following completion of the training, practitioners should have a preceptorship period to consolidate their knowledge and skills for 3 to 6 months or until further competencies have been demonstrated. Formative progress monitoring should be a recognised part of ultrasound training. Essentially, staff undertaking supervision and assessor roles should be supported and trained to ensure a high quality, consistent learning experience for ultrasound trainees. Additionally, they should provide appropriate feedback to the trainee and education centre.

  3. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  5. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.......Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings......, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...

  6. Zolpidem in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip K. Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor symptoms, postural instability, personality changes, and cognitive impairment. There is no effective treatment for this disorder. Reduced neurotransmission of GABA in the striatum and globus pallidus may contribute to the symptoms of motor and cognitive symptoms seen in PSP. Zolpidem is a GABA agonist of the benzodiazepine subreceptor BZ1. Here a nondiabetic, normotensive case of PSP is (Progressive Supranuclear Palsy described, which showed improvement in swallowing, speech, and gaze paresis after zolpidem therapy and possible mechanism of actions are discussed. However, more trials are needed with large number of patients to confirm the effectiveness of zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy.

  7. Cataract formation following vitreoretinal procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Feng, Ron A Adelman Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of cataract formation, progression, and extraction in patients that underwent vitreoretinal procedures and to evaluate factors that can potentially predispose patients to postoperative cataracts.Materials and methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery at the Yale Eye Center with at least 6 months of follow-up and no prior intraocular surgery were obtained. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were recorded and analyzed in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measures were defined as cataract extraction, formation, and progression after vitreoretinal procedures. The lens status of the surgical eye was recorded preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months postoperatively.Results: A total of 193 eyes of 180 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The percentages of eyes with mild lens change were 96% after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, 72% after small gauge (23- and 25-gauge PPV, 38% after scleral buckle (SB, 38% after pneumatic retinopexy (PR, and 91% after PPV plus SB (PPV+SB. Posterior subcapsular and nuclear sclerotic cataracts were the most common with almost all developing within 24 months. There was no statistically significant difference (P=1.00 between the rate of cataract extraction after 20-gauge (41% and small gauge PPV (42%, but there was a statistically significant difference between PPV and non-PPV (SB, 6%; PR, 7%; P<0.001 and PPV and PPV+SB groups (69%; P=0.0063.Conclusion: Cataracts were common following PPV regardless of the gauge. SB and PR led to the lowest while PPV+SB led to the highest risk of postoperative cataracts. Keywords: cataracts, vitreoretinal surgery, vitrectomy, scleral buckle, pneumatic retinopexy

  8. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  9. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  10. TTP: Tool for Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Johannes G.; Bozic, Ivana; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a flexible tool for tumor progression, which simulates the evolutionary dynamics of cancer. Tumor progression implements a multi-type branching process where the key parameters are the fitness landscape, the mutation rate, and the average time of cell division. The fitness of a cancer cell depends on the mutations it has accumulated. The input to our tool could be any fitness landscape, mutation rate, and cell division time, and the tool produces the growth dynamics an...

  11. Integrin Trafficking and Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejeong Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrins are major mediators of cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. Through this interaction, integrins play critical roles in cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to apoptosis during tumor progression. Recent studies highlight the importance of integrin trafficking, endocytosis and recycling, for the functions of integrins in cancer cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of integrin trafficking is pivotal for understanding tumor progression and for the development of anticancer drugs.

  12. Progress Examinations in Pharmacy Education

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Cecilia M.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of the progress examination has grown in the current culture of accountability in higher education. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE's) Standards 2007 calls for comprehensive, knowledge- and performance-based examinations as part of a school or college of pharmacy's evaluation and assessment of student learning. Progress examinations have been used primarily in medical education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the litera...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  14. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  15. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  16. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  17. Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Tai; Chen, W. P.

    2005-01-01

    We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implos...

  18. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  19. Formation of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.

    The discovery of extrasolar planets and the determination of their orbital properties have provided golden opportunities for new advancements in the quest to understand the origin and evolution of planets and planetary systems. While their bizarre variety presents a challenge for the existing theories, their ubiquity suggests that planetary formation is a robust process. Combining data obtained from solar system exploration, star formation studies and the searches for extra solar planets, we address some outstanding issues concerning critical processes of grain condensation, planetesimal coagulation, and gas accretion. Some implications of these investigations are: 1) the about of heavy elements available for planetary formation in protostellar disks is retained at a similar level as that empirically inferred for the primordial solar nebula, through self regulated processes and 2) the critical stages of planet formation, from grain condensation, planetesimal coagulation, to gas accretion, proceed on the timescale of a few million years.

  20. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  1. One-dimensional nano-interconnection formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianlong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2013-09-23

    Interconnection of one-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes with other parts or components is crucial for nanodevices to realize electrical contacts and mechanical fixings. Interconnection has been being gradually paid great attention since it is as significant as nanomaterials properties, and determines nanodevices performance in some cases. This paper provides an overview of recent progress on techniques that are commonly used for one-dimensional interconnection formation. In this review, these techniques could be categorized into two different types: two-step and one-step methods according to their established process. The two-step method is constituted by assembly and pinning processes, while the one-step method is a direct formation process of nano-interconnections. In both methods, the electrodeposition approach is illustrated in detail, and its potential mechanism is emphasized.

  2. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  3. Clinical management of progressive myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, T A

    2014-02-01

    Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

  4. Intake design of a wave-driven seawater pump to suppress vortex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Czitrom, S.P.R. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical work is described to diminish vortex formation at the intake of a wave driven resonant seawater pump. Different intake designs were tested under various Reynolds and oscillating Reynolds numbers. A profile design, based on a constant balance between inertial and centripetal forces avoided vortex formation under wide experimental conditions. Scaling of this design for ocean conditions is currently in progress. (au)

  5. Using S-P Chart and Bloom Taxonomy to Develop Intelligent Formative Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chih; Yang, Hsuan-Che; Shih, Timothy K.; Chao, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    E-learning provides a convenient and efficient way for learning. Formative assessment not only guides student in instruction and learning, diagnose skill or knowledge gaps, but also measures progress and evaluation. An efficient and convenient e-learning formative assessment system is the key character for e-learning. However, most e-learning…

  6. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations. The emergence of the connection between people’s mathematical qualifications and social progress can be traced......, professional associations argue that the low numbers of people in STEM fields can severely damage the competitiveness of developed nations in international, globalized markets. The narrative that connects progress, economic superiority, and development to citizen’s mathematical competence is made intelligible...

  7. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  8. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  9. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  10. Early Detection of Emphysema Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Jacobs, S.S.A.M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  11. BANKRUPTCY RULES AND PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    Juan de Dios Moreno Ternero; Antonio Villar Notario

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the relative progressivity of the main bankruptcy rules in taxation problems. A rule F is more progressive than a rule G when the after-tax income vector generated by F Lorenz dominates that generated by G. We focus our analysis on four classical rules (proportional, equal-awards, equal-losses and Talmud) and on the TAL-family, introduced in Moreno-Ternero & Villar (2002). This family depends on a parameter Theta belongs to [0,1] and encompasses the constrained equal award...

  12. The Formation and Spatiotemporal Progress of the pH Wave Induced by the Temperature Gradient in the Thin-Layer H2O2-Na2S2O3-H2SO4-CuSO4 Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrusiak, Mikołaj; Orlik, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The H2O2-S2O3(2-)-H(+)-Cu(2+) dynamical system exhibits sustained oscillations under flow conditions but reveals only a single initial peak of the indicator electrode potential and pH variation under batch isothermal conditions. Thus, in the latter case, there is no possibility of the coupling of the oscillations and diffusion which could lead to formation of sustained spatiotemporal patterns in this process. However, in the inhomogeneous temperature field, due to dependence of the local reaction kinetics on temperature, spatial inhomogeneities of pH distribution can develop which, in the presence of an appropriate indicator, thymol blue, manifest themselves as the color front traveling along the quasi-one-dimensional reactor. In this work, we describe the experimental conditions under which the above-mentioned phenomena can be observed and present their numerical model based on thermokinetic coupling and spatial coordinate introduced to earlier isothermal homogeneous kinetic mechanism.

  13. The Formation and Spatiotemporal Progress of the pH Wave Induced by the Temperature Gradient in the Thin-Layer H2O2-Na2S2O3-H2SO4-CuSO4 Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrusiak, Mikołaj; Orlik, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The H2O2-S2O3(2-)-H(+)-Cu(2+) dynamical system exhibits sustained oscillations under flow conditions but reveals only a single initial peak of the indicator electrode potential and pH variation under batch isothermal conditions. Thus, in the latter case, there is no possibility of the coupling of the oscillations and diffusion which could lead to formation of sustained spatiotemporal patterns in this process. However, in the inhomogeneous temperature field, due to dependence of the local reaction kinetics on temperature, spatial inhomogeneities of pH distribution can develop which, in the presence of an appropriate indicator, thymol blue, manifest themselves as the color front traveling along the quasi-one-dimensional reactor. In this work, we describe the experimental conditions under which the above-mentioned phenomena can be observed and present their numerical model based on thermokinetic coupling and spatial coordinate introduced to earlier isothermal homogeneous kinetic mechanism. PMID:26938427

  14. Research Progress in Function of Retinol Binding Protein4 on Insulin Resistance Formation and Effects of Exercise on Retinol Binding Protein4%视黄醇结合蛋白4在胰岛素抵抗形成中的作用及其与运动关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明军

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the function of retinol binding protein 4 on insulin resistance formation and effects of exercise on retinol binding protein 4. RBP4 is an adipocyte - derived ' signal' that may contribute to the relationship between insulin resistance and obesity,type 2 diabetes. Retinol binding protein4 genetic polymorphism is relevant to insulin resistance formation too. Retinol binding protein4 could induce insulin resistance by suppression insulin signal protein. Exercise decreases retinol binding protein 4 level of normal subjects, obesity, and type 2 diabetes to improve insulin resistance.%对视黄醇结合蛋白4在胰岛素抵抗形成中的作用及其与运动关系的研究进展进行了综述研究。视黄醇结合蛋白4是将肥胖、2型糖尿病胰岛素抵抗联系起来的脂肪因子,视黄醇结合蛋白4遗传多态性亦与胰岛素抵抗的发生关系密切。视黄醇结合蛋白4能够通过抑制胰岛素信号蛋白诱导胰岛素抵抗。运动能够降低正常体重、肥胖、2型糖尿病对象的视黄醇结合蛋白4,改善胰岛素抵抗。

  15. Modern conceptions about mechanisms of progression process of hip dysplasia in children (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertakova А.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature review of modern data concerning mechanisms of formation and progression process of hip dysplasia in children is represented. The questions concerning classification, processes of morphological and functional (biochemical change of osteocartilaginous components of hip in children with connective tissue dysplasia, changes of content of remodeling and skeletal system degradation markers, angiogenesis in the process of progression of pathological changes in joint are taken up

  16. Primordial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion...

  17. Solar System formation

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A

    2009-01-01

    In this review, three major changes in our understanding of the early history of the Solar System are presented. 1) Early differentiation: A few recent results support the idea that protoplanet formation and differentiation occurred partly simultaneously than CAI formation. First, some iron meteorites, eucrites, and angrites older than the chondrules or even than the CAI have been found. Second, iron meteorites could be debris of early disrupted differentiated planetesimals, scattered from the terrestrial planet region to the Main Belt. Finally, chondrules contain fragments of planetesimal material. 2) Earth and Moon: An equilibration mechanism explains the identical Oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon. In addition, it has been shown that the Earth and the Moon mantles have the same 182^W anomaly, in contrast to what was believed before. Consequently, the Moon forming impact should have occurred after the extinction of the 182Hf radioactivity, about 60 Myr after Solar System formation. This ...

  18. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.;

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  19. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  20. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  1. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  2. Formats and data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently used ENDF-6 format has a number of shortcomings that originate from the punch-card legacy. Some, such as redundancy, counting lines, too short MAT number and too many options could be resolved within the current format. The more critical issues, such as rigidity to extensions, limited accuracy due to fixed number of digits, difficulty of reading by humans, lack of native software support, and lack of integration with EXFOR and ENSDF libraries, would require such considerable efforts that migration to a new and modern format, offering additional advantages, is a more attractive option. Actually, such an option is even more justified by the existence of the well advanced General Nuclear Data (GND) format being developed by LLNL. This XML based framework is easily extensible, its numerical precision is not fixed, it is easier to edit, can store additional information (e.g. renormalized experimental data used in the evaluation), allows for storing various versions side by side (e.g. reconstructed data, group-wise data, alternative evaluations), it may include hyperlinks to documentation or another set of data (e.g. covariances). Two additional advantages are the possibility of using native Python support software and already available conversion (in both directions) to the binary HDF5 format which allows to organize, store, access, analyze, share, and preserve data huge in both size and complexity. The GND format comes with the processing software FUDGE, whose class structure mirrors the GND format. It provides for arbitrary alteration of the data, energy deposition/kermas, data checking, translation to different format (ENDF-6, HDF5, ENDL), grouping, resonance reconstruction, visualization and sampling from covariances. It is deemed advantageous to the Nuclear Data community to adopt this new system and develop interfaces to the currently used processing codes and retrieval systems to take full advantage of the evolving technology. Such modernization is

  3. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  4. Terrestrial planet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Righter, K.; D. P. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally e...

  5. Recent progress in the description of positron scattering from atoms using the Convergent Close-Coupling Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrov, A S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress in the theory of positron scattering on atoms has been made in the ten years since the review of Surko, Gribakin and Buckman [J. Phys. B 38, R57 (2005)]. We review this progress for few-electron targets with a particular emphasis on the two-centre convergent close-coupling and other theories which explicitly treat positronium (Ps) formation. While substantial progress has been made for Ps formation in positron scattering on few-electron targets, considerable theoretical development is still required for multielectron atomic and molecular targets.

  6. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  7. Nuclear Physics Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1983 progress report of the Nuclear Physics Division, UKAEA Harwell, is divided into four main topics. These are a) nuclear data and technology for nuclear power; b) nuclear studies; c) applications of nuclear and associated techniques, including ion beam techniques and moessbauer spectroscopy; and d) accelerator operation, maintenance and development. (U.K.)

  8. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  9. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  10. Recent Progress in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of $\\gamma$-rays from supernova remnants.

  11. New progress in Organic FET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Co-funded by NSFC,MOST and CAS,researchers from the Key laboratory of Organic Solids,Institute of Chemistry,CAS,made new progress in organic field-effect transistors (FET).The results of the study were published recently in the journal of Advanced Materials (2008,20,1286-1290).

  12. [Progressive extrinsic ophthalmoplegia; case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, J A; Erwenne, C M; Vilanova, L C; Lima, J G

    1979-12-01

    A case of progressive ophtalmoplegia and ptosis affecting a 12 year old boy is reported. A miopatic pattern was detected by the electromyography, the cerebrospinal fluid showed an increase of the protein content and retinal pigmentary degeneration was detected. This findings call the attention for a more widespread degenerative disorders affecting not only the muscular sistem but other organs as well. PMID:533389

  13. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  14. Joint energy program makes progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Clean Energies Facing the Future," a cooperative research program jointly organized by CAS and the BP Group, has made encouraging progress, say experts at an annual sum-up workshop held on 31 July and I August at Tsinghua University in Beijing. The CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics(DICP) has been entrusted as coordinator of the cooperative program between the two sides.

  15. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  16. Progress Report 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research directions in the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul are presented. The progress reports cavied out in the follow areas are presented: perturbed angular correlation; Moessbauer spectroscopy; ion implantation; magnetism and electronic transport; microelectronics; condensed matter theory; quantum field theory; plasma physics; nuclear physics; astronomy and astrophysics; and instrumentation. (M.C.K.)

  17. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  18. Recent progress on superstrange dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitanos, T

    2016-01-01

    We review the present activities related to hypernuclear production in hadronic in-medium reactions at intermediate energies. The status of theoretical predictions and experimental evidences for the in-medium formation of bound superstrange matter is discussed. Heavy-ion collisions and antiproton-induced reactions at energies close to strangeness production thresholds create the conditions of hypermatter formation. This allows to understand better in-medium hyperon interactions and set constraints on the strangeness sector of the nuclear equation of state.

  19. Kepler Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  20. Gravitational Structure Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Baertschiger, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the formation of the first structures in gravitational N-body simulations. The role of two-body interaction is found to be a crucial element and an analogy with the dynamics of the Coulomb lattice, well-studied in solid state physics, is discussed.

  1. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  2. Airship formation control

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Moreira, André; Diegues, Sérgio; Carvalheira, Manuel Pereira; Monteiro, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem underlying the control and coordination of multiple autonomous airships that must travel maintaining a desired geometric formation and simultaneously avoid collisions with moving or stationary obstacles. The control architecture is based on the attractor dynamics approach to behaviour generation. The airship physical model is presented and the mathematical background for the control architecture is explained. Simulations (with perturbations) ...

  3. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific...

  4. Generic file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  5. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  6. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  7. The Plaskett Lecture: Star Formation in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale surveys of the Perseus molecular cloud have provided many clues as to the processes occurring during star formation. Here, analysis of both column density maps and kinematic data (maps and pointed data) are discussed and compared with predictions from simulations. Results include a column density threshold for the formation of dense star-forming cores and that the dense cores are quiescent within their local environment, while the molecular cloud as a whole has turbulent motions that are dominated by large-scale modes. Some of these results have already been used to constrain models of star formation, and the others can be included as future tests of the models. The next few years of star formation research promises to provide exciting advances to the field, particularly with the Gould Belt Legacy Surveys in progress at several facilities, including the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT).

  8. Timing of College Enrollment and Family Formation Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    The level of progression of an individual’s educational or labor market career is a potentially important factor for family formation decisions. We address this issue by considering the effects of a particular college admission system on family formation. We show that the admission system affects...... system to estimate the effect of being above the admission requirement in the year of application on later family formation decisions. We find that the admission system has substantial effects on the timing of family formation and, specifically, that the timing of college enrollment is an important...... determinant hereof. This suggests that career interruptions such as delays in the educational system can have large effects on family decision - making....

  9. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply...... the organismic-developmental approach to fields only touched in Symbol formation, such as magical practices, social structures, pictures and gesture....

  10. Simulating Cosmic Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, D H; Hernquist, L E; Weinberg, David H.; Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars

    1997-01-01

    We describe cosmological simulation techniques and their application to studies of cosmic structure formation, with particular attention to recent hydrodynamic simulations of structure in the high redshift universe. Collisionless N-body simulations with Gaussian initial conditions produce a pattern of sheets, filaments, tunnels, and voids that resembles the observed large scale galaxy distribution. Simulations that incorporate gas dynamics and dissipation form dense clumps of cold gas with sizes and masses similar to the luminous parts of galaxies. Models based on inflation and cold dark matter predict a healthy population of high redshift galaxies, including systems with star formation rates of 20 M_{\\sun}/year at z=6. At z~3, most of the baryons in these models reside in the low density intergalactic medium, which produces fluctuating Lyman-alpha absorption in the spectra of background quasars. The physical description of this ``Lyman-alpha forest'' is particularly simple if the absorption spectrum is viewe...

  11. Emptiness Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  12. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H2, A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author)

  13. Induced galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V; Rubin, S; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury; Rubin, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We describe the model of protogalaxy formation around the cluster of primordial black holes with a minimum extension of standard cosmological model. Namely, it is supposed, that a mass fraction of the universe ~10^-3 is composed of the compact clusters of primordial (relict) black holes produced during the phase transitions in the early universe. These clusters are the centers of the dark matter (DM) condensations. As a result the protogalaxies with a mass 2x10^8Msun form at the redshift z=15. These induced protogalaxies contain the central black holes of mass ~10^5Msun and look like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies with a central density spike. Subsequent merging of the induced protogalaxies and ordinary DM haloes leads to the standard scenario of the large scale structure formation. Black holes merging gives the nowadays supermassive black holes and reproduces the observed correlations between their masses and velocity dispersions in the bulges.

  14. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  15. Conjugaison progressive du français avec 400 exercices

    CERN Document Server

    Boularès, Michèle

    1999-01-01

    La Conjugaison progressive du français s'adresse aux grands adolescents et aux adultes de tous niveaux. C'est un ouvrage d'apprentissage des formes verbales. On trouve sur la page de gauche : - la règle de formation de chaque temps ; - les verbes types présentés en tableaux et accompagnés d'une liste de verbes conjugués sur le même modèle ; - des remarques phonétiques ou orthographiques ; - des explications sur les difficultés particulières. La page de droite propose des exercices et des activités de difficulté progressive. C'est également un ouvrage de référence grâce aux nombreux tableaux de conjugaison qu'il contient.

  16. [Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Matthieu; Teta, Daniel; Rotman, Samuel; Pruijm, Menno; Humbert, Antoine

    2014-02-26

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPG) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by kidney damage that can lead to irreversible kidney failure. RPG can be caused by primary glomerular disease or can be part of a systemic autoimmune disorder. All RPG have a similar pathophysiology (proliferation of cells in Bowman's capsule and formation of crescents) and clinical evolution (rapidly progressive kidney failure with proteinuria and an active urine sediment). Immunosuppressive therapy and sometimes plasma exchanges are required. Overall- and kidney survival are closely linked to the blood creatinine level at presentation, the percentage of damaged glomeruli, and to the underlying cause. RPG is therefore a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency that needs quick referral to a nephrologist. PMID:24665657

  17. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  18. Monochromatic Progressions in Random Colorings

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay, Sujith

    2011-01-01

    Let N^{+}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{3/2} f(k) and N^{-}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{1/2} g(k) where 1=o(f(k)) and g(k)=o(1). We show that the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{+}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 1, and the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{-}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 0, for large k. This improves an upper bound due to Brown, who had established an analogous result for N^{+}(k)= 2^k l...

  19. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  20. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: rheumatological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeevich Belov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a severe progressive viral disease that affects the central nervous system in patients with immunodeficiency. It may develop as a complication in patients with systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (primarily in those with systemic lupus erythematosus, including that during active antirheumatic therapy. The paper presents data on the etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the disease, characterizes its clinical presentation, highlights main approaches to its diagnosis, and gives current diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire used to monitor neurological status is shown. The paper emphasizes the importance of this monitoring, for early diagnosis and timely cessation of PML treatment with a drug, a potential trigger, are factors that influence prognosis to the utmost degree.

  1. Modeling river delta formation

    OpenAIRE

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2007-01-01

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the...

  2. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A. (Anne); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  3. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  4. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  6. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  7. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  8. Formation of transient lamellipodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs, or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by

  9. Egg Formation in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Telfer

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive biology in the Twentieth Century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. While many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. Discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. The emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, aft...

  10. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    are chosen to investigate time dependent martensite formation. Among them, a Fe-11wt%Ni-0.6wt%C model alloy and Fe-1.6wt%Cr-1wt%C (AISI 52100), Fe-17wt%Cr-7wt%Ni (AISI 631) and Fe-16wt%Cr-5wt%Ni (AISI 630) commercial steels. The investigation was performed with in situ magnetometry, dilatometry, synchrotron...

  11. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  12. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  13. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  14. Unemployment and Household formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to other continents, Africa has received little scholarly attention with regard to household composition. Household composition is endogenous to a variety of welfare issues and little is understood about the determinants of this composition. Understanding the household composition and formation decision may improve our understanding of how the unemployed gain access to resources and how household composition could provide a safety net to the unemployed. However, increasingly, mo...

  15. Cyst formation by Methanosarcina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilina, T.N.; Zavarzin, G.A.

    1979-05-01

    The morphology of a coccoid, methane producing bacterium growing on acetate was studied. The organism is capable of forming morphologically differentiated cells, microcysts, whose structure resembles that of bacterial surviving cells. The organism forms peculiar macrocysts in the enrichment culture. In its other characteristics, the organism is similar to Methanococcus mazei. However, it classified as Methanosarcina, biotype 3, due to the characteristic formation of multicellular pseudococci.

  16. The Hedgehog signalling pathway in bone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Philipp Andre; Ling Ye; Ying-Zi Yang

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway plays many important roles in development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The critical function of Hh signalling in bone formation has been identified in the past two decades. Here, we review the evolutionarily conserved Hh signalling mechanisms with an emphasis on the functions of the Hh signalling pathway in bone development, homeostasis and diseases. In the early stages of embryonic limb development, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts as a major morphogen in patterning the limb buds. Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) has an essential function in endochondral ossification and induces osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium. Hh signalling is also involved intramembrane ossification. Interactions between Hh and Wnt signalling regulate cartilage development, endochondral bone formation and synovial joint formation. Hh also plays an important role in bone homeostasis, and reducing Hh signalling protects against age-related bone loss. Disruption of Hh signalling regulation leads to multiple bone diseases, such as progressive osseous heteroplasia. Therefore, understanding the signalling mechanisms and functions of Hh signalling in bone development, homeostasis and diseases will provide important insights into bone disease prevention, diagnoses and therapeutics.

  17. Recent progress in wormhole dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2003-01-01

    Space-time wormholes were introduced in Wheeler's idea of space-time foam. Traversible wormholes as defined by Morris & Thorne became popular as potential short cuts across the universe and even time machines. More recently, the author proposed a general theory of wormhole dynamics, unified with black-hole dynamics. This article gives a brief review of the above ideas and summarizes progress on wormhole dynamics in the last year. Firstly, a numerical study of dynamical perturbations of the fi...

  18. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  20. Gene therapy: progress and predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Mary; Thrasher, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of ...

  1. The 1989 progress report: Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Mathematics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, scattering, fluid dynamics and homogenization, equations, varieties with negative curvature, elliptical problems on surfaces, Dirac operator, geometry of algorithms and formal calculus, singularities, Lie groups, dynamics systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed

  2. Hereditary progressive chorea without dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schady, W; Meara, R J

    1988-01-01

    A family with hereditary non-Huntington's chorea is presented. Transmission was autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. Chorea commenced in childhood and affected predominantly the head, face and upper limbs. Dysarthria appeared later, followed in two family members by elements of an axial dystonia. There was no intellectual impairment. Unlike previously described families, symptoms progressed steadily up to the eighth decade, causing considerable physical disability.

  3. Progressive hemifacial atrophy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachjov, Stanislav N; Patel, Nirav G; Tollefson, Megha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy (PHA) is an acquired, typically unilateral, facial distortion with unknown etiology. The true incidence of this disorder has not been reported, but it is often regarded as a subtype of localized scleroderma. Historically, a debate existed whether PHA is a form of linear scleroderma, called morphea en coup de sabre (ECDS), or whether these conditions are inherently different processes or appear on a spectrum (; Adv Exp Med Biol 455:101–4, 1999; J Eur A...

  4. Progress of nanoscience in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Liang; Song, Yan-Lin; Song, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Hong-Xing; Wei, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Lei; Bao, Xin-He; Wan, Li-Jun; Bai, Chun-Li

    2014-06-01

    Fast evolving nanosciences and nanotechnology in China has made it one o f the front countries of nanotechnology development. In this review, we summarize some most recent progresses in nanoscience research and nanotechnology development in China. The topics we selected in this article include nano-fabrication, nanocatalysis, bioinspired nanotechnology, green printing nanotechnology, nanoplasmonics, nanomedicine, nanomaterials and their applications, energy and environmental nanotechnology, nano EHS (nanosafety), etc. Most of them have great potentials in applications or application-related key issues in future.

  5. Emergent Gravity Paradigm: Recent Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, T

    2014-01-01

    Research during the last one decade or so suggests that the gravitational field equations in a large class of theories (including, but not limited to, general relativity) have the same status as the equations of, say, gas dynamics or elasticity. This paradigm provides a refreshingly different way of interpreting spacetime dynamics and highlights the fact that several features of classical gravitational theories have direct thermodynamic interpretation. I review the recent progress in this approach, achieved during the last few years.

  6. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations.The emerg...

  7. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  8. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  9. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  10. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  11. 汽油发动机积炭的形成、清除机理及汽油清净剂的研究进展%Mechanisms of carbon deposit formation and removing in internal gasoline engines and research progress of gasoline detergent additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翔; 司徒粤; 谢德龙; 黄洪

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of an internal engine, carbon deposit forms at various locations, such as combustion chamber, injection nozzle and inlet valve. Engine carbon deposit has serious influences on the engine efficiency, driveability and exhaust emissions. In order to clean up the carbon deposit, gasoline additives have become a necessary part of modern engine fuel. A large number of research literatures suggest that carbon deposit formation has two steps, i.e. initiation and growth; and these processes would be affected by metal surface temperature, fuel composition, injection rate, and many other factors. The use of a particular structure of the organic amines which can be adsorbed on metal surfaces and disperse pectin can clean the extensive carbon deposit. In addition, the composition, the development and the evaluation method of gasoline detergent have been summarized.%发动机经过长期运转以后,在燃烧室、燃油喷嘴、进气阀等部位会形成大量的碳质沉积物,严重影响发动机的效率、操作性能和尾气排放。为解决发动机的积炭以及尾气排放问题,汽油清净添加剂成为现代清洁汽油不可或缺的组成部分。本文综述了积炭的形成机理:积炭的形成过程分为引发和生长两个阶段,同时积炭的形成受到金属表面温度、燃油组成、喷射速率等众多因素的影响。指出利用某种特殊结构的有机胺类物质对金属表面的吸附作用及其对胶质的分散作用可以清除金属表面已经形成的积炭。此外,对汽油清净剂的组成、发展以及性能评价方法作了详细介绍。

  12. Research progress in traumatic brain penumbra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kai; Liu Baiyun; Ma Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury (TBI),brain tissue that surrounding the regional primary lesion is known as traumatic penumbra; this region may undergo secondary injury and is considered to have the potential to recover.This review aimed to reveal the existence and significance of traumatic penumbra by analyzing all relevant studies concerning basic pathologic changes and brain imaging after TBI.Data sources We collected all relevant studies about TBI and traumatic penumbra in Medline (1995 to June 2013) and ISI (1997 to March 2013),evaluated their quality and relevance,then extracted and synthesized the information.Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning TBI and traumatic penumbra (there was no limitation of research design and article language) and excluded the duplicated articles.Results The crucial pathological changes after TBI include cerebral blood flow change,cerebral edema,blood-brain barrier damage,cell apoptosis and necrosis.Besides,traditional imaging method cannot characterize the consequences of CBF reduction at an early stage and provides limited insights into the underlying pathophysiology.While advanced imaging technique,such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and positron emission tomography (PET),may provide better characterization of such pathophysiology.Conclusions The future of traumatic brain lesions depends to a large extent on the evolution of the penumbra.Therefore,understanding the formation and pathophysiologic process of the traumatic penumbra and its imaging research progress is of great significant for early clinical determination and timely brain rescue.

  13. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  14. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  15. Timing of College Enrollment and Family Formation Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    It is likely that the extent of progression in the educational system affects whether or not one decides to start a family at a given point in time. We estimate the effect of enrolling in college in the year of application on later family formation decisions such as the probability of being...... family formation decisions. For example, we find that the effect of enrolling in college on the probability of being a parent at age 27 is about 9 percentage points, corresponding to an increase of about 70 percent....

  16. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial heart block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions progressive familial heart block progressive ...

  17. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  18. Formation and evolution of X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in theoretical understanding of X-ray binaries,which has largely been driven by new observations.We select several topics including formation of compact low-mass X-ray binaries,the evolutionary connection between low-mass X-ray binaries and binary and millisecond radio pulsars,and ultraluminous X-ray sources,to illustrate the interplay between theories and observations.

  19. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6650 Progress reports. (a) Reporting frequency. The recipient must submit progress reports as specified in the Cooperative Agreement. Progress...

  20. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive mult...

  1. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  2. Modeling river delta formation

    CERN Document Server

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-01-01

    A new model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/ erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore our model is capable to simulate the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi river.

  3. Modeling river delta formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-10-23

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

  4. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Manage-

  6. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5th Ed.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.

  7. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez.M

  8. Formation control of AAUSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nick; Dam, Jeppe; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2015-01-01

    Many maritime mapping tasks are today carried out by large research ships, which are very costly to operate. As a way to overcome this, a number of small surveying vessels have been developed called AAUSHIP. In order to efficiently map the an area with such smaller vessels, it is important that s...... that several vessels are able to corporate on the task at hand. In this paper, the developed formation control strategy for the AAUSHIP series of vessels is presented, along with simulation results, which confirms, that the algorithm works as intended....

  9. The Star Formation Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and ...

  10. Antiphospholipid antibodies predict progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Duftner

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs frequently occur in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and correlate with a worse clinical outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs, markers of inflammation, disease progression and the presence of an intra-aneurysmal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA patients. APLs ELISAs were performed in frozen serum samples of 96 consecutive AAA patients and 48 healthy controls yielding positive test results in 13 patients (13.5% and 3 controls (6.3%; n.s.. Nine of the 13 aPL-positive AAA patients underwent a second antibody testing >12 weeks apart revealing a positive result in 6 cases. APL-positive patients had increased levels of inflammatory markers compared to aPL-negative patients. Disease progression was defined as an increase of the AAA diameter >0.5 cm/year measured by sonography. Follow-up was performed in 69 patients identifying 41 (59.4% patients with progressive disease. Performing multipredictor logistic regression analysis adjusting for classical AAA risk factors as confounders, the presence of aPLs at baseline revealed an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI 1.0-86.8, p = 0.049 to predict AAA progression. Fifty-five patients underwent a computed tomography in addition to ultrasound assessment indicating intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation in 82.3%. Median thrombus volume was 46.7 cm3 (1.9-377.5. AAA diameter correlated with the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus (corrcoeff = 0.721, p<0.001, however neither the presence nor the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus were related to the presence of aPLs. In conclusion, the presence of aPLs is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers and is an independent predictor of progressive disease in AAA patients.

  11. Shocks, star formation and the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdorf, A.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and γ-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the interstellar medium as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and what is their contribution to the cycle of matter in galaxies ? What is the energetic impact of shocks on their surroundings on various scales, and hence what is the feedback of stars on the galaxies ? What are the scenarios of star formation, whether this star formation leads to the propagation of shocks, or whether it is triggered by shock propagation ? What is the role of shocks in the acceleration of cosmic rays ? Can they shed light on their composition and diffusion processes ? In order to progress on these questions, it is paramount to interpret the most precise observations with the most precise models of shocks. From the observational point of view, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a powerful tool to better address the above questions, as it will allow to observe numerous shock tracers in the infrared range at an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution.

  12. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  13. 1995-1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report is mainly devoted to the scientific activity of the LLB or carried out in collaboration with external laboratories. The activity of the LLB is split in several chapters dealing with: magnetism, superconductivity, structures (including lattice dynamics), phase transitions, C60, quasi-crystal systems, disordered systems (amorphous, liquids, crystal solid solutions), biology, soft matter (polymers and colloids), physical metallurgy and materials science. Neutron scattering is the main tool used in all these topics but other techniques are also used such as: polarized neutron reflectivity, cold neutrons diffraction, NMR, synchrotron radiation etc. (J.S.)

  14. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  15. Progress in polymer solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiGui; LU GuangHao; YANG XiaoNiu; ZHOU EnLe

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines current progresses in polymer solar cell. Compared to traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, the completely different principle of optoelectric response in the polymer cell results in a novel configuration of the device and more complicated photovoltaic generation process. The conception of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) is introduced and its advantage in terms of morphology is addressed. The main aspects including the morphology of photoactive layer, which limit the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cell, are discussed in detail. The solutions to boosting up both the efficiency and stability (lifetime) of the polymer solar cell are highlighted at the end of this review.

  16. String Theory: Progress and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, John H.

    2007-01-01

    String theory builds on the great legacy of Yukawa and Tomonaga: New degrees of freedom and control of the UV are two important themes. This talk will give an overview of some of the progress and some of the unsolved problems that characterize string theory today. It is divided into two parts: (1) Connecting String Theory to the Real World; (2) Gauge Theory/String Theory Duality. Two other major subjects, which I will omit, are Black Holes in String Theory and The Impact of String Theory on M...

  17. Research progress of atopic myelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; WANG Jia-wei

    2014-01-01

    Atopic myelitis (AM), also described as idiopathic eosinophil myelitis, is a kind of myelitis associated with atopic diathesis, and is considered to be one kind of primary acute transverse myelitis (ATM). It mainly develops in Japan. Since the first case was reported by Kira, et al, Japan has reported more than 100 cases. In South Korea and Europe there were cases reported in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on atopic myelitis is reviewed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731....

  18. Research progress of atopic myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min WANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atopic myelitis (AM, also described as idiopathic eosinophil myelitis, is a kind of myelitis associated with atopic diathesis, and is considered to be one kind of primary acute transverse myelitis (ATM. It mainly develops in Japan. Since the first case was reported by Kira, et al, Japan has reported more than 100 cases. In South Korea and Europe there were cases reported in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on atopic myelitis is reviewed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.06.016

  19. Progressive supranuclear palsy: new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a distinctive form of neurodegenerative disease which affects the brainstem and basal ganglia. Patients present supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, postural instability and mild dementia. PSP is defined neuropathologically by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in the subthalamic nucleus, pallidum, red nucleus, substantia nigra, striatum, pontine tegmentum, oculomotor nucleus, medulla and dentate nucleus. Over the last decade many lines of investigations have helped refine PSP in many aspects and it is the purpose of this review to help neurologists identify PSP, to better understand its pathophysiology and to provide a more focused, symptom-based treatment approach.

  20. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  1. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  2. PROGRESS ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber is one kind of important adsorption materials. These novel fibrousadsorbents have high specific surface areas or abundant functional groups, which make them havegreater adsorption/desorption rates and larger adsorption capacities than other adsorbents. They canbe prepared as bundle, paper, cloth and felt to meet various technical requirement. They also showreduction property. In this paper the latest progress on the studies of the preparation and adsorptionproperties of activated carbon fibers is reviewed. The application of these materials in drinking waterpurification, environmental control, resource recovery, chemical industry, and in medicine and healthcare is also presented.

  3. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  4. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  5. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  6. The Planet Formation Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  7. Patterning and compartment formation in the diencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mallika echatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus and pretectum. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon.

  8. Simulation of Planetary Formation using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, James; Bixler, David

    2015-03-01

    A program to simulate planetary formation was developed in the Python programming language. The program consists of randomly placed and massed bodies surrounding a central massive object in order to approximate a protoplanetary disk. The orbits of these bodies are time-stepped, with accelerations, velocities and new positions calculated in each step. Bodies are allowed to merge if their disks intersect. Numerous parameters (orbital distance, masses, number of particles, etc.) were varied in order to optimize the program. The program uses an iterative difference equation approach to solve the equations of motion using a kinematic model. Conservation of energy and angular momentum are not specifically forced, but conservation of momentum is forced during the merging of bodies. The initial program was created in Visual Python (VPython) but the current intention is to allow for higher particle count and faster processing by utilizing PyOpenCl and PyOpenGl. Current results and progress will be reported.

  9. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  10. Thiol isomerases in thrombus formation

    OpenAIRE

    Furie, Bruce; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase, ERp5 and ERp57, among perhaps other thiol isomerases, are important for the initiation of thrombus formation. Using the laser injury thrombosis model in mice to induce in vivo arterial thrombus formation, it was shown that thrombus formation is associated with PDI secretion by platelets, that inhibition of PDI blocked platelet thrombus formation and fibrin generation, and that endothelial cell activation leads to PDI secretion. Similar results using this and other...

  11. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  12. Social Network Formation with Consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Sarangi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the equilibria of game theoretic models of network formation that are based on individual actions only.Our approach is grounded in three simple and realistic principles: (1) Link formation should be a binary process of consent.(2) Link formation should be costly.(3) The class of netwo

  13. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  14. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  15. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  16. [Growth and nonlinearity]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savit, R.

    1993-12-31

    The research centered on the physics of growth. One particular focus was the spiral patterns seen in excitable media, such as the chemical reaction of Belousov and Zhabatinskii, and the aggregation of the slime mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum. Another area of interest is the statistical roughness of the growth front itself. For example, when growing thin films, the roughness of the surface is very important for the ultimate quality of the film. Besides its direct technological relevance, this problem is intimately connected to many fundamental problems in statistical physics. In addition work was done in the related area of statistical properties of flux-flow motion in superconductors. Substantial progress was also made on techniques and applications of the analysis of complex systems. Methods of time series analysis were generalized to the analysis of complex spatio-temporal patterns. In the examples studied most, turbulence and electroencephalograms, the spatio-temporal patterns are very complex and fleeting, and can easily be misken for random noise. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made in developing and applying methods to these systems that indicate the presence of nonrandom time-varying spatial patterns.

  17. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  18. Graphene wrinkling: formation, evolution and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changguo; Liu, Yuanpeng; Lan, Lan; Tan, Huifeng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we focus on the studies of graphene wrinkling, from its formation to collapse, and its dependence on aspect ratio and temperature using molecule dynamics simulation. Based on our results, the first wrinkle is not formed on the edge but in the interior of graphene. The fluctuations of edge slack warps drive the wrinkling evolution in graphene which is distinguished from the bifurcation in continuum film. There are several obvious stages in wrinkling progress, including incubation, infancy, youth, maturity and gerontism periods which are identified by the atomic displacement difference due to the occurrences of new wrinkles. The wrinkling progress is over when the C-C bonds in highly stretched corners are broken which contributes to the wrinkling collapse. The critical wrinkling strain, the wrinkling pattern and extent depend on the aspect ratio of graphene, the wrinkling level and collapsed strains do not. Only the collapsed strain is sensitive to the temperature, the other wrinkling parameters are independent of the temperature. Our results would benefit the understanding of the physics of graphene wrinkling and the design of nanomechanical devices by tuning the wrinkles.

  19. Climate economics in progress 2011; Climate economics in progress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Perthuis, Christian [Paris-Dauphine University (France); Jouvet, Pierre-Andre [Paris-Ouest University (France); Trotignon, Raphael; Simonet, Gabriela; Boutueil, Virginie [Climate Economics Chair, Paris-Dauphine University (France)

    2011-10-01

    Climate Economics in Progress offers a global overview of the present status of action on climate change. Drawing on the most recent data, it analyzes the development of carbon markets in Europe and other parts of the world. It also examines the conditions for including major players such as China and new sectors such as agriculture, forestry and transport in the fight against global warming. The book is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand current advances in climate control, which could pave the way for a new form of economic growth. The book brings together a group of researchers whose goal is to make the link between academic research on the economics of climate change and the implementation of operational tools, thereby allowing the climate issue to be integrated into the functioning of the real economy

  20. Cosmological Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    LCDM is remarkably successful in predicting the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure, and LCDM parameters have been determined with only mild tensions between different types of observations. Hydrodynamical simulations starting from cosmological initial conditions are increasingly able to capture the complex interactions between dark matter and baryonic matter in galaxy formation. Simulations with relatively low resolution now succeed in describing the overall galaxy population. For example, the EAGLE simulation in volumes up to 100 cubic Mpc reproduces the observed local galaxy mass function nearly as well as semi-analytic models. It once seemed that galaxies are pretty smooth, that they generally grow in size as they evolve, and that they are a combination of disks and spheroids. But recent HST observations combined with high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations are showing that most star-forming galaxies are very clumpy; that galaxies often undergo compaction which reduces their radius and ...

  1. Dislocation Formation in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akihiko; Onuki, Akira

    2006-05-01

    An interaction between dislocations and phase transitions is studied by a phase field model both in two and three dimensional systems. Our theory is a simple extension of the traditional linear elastic theory, and the elastic energy is a periodic function of local strains which is reflecting the periodicity of crystals. We find that the dislocations are spontaneously formed by quenching. Dislocations are formed from the interface of binary alloys, and slips are preferentially gliding into the soft metals. In three dimensional systems, formation of dislocations under applied strain is studied in two phase state. We find that the dislocation loops are created from the surface of hard metals. We also studied the phase separation above the coexisting temperature which is called as the Cottrell atmosphere. Clouds of metals cannot catch up with the motion of dislocations at highly strained state.

  2. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. Results: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  3. Physics of amniote formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Vincent; Murukutla, Ameya Vaishnavi; Chevalier, Nicolas R; Gallois, Benjamin; Capellazzi-Resta, Marina; Picquet, Pierre; Peaucelle, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the formation of the amniotic sac in the avian embryo, and a comparison with the crocodile amniotic sac. We show that the amniotic sac forms at a circular line of stiffness contrast, separating rings of cell domains. Cells align at this boundary, and this in turn orients and concentrates the tension forces. The tissue fold which forms the amniotic sac is locked exactly along this line due to the colocalization of the stiffness contrast and of the tensile force. In addition, the tensile force plays a regenerative role when the amniotic sac is cut. The fold forming the ventral side of the embryo displays the same characteristics. This work shows that amniote embryogenesis consists of a cascade of buckling events taking place at the boundaries between regions of differing mechanical properties. Hence, amniote embryogenesis relies on a simple and robust biomechanical scheme used repeatedly, and selected ancestrally. PMID:27627351

  4. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  6. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  7. Recipes for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  8. Group Formation in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  9. Nuclear Pasta Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Berry, D K

    2013-01-01

    The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm$^{-3}$ and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01 fm$^{-3}$ or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles ("swiss cheese"), hollow tubes, flat plates ("lasagna"), thin rods ("spaghetti") and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates non equilibrium effects...

  10. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Paudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. EMPs release is triggered by inducer like angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there are multiple physiological pathways for EMPs generation like NADPH oxidase derived endothelial ROS formation, Rho kinase pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atheroemboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques, is a major cause of stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. This review aims to provide updated information of EMPs in relation to atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  11. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  12. [Progress in ubiquitin, ubiquitin chain and protein ubiquitination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qiuyan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Yanchang; Hong, Xuechuan; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is one of the most important and widely exist protein post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells, which takes the ubiquitin and ubiquitin chains as signal molecules to covalently modify other protein substrates. It plays an important roles in the control of almost all of the life processes, including gene transcription and translation, signal transduction and cell-cycle progression, besides classical 26S protesome degradation pathway. Varied modification sites in the same substrates as well as different types of ubiquitin linkages in the same modification sites contain different structural information, which conduct different signal or even determine the fate of the protein substrates in the cell. Any abnormalities in ubiquitin chain formation or its modification process may cause severe problem in maintaining the balance of intracellular environment and finally result in serious health problem of human being. In this review, we discussed the discovery, genetic characteristics and the crystal structure of the ubiquitin. We also emphasized the recent progresses of the assembly processes, structure and their biological function of ubiquitin chains. The relationship between the disregulation and related human diseases has also been discussed. These progress will shed light on the complexity of proteome, which may also provide tools in the new drug research and development processes. PMID:27363196

  13. Imperial Valley Environmental Project: progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, P.L.; Anspaugh, L.R. (eds.)

    1977-10-19

    Progress is reported in six areas of research: air quality, water quality, ecosystem quality, subsidence and seismicity, socioeconomic effects, and integrated assessment. A major goal of the air quality element is to evaluate the rate of emission of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ from the operation of the geothermal loop experimental facility at Niland. Concentrations of H/sub 2/S were found to vary between 1500 to 4900 ppM by volume at the Niland facility. To distinguish between geothermal fluids and other waters, extensive sampling networks were established. A major accomplishment was the installation of a high-resolution subsidence-detection network in the Salton Sea geothermal field area, centered on the test facility at Niland. A major effort went into establishing a background of data needed for subsequent impact assessments related to socioeconomic issues raised by geothermal developments. Underway are a set of geothermal energy scenarios that include power development schedules, technology characterizations, and considerations of power-plant-siting criteria. A Gaussian air-pollution model was modified for use in preliminary air-quality assessments. A crop-growth model was developed to evaluate impacts of gases released from geothermal operations on various agricultural crops. Work is also reported on the legal analysis of geothermal legislation and the legal aspects of water-supply utilization. Remote sensing was directed primarily at the Salton Sea, Heber, Brawley, and East Mesa KGRAs. However, large-format photography of the entire Salton Trough was completed. Thermal and multispectral imaging was done for several selected sites in the Salton Sea KGRA. (JGB)

  14. Formation, Orbital and Internal Evolutions of Young Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruteau, Clément; Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The growing body of observational data on extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks has stimulated intense research on planet formation and evolution in the past few years. The extremely diverse, sometimes unexpected physical and orbital characteristics of exoplanets lead to frequent updates on the mainstream scenarios for planet formation and evolution, but also to the exploration of alternative avenues. The aim of this review is to bring together classical pictures and new ideas on the formation, orbital and internal evolutions of planets, highlighting the key role of the protoplanetary disk in the various parts of the theory. We begin by briefly reviewing the conventional mechanism of core accretion by the growth of planetesimals, and discuss a relatively recent model of core growth through the accretion of pebbles. We review the basic physics of planet-disk interactions, recent progress in this area, and discuss their role in observed planetary systems. We address the most important effects of planets i...

  15. Disulfide bond formation in prokaryotes: history, diversity and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, Feras; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon

    2014-08-01

    The formation of structural disulfide bonds is essential for the function and stability of a great number of proteins, particularly those that are secreted. There exists a variety of dedicated cellular catalysts and pathways from archaea to humans that ensure the formation of native disulfide bonds. In this review we describe the initial discoveries of these pathways and report progress in recent years in our understanding of the diversity of these pathways in prokaryotes, including those newly discovered in some archaea. We will also discuss the various successful efforts to achieve laboratory-based evolution and design of synthetic disulfide bond formation machineries in the bacterium Escherichia coli. These latter studies have also led to new more general insights into the redox environment of the cytoplasm and bacterial cell envelope. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Thiol-Based Redox Processes.

  16. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation......: the emergence of ‘intelligence’ and life as a biological phenomenon from the 1920s is illustrated; the emergence of ‘Black culture’, ‘Negros’ and ‘races’ from the 1930s is depicted, and the emergence of ‘national cultures’ from the 1940s – enhanced by UNESCO after World War II – is demonstrated. Although race...

  17. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  18. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  19. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  20. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by reactivation of JC virus (JCV in a setting of cellular immunosuppression. Originally, PML was observed in patients with advanced HIV infection, lymphoproliferative disorders and transplant recipients. However, the widespread use of HIV antiretroviral drugs and the new selective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive medications, such as Rituximab and Natalizumab, has recently modified the epidemiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of PML. Herein, we discuss the new concepts on PML, emphasizing the recent modification in the epidemiology; the impact of new immunomodulatory treatments in the disease, PML-IRIS (Immune reconstitution inflammatory síndrome, new treatment strategies and other JCV related CNS diseases.

  1. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Progress on HELIAS systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix; Beidler, Craig D.; Dinklage, Andreas; Feng, Yuehe; Geiger, Joachim; Schauer, Felix; Turkin, Yuriy; Wolf, Robert; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kemp, Richard; Knight, Peter; Ward, David [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    In order to study and design next-step fusion devices such as DEMO, comprehensive systems codes are commonly employed. For the HELIAS-line, stellarator-specific models have been developed, implemented, and verified within the systems code PROCESS. This systems code ansatz is complemented by self-consistent modeling of plasma scenarios employing a predictive 1-D neoclassical transport code which has been augmented with a model for the edge anomalous transport based on 3-D ITG turbulence simulations. This approach is investigated to ultimately allow one to conduct stellarator system studies, develop design points of HELIAS burning plasma devices, and to facilitate a direct comparison between tokamak and stellarator DEMO and power plant designs. The work reports on the progress towards these goals.

  3. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  5. High energy physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of data on collision of protons with targets of He, Be, C, Al, Sn, and Pb continued. A jet signal has been clearly observed from all nuclei. A collaboration has been formed for carrying out an experiment studying the photoproduced jets from nuclei and propagation of quarks and gluons through nuclear matter. The production of lambda hyperons was studied using the primary polarized beam at BNL/AGS at 13.3 and 18.5 GeV/c. The effect of the proton beam polarization on the lambda production, A/sub N/ and spin transfer have been measured. A request was approved for additional polarized proton beam at the AGS to continue measurements of the spin transfer to hyperons. Progress is reported on an initial 200 GeV/c polarized beam-polarized target experiment. A collaborative experiment was approved for the saearch for exotic/hybrid mesons. Investigations in quantum field theories, especially quantum chromodynamics, were contined

  6. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility

    CERN Document Server

    Renger, Jan; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The key challenge in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry, with dielectric structures superposed on a mirror. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this to control plasmonic coupling and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at the wavelength 800 nm.

  7. Formation of Chromosomal Domains by Loop Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Lu, Carolyn; Goloborodko, Anton; Abdennur, Nezar; Mirny, Leonid A

    2016-05-31

    Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental structural and functional building blocks of human interphase chromosomes, yet the mechanisms of TAD formation remain unclear. Here, we propose that loop extrusion underlies TAD formation. In this process, cis-acting loop-extruding factors, likely cohesins, form progressively larger loops but stall at TAD boundaries due to interactions with boundary proteins, including CTCF. Using polymer simulations, we show that this model produces TADs and finer-scale features of Hi-C data. Each TAD emerges from multiple loops dynamically formed through extrusion, contrary to typical illustrations of single static loops. Loop extrusion both explains diverse experimental observations-including the preferential orientation of CTCF motifs, enrichments of architectural proteins at TAD boundaries, and boundary deletion experiments-and makes specific predictions for the depletion of CTCF versus cohesin. Finally, loop extrusion has potentially far-ranging consequences for processes such as enhancer-promoter interactions, orientation-specific chromosomal looping, and compaction of mitotic chromosomes. PMID:27210764

  8. Formation of Chromosomal Domains by Loop Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fudenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Topologically associating domains (TADs are fundamental structural and functional building blocks of human interphase chromosomes, yet the mechanisms of TAD formation remain unclear. Here, we propose that loop extrusion underlies TAD formation. In this process, cis-acting loop-extruding factors, likely cohesins, form progressively larger loops but stall at TAD boundaries due to interactions with boundary proteins, including CTCF. Using polymer simulations, we show that this model produces TADs and finer-scale features of Hi-C data. Each TAD emerges from multiple loops dynamically formed through extrusion, contrary to typical illustrations of single static loops. Loop extrusion both explains diverse experimental observations—including the preferential orientation of CTCF motifs, enrichments of architectural proteins at TAD boundaries, and boundary deletion experiments—and makes specific predictions for the depletion of CTCF versus cohesin. Finally, loop extrusion has potentially far-ranging consequences for processes such as enhancer-promoter interactions, orientation-specific chromosomal looping, and compaction of mitotic chromosomes.

  9. Gas formation. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D A; Lawson, M; Davis, C L; Ferreira, A A; Santos Neto, E V; Ellis, G S; Lewan, M D; Martini, A M; Tang, Y; Schoell, M; Sessions, A L; Eiler, J M

    2014-06-27

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a "clumped isotope" technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models. PMID:24970083

  10. [Treatments of progressive systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssairat, M; Abdoucheli-Baudot, N; Gaitz, J P

    2001-10-01

    Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS) is still an incurable disease but there are treatments for it, and the list of proposed treatments is long. The methodology of trials concerning PSS is complex, due to the low prevalence of the disease and therefore its financial interest for pharmaceutical companies, the lack of simple end points for efficacy, and the large number of clinical expressions with various prognoses. These causes explain why most open studies are fiercely positive, and why controlled studies are so rare. The progress made during the last 10 years concern 1) the diagnosis, which is now made earlier due to capillaroscopy and antibody assays, especially of anticentromere antibodies, 2) better knowledge of the prognosis, due to the classification of PSS into limited and the diffuse forms which have different prognoses, and 3) the recognition of a serious complication of the disease, ie. pulmonary hypertension, which can now be detected by non-invasive methods. All these improvements will also improve the methodology of future trials of drugs for treating PSS. In this ocean of uncertainties, some treatments have a valid background, and 3 visceral locations of PSS can be efficiently treated: renal involvement, with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, respiratory involvement, with D-penicillamine, and pulmonary hypertension, with prostacyclin derivatives. Corticosteroids are suspected to increase the risk of renal complications. Calcium blockers are considered a useful symptomatic treatment of the associated Raynaud's phenomenon and of the risk of digital necrosis, and may also constitute a treatment of PSS itself. A recent trial conducted by the French Microcirculation Society and its acrosyndrome Study Group considered the effects of an oral derivative of prostacyclin. Beneficial effects were: a reduction of the risk of digital necroses, improved overall wellbeing, less necessity for hospitalizations, fewer giant capillaries, and a dramatic fall in

  11. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure

  12. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Im

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies.

  13. Progress Report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER) as a part of University of Zagreb, has its roots in the Technical Faculty Zagreb, founded in 1919, which evolved into the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in 1956 and was upgraded into the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing in 1994. Due to the increasing progress and advances in electrical and electronic engineering as well as in computer science and information technologies, the Faculty has become the largest technical faculty and the leading educational and R and D institution in the fields of electrical engineering and computing in Croatia. More than 13000 graduate students, more than 1900 postgraduate students who received the Master degree and more than 540 students with PhD degree, are today's total numbers, which highlights our highly spirited activities in teaching. Additional to this number are also 3800 undergraduate students as well as about 500 graduates each year. Organised in 11 departments, the present educational staff comprises 130 professors and 200 teaching assistants and researchers operating in more than 60 laboratories and area of more than 35000 m2. Education and research is the crucial factor determining the economic and social progress and equality of opportunity in our societies. It becomes even more so in the digital age in order to ensure life-long-learning and the emergence of new generations of creators, researchers and entrepreneurs and to empower playing an active role in the knowledge society. The experiences at the university level should be transferred to the others. We can help to do that, as a chain the global challenge. The Faculty offers a broad spectrum of services to business and industry, from research and consultancy to conference facilities, training and postgraduate recruitment. The Faculty is a leading research-led institution and undertakes research at the highest levels of international standing. The Faculty is an integral part of the community

  14. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  15. Investigation of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassat, James E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Lee, Chia Y

    2014-01-01

    Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are often characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates, but also the capacity to form biofilms. Biofilms consist of ordered populations of bacterial colonies encased in a polysaccharide and/or proteinaceous matrix. This unique physiologic adaptation limits penetration of antimicrobial molecules and innate immune effectors to the infectious focus, increasing the likelihood of treatment failure and progression to chronic infection. Investigation of mechanisms of biofilm formation and dispersal, as well as the physiologic adaptations to the biofilm lifestyle, is therefore critical to developing new therapies to combat MRSA infections. In this chapter, we describe two in vitro methods for the investigation of staphylococcal biofilm formation, a microtiter plate-based assay of biofilm formation under static conditions and a flow cell-based assay of biofilm formation under fluid shear. We also detail an in vivo murine model of catheter-associated biofilm formation that is amenable to imaging and microbiologic analyses. Special consideration is given to the conditions necessary to support biofilm formation by clinical isolates of S. aureus. PMID:24085698

  16. 1998-1999 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the ISNG (Grenoble Nuclear Sciences Institute) for the period 1998-1999. This presentation is made up of 7 chapters: 1) quarks and leptons, 2) neutrinos and astro-particles, 3) hadron physics, 4) hybrid reactors and nuclear matter, 5) theoretical physics, 6) instrumentation and technical services, and 7) formation and published work. In the framework of Muse experiments, a pulsed neutron generator of very high intensity has been built in order to realize the first test hybrid reactor. (A.C.)

  17. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  18. Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Oleg Y

    2010-01-01

    Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict accurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in early galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes of real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations aimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity distribution. Metallicity bimodality of globular cluster systems appears to be a natural outcome of hierarchical formation and gradually declining fraction of cold gas in galaxies. Globular cluster formation was most prominent at redshifts z>3, when massive star clusters may have contributed as much as 20% of all galactic star formation.

  19. Formation of "bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  20. ISLET FORMATION AND REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of differentiation and development of pancreatic endocrine cells as well as pancreatic regeneration. Methods Human embryonic pancreatic tissue at 7-14 weeks of gestation was collected. Diabetes mellitus rat model was induced with 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, nestin, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19)of pancreatic tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results At 9 weeks of gestation, pancreatic epithelial cells began to co-express insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and CK19 before migration. Islet cells gradually congregated along with the increase of aging, and at 14 weeks of gestation histological examination showed islet formation. At 12 weeks of gestation, nestin-positive cells could be seen in the pancreatic mesenchyme. During early embryogenesis, islet cells of pancreatic ducts co-expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. During pancreatic regeneration after damage, nestin expression of islet cells increased. Conclusion In the early stage of embryogenesis, islet cells of primary pancreatic ducts can be differentiated to multipotential endocrine cells before migration. During tissue regeneration, pancreatic stem cells may differentiate and proliferate to form pancreatic islet.

  1. [Progression of tumors: etiologic, morphologic and molecular-biological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turosov, V S

    1992-01-01

    Two aspects can be distinguished in multistage carcinogenesis: etiological one (every stage is induced by a specific for this stage agent) and morphobiological aspect (every stage is characterized by specific morphological, genetic and other properties). The schema of the multistage carcinogenesis is presented in which morphological stages (diffuse and focal hyperplasia, benign tumours, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, various phases of malignant tumour progression) are placed against genetic alterations. L. Foulds concept of tumour progression is discussed with special emphasis on precancerous stages, possibilities of cancer development de novo, and independent progression of different tumour characters. The following types of carcinogenesis are listed on the basis of interrelationship between etiological and genetic factors: 1) carcinogenesis induced by genotoxic agents; a) one agent is acting at high dose and for a long time thus ensuring the activation of protooncogenes and all stages of tumour progression (initiation, promotion, various phases of malignant tumour); b) those acting during a very short time, however sufficient for developing the genetic program working automatically without further exposure to known carcinogens (irradiation in case of the atomic bomb explosion or effect of short-living alkylating agents): in this case there is no stage of promotion; 2) carcinogenesis by non-genotoxic carcinogens (their mode of action is still unclear, the only human example is carcinogenesis by hormones); 3) development of tumours in frane of the two (or three) stage carcinogenesis when every stage is provoked by its own etiological factor, no human examples are known as yet; 4) development of tumours due to the genetic mechanism making the organism highly susceptible to the minimal doses of carcinogens as is the case with skin cancer by ultraviolet light in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, the genetic damage in itself has nothing to do with tumour formation; 5

  2. Rho proteins − the key regulators of cytoskeleton in the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rho proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. They are thought to be crucial regulators of multiple signal transduction pathways that influence a wide range of cellular functions, including migration, membrane trafficking, adhesion, polarity and cell shape changes. Thanks to their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho GTPases are known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis progression. These proteins are required for formation and rigidity of the cortex during mitotic cell rounding, mitotic spindle formation and attachment of the spindle microtubules to the kinetochore. In addition, during cytokinesis, they are involved in promoting division plane determination, contractile ring and cleavage furrow formation and abscission. They are also known as regulators of cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transition. Thus, the signal transduction pathways in which Rho proteins participate, appear to connect dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to cell cycle progression. We review the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Rho GTPase signaling regulates remodeling of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in order to control cell division progression.

  3. Progress In Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Cassibry, Jason T.; Griffin, Steven; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a coaxial pulsed plasma thruster (Figure 1). It has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approx.50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet has been photographed with 10-ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure (Figure 2). Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes and magnetic probes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma and current transit respectively at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  4. Studies on the roles of stromal CXCL14 in tumor growth, progression and metastasis formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer consists of several diseases that are characterized by accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that provide cells with certain capabilities to form tumors. Among these acquired capabilities are enhanced invasion that allow cancer cells to escape from the primary tumor, enter the circulation and eventually reach distant tissues where they form metastasis. Breast and prostate cancer are the most common cancers in Sweden with about 9000 new cases diagnosed each y...

  5. Personality Traits and Educational Identity Formation in Late Adolescents: Longitudinal Associations and Academic Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Germeijs, Veerle; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Changes in personality traits in late adolescence and young adulthood are believed to co-occur with changes in identity, but little research is available that supports this hypothesis. The present study addressed this relatively understudied area of research by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism,…

  6. Human oxidation-specific antibodies reduce foam cell formation and atherosclerosis progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Hartvigsen, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    We sought to assess the in vivo importance of scavenger receptor (SR)-mediated uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in atherogenesis and to test the efficacy of human antibody IK17-Fab or IK17 single-chain Fv fragment (IK17-scFv), which lacks immunologic properties of intact antibod...... antibodies other than the ability to inhibit uptake of OxLDL by macrophages, to inhibit atherosclerosis....

  7. The Fragile X Protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Fata, Giorgio La; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS wh...

  8. The KEA image file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Peter; Gillingham, Sam

    2013-08-01

    There are a large number of image formats already in use within the remote sensing community but currently there is no format that provides the features of: compression, support for large file sizes, ground control points, raster attribute tables and inbuilt image pyramids. Therefore, a new image format, named KEA, after the New Zealand bird, has been proposed. The KEA format provides a full implementation of the GDAL data model and is implemented within a HDF5 file. A software library with a GDAL driver have been freely provided to the community allowing use through any GDAL based software. The new format has comparable performance with existing formats while producing smaller file sizes and is already within active use for a number of projects within Landcare Research, New Zealand, and the wider community.

  9. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients.

  10. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna;

    2012-01-01

    relied on the modified Rotterdam Progression Scale. The Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale global score and a composite score of specific executive function tests assessed longitudinal change in cognition. Sample size calculations were based on the assumption that treatment reduces WML progression by 1...... effects on lesion progression will need between 1809 subjects per treatment arm when using executive tests and up to 18 853 subjects when using the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale score. Studies having WML progression as the sole outcome will need only 58 or 70 individuals per treatment arm...

  11. Progression of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiping Xia; Zhi-Hong Mao

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically manifested by a triad of cardinal motor symptoms - rigidity,bradykinesia and tremor - due to loss of dopaminergic neurons.The motor symptoms of PD become progressively worse as the disease advances.PD is also a heterogeneous disease since rigidity and bradykinesia are the major complaints in some patients whereas tremor is predominant in others.In recent years,many studies have investigated the progression of the hallmark symptoms over time,and the cardinal motor symptoms have different rates of progression,with the disease usually progressing faster in patients with rigidity and bradykinesia than in those with predominant tremor.The current treatment regime of dopamine-replacement therapy improves motor symptoms and alleviates disability.Increasing the dosage of dopaminergic medication is commonly used to combat the worsenirtg symptoms.However,the drug-induced involuntary body movements and motor comphcations can significantly contribute to overall disability.Further,none of the currently-available therapies can slow or halt the disease progression.Significant research efforts have been directed towards developing neuroprotective or disease-modifying agents that are intended to slow the progression.In this article,the most recent clinical studies investigating disease progression and current progress on the development of disease-modifying drug trials are reviewed.

  12. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Promote the Development and Progression of Liver Metastases after Surgical Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Samer; Yazdani, Hamza O; Al-Khafaji, Ahmed B; Chidi, Alexis P; Loughran, Patricia; Mowen, Kerri; Wang, Yanming; Simmons, Richard L; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan

    2016-03-15

    Risks of tumor recurrence after surgical resection have been known for decades, but the mechanisms underlying treatment failures remain poorly understood. Neutrophils, first-line responders after surgical stress, may play an important role in linking inflammation to cancer progression. In response to stress, neutrophils can expel their protein-studded chromatin to form local snares known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). In this study, we asked whether, as a result of its ability to ensnare moving cells, NET formation might promote metastasis after surgical stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a cohort of patients undergoing attempted curative liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer, we observed that increased postoperative NET formation was associated with a >4-fold reduction in disease-free survival. In like manner, in a murine model of surgical stress employing liver ischemia-reperfusion, we observed an increase in NET formation that correlated with an accelerated development and progression of metastatic disease. These effects were abrogated by inhibiting NET formation in mice through either local treatment with DNAse or inhibition of the enzyme peptidylarginine deaminase, which is essential for NET formation. In growing metastatic tumors, we found that intratumoral hypoxia accentuated NET formation. Mechanistic investigations in vitro indicated that mouse neutrophil-derived NET triggered HMGB1 release and activated TLR9-dependent pathways in cancer cells to promote their adhesion, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, our findings implicate NET in the development of liver metastases after surgical stress, suggesting that their elimination may reduce risks of tumor relapse. PMID:26759232

  13. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  14. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for ...

  15. Spray formation: an inverse cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.

  16. Formation of Bidisperse Particle Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Zhao, Bing; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2014-11-01

    When a group of dense particles is released instantaneously into water, their motion has been conceptualized as a circulating particle thermal (Ruggerber 2000). However, Wen and Nacamuli (1996) observed the formation of particle clumps characterized by a narrow, fast moving core shedding particles into wakes. They observed the clump formation even for particles in the non-cohesive range as long as the source Rayleigh number was large (Ra > 1E3) or equivalently the source cloud number (Nc) was small (Nc < 3.2E2). This physical phenomenon has been investigated by Zhao et al. (2014) through physical experiments. They proposed the theoretical support for Nc dependence and categorized the formation processes into cloud formation, transitional regime and clump formation. Previous works focused mainly on the behavior of monodisperse particles. The present study further extends the experimental investigation to the formation process of bidisperse particles. Experiments are conducted in a glass tank with a water depth of 90 cm. Finite amounts of sediments with various weight proportions between coarser and finer particles are released from a cylindrical tube. The Nc being tested ranges from 6E-3 to 9.9E-2, which covers all the three formation regimes. The experimental results showed that the introduction of coarse particles promotes cloud formation and reduce the losses of finer particles into the wake. More quantitative descriptions of the effects of source conditions on the formation processes will be presented during the conference.

  17. Let s make progress together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  18. Cosmic star formation, gamma-ray burst rate at high redshift and cosmic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent optical observations and Gamma-ray burst rate determinations have led to significant progress in establishing the star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift. The SFR in turn is used to predict the ionization history of the Universe (using last results from CMB WMAP mission), the cosmic chemical abundances, and supernova rates. These predictions are done using a hierarchical model for structure formation (Press and Schechter). (author)

  19. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, func...

  20. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2014-08-01

    Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, function and structure of the biofilm matrix. PMID:24988880

  1. New Discoveries in Planetary Systems and Star Formation through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    WGLA, AAS; Brickhouse, Nancy; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, U.S.A.); Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation (PSF) is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of solar system bodies (other than the Sun) and extrasolar planets, debris disks, exobiology, the formation of individual stars, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, molecular clouds and the cold ISM, dust, and astrochemistry. Central to the progress in these areas ...

  2. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  3. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, January-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C. (ed.)

    1981-09-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  4. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions

  5. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, July-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report also includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  6. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, July-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report also includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions

  7. Research Progress of PR Domain Zinc Finger Protein 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong HAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PR domain zinc finger protein 14 (PRDM14 is an important member of the PRDM family, PRDM14 plays a key role in the maintenance of cell integrity and differentiation, growth and apoptosis of the cell. It also plays an critical role in the formation of primordial germ cells, the maintenance of the totipotency of stem cells and the formation of tissues and organs. PRDM14 bears a single PR domain and six tandemly repeated zinc fingers, which is involved in the process of the deacetylation and methylation of the histone, and is involved in the formation of tumor trough the change level of methylation in the promoter region. The abnormal methylation of PRDM14 can change the chromatin structure, DNA conformation and the interaction mode of DNA and protein, it can suppress transcription and expression of the gene, which caused the occurrence, development and metastasis of tumor. The research progress of PRDM14 is reviewed based on the relevant literatures published in China and abroad.

  8. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports

  9. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports.

  10. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogden, I. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This progress report covers the research and development activities of the Metals and Ceramics Division from January 1, 1983, through June 30, 1984. The format of the report follows the organizational structure of the division. Short summaries of technical work in progress in the various experimental groups are presented in six parts. Chapter 1 deals with the research and development activities of the Engineering Materials Section, Chapter 2 with the Processing Science and Technology Section, Chapter 3 with the Materials Science Section, Chapter 4 with Project Activities, Chapter 5 with Specialized Research Facilities and Equipment, and Chapter 6 with Miscellaneous Activities.

  11. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report covers the research and development activities of the Metals and Ceramics Division from January 1, 1983, through June 30, 1984. The format of the report follows the organizational structure of the division. Short summaries of technical work in progress in the various experimental groups are presented in six parts. Chapter 1 deals with the research and development activities of the Engineering Materials Section, Chapter 2 with the Processing Science and Technology Section, Chapter 3 with the Materials Science Section, Chapter 4 with Project Activities, Chapter 5 with Specialized Research Facilities and Equipment, and Chapter 6 with Miscellaneous Activities

  12. Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lemus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

  13. Stillbirths: progress and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøen, J Frederik; Friberg, Ingrid K; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Pattinson, Robert C; Allanson, Emma R; Flenady, Vicki; McClure, Elizabeth M; Franco, Lynne; Goldenberg, Robert L; Kinney, Mary V; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Pitt, Catherine; Islam, Monir; Khera, Ajay; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Aggarwal, Neelam; Raina, Neena; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-02-01

    This first paper of the Lancet Series on ending preventable stillbirths reviews progress in essential areas, identified in the 2011 call to action for stillbirth prevention, to inform the integrated post-2015 agenda for maternal and newborn health. Worldwide attention to babies who die in stillbirth is rapidly increasing, from integration within the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, to country policies inspired by the Every Newborn Action Plan. Supportive new guidance and metrics including stillbirth as a core health indicator and measure of quality of care are emerging. Prenatal health is a crucial biological foundation to life-long health. A key priority is to integrate action for prenatal health within the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health. Still, specific actions for stillbirths are needed for advocacy, policy formulation, monitoring, and research, including improvement in the dearth of data for effective coverage of proven interventions for prenatal survival. Strong leadership is needed worldwide and in countries. Institutions with a mandate to lead global efforts for mothers and their babies must assert their leadership to reduce stillbirths by promoting healthy and safe pregnancies. PMID:26794077

  14. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  15. Progress on the DPASS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Svidzinski, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel project to develop Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite (DPASS) of comprehensive computational tools to predict, model, and analyze disruption events in tokamaks has been recently started at FAR-TECH Inc. DPASS will eventually address the following aspects of the disruption problem: MHD, plasma edge dynamics, plasma-wall interaction, generation and losses of runaway electrons. DPASS uses the 3-D Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) as a core tool and will have a modular structure. DSC is a one fluid non-linear, time-dependent 3D MHD code to simulate dynamics of tokamak plasma surrounded by pure vacuum B-field in the real geometry of a conducting tokamak vessel. DSC utilizes the adaptive meshless technique with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, with accurate magnetic flux conservation and resolution of the plasma surface current. DSC has also an option to neglect the plasma inertia to eliminate fast magnetosonic scale. This option can be turned on/off as needed. During Phase I of the project, two modules will be developed: the computational module for modeling the massive gas injection and main plasma respond; and the module for nanoparticle plasma jet injection as an innovative disruption mitigation scheme. We will report on this development progress. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant # DE-SC0013727.

  16. An overview of osteocalcin progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqiao; Zhang, Hongyu; Yang, Chao; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan

    2016-07-01

    An increasing amount of data indicate that osteocalcin is an endocrine hormone which regulates energy metabolism, male fertility and brain development. However, the detailed functions and mechanism of osteocalcin are not well understood and conflicting results have been obtained from researchers worldwide. In the present review, we summarize the progress of osteocalcin studies over the past 40 years, focusing on the structure of carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, new functions and putative receptors, the role of osteocalcin in bone remodeling, specific expression and regulation in osteoblasts, and new indices for clinical studies. The complexity of osteocalcin in completely, uncompletely and non-carboxylated forms may account for the discrepancies in its tertiary structure and clinical results. Moreover, the extensive expression of osteocalcin and its putative receptor GPRC6A imply that there are new physiological functions and mechanisms of action of osteocalcin to be explored. New discoveries related to osteocalcin function will assist its potential clinical application and physiological theory, but comprehensive investigations are required. PMID:26747614

  17. Progress in Helias reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Helias reactor is an upgraded version of the Wendelstein 7-X experiment, which is under construction in the city of Greifswald. The modular coil system comprises 50 coils, which are constructed using NbTi-superconducting cables. The basic dimensions are: major radius 22 m, average plasma radius 1.8 m, magnetic field on axis 5 T, maximum field on coils 10 T. Over the past year progress toward better understanding of the fusion plasma has been made. In particular, the following issues have been addressed: Plasma equilibrium and MHD-stability; Neoclassical transport in the Helias configuration; Start-up scenarios and steady state burn; Alpha-particle orbits and alpha-particle losses; Drift waves in Helias configurations; Modelling the fusion plasma using empirical scaling laws Technical studies have been focussed on the optimization of the coil system with respect to magnetic field distribution, forces and stresses. In this context the ANSYS-code has been found useful for optimising the support system. In a first survey several blanket concepts, developed for the DEMO tokamak, have been adapted to the Helias geometry. Presently a water-cooled LiPb-blanket is favored in comparison with ceramic breeders, since safety properties and maintenance procedure seem to be more advantageous within this concept. Maintenance and replacement of blanket segments through portholes have also been studied with respect to their geometric compatibility. Finally parameter studies of low aspect ratio Helias reactors will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  19. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried, E-mail: Selberherr@TUWien.ac.at

    2015-07-14

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  20. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidang Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines.

  1. [Progress in proteogenomics of prokaryotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpu; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Yunping

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of genome sequencing technologies, a large amount of prokaryote genomes have been sequenced in recent years. To further investigate the models and functions of genomes, the algorithms for genome annotations based on the sequence and homology features have been widely implemented to newly sequenced genomes. However, gene annotations only using the genomic information are prone to errors, such as the incorrect N-terminals and pseudogenes. It is even harder to provide reasonable annotating results in the case of the poor genome sequencing results. The transcriptomics based on the technologies such as microarray and RNA-seq and the proteomics based on the MS/MS have been used widely to identify the gene products with high throughput and high sensitivity, providing the powerful tools for the verification and correction of annotated genome. Compared with transcriptomics, proteomics can generate the protein list for the expressed genes in the samples or cells without any confusion of the non-coding RNA, leading the proteogenomics an important basis for the genome annotations in prokaryotes. In this paper, we first described the traditional genome annotation algorithms and pointed out the shortcomings. Then we summarized the advantages of proteomics in the genome annotations and reviewed the progress of proteogenomics in prokaryotes. Finally we discussed the challenges and strategies in the data analyses and potential solutions for the developments of proteogenomics.

  2. Magnetic fusion: progress -> stagnation -> degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    ``The theory of the failure of magnetic fusion,'' created in 2004 and presented to APS-2007 introduced the notion of the ``difficult'' and ``complicated'' stages of the program and described them details. At the first phase the emerging fusion science was created under strong leadership. Progress was visible on year to year basis, and the program was easy to manage. The complicated phase started in the late 1980s, when the plasma physics appeared to be incapable to implement the mission of ITER to test nuclear components of a fusion reactor. Then, the failure of TFTR (PPPL, USA) and JET (Culham, UK) in the mid 1990 to demonstrate QDT=1 and the blindness of their leaders to already visible means to resolve the problem, were a clear indication of an irreversible stagnation. In fact, right after 2007, it became clear that in the case of a large system of human ``particles'' (scientists) two phases have a continuation. The internal degrees of freedom, otherwise protected from external perturbations by a strong dedication to the scientific method, are now eroding and collapsing. The loss of science in addressing confinement, stability, power extraction, fueling, stationary regimes issues makes the current program irrelevant to fusion energy. A fresh approach should be taken.

  3. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  4. Progress toward clonable inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Thomas W.; Staicu, Lucian C.; Nemeth, Richard S.; Schwartz, Cindi L.; Crawford, David; Seligman, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, William J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.; Ackerson, Christopher J.

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular electron tomography shows the nanoparticles as intracellular, of narrow dispersity, symmetrically irregular and without any observable membrane or structured protein shell. Protein mass spectrometry of a fractionated soluble cytosolic material with selenite reducing capability identified nitrite reductase and glutathione reductase homologues as NADPH dependent candidate enzymes for the reduction of selenite to zerovalent Se nanoparticles. In vitro experiments with commercially sourced glutathione reductase revealed that the enzyme can reduce SeO32- (selenite) to Se nanoparticles in an NADPH-dependent process. The disappearance of the enzyme as determined by protein assay during nanoparticle formation suggests that glutathione reductase is associated with or possibly entombed in the nanoparticles whose formation it catalyzes. Chemically dissolving the nanoparticles releases the enzyme. The size of the nanoparticles varies with SeO32- concentration, varying in size form 5 nm diameter when formed at 1.0 μM [SeO32-] to 50 nm maximum diameter when formed at 100 μM [SeO32-]. In aggregate, we suggest that glutathione reductase possesses the key attributes of a clonable nanoparticle system: ion reduction, nanoparticle retention and size control of the nanoparticle at the enzyme site.Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular

  5. Progress toward clonable inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Thomas W; Staicu, Lucian C; Nemeth, Richard S; Schwartz, Cindi L; Crawford, David; Seligman, Jeffrey D; Hunter, William J; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Ackerson, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO3(2-) in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular electron tomography shows the nanoparticles as intracellular, of narrow dispersity, symmetrically irregular and without any observable membrane or structured protein shell. Protein mass spectrometry of a fractionated soluble cytosolic material with selenite reducing capability identified nitrite reductase and glutathione reductase homologues as NADPH dependent candidate enzymes for the reduction of selenite to zerovalent Se nanoparticles. In vitro experiments with commercially sourced glutathione reductase revealed that the enzyme can reduce SeO3(2-) (selenite) to Se nanoparticles in an NADPH-dependent process. The disappearance of the enzyme as determined by protein assay during nanoparticle formation suggests that glutathione reductase is associated with or possibly entombed in the nanoparticles whose formation it catalyzes. Chemically dissolving the nanoparticles releases the enzyme. The size of the nanoparticles varies with SeO3(2-) concentration, varying in size form 5 nm diameter when formed at 1.0 μM [SeO3(2-)] to 50 nm maximum diameter when formed at 100 μM [SeO3(2-)]. In aggregate, we suggest that glutathione reductase possesses the key attributes of a clonable nanoparticle system: ion reduction, nanoparticle retention and size control of the nanoparticle at the enzyme site. PMID:26350616

  6. The formation of Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfli, G. M.; Hochard, C.; Vérard, C.; Wilhem, C.; vonRaumer, J.

    2013-05-01

    The making of Pangea is the result of large-scale amalgamation of continents and micro-continents, which started at the end of the Neoproterozoic with the formation of Gondwana. As pieces were added to Gondwana on its South-American, Antarctica and Australia side, ribbon-like micro-continents were detached from its African and South-Chinese side: Cadomia in the late Neoproterozoic, Avalonia and Hunia in the Ordovician, Galatia in the Devonian and Cimmeria in the Permian. Cadomia was re-accreted to Gondwana, but the other ribbon-continents were accreted to Baltica, North-China, Laurussia or Laurasia. Finding the origin of these numerous terranes is a major geological challenge. Recently, a global plate tectonic model was developed together with a large geological/geodynamic database, at the Lausanne University, covering the last 600 Ma of the Earth's history. Special attention was given to the placing of Gondwana derived terranes in their original position, using all possible constraints. We propose here a solution for the Variscan terranes, another paper deals with the Altaids. The Galatian super-terrane was detached from Gondwana in the Devonian, during the opening of Paleotethys, and was quickly separated into four sub-terranes that started to by-pass each other. The leading terranes collided at the end of the Devonian with the Hanseatic terrane detached from Laurussia. In the Carboniferous, Gondwana started to impinge onto the amalgamated terranes, creating the Variscan chain and the Pangean super-continent. East of Spain Paleotethys remained opened until the Triassic, subducting northward under Laurasia. Roll-back of the Paleotethyan slab triggered the collapse of most of the European Variscan orogen, which was replaced by series of Permian rifts, some of them becoming oceanized back-arc basins during the Triassic. Major force changes at the Pangean plate limits at the end of the Triassic provoked its break-up, through the opening of the proto

  7. Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities and progress on construction of the new cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy-ion reactions, nuclear structure, nuclear theory, and atomic studies. Progress in instrumentation and systems development is discussed. Publications are listed

  8. Progressive Education in Georgia: Tradition or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaliani, Bella; Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Doliashvili, Nana; Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences among progressive educators, they share the conviction that democracy means active participation by all citizens in the social, political, and economic decisions of their countries. The aim of this paper is to explore how Georgia is meeting goals and perspectives of progressive education by widely implementing civic education…

  9. The Relevance of Learning Progressions for NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lorrie; Daro, Phil; Stancavage, Frances B.

    2013-01-01

    "Learning progressions" are one of the most important assessment design ideas to be introduced in the past decade. In the United States, several committees of the National Research Council (NRC) have argued for the use of learning progressions as a means to foster both deeper mastery of subject-matter content and higher level reasoning…

  10. Students' Progression in Understanding the Matter Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…

  11. Progression and coherence in enterprise education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Robinson, Sarah; Thrane, Claus

    2015-01-01

    education elements in relation to each other. Furthermore we suggest a process model describing the progression of the learning process. We do this by combining a differentiation of progression through the enterprise learning activities with a differentiation of the pedagogical approach. The chapter...

  12. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  13. Progress Maps. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    A progress map describes the nature of development in an area of learning and thus serves as a frame of reference for monitoring individual growth. An essential feature of a progress map, which is an integral component of Developmental Assessment, is that it describes and illustrates developing competence. The first step in constructing a progress…

  14. Estimating progression-free survival in paediatric brain tumour patients when some progression statuses are unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Thall, Peter F.; Wolff, Johannes E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In oncology, progression-free survival time, which is defined as the minimum of the times to disease progression or death, often is used to characterize treatment and covariate effects. We are motivated by the desire to estimate the progression time distribution on the basis of data from 780 paediatric patients with choroid plexus tumours, which are a rare brain cancer where disease progression always precedes death. In retrospective data on 674 patients, the times to death or censoring were recorded but progression times were missing. In a prospective study of 106 patients, both times were recorded but there were only 20 non-censored progression times and 10 non-censored survival times. Consequently, estimating the progression time distribution is complicated by the problems that, for most of the patients, either the survival time is known but the progression time is not known, or the survival time is right censored and it is not known whether the patient’s disease progressed before censoring. For data with these missingness structures, we formulate a family of Bayesian parametric likelihoods and present methods for estimating the progression time distribution. The underlying idea is that estimating the association between the time to progression and subsequent survival time from patients having complete data provides a basis for utilizing covariates and partial event time data of other patients to infer their missing progression times. We illustrate the methodology by analysing the brain tumour data, and we also present a simulation study. PMID:22408277

  15. Target-point formation control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  16. Identity formation in multiparty negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, R; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed Interactive Model of Identity Formation, we examine how top-down deductive and bottom-up inductive identity formations influence intentions and behaviour in multiparty negotiations. Results show that a shared identity can be deduced from the social context through reco

  17. Pathogenesis of postoperative adhesion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, B.W.J.; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current views on the pathogenesis of adhesion formation are based on the "classical concept of adhesion formation", namely that a reduction in peritoneal fibrinolytic activity following peritoneal trauma is of key importance in adhesion development. Methods: A non-systematic literature s

  18. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  19. Optimal tax progressivity in imperfect labour markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests...... that there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax...... progressivity which would maximise the welfare of the representative wage earner. Simulations with these models suggest that the optimal degree of tax progressivity could be quite large, although the results are sensitive to the generosity of unemployment benefits and to the after-tax wage elasticity of work...

  20. Formative assessments as pedagogic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting a state of the art status of formative assessment as a pedagogic tool. To this end, a brief developmental account of different modes of assessment over the last decades will be presented first. Then, formative assessment will be discussed in its constructivist guise. The present literature on assessment suggests that assessment for learning (formative assessment not only represents an assessment tool but it also serves as a pedagogic tool to enhance learning and thinking. It has also gone to lengths to affect the design of classroom tasks and activities. Attempts have been made to delineate the underlying principles of formative assessment which can be used to picture the formation process of learners’ knowledge and development. Subsequently, alternative assessment techniques of which the present article will give an account have been suggested by scholars to operationalize these principles.