Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)
Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).
The effect of various chemicals on the size of recent pollen grains of Corylus avellana L. and Quercus robur L. was studied. The size of acetolysed grains was affected by the treatment prior to acetolysis and moreover by the duration of acetolysis. Preparation methods, which produce comparable sizes
1. A simple technique for acetolysis of small quantities of polliniferous (herbarium) material is described and notes on pollen photomicrography are presented. 2. Pollen grains of Sarawakodendron and six related genera, consisting of twenty-nine mostly Malesian species, have been examined and record
Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Taliane Leila Soares; Daniel Vieira Morais; Simone Alves Silva; Everton Hilo Souza
The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germinat...
Diamantino,Maria Selma Alves Silva; Costa,Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho; Soares,Taliane Leila; Morais,Daniel Vieira; Silva,Simone Alves; Souza,Everton Hilo de
ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitr...
Jardine, Phillip; Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Gosling, William
Sporomorphs (pollen and spores) form a major component of the land plant fossil record. Sporomorphs have an outer wall composed of sporopollenin, a highly durable biopolymer, the chemistry of which contains both a signature of ambient ultraviolet-B flux and taxonomic information. Despite the high preservation potential of sporopollenin in the geological record, it is currently unknown how sensitive its chemical signature is to standard palynological processing techniques. Oxidation in particular is known to cause physical degradation to sporomorphs, and it is expected that this should have a concordant impact on sporopollenin chemistry. Here, we test this by experimentally oxidizing Lycopodium (clubmoss) spores using two common oxidation techniques: acetolysis and nitric acid. We also carry out acetolysis on eight angiosperm (flowering plant) taxa to test the generality of our results. Using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, we find that acetolysis removes labile, non-fossilizable components of sporomorphs, but has a limited impact upon the chemistry of sporopollenin under normal processing durations. Nitric acid is more aggressive and does break down sporopollenin and reorganize its chemical structure, but when limited to short treatments (i.e. ≤10 min) at room temperature sporomorphs still contain most of the original chemical signal. These findings suggest that when used carefully oxidation does not adversely affect sporopollenin chemistry, and that palaeoclimatic and taxonomic signatures contained within the sporomorph wall are recoverable from standard palynological preparations.
Full Text Available The main purposes of the research were to support taxonomic evidence data in particular of palinology spesies classified in Myristicaceae family at Java and determine phenetic relationship as an effort of increasing objectivity and repeatability of classification result. Pollen was collected in Herbarium Bogoriense and Bogor Botanical Garden, and prepared for light and Scanning Electron Microscope. Acetolysis method was used for light microscopy of the pollen preparation, and coating with gold was prepared for SEM. Phenetic relationship determined using coefficients of correlation and association.
Young, M; Davies, M J; Bailey, D; Gradwell, M J; Smestad-Paulsen, B; Wold, J K; Barnes, R M; Hounsell, E F
Mannans of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been implicated as containing the allergens to which bakers and brewers are sensitive and also the antigen recognized by patients with Crohn's disease. A fraction of S. cerevisiae mannan, Sc500, having high affinity for antibodies in Crohn's patients has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy followed by fragmentation using alkaline elimination, partial acid hydrolysis and acetolysis. The released oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration on a Biogel P4 column and analyzed by fluorescence labeling, HPLC and methylation analysis. The relationship between structure and antigen activity was measured by competitive ELISA. The antigenic activity of the original high molecular weight mannan could be ascribed to terminal Manalpha1-->3Manalpha1-->2 sequences which are rarely found in human glycoproteins but were over-represented in Sc500 compared to other yeast mannans.
He, Xi; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu
Chlorella protothecoides has been put forth as a promising candidate for commercial biodiesel production. However, the cost of biodiesel remains much higher than diesel from fossil fuel sources, partially due to the high costs of oil extraction from algae. Here, we identified the presence of a sporopollenin layer outside the polysaccharide cell wall; this was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, 2-aminoethanol treatment, acetolysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We also performed bioinformatics analysis of the genes of the C. protothecoides genome that are likely involved in sporopollenin synthesis, secretion, and translocation, and evaluated the expression of these genes via real-time PCR. We also found that that removal of this sporopollenin layer greatly improved the efficiency of oil extraction. PMID:27446068
Ni Luh Gede Cerli Tonika Sari
Full Text Available The research observed the type of pollen shape, development of microgametophyte, andpollen viability of Cocos nucifera L. “Ancak”, that is the pollen structure Cocos nucifera L. usedpreparation with acetolysis method. Development of microgametophyte, and pollen viabilitywith germinated pollen in vitro used 0,8% of agar media in sugar solution 0%, 50%, and 70%.The result showed that the type of pollen shape Cocos nucifera L. “Ancak”: circular, sulkus,media, Subferoidal, P/E: (1.12-1.18. Development of microgametophyte Cocos nucifera L.“Ancak” the flowers are ripe generally at the level of uninucleate (> 60% and binukleat (<40%.Male gametes (trinukleat started on day 2,4. percentage of pollen viability in vitro low average(< 2.5%.Keywords: Pollen structure, microgametophyte, viability test, in vitro
Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.
NI MADE DENNI APRIANTY
Full Text Available The purpose of this study conducted to know variety of : long of axis polar, equatorial plane diameters, and P/E index of ten Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. with differnt colour flowers. Acetolysis method and 1 % Safranin staining used to make pollens slides, micrometri were used to measured long of polar axis and diameter of pollens. The result of this research showed : pollen structure have: 90,10 ± 3,02 ^im to 117,42 ± 1,37 l^m axis polar long, 89,66 ± 3,13 |^m to 112,92 ± 0,94 (xm equatorial plane diameter, and 0,99 to 1,04 P/E index. Based on these data is indicated that the type of the pollen are prolat sferoidal (except bud type red corolla, and white flower polypantoporat type appertura and periporat ornamentation exine .
André Rodrigo Rech
Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.
Keglević, D; Kojić-Prodić, B; Banić, Z; Tomić, S; Puntarec, V
1,6-Anhydro-4-O-benzyl-beta-muramic acid 1',2-lactam (2) was prepared by reduction of 1,6-anhydro-2-azido-4-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-3-O-[(R)-1- methoxycarbonylethyl]-beta-D-glucopyranose (1) followed by cyclisation. Debenzylation of 2 (-->3) and glycosylation of HO-4 with 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2- deoxy-2-phthalimido-beta-D-glucopyranosyl chloride afforded 75% of a beta-(1-->4)-linked disaccharide derivative (7). Removal of the Phth group from 7, then acetylation, and O-deacetylation yielded 4-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-amino-1,6-anhydro-3-O- [(R)- 1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose 1',2-lactam (10) Acetolysis of the 1,6-anhydro ring in the 4-acetate (4) of 3 and the 3',4',6'-triacetate (9) of 10, with saponification of the products 5 and 11, afforded 2-amino-3-O- [(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose 1',2-lactam (6) and 4-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-amino-3- O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose 1',2-lactam (12), respectively. The structure of 12 corresponds to that of the disaccharide unit characteristic of the glycan chains of bacterial spore peptidoglycan. 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that the beta-D-glucopyranose ring in the 1,6-anhydro 1',2-lactam derivatives adopts the BO,3 conformation. On cleavage of the 1,6-anhydro ring by acetolysis, the D-glucopyranose ring adopts the 4C1 conformation. X-ray analysis of 2, 4, and 5 confirmed the proposed structures. Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations were used to follow the transformation of the BO,3 conformation of the D-glucopyranose ring via transition states to the 4C1 form.
Full Text Available The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in National Herbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appears thick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.
Identification of plant families associated with the predators Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae using pollen grain as a natural marker
Full Text Available The predators Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae and Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, are frequently observed on vegetable crops, especially on tomato plants, as well as on flowers of several plants around crop fields. It is well known that when predators feed on pollen and nectar they can increase their longevity and reproductive capacity. The objective of this work was to identify plants that could be a pollen source for H. convergens and C. externa in order to develop strategies to attract and keep these predators in vegetable fields like the tomato crop. Adults of C. externa (53 individuals and H. convergens (43 individuals were collected in fields from 2004-2005 at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, Federal District. The insects were processed by the acetolysis method and pollen from them was extracted and identified. A total of 11335 grains of pollen belonging to 21 families were extracted from C. externa. A total of 46 pollen grains belonging to ten families were extracted from H. convergens. The Poaceae family was the most abundant one for C. externa while Asteraceae was the commonest pollen for H. convergens. The importance of pollen from different plant species as a food resource for each predator species gives an indication of the importance of plant community structure inside and around crop fields for the establishment of these predator populations and to enhance conservation biological control.
Identification of plant families associated with the predators Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) using pollen grain as a natural marker.
Medeiros, M A; Ribeiro, P A; Morais, H C; Castelo Branco, M; Sujii, E R; Salgado-Laboriau, M L
The predators Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) and Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are frequently observed on vegetable crops, especially on tomato plants, as well as on flowers of several plants around crop fields. It is well known that when predators feed on pollen and nectar they can increase their longevity and reproductive capacity. The objective of this work was to identify plants that could be a pollen source for H. convergens and C. externa in order to develop strategies to attract and keep these predators in vegetable fields like the tomato crop. Adults of C. externa (53 individuals) and H. convergens (43 individuals) were collected in fields from 2004-2005 at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, Federal District. The insects were processed by the acetolysis method and pollen from them was extracted and identified. A total of 11335 grains of pollen belonging to 21 families were extracted from C. externa. A total of 46 pollen grains belonging to ten families were extracted from H. convergens. The Poaceae family was the most abundant one for C. externa while Asteraceae was the commonest pollen for H. convergens. The importance of pollen from different plant species as a food resource for each predator species gives an indication of the importance of plant community structure inside and around crop fields for the establishment of these predator populations and to enhance conservation biological control.
Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)
Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.
Ezike, Dimphna Nneka; Nnamani, Catherine V; Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin T; Adekanmbi, Olushola H
The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis. Results revealed the abundance of fungal spores, pollen, fern spores, algal cysts and diatoms in decreasing order of dominance. The atmosphere was qualitatively and quantitatively dominated by pollen during the period of late rainy/harmattan season than the rainy season. Numerous fungal spores were trapped throughout the sampling periods among which Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Curvularia spp. dominated. These fungi have been implicated in allergic diseases and are dermatophytic, causing diverse skin diseases. Other pathogenic fungi found in the studied aeroflora were Dreschlera spp., Helminthosporium spp., Torula spp., Pithomyces spp., Tetraploa spp., Nigrospora ssp., Spadicoides spp., Puccinia spp. and Erysiphe graminis. Total pollen and fungal spores counts do not show significant correlation with meteorological parameters.
Szczepanek, Kazimierz; Myszkowska, Dorota; Worobiec, Elżbieta; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Ziemianin, Monika; Bielec-Bąkowska, Zuzanna
High Pinaceae pollen concentrations in the air and on the surface of puddles before the main pollen season started were observed in Kraków (southern Poland) in May 2013. The paper presents the results of detailed studies of the composition and source of the "yellow rain" in 2013, and as a comparison, the Pinaceae pollen concentrations and samples collected from the ground surface in 2014 were considered. The air samples were collected using the volumetric method (Hirst-type device), while pollen grains sampled from the ground surface were processed using a modified Erdtman acetolysis method. Finally, all samples were studied using a light microscope. In 2013, the period of higher Abies, Picea and Pinus pollen concentrations was observed from the 5 to 12 of May, earlier than the main pollen season occurred. The presence of rainfall on the 12 and 13 of May 2013 caused the pollen deposition on the ground surface, where the prevalence of Pinaceae pollen was found. The synoptic situation and the analysis of the back-trajectories and air mass advection at the beginning of May 2013 indicated that Pinaceae pollen grains could have been transported from Ukraine, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia. In contrast, Pinaceae pollen grains deposited on the ground surface as a "yellow" film in May 2014, originated from local sources.
Zini, Lucía Melisa; Galati, Beatriz Gloria; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Ferrucci, María Silvia
Variations in pollen characters and tapetum behavior were recently acknowledged in the early-divergent family Nymphaeaceae and even within the genus Nymphaea, which probably is not monophyletic; some traits such as infratectum and tapetum type are also a matter of different interpretations. In this study, developmental characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis are provided for the first time. Observations were made in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana, and N. prolifera using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tapetum is of the secretory type and produces orbicules. At microspore and pollen grain stages, the distal and proximal walls differ considerably. This result supports the operculate condition of the aperture in Hydrocallis, and such aperture might be plesiomorphic for Nymphaeoideae. The infratectum is intermediate, composed of inter-columellae granular elements, robust columellae consisting of agglomerated granules, complete columellae, and fused columellae. Narrow microchannels are present and persist until the mature pollen grain stage. The membranous granular layer is often present in the pollen grains of Nymphaeaceae. In N. gardneriana, this layer is most probably a component of the intine because it is lost after acetolysis. Orbicules in the Nymphaeaceae are characterized as spherical or subspherical, with a smooth sporopolleninic wall that surrounds an electron-lucent core and with individual orbicules that usually merge to give irregular aggregations. The aperture, pollen wall ultrastructure, and the tapetum of the studied species are discussed in an evolutionary and systematic context, and these characters are also compared with those of other angiosperm lineages.
Thirty species of 10 ostracod genera were identified from 440 fossil specimens isolated through the hot acetolysis of the rock samples collected across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chongyang section. Twenty species of 6 genera are found to occur in the limestone of Changxing Formation, and 11 species of 7 genera above the main faunal mass extinction horizon. The os-tracod assemblages identified at the Chongyang section are obviously different from those previously reported in the contem-poraneous microbialites in Guangxi and Chongqing regions, not only in the ostracod components but also in the abundance of filter-feeding ostracods relative to the deposit-feeding ostracods, an indicator of the oxygen level of the seawater. This spatial difference in ostracod assemblages might reflect the diversity of oceanic environmental conditions after the end-Permian mass extinction. Ostracods disappear at 200 cm below and near the main mass extinction horizon, and on the top of the microbialites, respectively, showing an episodic and gradual collapse process at the Chongyang section. The carbon isotope composition is found to appear at 200 cm below the main mass extinction horizon, indicating the initial deterioration of oceanic environment. Fluctuation of the carbon isotope composition is obviously related with the episodic evolution of ostracod species, but not with the abundance of ostracods.
Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C
Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.
Dubey Kumari Priyanka
Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.
Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.
David, S; de Sennyey, G
Mild, acidic hydrolysis of 3-O-benzoyl-1,2,:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-allofuranose gave a diol that was selectively benzoylated at O-6 in high yield by intermediate conversion to the stannylene derivative. The 3,6-dibenzoate was converted to the 5-O-tosyl derivative and thence to a mixture of iodides, which were reduced with tributylstannane to 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-ribo-hexofuranose (6). Acetolysis gave an anomeric mixture of diacetates, which, when treated with N-acetylbis(trimethylsilyl)cytosine gave the protected nucleoside, which was deprotected to free "homocytidine", 1-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)cytosine (11), by alklaine methanolysis. This was N-acetylated and then treated with acetone to give a protected nucleoside, which was labelled by oxidation to the aldehyde, reduction with sodium borotritide, and deprotection. Acidic methanolysis of 6 gave a mixture of methyl 2,6- and 3,6-di-O-benzoylfuranosides, the hydroxyl groups of which were treated by the tetrachloromethane-triphenylphosphine reagent to give the 2-chloro-2-deoxy (21) and 3-chloro-3-deoxy derivatives. Reduction of 21 gave methyl 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-2,5-dideoxy-D-erythro-furanoside, further transformed in 1-(2,5-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexofuranosyl)cytosine mixed with the alpha anomer. Phosphates and diphosphates of the nucleosides were prepared by extensions of known methods. The phosphate and the diphosphate of 11 act neither as substrates nor as inhibitors of a ribonucleotide-reductase from rat asicites tumor.
Marcos da Costa Dórea
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.
A water soluble, (1→6)-branched, (1→4) linked D-glucan (LB-B1),[α]21D=+174.2° (c 0.87, H2O), was obtained from a hot-water extract of the sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst by HPSEC, with 0.001 mol/L sodium hydroxide as the eluant, the molecular weight (Mw) of LB-B1 was estimated to be 9.3×103. From the results of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, acetolysis and 1D, 2D-NMR experimentation, it was concluded that LB-B1 was composed of repeating units with the following structure:%从破壁的赤芝（Ganodermalucidum(Fr.)Karst）孢子粉中分离纯化到一个水溶性的、以1，4连接的D-葡萄糖为主链、在6位接1，6连接葡萄糖的α-D-葡聚糖。高效分子排阻色谱测定，重均分子量为9.3×103，[α]21D=+174.2°(c0.87,H2O)。通过糖组成分析，甲基化反应，乙酰解及一维和二维核磁等光谱解析，确定其结构如下：
Marcelo R Lovisolo
Full Text Available Anteras de diez especies de Poaceae de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina fueron investigadas con microscopio electrónico de barrido y de transmisión. Las orbículas pueden ser definidas como corpúsculos de tamaño variable que muestran la misma electrodensidad, reacción a los colorantes, autofluorescencia y resistencia a la acetólisis que la exina del grano de polen. Las orbículas se encuentran revistiendo el interior del lóculo de la antera, a menudo adheridas a una membrana tapetal. En este estudio se identificaron cuatro tipos y cuatro subtipos diferentes de orbículas. Se concluye que los distintos tipos morfológicos de orbículas descriptos en este trabajo son representativos de cada una de las tribus estudiadas, por lo que se sugiere que la morfología de estos corpúsculos podría ser un carácter utilizado en estudios sistemáticos.Orbicules diversity in Poaceae. Anthers of ten species of Poaceae from the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina were investigated with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The orbicules can be defined as corpuscles of variable size that show the same electron-density, reaction to the dyes, autofluorescence and resistance to acetolysis as pollen exine does. The orbicules are randomly dispersed on the inner anther locule and they are often attached to a tapetal membrane. In this study, four different types and four subtypes of orbicules were identified. We conclude that the different orbicules types described in this work are representative of the studied tribes, and we suggest that the orbicules morphology may be a useful character in systematic studies.
Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.
Full Text Available The new local rice from Klaten, Province of Central Java has been released by the Department of Agriculture in the 2003, namely (new rojolele. The ancient rojolele is one of rice variety from Indonesian that was used by IIRRI in breeding program. The aims of this research were to study the rojolele variation in Klaten based on their morphological characteristic as well as isozyme patterns. The rojolele cultivars used in this study were: from sub districts of Gledeg, Kadilajo, Karangan, Mrisen, Taji and Trasan, Klaten district. The research was done using acetolysis method for characterizing the pollen morphology. While the SDDS PAGE method was used in studying the isozymic of peroxidase (PRX and esterase (EST patterns. The results showed that based on character of pollen morphology, all of rojolele cultivars were not different, on the other hand according to seed morphology, especially the long of awn character, rojolele in Klaten were separated into 2 groups. First, rojolele which has a long awn include Gledeg, Karangan and Taji, while Kadilajo, Mrisen and Trasan were grouped in another group which has a short awn. This grouping was supported also by the result of analysis of peroxidase and esterase pattern. rojolele cultivars which have a long awn have 4 bands for peroxidase isozyme and 4 bands for esterase isozyme, while rojolele cultivars which have a short awn have 5 bands for peroxidase isozyme and 3 bands for esterase isozyme. It is suggested that the variation of seed morphology especially long of awn may be controlled by the genetic factor (isozyme.
The system of Ibera lake and marshes in the Province of Corrientes, covers an area of approximately 12 000km2, and is considered one of the most important wetlands in Latin America. Given the wide diversity of tropical communities in this area, it is important to generate new information about the different species of this ecosystem, through pollen morphology, as lake sediments favor the pollen grains conservation. With the aim to promote future research on systematics, vegetation history and melissopalynology of this region, this study attempted to describe the pollen morphology of the well represented genus Senna. For this, we conducted 5-8 days collection trips in Southeast Ibera, on a monthly basis between 2009 and 2011. Based on the plants collected, the literature review and databases from the herbarium of the Botanical Institute of Northeast Argentina, we developed a list of species for the Province of Corrientes. For the pollen morphology, we manually took at least three flower buds per flower in the sampled sites, and for those species not sampled in the field, samples were obtained from the IBONE herbarium. Palynological material preparation was carried out by a modified technique of Erdtman acetolysis. The palynological descriptions considered the polar and equatorial diameter, exine thickness, openings and sculptural elements. Our results showed that Senna genus is euripalynic, composed of 3-colporate pollen grains, small to medium size, radiosymmetric, isopolar, oblates-spheroidals to prolates, subcircular field, subtriangular to triangular and long colpis. We described for the first time, the pollen morphology of 17 species of the genus Senna for this area, and recognized two groups considering endoapertures: lalongates and circular. The list of species belonging to the genus Senna presented here could be considered in restoration and recovery plans. A major constraint for the correct interpretation of the environmental changes impacts in vegetation
Geni da S. Sodré
Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram
Kevin C. Matteson
Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can
Talebi, S. M.
Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie
Luiz Junior Pereira Marques
Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das plantas visitadas por Apis mellifera L. através de análise polínica no município de Santa Luzia do Paruá, Maranhão, localizado a noroeste do Estado, em região amazônica. A temperatura média anual varia entre 26 °C e 27 °C, com umidade relativa do ar anual entre 79 a 82% e precipitação pluviométrica entre 2000 a 2400 mm anuais. O estudo foi conduzido entre agosto de 2005 e julho de 2006 em três apiários da região, com coletas mensais de mel, pólen e plantas, que foram submetidas ao método de acetólise. Os tipos polínicos das amostras de mel foram identificados e contados para a determinação da freqüência relativa média. Nas amostras de pólen foi realizada apenas a identificação dos tipos polínicos por meio da comparação com os polens das plantas (botões florais depositados em coleção de referência. As principais famílias utilizadas por A. mellifera foram Amaranthaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Flacourtiaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae. Em amostras de mel, no período chuvoso destacaram-se os tipos polínicos de Mimosa pudica, Borreria e um tipo indeterminado da família Arecaceae. No período de safra foram representativos Hyptis e um tipo indeterminado de Asteraceae. Os tipos polínicos mais constantes nas amostras de pólen foram Euterpe oleracea, Asteraceae tipo 1, Mimosa pudica e Borreria.The plant species visited by Apis mellifera L. were surveyed by pollen analysis in Santa Luzia do Paruá municipality, located in northwestern Maranhão state. Natural vegetation is Amazon rainforest, mean annual temperature varies between 26°C and 27°C, relative air humidity between 79 and 82%, and total rainfall between 2000 and 2400 mm. This study was conducted from August 2005 to July 2006 in three apiaries of the region, with monthly sampling of honey, pollen and plants. The samples were analyzed by the acetolysis method
Renata de Castro Nunes
Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de
Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden (firstname.lastname@example.org) Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body
Plant succession in a forest on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, and Holocene palaeoenvironments, Southern Brazil Sucessão vegetal em uma floresta da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, e os paleoambientes do Holoceno, Sul do Brasil
Márcia Grala Leal
Full Text Available The study of plant succession provides information on vegetation dynamics of a region and, therefore, improves our understanding of the natural trends of present ecosystems. With this objective, plant succession based on palynology of a sediment profile in a swamp forest was studied on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. Samples were treated with HCl, HF, KOH and acetolysis; slides were mounted in glycerol-jelly. For each sample a minimum of 500 grains of pollen + pteridophyte and bryophyte spores was counted and other palynomorphs were counted in parallel. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used to construct percentage and concentration diagrams, with three 14C datings. The results show a local water reservoir in the beginning of the Holocene (± 9800 yrs. BP, creating a herbaceous plant marsh by hydrosere. The initial colonization of the marsh by trees occurred about 8800 yrs. BP, with tropical species from the Coastal Plain migrating in an east-west direction. Afterwards, there was a dry phase between 7000-5000 yrs. BP. The second appearance of regional tree species began at about 5000 yrs. BP, resulting in the present forest and in the west-east migration of tropical species from interior lowlands, like this one, to re-colonize the coast after the last marine regression.O estudo de sucessão vegetal permite obter informações sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma região e, portanto, compreender melhor os ecossistemas da atualidade e suas tendências naturais. Com este objetivo foi feito um estudo de sucessão vegetal, com base em Palinologia, em um perfil sedimentar do interior de uma floresta paludosa, porção baixa da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram tratadas com HCl, HF, KOH e acetólise e as lâminas montadas em gelatina-glicerinada. Para cada amostra foi contado um número mínimo de 500 grãos de pólen + esporos de pteridófitos e briófitos, com uma
Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
HCl, HF, KOH, acetolysis and slide mounts in glycerol-jelly. Light microscopy was used in the analysis. Palynomorphs of eight fungi, six algae, five bryophytes and 19 pteridophytes are presented. The description of each palynomorph is followed by illustrations and, whenever possible, by ecological data from the original organism. Distinct palynomorphs preserved in the sediments reveal the potential of this material in providing relevant environmental information, in association with pollen grains, in the study of genesis and expansion of the Araucaria forest.