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Sample records for acetobutylicum part ii

  1. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

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    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  2. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores

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    Zhen eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72. The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  3. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Kai; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zi-Yong; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72). The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  4. Annotation of the Clostridium Acetobutylicum Genome

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    Daly, M. J.

    2004-06-09

    The genome sequence of the solvent producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, has been determined by the shotgun approach. The genome consists of a 3.94 Mb chromosome and a 192 kb megaplasmid that contains the majority of genes responsible for solvent production. Comparison of C. acetobutylicum to Bacillus subtilis reveals significant local conservation of gene order, which has not been seen in comparisons of other genomes with similar, or, in some cases, closer, phylogenetic proximity. This conservation allows the prediction of many previously undetected operons in both bacteria.

  5. Substrate-induced production and secretion of cellulases by Clostridium acetobutylicum

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    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Gabor, K.; Martens, A.A.; Renckens, B.A.M.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Oost, van der J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is a solventogenic bacterium that grows heterotrophically on a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose, cellobiose, xylose, and lichenan, a linear polymer of beta-1,3- and beta-1,4-linked beta-D-glucose units. C. acetobutylicum does not degrade cellulose,

  6. Butanol production under microaerobic conditions with a symbiotic system of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus.

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    Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Genyu; Wang, Gehua; Børresen, Børre Tore; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan

    2016-01-14

    One major problem of ABE (acetone, butanol and ethanol) fermentation is high oxygen sensitivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Currently, no single strain has been isolated or genetically engineered to produce butanol effectively under aerobic conditions. In our previous work, a symbiotic system TSH06 has been developed successfully by our group, and two strains, C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and Bacillus cereus TSH2, were isolated from TSH06. Compared with single culture, TSH06 showed promotion on cell growth and solvent accumulation under microaerobic conditions. To simulate TSH06, a new symbiotic system was successfully re-constructed by adding living cells of B. cereus TSH2 into C. acetobutylicum TSH1 cultures. During the fermentation process, the function of B. cereus TSH2 was found to deplete oxygen and provide anaerobic environment for C. acetobutylicum TSH1. Furthermore, inoculation ratio of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 affected butanol production. In a batch fermentation with optimized inoculation ratio of 5 % C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and 0.5 % B. cereus TSH2, 11.0 g/L butanol and 18.1 g/L ABE were produced under microaerobic static condition. In contrast to the single culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1, the symbiotic system became more aerotolerant and was able to produce 11.2 g/L butanol in a 5 L bioreactor even with continuous 0.15 L/min air sparging. In addition, qPCR assay demonstrated that the abundance of B. cereus TSH2 increased quickly at first and then decreased sharply to lower than 1 %, whereas C. acetobutylicum TSH1 accounted for more than 99 % of the whole population in solventogenic phase. The characterization of a novel symbiotic system on butanol fermentation was studied. The new symbiotic system re-constructed by co-culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 showed excellent performance on butanol production under microaerobic conditions. B. cereus TSH2 was a good partner for C. acetobutylicum TSH1 by providing an anaerobic

  7. Development of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum: A useful tool for strain engineering.

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    Dong, Hongjun; Tao, Wenwen; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol) producing bacterium. However, a stringent, effective, and convenient-to-use inducible gene expression system that can be used for regulating the gene expression strength in C. acetobutylicum is currently not available. Here, we report an anhydrotetracycline-inducible gene expression system for solvent-producing bacterium C. acetobutylicum. This system consists of a functional chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene promoter containing tet operators (tetO), Pthl promoter (thiolase gene promoter from C. acetobutylicum) controlling TetR repressor expression cassette, and the chemical inducer anhydrotetracycline (aTc). The optimized system, designated as pGusA2-2tetO1, allows gene regulation in an inducer aTc concentration-dependent way, with an inducibility of over two orders of magnitude. The stringency of TetR repression supports the introduction of the genes encoding counterselective marker into C. acetobutylicum, which can be used to increase the mutant screening efficiency. This aTc-inducible gene expression system will thus increase the genetic manipulation capability for engineering C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

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    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  9. BIOBUTANOL ACCUMULATION USING ALTERNATIVE SUBSTRATES BY CULTIVATION OF Clostridium acetobutylicum STRAINS

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    О. О. Тigunova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the accumulation of biobutanol by strains Clostridium acetobutylicum using alternative substrates (Jerusalem artichoke juice, technical glycerol, crude glycerol, shredded biomass of soy, rape, wheat and switchgrass. In order to increase the accumulation of butanol in the process of cultivation, the cells of C. acetobutylicum were statically immobilized on carriers (belting strips, ferrite rings and Raschig rings by the method of adsorption immobilization. The cells were precipitated by centrifugation, the supernatant was distilled and then fermentation products were determined. Gas chromatography was used to determine the presence of solvents in the culture fluid. The biggest accumulation of butanol (2 g/dm3 was at concentration of crude glycerol 16 g/dm3 in the medium, and complete inhibition of culture development — at glycerol concentration 25 g/dm3. The accumulation of butanol by the strain C. acetobutylicum ІМВ В-7407 using fill and draw method depended on the amount of sequestered and infused medium. Immobilization of the culture using the Raschig rings allowed increasing the bioconversion to butanol twice. So it is shown the possibility to use non-traditional substrates for the production of biobutanol. The most accumulation of butanol was achieved using glycerol (11 g/dm3 as water-soluble substrate, and using switchgrass as lignocelluloses substrate (2,6 g/dm3. Immobilization of C. acetobutylicum culture cells on carriers increased the accumulation of butanol. The use of Raschig rings, as carriers for immobilization, allowed increasing the accumulation of butanol twice.

  10. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition.

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    Hongzhen Luo

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1 extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2 enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3 direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology.

  11. Biotransformation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during butanol fermentation.

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    Zhang, Yan; Han, Bei; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2012-02-15

    The ability of fermenting microorganisms to tolerate furan aldehyde inhibitors (furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)) will enhance efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. The effect of furfural and HMF on butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 was investigated. Whereas specific growth rates, μ, of C. acetobutylicum in the presence of furfural and HMF were in the range of 15-85% and 23-78%, respectively, of the uninhibited Control, μ increased by 8-15% and 23-38% following exhaustion of furfural and HMF in the bioreactor. Using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric assays, batch fermentations revealed that furfural and HMF were converted to furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran, respectively, with specific conversion rates of 2.13g furfural and 0.50g HMF per g (biomass) per hour, by exponentially growing C. acetobutylicum. Biotransformation of these furans to lesser inhibitory compounds by C. acetobutylicum will probably enhance overall fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

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    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  13. Pemanfaatan Serbuk Gergaji Menjadi Biobutanol dengan Hidrolisis Selulase dan Fermentasi Bakteri Clostridium Acetobutylicum

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    Hayuni Devina Fajariah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biobutanol adalah jenis alkohol ikatan C-4 (C4H9OH yang terbuat dari biomassa. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan limbah kayu yang dihasilkan dari proses penggergajian kayu yang mengandung selulosa (55%, hemiselulosa (14%, dan lignin (21%. Biobutanol diproduksi dengan cara hidrolisis enzim selulase dan fermentasi bakteri Clostridium acetobutylicum. Variabel pada penelitian ini adalah penambahan enzim selulase pada proses hidrolisis (penambahan enzim atau tanpa penambahan enzim, pH awal proses fermentasi (5 atau 7 dan jumlah penambahan starter bakteri Clostridium acetobutylicum (5 atau 10 ml dengan variasi lama proses fermentasi 2,4,6,8,10,12 hari. Parameter dalam penelitian ini adalah analisa kadar selulosa, gula tereduksi, dan kadar butanol. Berdasarkan hasil penetian, diketahui bahwa proses hidrolisis dengan penambahan enzim selulase, kondisi awal fermentasi pH 5 dan penambahan inokulum bakteri Clostridium acetobutylicum sebanyak 10 ml dengan lama waktu fermentasi 12 hari merupakan kondisi yang paling efektif menghasilkan kadar butanol tertinggi dari 50 gram limbah serbuk gergaji. Kadar butanol tertinggi sebesar 1,88 % dari 1 µL sampel hasil fermentasi yang diinjeksikan ke dalam kromatografi gas.

  14. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

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    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production

  15. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

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    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  16. Bio-assisted synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish Kumar; Venkatachalam, Ganesh; Arumugam, Palaniappan; Berchmans, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide is synthesized at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely Clostridium acetobutylicum. On contrary to chemical routes involving both the high and room temperature methods, the present experimental procedure involves a bio-assisted approach. This method is free from the usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals making it an environment friendly route. The synthesized bismuth sulphide is characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). From our experiments we find that bismuth sulphide produced using this bio-assisted approach exhibits a hexagonal shaped plate-like structures and is stabilized by the extracellular proteins present in the culture medium. - Graphical abstract: A green chemistry approach towards the synthesis of bismuth (III) sulphide nanostructures at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely, Clostridium acetobutylicum is demonstrated. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign (greener) route towards synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures. • Bio-assisted synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 at room temperature using Clostridium acetobutylicum. • Extracellular proteins in H 2 S producing microorganism as stabilizer for Bi 2 S 3 NPs. • Hexagonal platelets of Bi 2 S 3 possessing an orthorhombic crystalline structure

  17. Direct fermentation of sweet sorghum juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium tetanomorphum to produce bio-butanol and organic acids

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    B. Ndaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single- and co-culture clostridial fermentation was conducted to obtain organic alcohols and acids from sweet sorghum juice as a low cost feedstock. Different inoculum concentrations of single cultures (3, 5, 10 v/v % as well as different ratios of C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum (3:10, 10:3, 6.5:6.5, 3:3, and 10:10 v/v %, respectively were utilized for the fermentation. The maximum butanol concentration of 6.49 g/L was obtained after 96 h fermentation with 10 % v/v C. acetobutylicum as a single culture. The fermentation with 10% v/v C. tetanomorphum resulted in more than 5 g/l butyric acid production. Major organic acid concentration (lactic acid of 2.7 g/L was produced when an inoculum ratio of 6.5: 6.5 %v/v C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum was used.

  18. Carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an industrial fermentation medium.

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    Allcock, E R; Woods, D R

    1981-01-01

    The production of a carboxymethyl cellulase and a cellobiase by Clostridium acetobutylicum was demonstrated. In liquid medium the carboxymethyl cellulase was induced by molasses, and it was not repressed by glucose. Optimum carboxymethyl cellulase activity occurred at pH 4.6 and 37 degrees C.

  19. Continuous xylose fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum – Kinetics and energetics issues under acidogenesis conditions

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    Procentese, A.; Raganati, F.; Olivieri, G.; Russo, M.E.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports the assessment of the growth kinetics of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 adopting xylose as carbon source. Xylose is the fundamental component of hemicellulose hydrolysis, a relevant fraction of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. Tests were carried out in a CSTR

  20. A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

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    Bahl Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium which is known for its solvent-producing capabilities, namely regarding the bulk chemicals acetone and butanol, the latter being a highly efficient biofuel. For butanol production by C. acetobutylicum to be optimized and exploited on an industrial scale, the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by C. acetobutylicum in continuous culture must be understood as fully as possible. Results We present an ordinary differential equation model combining the metabolic network governing solvent production with regulation at the genetic level of the enzymes required for this process. Parameterizing the model with experimental data from continuous culture, we demonstrate the influence of pH upon fermentation products: at high pH (pH 5.7 acids are the dominant product while at low pH (pH 4.5 this switches to solvents. Through steady-state analyses of the model we focus our investigations on how alteration in gene expression of C. acetobutylicum could be exploited to increase butanol yield in a continuous culture fermentation. Conclusions Incorporating gene regulation into the model of solvent production by C. acetobutylicum enables an accurate representation of the pH-induced switch to solvent production to be obtained and theoretical investigations of possible synthetic-biology approaches to be pursued. Steady-state analyses suggest that, to increase butanol yield, alterations in the expression of single solvent-associated genes are insufficient; a more complex approach targeting two or more genes is required.

  1. Study of continuous acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarovenko, V L; Nakhmanovich, B M; Shcheblykin, N P; Senkevich, V V

    1960-01-01

    Prophylactic sterilization of small scale equipment (2 fermenters, 3.5 cu. m. each) permitted continuous fermentation through 6 cycles (28 days), each with a new inoculum of C. acetobutylicum. Single cycles could be prolonged to 6 to 11 days without sterilization. Contamination, usually with lactic acid bacteria, sometimes preceded exhaustion of the culture. Input of flour mash at 0.6 to 1.2 cu. m./hr. and withdrawal of products were continuous; acetone yield 6.6 to 7.1 g./l.; residual sugars 0.63 to 0.79%.

  2. Enhancing acetone biosynthesis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation performance by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with exogenous acetate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is the major by-product in ABE fermentations, most researches focused on increasing butanol/acetone ratio by decreasing acetone biosynthesis. However, economics of ABE fermentation industry strongly relies on evaluating acetone as a valuable platform chemical. Therefore, a novel ABE fermentation strategy focusing on bio-acetone production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae with exogenous acetate addition was proposed. Experimental and theoretical analysis revealed the strategy could, enhance C. acetobutylicum survival oriented amino acids assimilation in the cells; control NADH regeneration rate at moderately lower level to enhance acetone synthesis but without sacrificing butanol production; enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and direct most of extra consumed glucose into acetone/butanol synthesis routes. By implementing the strategy using synthetic or acetate fermentative supernatant, acetone concentrations increased to 8.27-8.55g/L from 5.86g/L of the control, while butanol concentrations also elevated to the higher levels of 13.91-14.23g/L from 11.63g/L simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterologous Expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CO Dehydrogenase Alone or Together with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Enables both Reduction of CO2 and Oxidation of CO by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

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    Carlson, Ellinor D; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-08-15

    With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO 2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO 2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO 2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO 2 , and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO 2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum , which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO 2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO 2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO 2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms. IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum , which is natively incapable of CO 2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans

  4. Continuous acetone-ethanol-butanol fermentation by immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum

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    Badr, H.R.; Toledo, R.; Hamdy, M.K. [University of Georgia, Athens (Greece). Food Science and Technology Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Eight Clostridium acetobutylicum strains were examined for {alpha}-amylase and strains B-591, B-594 and P-262 had the highest activities. Defibered-sweet-potato-slurry (DSPS), containing 39.7 g starch l{sup -1}, supplemented with potassium phosphate (1.0 g l{sup -1}), cysteine-HCl (5.0 g l{sup -1}), the antifoam (polypropylene glycol, 0.1 mg ml{sup -1}), was used a continuous feedstock (FS) to a multistage bioreactor system for acetone-ethanol-butanol (AEB) fermentation. The system consisted on four columns (three vertical and one near horizontal) packed with beads containing immobilized cells of C. acetobutylicum P-262. When DSPS was pumped into the bioreactor system, at a flow rate of 2.36 ml min{sup -1}, the effluent has 7.73 g solvents l{sup -1} (1.56, acetone; 0.65, ethanol; 5.52 g, butanol) and no starch. Productivity of total solvents synthesized during continuous operation were 1.0 g 1{sup -1}h{sup -1} and 19.5 % yield compared to 0.12 g l{sup -1}h{sup -1} with 29% yield using the batch system. We proposed using DSPS for AEB fermentation in a continuous mode with immobilized P-262 cells that are active amylase producers which will lead to cost reduction compared to the batch system. (Author)

  5. Novel substrate specificity of glutathione synthesis enzymes from Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Kuniki; Kuratsu, Shoko; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kokubo, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Yuji; Arai, Toshinobu; Yagasaki, Makoto; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is synthesized by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GS) in living organisms. Recently, bifunctional fusion protein, termed γ-GCS-GS catalyzing both γ-GCS and GS reactions from gram-positive firmicutes Streptococcus agalactiae, has been reported. We revealed that in the γ-GCS activity, S. agalactiae γ-GCS-GS had different substrate specificities from those of Escherichia coli γ-GCS. Furthermore, S. agalactiae γ-GCS-GS synthesized several kinds of γ-glutamyltripeptide, γ-Glu-X aa -Gly, from free three amino acids. In Clostridium acetobutylicum, the genes encoding γ-GCS and putative GS were found to be immediately adjacent by BLAST search, and had amino acid sequence homology with S. agalactiae γ-GCS-GS, respectively. We confirmed that the proteins expressed from each gene showed γ-GCS and GS activity, respectively. C. acetobutylicum GS had broad substrate specificities and synthesized several kinds of γ-glutamyltripeptide, γ-Glu-Cys-X aa . Whereas the substrate specificities of γ-GCS domain protein and GS domain protein of S. agalactiae γ-GCS-GS were the same as those of S. agalactiae γ-GCS-GS

  6. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-07

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  7. Predictive modeling in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations employing Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis for real-time culture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Theresah N. K.; Liu, Sanchao; Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Mackie, David M.; Sund, Christian J.

    2016-05-01

    The coupling of optical fibers with Raman instrumentation has proven to be effective for real-time monitoring of chemical reactions and fermentations when combined with multivariate statistical data analysis. Raman spectroscopy is relatively fast, with little interference from the water peak present in fermentation media. Medical research has explored this technique for analysis of mammalian cultures for potential diagnosis of some cancers. Other organisms studied via this route include Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and some Bacillus sp., though very little work has been performed on Clostridium acetobutylicum cultures. C. acetobutylicum is a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, which is highly sought after due to its ability to use a broad spectrum of substrates and produce useful byproducts through the well-known Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In this work, real-time Raman data was acquired from C. acetobutylicum cultures grown on glucose. Samples were collected concurrently for comparative off-line product analysis. Partial-least squares (PLS) models were built both for agitated cultures and for static cultures from both datasets. Media components and metabolites monitored include glucose, butyric acid, acetic acid, and butanol. Models were cross-validated with independent datasets. Experiments with agitation were more favorable for modeling with goodness of fit (QY) values of 0.99 and goodness of prediction (Q2Y) values of 0.98. Static experiments did not model as well as agitated experiments. Raman results showed the static experiments were chaotic, especially during and shortly after manual sampling.

  8. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  10. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  11. New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Crow, W.D.; Hadden, C.T.; Hall, J.; Machanoff, R.

    1983-01-01

    Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane-containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even without incubation in anaerobic jars or similar devices. Observations on growth rates, spontaneous mutations, radiation, and oxygen sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria have been made using these new techniques

  12. A Novel Dual-cre Motif Enables Two-Way Autoregulation of CcpA in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Yanqiang; Yang, Yunpeng; Jiang, Weihong; Gu, Yang

    2018-04-15

    The master regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) manages a large and complex regulatory network that is essential for cellular physiology and metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria. Although CcpA can affect the expression of target genes by binding to a cis -acting catabolite-responsive element ( cre ), whether and how the expression of CcpA is regulated remain poorly explored. Here, we report a novel dual- cre motif that is employed by the CcpA in Clostridium acetobutylicum , a typical solventogenic Clostridium species, for autoregulation. Two cre sites are involved in CcpA autoregulation, and they reside in the promoter and coding regions of CcpA. In this dual- cre motif, cre P , in the promoter region, positively regulates ccpA transcription, whereas cre ORF , in the coding region, negatively regulates this transcription, thus enabling two-way autoregulation of CcpA. Although CcpA bound cre P more strongly than cre ORF in vitro , the in vivo assay showed that cre ORF -based repression dominates CcpA autoregulation during the entire fermentation. Finally, a synonymous mutation of cre ORF was made within the coding region, achieving an increased intracellular CcpA expression and improved cellular performance. This study provides new insights into the regulatory role of CcpA in C. acetobutylicum and, moreover, contributes a new engineering strategy for this industrial strain. IMPORTANCE CcpA is known to be a key transcription factor in Gram-positive bacteria. However, it is still unclear whether and how the intracellular CcpA level is regulated, which may be essential for maintaining normal cell physiology and metabolism. We discovered here that CcpA employs a dual- cre motif to autoregulate, enabling dynamic control of its own expression level during the entire fermentation process. This finding answers the questions above and fills a void in our understanding of the regulatory network of CcpA. Interference in CcpA autoregulation leads to improved cellular

  13. Increased Productivity of Clostridium Acetobutylicum Fermentation of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol by Pervaporation through Supported Ionic Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Schwarz, K.; Ruth, W.; Bahl, H.; Kragl, U.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2008), s. 597-602 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0600 Grant - others:MERG(XE) CT/2006/044737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : clostridium acetobutylicum * supported polymer membrane * pervaporation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2008

  14. The effect of fermentable carbohydrate on sporulation and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum P262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, G.M.; Ingledew, W.M.; Jones, G.A. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Applied Microbiology and Food Science)

    1992-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether or not a variation in the type of carbohydrate fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum could be exploited to inhibit sporulation during the butanol-producing phase of fermentation and thus enhance butanol production. C. acetobutylicum P262 was found to ferment a wide variety of carbohydrates, but butanol production was not necessarily enhanced when percentage sporulation was low. Butanol concentration was more related to the total amount of acidic end-products (acetic and butyric acid) reutilized by the microorganism for solvent production and to the type and amount of carbohydrate utilized. Fermentation of cellobiose led to conditions resulting in complete acid reutilization and the highest butanol concentration (10.4-10.6 g/l). In cultures containing a mixture of glucose and cellobiose, glucose repression of cellobiose utilization resulted in lower butanol concentrations (6.6-7.5 g/l). Sporulation was dependent on the type of carbohydrate utilized by the microorgamism. Glucose had a greater enhancing effect on the sporulation process (22-42%) than starch (9-12%) or cellobiose (22-34%). It was concluded that whereas the type of carbohydrate fermented has a specific effect on the extent of sporulation of a culture, conditions of low sporulation did not enhance butanol concentration unless carbohydrate utilization and the reutilization of acidic products were high. (orig.).

  15. Butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a continuous packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we report on a butanol production process by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) using Tygon rings as a carrier. The medium was a solution of lactose (15-30 g/L) and yeast extract (3 g/L) to emulate the cheese whey, an abundant lactose-rich wastewater. The reactor was operated under controlled conditions with respect to the pH and to the dilution rate. The pH and the dilution rate ranged between 4 and 5, the dilution rate between 0.54 and 2.4 h(-1) (2.5 times the maximum specific growth rate assessed for suspended cells). The optimal performance of the reactor was recorded at a dilution rate of 0.97 h(-1): the butanol productivity was 4.4 g/Lh and the selectivity of solvent in butanol was 88%(w).

  16. Sensitivity of clostridium acetobutylicum to oxygen and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.C.; Adler, H.I.; Machanoff, R.; Haney, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors are studying the sensitivity of four strains of the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, to oxygen and ionizing radiation. Anaerobic bacteria are useful for such studies because of the absence of elaborate oxygen detoxification mechanisms that are found in aerobes. Their experiments make use of sterile membrane fragments from Escherichia coli that rapidly remove molecular oxygen from media and permit growth of anaerobes without the use of reducing agents or anaerobic chambers. Of the four strains examined for sensitivity to ionizing radiation under anaerobic conditions, one has an LD/sub 50/ of -- 25 krads and the others have an LD/sub 50/ of -- 7 krads. The radiation resistant strain is also relatively resistant to oxygen exposure. Sensitivity to oxygen was determined by diluting cells in buffer at 28 0 and bubbling with air. An exposure to air for 40 min induced only slight inactivation in the radiation resistant strain. All strains are capable of removing oxygen from complex media but there is no apparent correlation between this oxygen consuming reaction and inactivation by either oxygen or radiation

  17. Solvent Fermentation From Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Clostridium acetobutylicum In Oscillatory Flow Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriff, M.S.; Masngut, N.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Kalil, M.S.; Mohammad, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by C. acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 in an oscillatory flow bioreactor was investigated. Experimental works were conducted in a U-shaped stainless steel oscillatory flow bioreactor at oscillation frequency between 0.45-0.78 Hz and a constant amplitude of 12.5 mm. Fermentations were carried out for 72 hr at 35 degree Celsius using palm oil mill effluent and reinforced clostridia medium as a growth medium in batch culture. Result of this investigation showed that POME is a viable media for ABE fermentation and oscillatory flow bioreactor has an excellent potential as an alternative fermentation device. (author)

  18. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  19. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  20. Structural Variation in Bacterial Glyoxalase I Enzymes: Investigation of the Metalloenzyme Glyoxalase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttisansanee U.; Swaminathan S.; Lau, K.; Lagishetty, S.; Rao, K. N.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Honek, J. F.

    2011-11-04

    The glyoxalase system catalyzes the conversion of toxic, metabolically produced {alpha}-ketoaldehydes, such as methylglyoxal, into their corresponding nontoxic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids, leading to detoxification of these cellular metabolites. Previous studies on the first enzyme in the glyoxalase system, glyoxalase I (GlxI), from yeast, protozoa, animals, humans, plants, and Gram-negative bacteria, have suggested two metal activation classes, Zn{sup 2+} and non-Zn{sup 2+} activation. Here, we report a biochemical and structural investigation of the GlxI from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which is the first GlxI enzyme from Gram-positive bacteria that has been fully characterized as to its three-dimensional structure and its detailed metal specificity. It is a Ni{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}-activated enzyme, in which the active site geometry forms an octahedral coordination with one metal atom, two water molecules, and four metal-binding ligands, although its inactive Zn{sup 2+}-bound form possesses a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with only one water molecule liganded to the metal center. This enzyme also possesses a unique dimeric molecular structure. Unlike other small homodimeric GlxI where two active sites are located at the dimeric interface, the C. acetobutylicum dimeric GlxI enzyme also forms two active sites but each within single subunits. Interestingly, even though this enzyme possesses a different dimeric structure from previously studied GlxI, its metal activation characteristics are consistent with properties of other GlxI. These findings indicate that metal activation profiles in this class of enzyme hold true across diverse quaternary structure arrangements.

  1. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-06-20

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production.

  2. Capturing the response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to chemical stressors using a regulated genome-scale metabolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Satyakam; Mueller, Thomas J.; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridia are anaerobic Gram-positive Firmicutes containing broad and flexible systems for substrate utilization, which have been used successfully to produce a range of industrial compounds. Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used to produce butanol on an industrial scale through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. A genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model is a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic capacities of an organism and developing metabolic engineering strategies for strain development. The integration of stress related specific transcriptomics information with the GSM model provides opportunities for elucidating the focal points of regulation

  3. Alginate Adsorbent Immobilization Technique Promotes Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum Under Extreme Condition of High Concentration of Organic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoliang Ye

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation, bacteria should tolerate high concentrations of solvent products, which inhibit bacteria growth and limit further increase of solvents to more than 20 g/L. Moreover, this limited solvent concentration significantly increases the cost of solvent separation through traditional approaches. In this study, alginate adsorbent immobilization technique was successfully developed to assist in situ extraction using octanol which is effective in extracting butanol but presents strong toxic effect to bacteria. The adsorbent improved solvent tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum under extreme condition of high concentration of organic solvent. Using the developed technique, more than 42% of added bacteria can be adsorbed to the adsorbent. Surface area of the adsorbent was more than 10 times greater than sodium alginate. Scanning electron microscope image shows that an abundant amount of pore structure was successfully developed on adsorbents, promoting bacteria adsorption. In adsorbent assisted ABE fermentation, there was 21.64 g/L butanol in extracting layer compared to negligible butanol produced with only the extractant but without the adsorbent, for the reason that adsorbent can reduce damaging exposure of C. acetobutylicum to octanol. The strategy can improve total butanol production with respect to traditional culture approach by more than 2.5 fold and save energy for subsequent butanol recovery, which effects can potentially make the biobutanol production more economically practical.

  4. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  5. Nuclear medicine and thyroid disease - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Part 1 of this article discussed the anatomy, physiology and basic pathology of the thyroid gland. Techniques of thyroid scanning and a few clinical examples are shown part II Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society Of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  7. Integrative modelling of pH-dependent enzyme activity and transcriptomic regulation of the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, Thomas; Janssen, Holger; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a continuous culture under phosphate limitation the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum depends on the external pH level. By comparing seven steady-state conditions between pH 5.7 and pH 4.5 we show that the switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis occurs between pH 5.3 and pH 5.0 with an intermediate state at pH 5.1. Here, an integrative study is presented investigating how a changing external pH level affects the clostridial acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation pathway. This is of particular interest as the biotechnological production of n-butanol as biofuel has recently returned into the focus of industrial applications. One prerequisite is the furthering of the knowledge of the factors determining the solvent production and their integrative regulations. We have mathematically analysed the influence of pH-dependent specific enzyme activities of branch points of the metabolism on the product formation. This kinetic regulation was compared with transcriptomic regulation regarding gene transcription and the proteomic profile. Furthermore, both regulatory mechanisms were combined yielding a detailed projection of their individual and joint effects on the product formation. The resulting model represents an important platform for future developments of industrial butanol production based on C. acetobutylicum. PMID:23332010

  8. Microencapsulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores in gellan gum microspheres for the production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Wan Sia Heng, Paul; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide further insights on the applicability of microencapsulation using emulsification method, to immobilise Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores, for biobutanol production. The encapsulated spores were revived using heat shock treatment and the fermentation efficiency of the resultant encapsulated cells was compared with that of the free (non-encapsulated) cells. The microspheres were easily recovered from the fermentation medium by filtration and reused up to five cycles of fermentation. In contrast, the free (non-encapsulated) cells could be reused for two cycles only. The microspheres remained intact throughout repeated use. Although significant cell leakage was observed during the course of fermentation, the microspheres could be reused with relatively high butanol yield, demonstrating their role as microbial cell nurseries. Both encapsulated and liberated cells contributed to butanol production.

  9. PIO I-II tendencies. Part 2. Improving the pilot modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is conceived in two parts and aims to get some contributions to the problem ofPIO aircraft susceptibility analysis. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the mainsteps of deriving a complex model of human pilot. The current Part II of the paper considers a properprocedure of the human pilot mathematical model synthesis in order to analyze PIO II typesusceptibility of a VTOL-type aircraft, related to the presence of position and rate-limited actuator.The mathematical tools are those of semi global stability theory developed in recent works.

  10. Validating the standard for the National Board Dental Examination Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Neumann, Laura M; Littlefield, John H

    2012-05-01

    As part of the overall exam validation process, the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations periodically reviews and validates the pass/fail standard for the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. The most recent standard-setting activities for NBDE Part II used the Objective Standard Setting method. This report describes the process used to set the pass/fail standard for the 2009 exam. The failure rate on the NBDE Part II increased from 5.3 percent in 2008 to 13.7 percent in 2009 and then decreased to 10 percent in 2010. This article describes the Objective Standard Setting method and presents the estimated probabilities of classification errors based on the beta binomial mathematical model. The results show that the probability of correct classifications of candidate performance is very high (0.97) and that probabilities of false negative and false positive errors are very small (.03 and <0.001, respectively). The low probability of classification errors supports the conclusion that the pass/fail score on the NBDE Part II is a valid guide for making decisions about candidates for dental licensure.

  11. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  12. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  13. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-02-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60-120°C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE production. The production of ABE was further accomplished via acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation process. Maximum total sugar release obtained by using acid hydrolysis was 97g/L with 95-97% and 10-50% removal of phenolics and acetic acid, respectively during detoxification process. The maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.23g/L with 55.6% substrate consumption when samples dried at 120°C were used as a substrate (after detoxification). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution Potassium oleate Potassium salt of polyolefin acid Propyl acetate Propylene carbonate Propylene... lignosulfonate solution Sodium polyacrylate solution 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediamine... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grouping of Cargoes II Table II to Part 150 Shipping...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  16. Typewriting Syllabus: Part II: Modules. 1976 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the second of a two-part set on typewriting and focuses on the nine modules of instruction. The nine modules are: (1) keyboard mastery and skill development, (2) basic typewriting competencies, (2a) personal use typewriting, (3) introduction to office typewriting I, (4) introduction to office typewriting II, (5) intermediate office…

  17. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to calculate delivered fuel expenses must reflect the petitioner's delivered price of the alternate fuel and...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., aromatic hydrocarbons or paraffins. Others will form hazardous combinations with many groups: For example...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...

  20. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  1. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Enhanced butanol production and reduced autolysin activity after chloramphenicol treatment of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiangdong; Traxler, R.W. (Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition)

    1992-06-01

    Release of autolysin during the late exponential growth phase of Clostridium acetobutylicum resulted in early lysis of the culture and reduction of solvent formation. A simple and effective way of reducing autolysin activity and increasing solvent production is partial inhibition of protein synthesis with chloramphenicol (CAP). The extracellular autolytic activity in the culture, determined by following loss of turbidity of washed clostridial cells in 0.04 M sodium phosphate buffer at 37deg C, was decreased by 40% after CAP treatment. This caused an extension of cell viability by 12 h and an increase in butanol production by 30%. The optimal time of CAP addition was 12 h of incubation, and the optimal antibiotic concentration was 120 {mu}g/ml. The effects of CAP on the fermentation are due to the inhibition of protein synthesis leading to a decrease in autolysin level in the culture. The results obtained provide economic advantages for industrial production of solvents by minimizing autolysin activity and maximizing solvent yield during the critical solvent-producing phase. (orig.).

  3. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  4. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  5. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  7. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8 and its parent strain DSM 1731 revealed new understandings on butanol tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Guanhui; Dong, Hongjun; Zhu, Yan; Mao, Shaoming; Zhang, Tianrui; Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Zugen; Li, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Genomes of a butanol tolerant strain and its parent strain were deciphered. • Comparative genomic and proteomic was applied to understand butanol tolerance. • None differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. • Mutations in ribosome might be responsible for the global difference of proteomics. - Abstract: Clostridium acetobutylicum strain Rh8 is a butanol-tolerant mutant which can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, 46% higher than that of its parent strain DSM 1731. We previously performed comparative cytoplasm- and membrane-proteomic analyses to understand the mechanism underlying the improved butanol tolerance of strain Rh8. In this work, we further extended this comparison to the genomic level. Compared with the genome of the parent strain DSM 1731, two insertion sites, four deletion sites, and 67 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) are distributed throughout the genome of strain Rh8. Among the 67 SNVs, 16 SNVs are located in the predicted promoters and intergenic regions; while 29 SNVs are located in the coding sequence, affecting a total of 21 proteins involved in transport, cell structure, DNA replication, and protein translation. The remaining 22 SNVs are located in the ribosomal genes, affecting a total of 12 rRNA genes in different operons. Analysis of previous comparative proteomic data indicated that none of the differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. Rchange Algorithms analysis indicated that the mutations occurred in the ribosomal genes might change the ribosome RNA thermodynamic characteristics, thus affect the translation strength of these proteins. Take together, the improved butanol tolerance of C. acetobutylicum strain Rh8 might be acquired through regulating the translational process to achieve different expression strength of genes involved in butanol tolerance

  8. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8 and its parent strain DSM 1731 revealed new understandings on butanol tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Guanhui [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Dong, Hongjun; Zhu, Yan; Mao, Shaoming [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Tianrui [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Yanping [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Zugen [Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Yin, E-mail: yli@im.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Genomes of a butanol tolerant strain and its parent strain were deciphered. • Comparative genomic and proteomic was applied to understand butanol tolerance. • None differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. • Mutations in ribosome might be responsible for the global difference of proteomics. - Abstract: Clostridium acetobutylicum strain Rh8 is a butanol-tolerant mutant which can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, 46% higher than that of its parent strain DSM 1731. We previously performed comparative cytoplasm- and membrane-proteomic analyses to understand the mechanism underlying the improved butanol tolerance of strain Rh8. In this work, we further extended this comparison to the genomic level. Compared with the genome of the parent strain DSM 1731, two insertion sites, four deletion sites, and 67 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) are distributed throughout the genome of strain Rh8. Among the 67 SNVs, 16 SNVs are located in the predicted promoters and intergenic regions; while 29 SNVs are located in the coding sequence, affecting a total of 21 proteins involved in transport, cell structure, DNA replication, and protein translation. The remaining 22 SNVs are located in the ribosomal genes, affecting a total of 12 rRNA genes in different operons. Analysis of previous comparative proteomic data indicated that none of the differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. Rchange Algorithms analysis indicated that the mutations occurred in the ribosomal genes might change the ribosome RNA thermodynamic characteristics, thus affect the translation strength of these proteins. Take together, the improved butanol tolerance of C. acetobutylicum strain Rh8 might be acquired through regulating the translational process to achieve different expression strength of genes involved in butanol tolerance.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...

  10. First international 26Al interlaboratory comparison - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchel, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    After finishing Part I of the first international 26 Al interlaboratory comparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories [S. Merchel, W. Bremser, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 393], the evaluation of Part II with radionuclide counting laboratories took place. The evaluation of the results of the seven participating laboratories on four meteorite samples shows a good overall agreement between laboratories, i.e. it does not reveal any statistically significant differences if results are compared sample-by-sample. However, certain interlaboratory bias is observed with a more detailed statistical analysis including some multivariate approaches

  11. Programming Models for Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamics on the CM-5 (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amala, P.A.K.; Rodrigue, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This is a two-part presentation of a timing study on the Thinking Machines CORP. CM-5 computer. Part II is given in this study and represents domain-decomposition and message-passing models. Part I described computational problems using a SIMD model and connection machine FORTRAN (CMF)

  12. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  13. Benchmark matrix and guide: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In the last issue of the Journal of Quality Assurance (September/October 1991, Volume 13, Number 5, pp. 14-19), the benchmark matrix developed by Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command was published. Five horizontal levels on the matrix delineate progress in TQM: business as usual, initiation, implementation, expansion, and integration. The six vertical categories that are critical to the success of TQM are leadership, structure, training, recognition, process improvement, and customer focus. In this issue, "Benchmark Matrix and Guide: Part II" will show specifically how to apply the categories of leadership, structure, and training to the benchmark matrix progress levels. At the intersection of each category and level, specific behavior objectives are listed with supporting behaviors and guidelines. Some categories will have objectives that are relatively easy to accomplish, allowing quick progress from one level to the next. Other categories will take considerable time and effort to complete. In the next issue, Part III of this series will focus on recognition, process improvement, and customer focus.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Monitoring Purposes The following language is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and will satisfy... used separately. This information may also be provided orally by the applicant. The following...

  15. Production of n-butanol from whey filtrate using Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 2951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, I S

    1980-01-01

    Production of the important solvent n-butanol by traditional fermentation of corn mash or molasses by Clostridium acetobutylicum produces a mixed end product in the ratio butanol:acetone:ethanol 6:3:1. Laboratory experiments have shown that H2SO4 casein whey after ultrafiltration to remove protein (DSA 40, 5658) is a possible substrate for butanol fermentation, which would also reduce a major waste disposal problem. The organism was maintained in the casein whey permeate; inocula were heat-shocked at 70 degrees Celcius for 90 s, followed by incubation at 30 degrees Celcius for 3 days to provide working cultures. Whey permeate supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract was adjusted to pH 6.5 with 1 M NH4OH, inoculated with 5% culture and incubated at 30 degrees Celcius. Cell counts were recorded daily, together with residual lactose concentration and production of butyric acid, acetic acid, butanol, acetone and ethanol (determined by GLC). Initially butyric and acetic acids were produced, but after 2 days conversion to butanol and acetone began. Cell growth ceased after 3 days, but conversion continued to reach a maximum yield of butanol after 5 days, in the favourable ratio of butanol:acetone:ethanol of 10:1:1. Inhibition by end products prevented complete utilization of the lactose. Omission of the yeast supplement produced a slower but similar fermentation reaching a butanol yield of 1.3% after 7 days. The ultrafiltration may not be necessary. (Refs. 3).

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_003030 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003030 gi|15895740 >1w3oA 13 174 5 153 2e-30 ... ref|NP_349089.1| Possible 5-Nitroimidazole antibiotics... ... gb|AAK80429.1| Possible 5-Nitroimidazole antibiotics ... resistance protein, NimA-family [Clost...ridium ... acetobutylicum ATCC 824] pir||B97205 probable ... 5-Nitroimidazole antibiotics

  17. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... title) of ______ (Country) to participate in the work of ______ (International Organization) or...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is official agency business. Spouses and dependents may accept such travel and expenses only when... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement...

  19. Biological hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an unsaturated flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped reactor, producing a hydraulic retention time of 2.1 min. Gas-phase H2 concentrations were constant, averaging 74 +/- 3% for all conditions tested. H2 production rates increased from 89 to 220 mL/hL of reactor when influent glucose concentrations were varied from 1.0 to 10.5 g/L. Specific H2 production rate ranged from 680 to 1270 mL/g glucose per liter of reactor (total volume). The H2 yield was 15-27%, based on a theoretical limit by fermentation of 4 moles of H2 from 1 mole of glucose. The major fermentation by-products in the liquid effluent were acetate and butyrate. The reactor rapidly (within 60-72 h) became clogged with biomass, requiring manual cleaning of the system. In order to make long-term operation of the reactor feasible, biofilm accumulation in the reactor will need to be controlled through some process such as backwashing. These tests using an unsaturated flow reactor demonstrate the feasibility of the process to produce high H2 gas concentrations in a trickle-bed type of reactor. A likely application of this reactor technology could be H2 gas recovery from pre-treatment of high carbohydrate-containing wastewaters.

  20. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  1. σK of Clostridium acetobutylicum is the first known sporulation-specific sigma factor with two developmentally separated roles, one early and one late in sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Mohab A; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2014-01-01

    Sporulation in the model endospore-forming organism Bacillus subtilis proceeds via the sequential and stage-specific activation of the sporulation-specific sigma factors, σ(H) (early), σ(F), σ(E), σ(G), and σ(K) (late). Here we show that the Clostridium acetobutylicum σ(K) acts both early, prior to Spo0A expression, and late, past σ(G) activation, thus departing from the B. subtilis model. The C. acetobutylicum sigK deletion (ΔsigK) mutant was unable to sporulate, and solventogenesis, the characteristic stationary-phase phenomenon for this organism, was severely diminished. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the ΔsigK mutant does not develop an asymmetric septum and produces no granulose. Complementation of sigK restored sporulation and solventogenesis to wild-type levels. Spo0A and σ(G) proteins were not detectable by Western analysis, while σ(F) protein levels were significantly reduced in the ΔsigK mutant. spo0A, sigF, sigE, sigG, spoIIE, and adhE1 transcript levels were all downregulated in the ΔsigK mutant, while those of the sigH transcript were unaffected during the exponential and transitional phases of culture. These data show that σ(K) is necessary for sporulation prior to spo0A expression. Plasmid-based expression of spo0A in the ΔsigK mutant from a nonnative promoter restored solventogenesis and the production of Spo0A, σ(F), σ(E), and σ(G), but not sporulation, which was blocked past the σ(G) stage of development, thus demonstrating that σ(K) is also necessary in late sporulation. sigK is expressed very early at low levels in exponential phase but is strongly upregulated during the middle to late stationary phase. This is the first sporulation-specific sigma factor shown to have two developmentally separated roles.

  2. Healing and relaxation in flows of helium II. Part II. First, second, and fourth sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, R.N.; Roberts, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    In Part I of this series, a theory of helium II incorporating the effects of quantum healing and relaxation was developed. In this paper, the propagation of first, second, and fourth sound is discussed. Particular attention is paid to sound propagation in the vicinity of the lambda point where the effects of relaxation and quantum healing become important

  3. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  4. The Mid America Heart Institute: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Ben D; Steinhaus, David M

    2003-01-01

    The Mid America Heart Institute (MAHI) is one of the first and largest hospitals developed and designed specifically for cardiovascular care. The MAHI hybrid model, which is a partnership between the not-for-profit Saint Luke's Health System, an independent academic medical center, and a private practice physician group, has been extremely successful in providing high-quality patient care as well as developing strong educational and research programs. The Heart Institute has been the leader in providing cardiovascular care in the Kansas City region since its inception in 1975. Although challenges in the future are substantial, it is felt that the MAHI is in an excellent position to deal with the serious issues in health care because of the Heart Institute, its facility, organization, administration, dedicated medical and support staff, and its unique business model of physician management. In part I, the authors described the background and infrastructure of the Heart Institute. In part II, cardiovascular research and benefits of physician management are addressed.

  5. Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II | Smith | LBS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of many of Americas largest companies gather at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City for the Conference Boards Annual Marketing Conference.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  7. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  8. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  9. On the Efficiency of Connection Charges---Part II: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Alvarez, Daniel; Garcia-Franco, Juan F.; Tong, Lang

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses the design of retail electricity tariffs for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DERs). Part I presents a framework to optimize an ex-ante two-part tariff for a regulated monopolistic retailer who faces stochastic wholesale prices on the one hand and stochastic demand on the other. In Part II, the integration of DERs is addressed by analyzing their endogenous effect on the optimal two-part tariff and the induced welfare gains. Two DER integrat...

  10. Iron effect on the fermentative metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using cheese whey as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rosalía Durán-Padilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Butanol is considered a superior liquid fuel that can replace gasoline in internal combustion engines. It is produced by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation using various species of solventogenic clostridia. Performance of ABE fermentation process is severely limited mostly by high cost of substrate, substrate inhibition and low solvent tolerance; leading to low product concentrations, low productivity, low yield, and difficulty in controlling culture metabolism. In order to decrease the cost per substrate and exploit a waste generated by dairy industry, this study proposes using cheese whey as substrate for ABE fermentation. It was observed that the addition of an iron source was strictly necessary for the cheese whey to be a viable substrate because this metal is needed to produce ferredoxin, a key protein in the fermentative metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum serving as a temporary electron acceptor. Lack of iron in the cheese whey impedes ferredoxin synthesis and therefore, restricts pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity leading to the production of lactic acid instead of acetone, butanol and ethanol. Moreover, the addition of FeSO4 notably improved ABE production performance by increasing butanol content (7.13 ± 1.53 g/L by 65% compared to that of FeCl3 (4.32 ± 0.94 g/L under the same fermentation conditions.

  11. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  15. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  16. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  17. Genome-scale modeling using flux ratio constraints to enable metabolic engineering of clostridial metabolism in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Michael J; Yen, Jiun Y; Freedman, Benjamin G; Senger, Ryan S

    2012-05-14

    Genome-scale metabolic networks and flux models are an effective platform for linking an organism genotype to its phenotype. However, few modeling approaches offer predictive capabilities to evaluate potential metabolic engineering strategies in silico. A new method called "flux balance analysis with flux ratios (FBrAtio)" was developed in this research and applied to a new genome-scale model of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (iCAC490) that contains 707 metabolites and 794 reactions. FBrAtio was used to model wild-type metabolism and metabolically engineered strains of C. acetobutylicum where only flux ratio constraints and thermodynamic reversibility of reactions were required. The FBrAtio approach allowed solutions to be found through standard linear programming. Five flux ratio constraints were required to achieve a qualitative picture of wild-type metabolism for C. acetobutylicum for the production of: (i) acetate, (ii) lactate, (iii) butyrate, (iv) acetone, (v) butanol, (vi) ethanol, (vii) CO2 and (viii) H2. Results of this simulation study coincide with published experimental results and show the knockdown of the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase increases butanol to acetone selectivity, while the simultaneous over-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase greatly increases ethanol production. FBrAtio is a promising new method for constraining genome-scale models using internal flux ratios. The method was effective for modeling wild-type and engineered strains of C. acetobutylicum.

  18. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  19. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers.

  20. Signs of revision in Don Quixote, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pontón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new evidences in favour of the hypothesis that Cervantes, after finishing Don Quixote, Part II, partially revised the original, introducing some significant changes and additions, mainly in the last chapters. The analysis of some narrative inconsistencies, that cannot be interpreted as mere mistakes but as significant textual traces, reveals a process of re-elaboration –a process that affects at least four sections of the novel. Most of the evidence gathered here suggests that this revision is closely linked to Avellaneda’s continuation, in the sense that Cervantes tried to challenge the apocriphal Quixote making last-time interventions in his own text.

  1. Nursing as concrete philosophy, Part II: Engaging with reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Kyriakos

    2018-04-01

    This is the second paper of an essay in two parts. The first paper (Part I) is a critical discussion of Mark Risjord's conception of nursing knowledge where I argued against the conception of nursing knowledge as a kind of nursing science. The aim of the present paper (Part II) is to explicate and substantiate the thesis of nursing as a kind of concrete philosophy. My strategy is to elaborate upon certain themes from Wittgenstein's Tractatus in order to canvass a general scheme of philosophy based on a distinction between reality and the world. This distinction will be employed in the appropriation of certain significant features of nursing and nursing knowledge. By elaborating on the contrast between the abstract and the concrete, I will suggest that nursing may be seen as a kind of concrete philosophy, being primarily concerned with reality (and secondarily with the world). This thesis, I will argue, implies that philosophy is the kind of theory that is essential to nursing (which is not so much a theory than a certain kind of activity). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  3. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  4. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  6. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  8. Continuous bio-catalytic conversion of sugar mixture to acetone-butanol-ethanol by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Continuous production of acetone, n-butanol, and ethanol (ABE) was carried out using immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 using glucose and sugar mixture as a substrate. Among various lignocellulosic materials screened as a support matrix, coconut fibers and wood pulp fibers were found to be promising in batch experiments. With a motive of promoting wood-based bio-refinery concept, wood pulp was used as a cell holding material. Glucose and sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) comparable to lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for continuous production of ABE. We report the best solvent productivity among wild-type strains using column reactor. The maximum total solvent concentration of 14.32 g L(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.22 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate compared to 12.64 g L(-1) at 0.5 h(-1) dilution rate with sugar mixture. The maximum solvent productivity (13.66 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.9 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate whereas solvent productivity (12.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1) with sugar mixture. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp can become an efficient technology to be integrated with existing pulp mills to convert them into wood-based bio-refineries.

  9. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  10. Statistical Optimization for Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from Oil Palm Frond (OPF Juice Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nasrah Nur Syazana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size was investigated to optimize critical environmental parameters for production of biobutanol from oil palm frond (OPF juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite design (CCD was applied as the experimental design and a polynomial regression model with quadratic term was used to analyse the experimental data using analysis of variance (ANOVA. ANOVA analysis showed that the model was very significant (p < 0.0001 for the biobutanol production. The incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size showed significant value at p < 0.005. The results of optimization process showed that a maximum biobutanol production was obtained under the condition of temperature 37 °C, yeast extract concentration 5.5 g/L and inoculum size 10%. Under these optimized conditions, the highest biobutanol yield was 0.3054 g/g after 144 hours of incubation period. The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and 0.2992 g/g biobutanol yield was obtained. These experimental findings were in close agreement with the model prediction, with a difference of only 9.76%.

  11. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third and final part of the second volume of a study of the Three Mile Island accident. Part 3 of Volume II contains descriptions and assessments of responses to the accident by the utility and by the NRC and other government agencies

  12. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Impact on Mild Steel Armour Platesusing LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric Studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raguraman; A. Deb; N. K. Gupta; D. K. Kharat

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  13. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  14. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  15. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  16. Uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements, part II: a redefinition of uncertainty and an estimator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hening

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second (Part II) in a series of two papers (Part I and Part II). Part I has quantitatively discussed the fundamental limitations of the t-interval method for uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements. This paper (Part II) reveals that the t-interval is an ‘exact’ answer to a wrong question; it is actually misused in uncertainty estimation. This paper proposes a redefinition of uncertainty, based on the classical theory of errors and the theory of point estimation, and a modification of the conventional approach to estimating measurement uncertainty. It also presents an asymptotic procedure for estimating the z-interval. The proposed modification is to replace the t-based uncertainty with an uncertainty estimator (mean- or median-unbiased). The uncertainty estimator method is an approximate answer to the right question to uncertainty estimation. The modified approach provides realistic estimates of uncertainty, regardless of whether the population standard deviation is known or unknown, or if the sample size is small or large. As an application example of the modified approach, this paper presents a resolution to the Du-Yang paradox (i.e. Paradox 2), one of the three paradoxes caused by the misuse of the t-interval in uncertainty estimation.

  17. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  18. Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part II: Formation Structure of Optimality for robust design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.

  19. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  20. New Insight into Sugarcane Industry Waste Utilization (Press Mud) for Cleaner Biobutanol Production by Using C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Khedkar, Manisha A; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, press mud, a sugar industry waste, was explored for biobutanol production to strengthen agricultural economy. The fermentative production of biobutanol was investigated via series of steps, viz. characterization, drying, acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation. Press mud contains an adequate amount of cellulose (22.3%) and hemicellulose (21.67%) on dry basis, and hence, it can be utilized for further acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production. Drying experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 60-120 °C to circumvent microbial spoilage and enhance storability of press mud. Furthermore, acidic pretreatment variables, viz. sulfuric acid concentration, solid to liquid ratio, and time, were optimized using response surface methodology. The corresponding values were found to be 1.5% (v/v), 1:5 g/mL, and 15 min, respectively. In addition, detoxification studies were also conducted using activated charcoal, which removed almost 93-97% phenolics and around 98% furans, which are toxic to microorganisms during fermentation. Finally, the batch fermentation of detoxified press mud slurry (the sample dried at 100 °C and pretreated) using Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B-527 resulted in a higher butanol production of 4.43 g/L with a total ABE of 6.69 g/L.

  1. Emerging Forms of the Part II of Jonathan Swift's Novel “Gulliver’s Travels”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Tikhonenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of grotesque forms in Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver’s Travels" based on the text of part II of the novel "A Voyage to Brobdingnag". On the basis of the selected actual material, displays of the grotesque elements in the semantic field of the work’s text are traced. The grotesque world of the novel is the author's model of mankind, in which J. Swift presents his view not only on the state of the modern system of England, but also on the nature of man in general, reveals the peculiarities of the psychology of human nature, especially human socialization. In part II, the author continues to develop a complex and contradictory picture of human existence in front of the reader, the world of giants appears as an ambivalent system in which the features of an ideal society and ideal ruler, in author’s opinion, with the ugly face of man and society, are marvelously combined.

  2. Numerical simulation of projectile impact on mild steel armour plates using LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  3. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  4. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE II / PHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII ligam-se ao sítio da QB localizado na proteína D1 o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, tendo como consequência, a peroxidação dos lipídios. Os principais fatores que afetam a evolução da resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas têm sido agrupados em: genéticos, bioecológicos e agronômicos. A resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas é definida como a habilidade de uma planta sobreviver e reproduzir, após exposição a uma dose de herbicida normalmente letal para um biótipo normal da planta. A seletividade de um herbicida está relacionada à capacidade de eliminar plantas daninhas sem interferir na qualidade da planta de interesse econômico.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  8. Improving Fructose Utilization and Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum via Extracellular Redox Potential Regulation and Intracellular Metabolite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jie; Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2017-10-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process is studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers. When the extracellular ORP is controlled above -460 mV, 13.2 g L -1 butanol is produced from 51.0 g L -1 total sugars (40.1 g L -1 fructose and 10.9 g L -1 glucose), leading to dramatically increased butanol yield and butanol/ABE ratio of 0.26 g g -1 and 0.67, respectively. Intracellular metabolite and q-PCR analysis further indicate that intracellular ATP and NADH availabilities are significantly improved together with the fructose-specific PTS expression at the lag phase, which consequently facilitate fructose transport, metabolic shift toward solventogenesis and carbon flux redistribution for butanol biosynthesis. Therefore, the extracellular ORP control can be an effective strategy to improve butanol production from fructose-based feedstock. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Not-for-profit versus for-profit health care providers--Part II: Comparing and contrasting their records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.

  10. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy.

  11. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy

  12. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  13. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  14. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  15. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  16. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  17. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  18. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  19. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  20. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  1. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  2. Final environmental statement. Final addendum to Part II: Manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems. DOCKET-STN--50-437

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This Addendum to Part II of the Final Environmental Statement related to manufacture of floating nuclear power plants by Offshore Power Systems (OPS), NUREG-0056, issued September 1976, was prepared by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The staff's basic evaluation is presented in NUREG-0056. The current Addendum provides further consideration of a number of topics discussed in NUREG-0056, particularly additional consideration of shore zone siting at estuarine and ocean regions. This Summary and Conclusions recapitulates and is cumulative for Part II of the FES and the current Addendum. Augmentations to the Summary and Conclusions presented in Part II of the FES and arising from the evaluations contained in this Addendum are italicized

  3. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 2. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with cerium(IV) and ISO 7097-1 uses a titration with potassium dichromate

  4. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  5. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 Grown on Date Fruit as Carbon Source in P2 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran I. Khamaiseh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35°C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g, respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g and ABE (0.63 g/g was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.

  7. II: Through the Western Part of the City: Charlottenburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Until 1920 the city we now call Berlin was a collection of independent towns and villages — among them Charlottenburg, which was one of the most important and was the proud sister of Berlin, Prussia’s and Germany’s capital, where the wealthy and innovative bourgeoisie lived. Werner von Siemens, Germany’s pioneer in the modern electrical industry, was a prime example of that elite. His castle-like villa was located not far from today’s Ernst-Reuter-Platz at Otto-Suhr-Allee 10-16, and important parts of his enterprise expanded into the “meadows outside of Charlottenburg” during the second half of the 19th century. It was no accident that the efforts to unite Berlin’s two colleges for trade and construction (both founded around 1800) led to the foundation of a modern Technical College in Charlottenburg in 1879, today’s Technical University of Berlin. Its magnificent main building (figure 1), which was opened in 1882 by the German Emperor, was an expression of the great self-confidence of this new institution of higher learning and of Charlottenburg’s bourgeoisie. Although large parts of the building were destroyed by bombs during World War II, you can still get an impression of its monumentality from what survived at number 135 Strasse des 17. Juni.

  8. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Priest, David-Lee

    2012-03-01

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.

  9. Characterization of cDNA for human tripeptidyl peptidase II: The N-terminal part of the enzyme is similar to subtilisin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkinson, B.; Jonsson, A-K

    1991-01-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase II is a high molecular weight serine exopeptidase, which has been purified from rat liver and human erythrocytes. Four clones, representing 4453 bp, or 90% of the mRNA of the human enzyme, have been isolated from two different cDNA libraries. One clone, designated A2, was obtained after screening a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library with a degenerated oligonucleotide mixture. The B-lymphocyte cDNA library, obtained from human fibroblasts, were rescreened with a 147 bp fragment from the 5' part of the A2 clone, whereby three different overlapping cDNA clones could be isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence, 1196 amino acid residues, corresponding to the longest open rading frame of the assembled nucleotide sequence, was compared to sequences of current databases. This revealed a 56% similarity between the bacterial enzyme subtilisin and the N-terminal part of tripeptidyl peptidase II. The enzyme was found to be represented by two different mRNAs of 4.2 and 5.0 kilobases, respectively, which probably result from the utilziation of two different polyadenylation sites. Futhermore, cDNA corresponding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal part of tripeptidyl peptidase II hybridized with genomic DNA from mouse, horse, calf, and hen, even under fairly high stringency conditions, indicating that tripeptidyl peptidase II is highly conserved

  10. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective Part II. Fall and resurrection of chromosome territories during the 1950s to 1980s. Part III. Chromosome territories and the functional nuclear architecture: experiments and m

    OpenAIRE

    T Cremer; C Cremer

    2009-01-01

    Part II of this historical review on the progress of nuclear architecture studies points out why the original hypothesis of chromosome territories from Carl Rabl and Theodor Boveri (described in part I) was abandoned during the 1950s and finally proven by compelling evidence forwarded by laser-uvmicrobeam studies and in situ hybridization experiments. Part II also includes a section on the development of advanced light microscopic techniques breaking the classical Abbe limit written for reade...

  11. Part I: quantum fluctuations in chains of Josephson junctions. Part II: directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Part I studies the effect of quantum fluctuations of the phase on the low temperature behavior of two models of Josephson junction chains with Coulomb interactions taken into account. The first model, which represents a chain of junctions close to a ground plane, is the Hamiltonian version of the two-dimensional XY model in one space and one time dimension. In the second model, the charging energy for a single junction in the chain is just the parallel-plate capacitor energy. It is shown that quantum fluctuations produce exponential decay of the order parameter correlation junction for any finite value of the junction capacitance. Part II deals with two types of directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice - directed diffusion-limited aggregation DDLA and ballistic aggregation (BA). In the DDLA problem on finite lattices, an exact nonlinear recursion relation is constructed for the probability distribution of the density. The mean density tends to zero as the lattice size is taken into infinity. Using a mapping between the model with perfect adhesion on contact and another model with a particular value of the adhesion probability, it is shown that the adhesion probability is irrelevant over an interval of values

  12. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine

  13. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  14. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  15. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  16. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is part one of three parts of the second volume of the Special Inquiry Group's report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the accident at Three Mile Island. The first volume contained a narrative description of the accident and a discussion of the major conclusions and recommendations. This second volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 of Volume II focuses on the pre-accident licensing and regulatory background. This part includes an examination of the overall licensing and regulatory system for nuclear powerplants viewed from different perspectives: the system as it is set forth in statutes and regulations, as described in Congressional testimony, and an overview of the system as it really works. In addition, Part 1 includes the licensing, operating, and inspection history of Three Mile Island Unit 2, discussions of relevant regulatory matters, a discussion of specific precursor events related to the accident, a case study of the pressurizer design issue, and an analysis of incentives to declare commercial operation

  17. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  18. A dynamic metabolic flux analysis of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, with riboflavin as a by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Kasbi, Mayssa; Chen, Jingkui; Peres, Sabine; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-12-01

    The present study reveals that supplementing sodium acetate (NaAc) strongly stimulates riboflavin production in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with xylose as carbon source. Riboflavin production increased from undetectable concentrations to ∼0.2 g L -1 (0.53 mM) when supplementing 60 mM NaAc. Of interest, solvents production and biomass yield were also promoted with fivefold acetone, 2.6-fold butanol, and 2.4-fold biomass adding NaAc. A kinetic metabolic model, developed to simulate ABE biosystem, with riboflavin production, revealed from a dynamic metabolic flux analysis (dMFA) simultaneous increase of riboflavin (ribA) and GTP (precursor of riboflavin) (PurM) synthesis flux rates under NaAc supplementation. The model includes 23 fluxes, 24 metabolites, and 72 kinetic parameters. It also suggested that NaAc condition has first stimulated the accumulation of intracellular metabolite intermediates during the acidogenic phase, which have then fed the solventogenic phase leading to increased ABE production. In addition, NaAc resulted in higher intracellular levels of NADH during the whole culture. Moreover, lower GTP-to-adenosine phosphates (ATP, ADP, AMP) ratio under NaAc supplemented condition suggests that GTP may have a minor role in the cell energetic metabolism compared to its contribution to riboflavin synthesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative impact of aerosols on numerical weather prediction. Part II: Impacts to IR radiance assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.

  20. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  1. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  2. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  3. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 21st Pacific Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017 Held in Jeju, South Korea, May 23 26, 2017. Proceedings Part I, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Data Mining 21’’ Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017Jeju, South Korea, May 23-26, Sb. GRANT NUMBER 2017 Proceedings, Part I, Part II Sc. PROGRAM...Springer; Switzerland. 14. ABSTRACT The Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD) is a leading international conference...in the areas of knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD). We had three keynote speeches, delivered by Sang Cha from Seoul National University

  4. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  5. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE I /\tPHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido o mais utilizado em grandes áreas de plantio, principalmente por ser um método rápido e eficiente. Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII são fundamentais para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas e práticas conservacionista de solo. A aplicação é realizada em pré-emergência ou pós-emergência inicial das plantas daninhas. A absorção é pelas raízes, tendo como barreira as estrias de Caspari, sendo a translocação realizada pelo xilema. O processo de absorção e translocação também são dependentes das próprias características do produto, como as propriedades lipofílicas e hidrofílicas, as quais podem ser medidas através do coeficiente de partição octanol-água (Kow. A inibição da fotossíntese acontece pela ligação dos herbicidas deste grupo ao sítio de ligação da QB, na proteína D1 do fotossistema II, o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, interrompendo a fixação do CO2 e a produção de ATP e NAPH2.

  6. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  7. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  9. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  10. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  11. Fractional Programming for Communication Systems—Part II: Uplink Scheduling via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaiming; Yu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This two-part paper develops novel methodologies for using fractional programming (FP) techniques to design and optimize communication systems. Part I of this paper proposes a new quadratic transform for FP and treats its application for continuous optimization problems. In this Part II of the paper, we study discrete problems, such as those involving user scheduling, which are considerably more difficult to solve. Unlike the continuous problems, discrete or mixed discrete-continuous problems normally cannot be recast as convex problems. In contrast to the common heuristic of relaxing the discrete variables, this work reformulates the original problem in an FP form amenable to distributed combinatorial optimization. The paper illustrates this methodology by tackling the important and challenging problem of uplink coordinated multi-cell user scheduling in wireless cellular systems. Uplink scheduling is more challenging than downlink scheduling, because uplink user scheduling decisions significantly affect the interference pattern in nearby cells. Further, the discrete scheduling variable needs to be optimized jointly with continuous variables such as transmit power levels and beamformers. The main idea of the proposed FP approach is to decouple the interaction among the interfering links, thereby permitting a distributed and joint optimization of the discrete and continuous variables with provable convergence. The paper shows that the well-known weighted minimum mean-square-error (WMMSE) algorithm can also be derived from a particular use of FP; but our proposed FP-based method significantly outperforms WMMSE when discrete user scheduling variables are involved, both in term of run-time efficiency and optimizing results.

  12. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  13. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  14. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  15. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented.

  16. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  17. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  18. Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume I. Part I. Overview and current program plans; Part II. Information required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Misson Plan is divided into two parts. Part I describes the overall goals, objectives, and strategy for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It explains that, to meet the directives of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the DOE intends to site, design, construct, and start operating a mined geologic repository by January 31, 1998. The Act specifies that the costs of these activities will be borne by the owners and generators of the waste received at the repository. Part I further describes the other components of the waste-management program - monitored retrievable storage, Federal interim storage, and transportation - as well as systems integration activities. Also discussed are institutional plans and activities as well as the program-management system being implemented by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Part II of the Mission Plan presents the detailed information required by Section 301(a) of the Act - key issues and information needs; plans for obtaining the necessary information; potential financial, institutional, and legal issues; plans for the test and evaluation facility; the principal results obtained to date from site investigations; information on the site-characterization programs; information on the waste package; schedules; costs; and socioeconomic impacts. In accordance with Section 301(a) of the Act, Part II is concerned primarily with the repository program

  19. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  20. Complex and extensive post-transcriptional regulation revealed by integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of metabolite stress response in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Keerthi P; Min, Lie; Hou, Shuyu; Jones, Shawn W; Ralston, Matthew T; Lee, Kelvin H; Papoutsakis, E Terry

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a model organism for both clostridial biology and solvent production. The organism is exposed to its own toxic metabolites butyrate and butanol, which trigger an adaptive stress response. Integrative analysis of proteomic and RNAseq data may provide novel insights into post-transcriptional regulation. The identified iTRAQ-based quantitative stress proteome is made up of 616 proteins with a 15 % genome coverage. The differentially expressed proteome correlated poorly with the corresponding differential RNAseq transcriptome. Up to 31 % of the differentially expressed proteins under stress displayed patterns opposite to those of the transcriptome, thus suggesting significant post-transcriptional regulation. The differential proteome of the translation machinery suggests that cells employ a different subset of ribosomal proteins under stress. Several highly upregulated proteins but with low mRNA levels possessed mRNAs with long 5'UTRs and strong RBS scores, thus supporting the argument that regulatory elements on the long 5'UTRs control their translation. For example, the oxidative stress response rubrerythrin was upregulated only at the protein level up to 40-fold without significant mRNA changes. We also identified many leaderless transcripts, several displaying different transcriptional start sites, thus suggesting mRNA-trimming mechanisms under stress. Downregulation of Rho and partner proteins pointed to changes in transcriptional elongation and termination under stress. The integrative proteomic-transcriptomic analysis demonstrated complex expression patterns of a large fraction of the proteome. Such patterns could not have been detected with one or the other omic analyses. Our analysis proposes the involvement of specific molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation to explain the observed complex stress response.

  1. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  2. Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part II: Numerical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Turinsky, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attribute predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins, and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e., in-core instrumentation readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. The companion paper, ''Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part I: Theory,'' describes in detail the theoretical background of the proposed adaptive techniques. This paper, Part II, demonstrates several computational experiments conducted to assess the fidelity and robustness of the proposed techniques. The intent is to check the ability of the adapted core simulator model to predict future core observables that are not included in the adaption or core observables that are recorded at core conditions that differ from those at which adaption is completed. Also, this paper demonstrates successful utilization of an efficient sensitivity analysis approach to calculate the sensitivity information required to perform the adaption for millions of input core parameters. Finally, this paper illustrates a useful application for adaptive simulation - reducing the inconsistencies between two different core simulator code systems, where the multitudes of input data to one code are adjusted to enhance the agreement between both codes for important core attributes, i.e., core reactivity and power distribution. Also demonstrated is the robustness of such an application

  3. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  4. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  5. [Education in our time: competency or aptitude? The case for medicine. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world. The last part criticizes the fact that medical education has remained among the passive education paradigm. The key role of cognitive aptitudes, both methodological and practical (clinical aptitude), in the progress of medical education and practice is emphasized. As a conclusion, the knowhow of education is discussed, aiming towards a better world away from human and planetary degradation. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  7. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  8. Human-like behavior of robot arms: general considerations and the handwriting task-part II: The robot arm in handwriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Kostic, D.; Tzafestas, S.; Popovic, M.; Lazarevic, M.; Djordjevic, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper (Part II) investigates the motion of a redundant anthropomorphic arm during the writing task. Two approaches are applied. The first is based on the concept of distributed positioning which is suitable to model the "writing" task before the occurrence of fatigue symptoms. The second

  9. Tunable, Flexible and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Superconducting Qubits, part II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.

  10. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  11. Mixed ligand complexes of alkaline earth metals: Part XII. Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II complexes with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde or hydroxyaromatic ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHLESH AGRAWAL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL’(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL’ = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.

  12. Part II. Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  13. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of...

  14. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  15. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. All About Dowels - A Review Part II Considerations After Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Dangra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the published literature examining cementation of the dowel and factors related to it. The peer reviewed English language literature was reviewed from the period 1990 to 2015. Articles were searched in Pubmed/ Medline for the relevant terms. Additional manual searches of some dental journals were also carried out. The original key terms resulted in 228 articles. After applying inclusion criteria, 64 articles remained to be included in part II of this review. Article search indicates that most published literature on dowels are in the form of in vitro analysis. Literature on prefabricated dowel systems far exceeds than the custom cast dowel and newer fibre dowels. Clinical evidence is not sufficient and cannot be used to inform practice confidently. However, within the limitations of this review it is suggested that adhesive fixation is preferred in case of short dowel. Dowel width should be as small as possible. A ferrule of 2 mm has to be provided. Composites have proven to be a good core material provided that adequate tooth structure remained for bonding. Dowel should be inserted if endodontically treated tooth is to be used as abutment for removable partial dentures.

  17. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  18. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    and the neuromuscular effects in these dogs were not due to hypocalcemia . The lowest serum calcium concen- tration in these dogs was 4.2 meq/liter...motor end plate might produce a local hypocalcemia . Such a mechanism is purely speculative. Qualitatively and quantitavely, most of the effects of 2,6...I ýNw,- -MIM I/ MIDWEST RESEARCH INS14ITUTE H0q .3L I LU -_ MAMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUlNDSPHASE II: EFFECTS OF MiULTIPLE DOSES C* •PART

  19. Modelo computacional para suporte à decisão em áreas irrigadas. Parte II: testes e aplicação Computer model for decision support in irrigated areas. Part II: tests and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentou-se, na Parte I desta pesquisa, o desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional denominado MCID, para suporte à tomada de decisão quanto ao planejamento e manejo de projetos de irrigação e/ou drenagem. Objetivou-se, na Parte II, testar e aplicar o MCID. No teste comparativo com o programa DRAINMOD, espaçamentos entre drenos, obtidos com o MCID, foram ligeiramente maiores ou idênticos. Os espaçamentos advindos com o MCID e o DRAINMOD foram consideravelmente maiores que os obtidos por meio de metodologias tradicionais de dimensionamento de sistemas de drenagem. A produtividade relativa total, YRT, obtida com o MCID foi, em geral, inferior à conseguida com o DRAINMOD, devido a diferenças de metodologia ao se estimar a produtividade da cultura em resposta ao déficit hídrico. Na comparação com o programa CROPWAT, obtiveram-se resultados muito próximos para (YRT e evapotranspiração real. O modelo desenvolvido foi aplicado para as condições do Projeto Jaíba, MG, para culturas perenes e anuais cultivadas em diferentes épocas. Os resultados dos testes e aplicações indicaram a potencialidade do MCID como ferramenta de apoio à decisão em projetos de irrigação e/ou drenagem.Part I of this research presented the development of a decision support model, called MCID, for planning and managing irrigation and/or drainage projects. Part II is aimed at testing and applying MCID. In a comparative test with the DRAINMOD model, drain spacings obtained with MCID were slightly larger or identical. The spacings obtained with MCID and DRAINMOD were considerably larger than those obtained through traditional methodologies of design of drainage systems. The relative crop yield (YRT obtained with MCID was, in general, lower than the one obtained with DRAINMOD due to differences in the estimate of crop response to water deficit. In comparison with CROPWAT, very close results for YRT and for actual evapotranspiration were obtained. The

  20. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part II. Results of two Swiss soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of adding solutions with different potassium and sodium concentrations on dispersible clay, water retention characteristics, air permeability, and soil shrinkage behaviour using two agricultural soils from Switzerland with different clay content but similar organic carbon to clay ratio. Three different solutions (including only Na, only K, and the combination of both) were added to soil samples at three different cation ratio of soil structural stability levels, and the soil samples were incubated for one month. Our findings showed that the amount of readily dispersible clay increased with increasing Na concentrations and with increasing cation ratio of soil structural stability. The treatment with the maximum Na concentration resulted in the highest water retention and in the lowest shrinkage capacity. This was was associated with high amounts of readily dispersible clay. Air permeability generally increased during incubation due to moderate wetting and drying cycles, but the increase was negatively correlated with readily dispersible clay. Readily dispersible clay decreased with increasing K, while readily dispersible clay increased with increasing K in Iranian soil (Part I of our study). This can be attributed to the different clay mineralogy of the studied soils (muscovite in Part I and illite in Part II).

  1. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation

  2. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  3. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  4. The prediction of creep damage in Type 347 weld metal: part II creep fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of creep damage under conditions of strain control are often carried out using either a time fraction approach or a ductility exhaustion approach. In part I of this paper the rupture strength and creep ductility data for a Type 347 weld metal were fitted to provide the material properties that are used to calculate creep damage. Part II of this paper examines whether the time fraction approach or the ductility exhaustion approach gives the better predictions of creep damage in creep-fatigue tests on the same Type 347 weld metal. In addition, a new creep damage model, which was developed by removing some of the simplifying assumptions that are made in the ductility exhaustion approach, was used. This new creep damage model is a function of the strain rate, stress and temperature and was derived from creep and constant strain rate test data using a reverse modelling technique (see part I of this paper). It is shown that the new creep damage model gives better predictions of creep damage in the creep-fatigue tests than the time fraction and the ductility exhaustion approaches

  5. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  6. French RSE-M and RCC-MR code appendices for flaw analysis: Presentation of the fracture parameters calculation-Part II: Cracked plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Chapuliot, S.; Kayser, Y.; Lacire, M.H.; Drubay, B.; Barthelet, B.; Le Delliou, P.; Rougier, V.; Naudin, C.; Gilles, P.; Triay, M.

    2007-01-01

    French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code 'Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components' and the RCC-MR code 'Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications'. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R and D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor K I and the J integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II-IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Finally, part V presents the validation elements of the methods, with details on the process followed for the development and evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed analytical methods. This second article in the series presents all details for the stress intensity factor and J calculations for cracked plates. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, available defect geometries where compendia for K I and σ ref calculation are provided are given

  7. Digital logic circuit design with ALTERA MAX+PLUS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Yong Su; Park, Gun Jong; Lee, Ju Heon

    2006-09-01

    This book is composed of five parts. The first part has introduction of ALTERA MAX+PLUS II and graphic editor, text editor, compiler, waveform editor simulator and timing analyzer of it. The second part is about direction of digital logic circuit design with training kit. The third part has grammar and practice of VHDL in ALTERA MAX+PLUS II including example and history of VHDL. The fourth part shows the design example of digital logic circuit by VHDL of ALTERA MAX+PLUS II which lists designs of adder and subtractor, code converter, counter, state machine and LCD module. The last part explains design example of digital logic circuit by graphic editor in ALTERA MAX+PLUS II.

  8. Compósitos de borracha natural ou policloropreno e celulose II: influência do tamanho de partícula Natural rubber or chloroprene rubber and cellulose II composites: influence of particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de A. Napolitano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de compósitos claros com propriedades de interesse tecnológico utilizando elastômeros com diferentes polaridades. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, celulose II em pó foi usada como carga, em borracha natural (NR ou policloropreno (CR. A celulose II foi obtida por coagulação da solução de xantato de celulose em meio ácido, sob agitação constante e à temperatura ambiente, constituindo uma nova forma de obtenção deste tipo de carga. Compósitos com 10 phr de celulose II com NR e CR, respectivamente, foram desenvolvidos tendo como variável o tamanho de partícula da carga. As propriedades mecânicas e os aspectos microscópicos dos diferentes compósitos foram avaliados e comparados com aqueles das formulações sem carga. Os resultados permitiram identificar o compósito como o de melhor resultado, influenciado pela polaridade da matriz elastomérica e pelo tamanho de partícula da carga, conseqüência das condições de moagem usadas.The aim of this work was to develop light composites with properties of technological interest by using elastomers of different polarities. This was achieved by employing cellulose II, in the powder form, as filler in natural rubber (NR and chloroprene (CR. Cellulose II was obtained by coagulation of cellulose xanthate solution, in acid medium, under stirring and at room temperature, which represents, to our knowledge, a new way of obtaining this type of filler. Composites with 10phr of cellulose II and NR or CR were prepared having the particle size as variable. The mechanical properties and the microscopic aspect of the different composites were evaluated and compared with compounds without filler. The results indicated best results for the CR composite, influenced by the polarity of the elastomeric matrix and by the particle size, as a consequence of the milling conditions of the filler used.

  9. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  10. The Search for Another Earth–Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/10/0899-0910. Keywords. Exoplanets, earth, super-earth, diamond planet, neptune, habitability, extra-terrestrial life. Abstract. In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part ...

  11. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free

  12. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  13. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  14. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  15. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  16. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Irene; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Lin, Henry; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2008-11-01

    Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our study focussed on the genetic manipulation of a whole-cell system by modifying metabolic pathways and enzymes to improve the overall production process. In the present work, we genetically engineered an Escherichia coli strain to increase NADPH availability to improve the productivity of products that require NADPH in its biosynthesis. The approach involved an alteration of the glycolysis step where glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3 bisphophoglycerate (1,3-BPG). This reaction is catalyzed by NAD-dependent endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) encoded by the gapA gene. We constructed a recombinant E. coli strain by replacing the native NAD-dependent gapA gene with a NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum, encoded by the gene gapC. The beauty of this approach is that the recombinant E. coli strain produces 2 mol of NADPH, instead of NADH, per mole of glucose consumed. Metabolic flux analysis showed that the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, one of the main pathways that produce NADPH, was reduced significantly in the recombinant strain when compared to that of the parent strain. The effectiveness of the NADPH enhancing system was tested using the production of lycopene and epsilon-caprolactone as model systems using two different background strains. The recombinant strains, with increased NADPH availability, consistently showed significant higher productivity than the parent strains.

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  19. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  20. Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part II: perceived physical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2009-09-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance. A significant Treatment x Time interaction (p < .001) was present, supporting that MMC participants reported significantly higher PPC scores over time, while no positive changes were present in LA and comparison participants. The results show that an MMC leads to psychological benefits related to achievement motivation. These findings should encourage early childhood educators to consider the effect of instructional climates on children's self-perception.

  1. Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity at Rio de Janeiro--Part II: health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S I V; Pires, J C M; Martins, E M; Fortes, J D N; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G

    2012-08-01

    The effects of air pollution on health have been studied worldwide. Given that air pollution triggers oxidative stress and inflammation, it is plausible that high levels of air pollutants cause higher number of hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the impact of air pollution on the emergency hospitalisation for respiratory disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was divided in two parts: Part I specifically addressing the air pollution assessment and Part II addressing the health assessment. Accordingly, this Part II aimed to estimate the association between the concentrations of PM₁₀, SO₂ and CO observed in Rio de Janeiro and the number of emergency hospitalisations at a central hospital due to respiratory diseases. The pollutant concentrations were measured at two different sites in Rio de Janeiro, but the excess relative risks were calculated based on the concentrations observed at one of the sites, where limits were generally exceeded more frequently, between September 2000 and December 2005. A time series analysis was performed using the number of hospitalisations, divided in three categories (children until 1 year old, children aged between 1 and 5 years old and elderly with 65 years old or more) as independent variable, the concentrations of pollutants as dependent variables and temperature, relative humidity, long term trend, and seasonality as confounders. Data were analysed using generalised additive models with smoothing for some of the dependent variables. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalisation for respiratory disease higher than 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in PM₁₀ concentrations for children under 5 years old, of 2% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in SO₂ for elderly above 65 years old and around 0.1% per 10 μg m⁻³ increase in CO for children under 1 year and elderly. Other studies have found associations that are in agreement with the results achieved in this study. The study suggests that the ambient levels of air

  2. Pedagogical progeniture or tactical translation? George Fordyce's additions and modifications to William Cullen's philosophical chemistry--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Georgette

    2014-08-01

    This paper compares the affinity theories and the associated affinity diagrams of William Cullen (1710-1790) and George Fordyce (1736-1802), exploring in particular one episode that took place during the brief hiatus between Fordyce's student years at Edinburgh University and the start of his own pedagogical career in London. This investigation complements that contained in Part I of this paper, which compared the chemistry courses given by Cullen and Fordyce, demonstrating that the knowledge originally imparted to Fordyce by Cullen in his Edinburgh lectures was augmented and translated by Fordyce for his own pedagogical purposes. Part II offers greater insight into the flow of knowledge between Fordyce and Cullen. Their correspondence suggests that the relationship between master and student transmuted into something more complicated after Fordyce left Edinburgh, while the model of knowledge transmission between the two can be seen to be more collaborative than might be expected.

  3. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part VI: Manganese(II/H+/Lewatit K2621

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Alguacil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this sixth part of the series, Manganese(II was removed from aqueous solutions by the cationic exchange resin Lewatit K2621. The investigation was performed under various experimental conditions such as the stirring speed associated with the system, aqueous pH, temperature, resin dosage and the ionic strength of the solution. The performance of the resin against the loading of metals from metal-binary solutions as well as the removal of Manganese(II from the solutions using multiwalled carbon nanotubes and functionalized (carboxylic groups multiwalled carbon nanotubes, were also investigated. Experimental results fit well with the pseudo-first kinetic order model, whereas fit of the data show that at 20 °C the process responded well to the diffusion controlled model, and that at 60 °C, the system is controlled by the moving boundary model. Adsorption data is better related to the Freundlich isotherm. Elution of the Manganese(II loaded onto the resin was investigated using acidic (H2SO4 or HCl solutions.

  4. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  5. Ni(II) and Cu(II) binding with a 14-aminoacid sequence of Cap43 protein, TRSRSHTSEGTRSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoroddu, M A; Kowalik-Jankowska, T; Kozlowski, H; Salnikow, K; Costa, M

    2001-03-01

    The tetradecapeptide containing the 10 aminoacid repeated sequence on the C-terminus of the Ni(II)-induced Cap43 protein, was analyzed for Ni(II) and Cu(II) binding. A combined pH-metric and spectroscopic UV-VIS, EPR, CD and NMR study of Ni(II) and Cu(II) binding to the blocked CH3CO-Thr-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-His-Thr-Ser-Glu-Gly-Thr-Arg-Ser-Arg-NH2 (Ac-TRSRSHTSEGTRSR-Am) peptide, modeling a part of the C-terminal sequence of the Cap43 protein, revealed the formation of octahedral complexes involving imidazole nitrogen of histidine, at pH 5.5 and pH 7 for Cu(II) and Ni(II), respectively; a major square planar 4N-Ni(II) complex (about 100% at pH 9, log K* = -28.16) involving imidazole nitrogen of histidine and three deprotonated amide nitrogens of the backbone of the peptide was revealed; a 3N-Cu(II) complex (maximum about 70% at pH 7, log K*=-13.91) and a series of 4N-Cu(II) complexes starting at pH 5.5 (maximum about 90% at pH 8.7, log K* = -21.39 for CuH(-3)L), were revealed. This work supports the existence of a metal binding site at the COOH-terminal part of the Cap43 peptide.

  6. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Part II: application of cognitive skills and guidelines for self-development Pensamiento crítico y precisión de los diagnósticos de enfermería. II Parte: aplicación de habilidades cognitivas y guia para el autodesarrollo Pensamento crítico e acurácia dos diagnósticos de enfermagem. Parte II: aplicação de habilidades cognitivas e guia para o auto-desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lunney

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Part I of this article, the author explained the difficulties of achieving accuracy of nurses' diagnoses, the relevance of critical thinking to the achievement of accuracy, and newer views of critical thinking. In Part II, the critical thinking dimensions identified as important for nursing practice are applied in the diagnostic process using a case study of a 16 year old girl with type 1 diabetes. Application of seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind illustrate the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.En la I Parte del artículo, el autor explicó las dificultades para alcanzar la precisión de los diagnósticos de enfermería, la relevancia del pensamiento crítico en el logro de esa precisión y las nuevas perspectivas de ese pensamiento. En la II Parte las dimensiones del pensamiento crítico, consideradas como importantes para la práctica de enfermería, son aplicadas en el estudio de caso de una joven de 16 años con Diabetes de tipo 1. La aplicación de las siete habilidades cognitivas y de las diez formas de pensar, ilustra la importancia del uso del pensamiento crítico para la precisión de los diagnósticos de enfermería. Se proponen diez estratégias para el auto-desarrollo de habilidades volcadas al pensamiento crítico.Na Parte I deste artigo, o autor explicou as dificuldades em alcançar a acurácia dos diagnósticos de enfermagem, a relevância do pensamento crítico no alcance dessa acurácia e as mais novas perspectivas desse pensamento. Na Parte II, as dimensões do pensamento crítico identificadas como importantes para a prática de enfermagem são aplicadas em um estudo de caso de uma menina de 16 anos com Diabetes do tipo 1. A aplicação das sete habilidades cognitivas e das dez formas de pensar ilustram a importância do uso do pensamento crítico para a acurácia dos diagnósticos de enfermagem

  7. Cubby : Multiscreen Desktop VR Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, M.W.; Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In this second part of our 'Cubby: Multiscreen Desktop VR' trilogy, we will introduce you to the art of creating a driver to read an Origin Instruments Dynasight input device. With the Dynasight, the position of the head of the user is established so that Cubby can display the correct images on its

  8. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit G: Resources for Managerial Assistance. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing business. Unit G focuses on obtaining managerial…

  9. Procedimiento para diseñar el muestreo eólico en una región promisoria. Parte II.Implementación y aplicación; Procedure to design sampling of the wind speed in a promissory region. Part II. Implementation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Terrero Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Parte I de este artículo fue establecido el algoritmo general de un procedimiento para el diseño del muestreo de la velocidad del viento cuyos resultados tengan la capacidad de minimizar el error probable medio durante una estimación del comportamiento espacio-temporal de la velocidad del viento. En la Parte II se describe el algoritmo de selección de puntos de muestreo y el algoritmo para el cálculo del error probable de estimación. El procedimiento para diseñarlas redes de muestreo eólico es implementado en una aplicación informática que facilita la aplicación del procedimiento a la selección de los puntos donde se ubicarán las torres anemométricas en una región promisoria del municipio Moa en la Provincia Holguín, Cuba. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con el diseño obtenido en el año 2007 por la Empresa de Ingeniería y Proyectos de Electricidad del Ministerio de Energía y Minas de la República de Cuba.In Part I of this article was established the general algorithmof a procedure for the sampling design of the wind speed and the results have the ability to minimize the average probable error for an estimate of the conduct spatiotemporal wind speed. In Part II the selection algorithm of sampling points and the algorithm for calculating the probable error estimation is described. The procedure for the samplingdesign is implemented in an computer software that facilitates the application from the procedure to the selection of the points where theanemometer towers will be located in a promissory region of the municipality Moa in the province Holguín, Cuba. The results are compared with the design obtained in 2007 by the Empresa de Ingeniería y Proyectos de Electricidad of the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Cuba.

  10. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Guerrero, A.; Lopez, F. A.; Perez, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete samples with very high mercury content (up to 30 % w/w). Different UNE and RILEM standard test methods were applied, such as capillary water absorption, low pressure water permeability, alkali/acid resistance, salt mist aging, freeze-thaw resistance and fire performance. The samples exhibited no capillarity and their resistance in both alkaline and acid media was very high. They also showed good resistance to very aggressive environments such as spray salt mist, freeze-thaw and dry-wet. The fire hazard of samples at low heat output was negligible. (Author)

  12. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit A: Developing the Business Plan. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit A focuses on developing a business…

  13. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  14. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  16. The PIP-II Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burov, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chakravarty, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chen, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dixon, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Edelen, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holmes, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Klebaner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kourbanis, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Leveling, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Melnychuk, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nicol, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostiguy, J. -F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasquinelli, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Passarelli, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ristori, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patrick, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Saini, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schappert, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Scarpine, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vivoli, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Warner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yakovlev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostroumov, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conway, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) encompasses a set of upgrades and improvements to the Fermilab accelerator complex aimed at supporting a world-leading neutrino program over the next several decades. PIP-II is an integral part of the strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 and formalized through the Mission Need Statement approved in November 2015. As an immediate goal, PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing proton beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) program, currently anticipated for the mid- 2020s. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term goal of establishing a high-intensity proton facility that is unique within the world, ultimately leading to multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab....

  17. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  18. A comprehensive review with potential significance during skull base and neck operations, Part II: glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves and cervical spinal nerves 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Chern, Joshua J; Rizk, Elias B; Loukas, Marios; Miller, Joseph H; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate on the skull base and upper neck regions in order to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized into two parts. Part I discusses the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches and other nerve trunks or branches in the vicinity. Part II deals with the anastomoses between the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or between these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part II is presented in this article. Extensive and variable neural anastomoses exist between the lower cranial nerves and between the upper cervical nerves in such a way that these nerves with their extra-axial communications can be collectively considered a plexus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Delgado, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete samples with very high mercury content (up to 30 % w/w. Different UNE and RILEM standard test methods were applied, such as capillary water absorption, low pressure water permeability, alkali/acid resistance, salt mist aging, freeze-thaw resistance and fire performance. The samples exhibited no capillarity and their resistance in both alkaline and acid media was very high. They also showed good resistance to very aggressive environments such as spray salt mist, freeze-thaw and dry-wet. The fire hazard of samples at low heat output was negligible.

    Dentro del Programa Europeo LIFE, se ha desarrollado un proceso de microencapsulación de mercurio liquido, utilizando la tecnología de estabilización/solidificación con azufre polimérico (SPSS. Como resultado se ha obtenido un material estable tipo concreto que permite la inmovilización de mercurio y su almacenamiento a largo plazo. La descripción del proceso y la caracterización de los materiales obtenidos, denominados concretos Hg-S, se detallan en la Parte I. El presente trabajo, Parte II, incluye los resultados de los diferentes ensayos realizados para determinar la durabilidad de las muestras de concreto Hg-S con un contenido de mercurio de hasta el 30 %. Se han utilizado diferentes métodos de ensayo estándar, UNE y RILEM, para determinar propiedades como la absorción de agua por capilaridad, la permeabilidad de agua a baja presión, la resistencia a álcali y ácido, el comportamiento en

  20. Joint stability characteristics of the ankle complex in female athletes with histories of lateral ankle sprain, part II: clinical experience using arthrometric measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, John E; Heitman, Robert J; Gurchiek, Larry R; Hollis, J M; Liu, Wei; Pearsall, Albert W

    2014-01-01

    This is part II of a 2-part series discussing stability characteristics of the ankle complex. In part I, we used a cadaver model to examine the effects of sectioning the lateral ankle ligaments on anterior and inversion motion and stiffness of the ankle complex. In part II, we wanted to build on and apply these findings to the clinical assessment of ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with a history of unilateral ankle sprain. To examine ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with reported history of lateral ankle sprain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Twenty-five female college athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 170.2 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 10.0 kg) with histories of unilateral ankle sprain. All ankles underwent loading with an ankle arthrometer. Ankles were tested bilaterally. The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Anterior displacement of the ankle complex did not differ between the uninjured and sprained ankles (P = .37), whereas ankle-complex rotation was greater for the sprained ankles (P = .03). The sprained ankles had less anterior and inversion end-range stiffness than the uninjured ankles (P ankle-complex laxity and end-range stiffness were detected in ankles with histories of sprain. These results indicate the presence of altered mechanical characteristics in the soft tissues of the sprained ankles.

  1. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  2. [The external patello-tibial transfixation (EPTT). Part II: Clinical application and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, B; Gotzen, L; Ziring, E; Petermann, J

    1999-07-01

    In part I of the paper the biomechanical and technical background of the EPTT using the MPT fixator and the indications for this procedure have been described. In part II we report about the clinical application of the EPTT in 67 patients with a wide spectrum of repairs and reconstructions of the extensor mechanism. 48 patients had fresh injuries, 18 of them with severe concomitant knee lesions and 19 patients had neglected rsp. unsuccessfully operated injuries. There were 4 deep infections, two of them related to the MPT fixator. In the patients with uneventful healing the fixator remained in place for 7.3 weeks in average. The clinical, isokinetic and radiological results were reviewed in 17 patients with an average follow-up time of 37.3 months. There were 5 patients with partial patellectomy and tendon reattachment because of lower patella pole comminution and 12 patients with tendon reattachment ruptured at the inferior patella pole or suture repair in midsubstance rupture. The clinical results according to the IKDC score were rated in 3 patients as normal, in 10 patients as nearly normal and in 4 patients as abnormal. This rating was highly dependend on the subjective judgement by the patients who considered their operated knees not as normal as the contralateral knees. From our clinical experiences and results we can derive that the EPTT enables the surgical management of extensor mechanism disruptions with a minimum of internal fixation material and provides a safe protection of the repairs and reconstructions during the healing period. The EPTT allows immediate unrestricted functional rehabilitation and early walking without crutches. Thus the EPTT represents an effective alternative to the patello-tibial cerclage with a wire or synthetic ligaments.

  3. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  4. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit F: How to Finance the Business. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit F focuses on financing the business. It…

  5. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit B: Where to Locate the Business. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is on establishing a business. Unit B focuses on choosing a business…

  6. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit C: Legal Issues and Small Business. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit C focuses on legal issues that affect…

  7. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit D: Government Regulations and Small Businesses. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit D focuses on business regulations at…

  8. Acuity and case management: a healthy dose of outcomes, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kathy; Huber, Diane L

    2007-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part series presenting 2 effective applications-acuity and dosage-that describe how the business case for case management (CM) can be made. In Part I, dosage and acuity concepts were explained as client need-severity, CM intervention-intensity, and CM activity-dose prescribed by amount, frequency, duration, and breadth of activities. Part I also featured a specific exemplar, the CM Acuity Tool, and described how to use acuity to identify and score the complexity of a CM case. Appropriate dosage prescription of CM activity was discussed. Part II further explains dosage and presents two acuity instruments, the Acuity Tool and AccuDiff. Details are provided that show how these applications produce opportunities for better communication about CM cases and for more accurate measurement of the right content that genuinely reflects the essentials of CM practice. The information contained in the 3-part series applies to all CM practice settings and contains ideas and recommendations useful to CM generalists, specialists, and supervisors, plus business and outcomes managers. The Acuity Tools Project was developed from frontline CM practice in one large, national telephonic CM company. Dosage: A literature search failed to find research into dosage of a behavioral intervention. The Huber-Hall model was developed and tested in a longitudinal study of CM models in substance abuse treatment and reported in the literature. Acuity: A structured literature search and needs assessment launched the development of the suite of acuity tools. A gap analysis identified that an instrument to assign and measure case acuity specific to CM activities was needed. Clinical experts, quality specialists, and business analysts (n = 7) monitored the development and testing of the tools, acuity concepts, scores, differentials, and their operating principles and evaluated the validity of the Acuity Tools' content related to CM activities. During the pilot phase of

  9. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit E: Choosing the Type of Ownership. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit E focuses on the three major types of…

  10. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-05-19

    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Sigeru; Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Honda, Tsutomu; Kasai, Masao; Itoh, Shin-ichi.

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  12. Discovery of a novel gene involved in autolysis of Clostridium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liejian; Bao, Guanhui; Zhu, Yan; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2013-06-01

    Cell autolysis plays important physiological roles in the life cycle of clostridial cells. Understanding the genetic basis of the autolysis phenomenon of pathogenic Clostridium or solvent producing Clostridium cells might provide new insights into this important species. Genes that might be involved in autolysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum, a model clostridial species, were investigated in this study. Twelve putative autolysin genes were predicted in C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 genome through bioinformatics analysis. Of these 12 genes, gene SMB_G3117 was selected for testing the in tracellular autolysin activity, growth profile, viable cell numbers, and cellular morphology. We found that overexpression of SMB_G3117 gene led to earlier ceased growth, significantly increased number of dead cells, and clear electrolucent cavities, while disruption of SMB_G3117 gene exhibited remarkably reduced intracellular autolysin activity. These results indicate that SMB_G3117 is a novel gene involved in cellular autolysis of C. acetobutylicum.

  13. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions

  15. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  16. The Many Meanings of History, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Ferenc M.

    1974-01-01

    This article contains a collection of quotations about history collected by Professor Szasz. The first part of the collection appeared in the August 1974 issue of "The History Teacher." Readers are invited to send in other definitions they have found. (Author/RM)

  17. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  18. Improving the performance of solventogenic clostridia by reinforcing the biotin synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Lang, Nannan; Yang, Gaohua; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Gu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    An efficient production process is important for industrial microorganisms. The cellular efficiency of solventogenic clostridia, a group of anaerobes capable of producing a wealth of bulk chemicals and biofuels, must be improved for competitive commercialization. Here, using Clostridium acetobutylicum, a species of solventogenic clostridia, we revealed that the insufficient biosynthesis of biotin, a pivotal coenzyme for many important biological processes, is a major limiting bottleneck in this anaerobe's performance. To address this problem, we strengthened the biotin synthesis of C. acetobutylicum by overexpressing four relevant genes involved in biotin transport and biosynthesis. This strategy led to faster growth and improved the titer and productivity of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE solvents) of C. acetobutylicum in both biotin-containing and biotin-free media. Expressionally modulating these four genes by modifying the ribosome binding site further promoted cellular performance, achieving ABE solvent titer and productivity as high as 21.9g/L and 0.30g/L/h, respectively, in biotin-free medium; these values exceeded those of the wild-type strain by over 30%. More importantly, biotin synthesis reinforcement also conferred improved ability of C. acetobutylicum to use hexose and pentose sugars, further demonstrating the potential of this metabolic-engineering strategy in solventogenic clostridia. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  1. Technical realisation of the VISA-II project, phase I, part IV, IZ-165-o268-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-12-01

    Project VISA-II is described in IX chapters as follows: introduction, definition of experiments and possibilities of performance; VISA-II channel, new experimental space in the RA reactor; hydraulic tests in the VISA-II channel; measurement of fast neutron and gamma flux in VISA-II channels; measurement of water flow through different VISA-2 irradiation capsules; fabrication of VISA-II capsules; corrosion and heavy water purity problems; safety problems of experiment VISA-2; experimental operation of VISA-II. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-II project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device [sr

  2. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  3. Ultra-violet radiation: hazard in workplaces? (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This is the continuation of part I, which was discussed in the later issue. In this part, hazard of ultraviolet radiation were briefly discused i.e. effects on the skin and the eyes. Other subjects discussed are exposure limits, how to assess the radiation, protection against ultraviolet radiation

  4. Failure analysis of leakage on titanium tubes within heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant. Part II: Mechanical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Z.G. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yuan, J.Z. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-01-15

    Serious failure incidents like clogging, quick thinning, and leakage frequently occurred on lots of titanium tubes of heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant in China. In the Part I of the whole failure analysis study with totally two parts, factors mainly involving three kinds of electrochemical corrosions were investigated, including galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and hydrogen-assisted corrosion. In the current Part II, through microscopically analyzing the ruptures on the leaked tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), another four causes dominantly lying in the aspect of mechanical degradation were determined - clogging, erosion, mechanical damaging, and fretting. Among them, the erosion effect was the primary one, thus the stresses it exerted on the tube wall were also supplementarily evaluated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the analysis results, the different degradation extents and morphologies by erosion on the tubes when they were clogged by different substances such as seashell, rubber debris, and sediments were compared, and relevant mechanisms were discussed. Finally, countermeasures were put forward as well. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part II: Columbidae to Vireonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Columbidae a Vireonidae Se reportan  nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 70 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila, dentro de un círculo de radio de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 738 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y marzo 2002. Los hábitats principalmente visitados fueron pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, como jardines y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Heliomaster constantii, Tilmatura dupontii, Empidonax flaviventris, Empidonax virescens, Myiarchus crinitus, Myiodynastes luteiventris, Vireo philadelphicus, Vireo olivaceus y Vireo flavoviridis. Además, las siguientes diez especies se han reportado anteriormente una sola vez o solamente en los Conteos Navideños: Caprimulgus ridgwayi (residente,Panyptila sanctihieronymi (residente local, Amazilia cyanocephala (residente local, Amazilia viridifrons, Lamprolaima rhami, Momotus mexicanus (residente en la Sierra Juárez, Sayornis phoebe, Myiozetetes similis (residente, Pachyramphus major (residente y Vireo griseus. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 25 especies, 18 de las cuales no se habían registrado como reproduciéndose en la zona antes. De estos, 24 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio, y 17 se reproducen en zonas riparias, seis de ellos casi exclusivamente.

  6. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, Part II Section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "Academic Letters of Recommendation: Perceived Ethical Implications and Harmful Effects of Exaggeration" (David L. Martinson and Michael Ryan); "It's All about the Information Salience Effects on the Perceptions of News Exemplification"…

  8. Atmospheric fluoride pollution. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Yamazaki, Y

    1969-01-01

    In East Osaka, agricultural crops either died or showed poor growth in the neighborhood of a factory producing white cosmetic bottles. Since fluorite was used as a material and there was no damage before the establishment of the factory, it was suspected that fluorine compounds were causing the damage. Quantitative analysis was performed on the agricultural crops and the exhaust gas as well as the dust particles in order to determine the fluorine content. Gas samplers were used to collect the dusts from the surrounding atmosphere. The fluorine content of dust near the factory was about 93 mg per cubic meter per day, and in some parts, as high as 1.54 mq per cubic meter per day. Relatively larger quantities of fluorine were measured at the southwestern and southeastern area of the factory, corresponding to the general wind pattern. Rice and soy beans from the neighborhood of the factory showed concentrations of fluorine and, especially in the leaves of the damaged crops, the concentrations were several hundred times higher than those of the undamaged leaves.

  9. Contamination smoke: a simulation of heavy metal containing aerosols from fires in plutonium glove boxes: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, K.; Chavane de Dalmassy, B.; Baumgaertner, E.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the dispersion of plutonium bearing aerosols during glove box fires on a laboratory scale has been, in part I of this work, focussed on fires of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA - the major glove box construction material) whose surfaces were contaminated with cerium-europium oxide powder as a substitute for plutonium-uranium oxide. The present part II completes the study with comparative fire experiments involving contaminated samples of various glove box materials burning in or exposed to the flames of the standardized 0.6 MW fire source previously developed. Beyond spreading of the Ce-Eu-oxide powder as mentioned above, the other important surface contamination process is used, i.e. deposition and subsequent drying of droplets from acid cerium-europium solutions. It is shown that, among the tested materials, and with the exception of synthetic glove rubber, burning PMMA spreads the most radioactive contamination. On the other hand, this potential risk is much lower for fires involving materials contaminated from solution deposition than from powder or pellets. Attempts to measure the airborne contaminant particle sizes did not yield conclusive results. They suggest, however, that contamination from solutions leads to smaller heavy-metal containing aerosol particles than contamination with powder

  10. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  11. Transition metal complexes with pyrazole-based ligands.Part 29. Reactions of zinc(II and mercury(II thiocyanate with 4-acetyl-3-amino-5-methylpyrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATALIN MÉSZÁROS SZÉCSÉNYI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the crystal and molecular structures of zinc(II and mercury(II complexes with 4-acetyl-3-amino-5-methyl-pyrazole (aamp of the coordination formulae [Zn(NCS2(aamp2] and (Haamp2[Hg(SCN4]. The zinc(II complex was obtained by the reaction of a warm methanolic solution of aamp with a mixture of zinc(II nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate, whereas the mercury(II complex was prepared by the reaction of a warm ethanolic solution of aamp and a warm, slightly acidified aqueous solution of [Hg(SCN4]2-. Both complexes have a tetrahedral geometry, which in the case of zinc complex is formed by monodentate coordination of two aamp molecules and two isothiocyanate groups. The Zn(II and Hg(II atoms have significantly deformed coordination geometry. In both crystal structures the pyrazole derivative has a planar form, probably stabilized by an intramolecular N–H···O hydrogen bond. Apart from the X-ray structural analysis, the isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometric measurements and thermal analysis.

  12. Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part II: protein, lipid and mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Knights, Edmund J; Campbell, Grant M; Choct, Mingan

    2014-05-01

    Part I introduced the concept of easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea genotypes, the broad chemical composition of their seed fractions and proposed mechanistic explanations for physical differences consistent with observed variation in milling ease. Part II continues this research by delving deeper into the amino acid, fatty acid and mineral components. No association between fatty acid composition and ease of milling was observed. However, particular amino acids and mineral elements were identified that further support roles of lectins, pectins and mineral-facilitated binding in the adhesion of chickpea seed coat and cotyledons. These differences suggest underlying mechanisms that could be exploited by breeding programmes to improve milling performance. This study shows that the content and composition of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals within different chickpea tissues vary with seed type (desi and kabuli) and within desi genotypes in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Kafka, Borges, and the creation of consciousness, Part II: Borges--a life of letters encompassing everything and nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2009-04-01

    The ways in which Kafka and Borges struggled with the creation of consciousness in their lives and in their literary works are explored in this two-part essay. In Part II, a biographical sketch of Jorge Luis Borges is juxtaposed with a close reading of one of his fictions, "The Library of Babel" (1941a). In this story, the universe is an infinite Library, a psychological/literary space comprised of books that contain everything that has ever been or ever will be written. By the end of the story, Borges becomes a character in his own fiction. This development was paralleled in Borges's "real life" as he invented a persona named "Borges," a literary creation that allowed Borges to become a character in a story that was his life. The essay concludes with a comparison of the ways in which Borges and Kafka each used writing as a way of creating his own distinctive form of consciousness, and, in so doing, contributed to the creation of twentieth-century consciousness.

  15. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  16. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  17. Designer ligands. Part 15. Synthesis and characterisation of novel Mn(lI), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline-derived ligands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of manganese(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been prepared using 1,10-phenanthroline-derived ligands, and their coordination geometries have been assigned using infrared data. It is apparent that, depending on the ligand...

  18. Exploration of Logistics Information Technology (IT) Solutions for the Royal Saudi Naval Force Within the Saudi Naval Expansion Program II (SNEP II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT EXPLORATION OF LOGISTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROYAL SAUDI NAVAL FORCE WITHIN THE SAUDI NAVAL EXPANSION PROGRAM II (SNEP II) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Expansion Program II (SNEP II). A part of this program includes upgrading and rebuilding its information technology (IT) infrastructure. The United

  19. NSLS-II booster timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheblakov, P.; Karnaev, S.; De Long, J.

    2012-01-01

    NSLS-II light source includes the main storage ring with beam lines and injection part consisting of 200 MeV linac, a full-energy 3 GeV booster synchrotron and two transport lines. The booster timing system is a part of NSLS-II timing system which uses hardware from MicroResearch Finland: Event Generator (EVG) and Event Receivers (EVRs). The booster timing is based on the events coming from NSLS-II EVG: 'Pre-Injection', 'Injection', 'Pre-Extraction', 'Extraction'. These events are referenced to the selected RF bucket of the storage ring and correspond to the first RF bucket of the booster. EVRs provide triggers both for the injection and the extraction pulse devices. EVRs also provide the timing of booster cycle operation and generation of events for cycle-to-cycle updates of pulsed and ramping parameters, and synchronization of the booster beam instrumentation devices. This paper describes the final design of the booster timing system. The timing system functional diagrams and block diagram are presented. (authors)

  20. Química general II

    OpenAIRE

    Olba Torrent, Amparo

    2018-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València Temes de l'assignatura: Química general II del primer curs del Grau de Química Topics of the course: General Chemistry II in the first year of the Degree in Chemistry

  1. Ultrasonic inspection of heavy section steel components: the PISC II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.; Crutzen, S.

    1988-01-01

    This Symposium represented the end of the PISC (Programme for Inspection of Steel Components), II Round Robin Test Project, and the book is the final report. The contents are divided into three parts: part 1 contains contributions from the PISC Management Group, part II contains individual contributions, part III contains views of Licensing Authorities. All the twenty three papers presented in the three parts are selected for INIS and indexed separately. (author)

  2. Standing on shaky ground- US patent-eligibility of isolated DNA and genetic diagnostics after AMP v. USPTO - Part II (practical implications & chances for Supreme Court Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a four-partite article discussing the US Federal Circuit decision in AMP v. USPTO , also known as the ACLU /Myriad "gene patenting" case ("Myriad"). Part I commenced with a description of the legal framework and an explanation of how the decision relates to the recently...... of the outcome, i.e. the three different opinions of the Federal Circuit judges Lourie, Moore & Bryson who comprised the panel (3). Part II will now continue the tale with a detailed analysis of the decision's practical implications (4), which is followed by a closer look on the chances for an ultimate Supreme...

  3. Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive.

  4. Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…

  5. The evolution of myiasis in humans and other animals in the Old and New Worlds (part II): biological and life-history studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jamie R; Wallman, James F; Otranto, Domenico; Wall, Richard; Pape, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Myiasis, which is the dipteran parasitism of living vertebrates, occurs in several forms - ranging from benign to fatal, opportunistic to obligate - and seems to have evolved through two distinct routes: saprophagous and sanguinivorous. However, the convergent evolution of morphological and life-history traits seems to have had a major role in confusing the overall picture of how myiasis evolved and this simplistic division is further complicated by the existence of both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic species of myiasis-causing Diptera, the evolutionary affinities of which remain to be resolved. As discussed in part I of this review, if we are to elucidate how the different forms of parasitism arose, it is essential to separate the evolution of the various groups of myiasis-causing flies from the evolution of the myiasis habit per se. Accordingly, whereas we focused on recent landmark phylogenetics studies in part I, we use this framework to analyse relevant biochemical, immunological, behavioural, biogeographical and fossil evidence to elucidate the evolution of myiasis in part II.

  6. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  7. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.

  8. A-Part Gel, an adhesion prophylaxis for abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled phase I-II safety study [NCT00646412].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Reinhold; Baumann, Petra; Schmoor, Claudia; Odermatt, Erich K; Wente, Moritz N; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal surgical intervention can cause the development of intra-peritoneal adhesions. To reduce this problem, different agents have been tested to minimize abdominal adhesions; however, the optimal adhesion prophylaxis has not been found so far. Therefore, the A-Part(®) Gel was developed as a barrier to diminish postsurgical adhesions; the aim of this randomized controlled study was a first evaluation of its safety and efficacy. In this prospective, controlled, randomized, patient-blinded, monocenter phase I-II study, 62 patients received either the hydrogel A-Part-Gel(®) as an anti-adhesive barrier or were untreated after primary elective median laparotomy. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of peritonitis and/or wound healing impairment 28 ± 10 days postoperatively. As secondary endpoints anastomotic leakage until 28 days after surgery, adverse events and adhesions were assessed until 3 months postoperatively. A lower rate of wound healing impairment and/or peritonitis was observed in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control group: (6.5 vs. 13.8 %). The difference between the two groups was -7.3%, 90 % confidence interval [-20.1, 5.4 %]. Both treatment groups showed similar frequency of anastomotic leakage but incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events were slightly lower in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control. Adhesion rates were comparable in both groups. A-Part Gel(®) is safe as an adhesion prophylaxis after abdominal wall surgery but no reduction of postoperative peritoneal adhesion could be found in comparison to the control group. This may at least in part be due to the small sample size as well as to the incomplete coverage of the incision due to the used application. NCT00646412.

  9. The equivalence myth of quantum mechanics-part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F. A.

    The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.

  10. 14 CFR 21.303 - Replacement and modification parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conforms to the drawings in the design; and (4) That the fabrication processes, construction, and assembly... AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Approval of Materials, Parts, Processes, and... the configuration of the part; and (ii) Information on dimensions, materials, and processes necessary...

  11. Combustion chemistry and flame structure of furan group biofuels using molecular-beam mass spectrometry and gas chromatography - Part II: 2-Methylfuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Luc-Sy; Togbé, Casimir; Liu, Dong; Felsmann, Daniel; Oßwald, Patrick; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Sirjean, Baptiste; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-03-01

    This is Part II of a series of three papers which jointly address the combustion chemistry of furan and its alkylated derivatives 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) under premixed low-pressure flame conditions. Some of them are considered to be promising biofuels. With furan as a common basis studied in Part I of this series, the present paper addresses two laminar premixed low-pressure (20 and 40 mbar) flat argon-diluted (50%) flames of MF which were studied with electron-ionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry (EI-MBMS) and gas chromatography (GC) for equivalence ratios φ=1.0 and 1.7, identical conditions to those for the previously reported furan flames. Mole fractions of reactants, products as well as stable and reactive intermediates were measured as a function of the distance above the burner. Kinetic modeling was performed using a comprehensive reaction mechanism for all three fuels given in Part I and described in the three parts of this series. A comparison of the experimental results and the simulation shows reasonable agreement, as also seen for the furan flames in Part I before. This set of experiments is thus considered to be a valuable additional basis for the validation of the model. The main reaction pathways of MF consumption have been derived from reaction flow analyses, and differences to furan combustion chemistry under the same conditions are discussed.

  12. EBR-II: search for the lost subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Buschman, H.W.; Poloncsik, J.; Remsburg, J.S.; Sine, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been operating for nearly 20 years as part of the foundation of the US Department of Energy's LMFBR development program. During that time, the EBR-II fuel-handling system has performed extremely well, especially considering the conditions under which much of the system operates and the reliability required to maintain the high plant factor routinely demonstrated by EBR-II. Since EBR-II is a pool-type reactor, much of the fuel handling is done remotely within the sodium-filled primary tank at 371 0 C. Activities involved in locating a misplaced fuel subassembly in the primary tank are described

  13. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  15. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings - Part II: Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Fuerst, Axel; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high-pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. The paper has two main objectives. One is an experimental investigation of the influence of an oil injection pocket on the pressure...... and without oil injection) on the pressure distribution and oil film thickness. Measurements of the distribution of pressure and oil film thickness are presented for tilting-pad thrust bearing pads of approx. 100 cm^2 surface area. Two pads are measured in a laboratory test rig at loads of approx. 1.5 MPa...... and approx. 4.0 MPa and velocities of up to 33 m/s. One pad has a plain surface. The other pad has a conical injection pocket at the pivot point and a leading-edge taper. The measurements are compared to theoretical values obtained using a three-dimensional thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD) numerical model...

  16. Developing a research agenda for reducing the stigma of addictions, part II: Lessons from the mental health stigma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Schomerus, Georg; Shuman, Valery; Kraus, Dana; Perlick, Debbie; Harnish, Autumn; Kulesza, Magdalena; Kane-Willis, Kathleen; Qin, Sang; Smelson, David

    2017-01-01

    Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. A comprehensive review of the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field. In Part I of this two part paper (American Journal of Addictions, Vol 26, pages 59-66, this issue), constructs and methods from the mental health stigma literature were used to summarize research that seeks to understand the phenomena of addiction stigma. In Paper II, we use this summary, as well as the extensive literature on mental illness stigma change, to outline a research program to develop and evaluate strategies meant to diminish impact on public and self-stigma (eg, education and contact). The paper ends with recommendations for next steps in addiction stigma research. (Am J Addict 2017;26:67-74). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2018-04-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse 1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to 0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  18. STARFIRE-II studies. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy has initiated several studies during FY-1985 called Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS). The TPSS is being carried out by several laboratories, universities and industry with the general objective of developing innovative physics and technology concepts to improve the commercial attractiveness of tokamak power reactors. The effort of Argonne National Laboratory, entitled STARFIRE-II, is an effort to update and improve STARFIRE, which was the last comprehensive conceptual design study in the US of a commercial tokamak power plant. The STARFIRE-II effort has developed a number of goals in order to improve fusion commercial power plants based in part on several recent studies. The primary goals for STARFIRE-II are listed

  19. EBR-II high-ramp transients under computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, R.J.; Larson, H.A.; Christensen, L.J.; Booty, W.F.; Dean, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    During reactor run 122, EBR-II was subjected to 13 computer-controlled overpower transients at ramps of 4 MWt/s to qualify the facility and fuel for transient testing of LMFBR oxide fuels as part of the EBR-II operational-reliability-testing (ORT) program. A computer-controlled automatic control-rod drive system (ACRDS), designed by EBR-II personnel, permitted automatic control on demand power during the transients

  20. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  1. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, Niels; Viereck, Peter; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to optimize the integrated TEG-heat exchanger. • The developed model was validated with the experimental data. • The effect of using different interface materials on the output power was assessed. • The influence of TEG arrangement on the power production was investigated. • Optimized geometrical parameters and proper interface materials were suggested. - Abstract: In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) in a form of thin foils. The numerical results show that lead foil at the interface has the best performance, with an improvement in power production of 34% compared to graphite foil. Finally, the model predicts that for a certain flow rate, increasing the parallel TEG channels for the integrated systems with 4, 8, and 12 TEGs

  2. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty

  3. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  4. Part I. A study of the decays D → Kππeν and D → K*πeν. Part II. SLD Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    A thesis in two independent halves. Part I. A search for the exclusive semileptonic decay modes D + → bar K ππ + ν e and D + → bar K * πe + ν e are presented using data from the Fermi-lab photoproduction experiment E691. With good sensitivity, the author observes no signals in the channels D + → K - π + π degrees e + ν e and D + → bar K degrees π + π - e + ν e , and set upper limits that represent only a small fraction of the inclusive semileptonic branching ration. The experiment was conducted at the Fermi-lab tagged Photon Laboratory, using a large acceptance spectrometer with silicon microvertex detector to extract a large, clean charm sample. Part II. The physics, design, and results of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) are described. The physics motivation and performance for the SLD CRID, the principles of Cherenkov detection, and a description of the SLD CRID are combined with a detailed description of the production and testing of the mirrors. In addition, results from the engineering run and cosmic ray tests demonstrate the current status of the system

  5. Resolution of the Task A-11 reactor-vessel materials-toughness safety issue. Part I. Main report. Part II. Staff responses to public comments, and Appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1982-10-01

    This report provides the NRC position with respect to the reactor pressure vessel safety analysis required according to the rules given in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 (10 CFR). An analysis is required whenever neutron irradiation reduces the Charpy V-notch upper shelf energy level in the vessel steel to 50 ft-lb or less. Task A-11 was needed because the available engineering methodology for such an analysis utilized linear elastic fracture mechanics principles, which could not fully account for the plastic deformation or stable crack extension expected at upper shelf temperatures. The Task A-11 goal was to develop an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodology, applicable to the beltline region of a pressurized water reactor vessel, which could be used in the required safety analysis. The goal was achieved with the help of a team of recognized experts. Part I of this volume contains the For Comment NUREG-0744, originally published in September 1981 and edited to accommodate comments from the public and the NRC staff. Edited segments are noted by vertical marginal lines. Part II of this volume contains the staff's responses to, and resolution of, the public comments received

  6. A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables. Part II - Validation and localization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya; Tengattini, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai

    2014-10-01

    We study the mechanical failure of cemented granular materials (e.g., sandstones) using a constitutive model based on breakage mechanics for grain crushing and damage mechanics for cement fracture. The theoretical aspects of this model are presented in Part I: Tengattini et al. (2014), A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables, Part I - Theory (Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.021). In this Part II we investigate the constitutive and structural responses of cemented granular materials through analyses of Boundary Value Problems (BVPs). The multiple failure mechanisms captured by the proposed model enable the behavior of cemented granular rocks to be well reproduced for a wide range of confining pressures. Furthermore, through comparison of the model predictions and experimental data, the micromechanical basis of the model provides improved understanding of failure mechanisms of cemented granular materials. In particular, we show that grain crushing is the predominant inelastic deformation mechanism under high pressures while cement failure is the relevant mechanism at low pressures. Over an intermediate pressure regime a mixed mode of failure mechanisms is observed. Furthermore, the micromechanical roots of the model allow the effects on localized deformation modes of various initial microstructures to be studied. The results obtained from both the constitutive responses and BVP solutions indicate that the proposed approach and model provide a promising basis for future theoretical studies on cemented granular materials.

  7. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II

  8. Cubby : Multiscreen Desktop VR Part III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.; Gribnau, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this month's final episode of our 'Cubby: Multiscreen Desktop VR' trilogy we explain how you read the InputSprocket driver from part II, how you use it as input for the cameras from part I and how you calibrate the input device so that it leads to the correct head position.

  9. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  10. Cardiac nuclear medicine, part II: diagnosis of coronary artery diseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnosing coronary artery disease is difficult and requires careful consideration of the roles and limitations of the tests used. Standard ECG tests are not reliable indicators of the presence of disease in asymptomatic patients. Thallium stress testing to assess ischemia and exercise ventriculography to assess functional status of the heart are limited in sensitivity and specificity. This is the second of a three-part series on cardiac nuclear medicine. Part I (Med. Instrum., May-June, 1981) focused on the commonly used examinations in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Part III will focus on myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases

  11. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  12. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  13. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  14. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  15. The Role of Formal and Informal Forces in Shaping Consumption and Implications for Sustainable Society: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mont

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Looking at consumption from a societal perspective, we can see that purchasing and behavior decisions are influenced by many factors, not the least which are what the people around us and in the media are doing. Other factors include economic influences, the marketing of products and technological innovations, and regulations governing consumption. This article, Part II, argues that in order to understand consumption, we need to move beyond the dominant (economic understanding of consumers and consumer behavior, and think about the origins of our preferences, needs, and desires. A thorough understanding of consumption is informed by the contributions of sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and behavioral scientists, who study the socio-cultural, social, and psychological contexts in which consumer behavior is embedded. These disciplines offer rich and complex explanations of human behavior, which in turn illuminate the discussion on how consumer behavior can be made more sustainable.

  16. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  17. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  18. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  19. LHC related projects and studies - Part (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; De Maria, R.

    2012-01-01

    The session was devoted to address some aspects of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project and explore ideas on new machines for the long term future. The session had two parts. The former focused on some of the key issues of the HL-LHC projects: beam current limits, evolution of the collimation system, research plans for the interaction region magnets and crab cavities. The latter explored the ideas for the long term future projects (LHeC and HE-LHC) and how the current research-development program for magnets and RF structures could fit in the envisaged scenarios

  20. [Neurohumoral mechanisms for vasovagal syncopes. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is defined as a reflex loss of consciousness related to reaction to various stimuli as orthostatic stress, pain or emotions connected with loss of muscle postural tone. In the second part of the paper the authors describe the possible role of the particular neurohumoral factors and autonomic nervous system in the development of vasovagal syncope. The studies on the involvement of neurohumoral factors in vasovagal syncope can play a key role in a more precise evaluation of affected patients, long term prophylaxis against syncopal events and may contribute to development of more reliable diagnostic tests.

  1. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings: Part II – Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. Measurements of the distribution of pressure and oil film thickness are presented for tilting-pad thrust bearing pads of approximately...... 100 cm2 surface area. Two pads are measured in a laboratory test-rig at loads of approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 4.0 MPa and velocities of up to 33 m/s. One pad has a plain surface. The other pad has a conical injection pocket at the pivot point and a leading edge taper. The measurements are compared...... to theoretical values obtained using a three dimensional thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic (TEHD) numerical model. At low and intermediate loads the theoretical pressure distribution corresponds well to the measured values for both pads although the influence of the pocket is slightly underestimated. At high loads...

  2. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part II. Fall and resurrection of chromosome territories during the 1950s to 1980s. Part III. Chromosome territories and the functional nuclear architecture: experiments and models from the 1990s to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, T; Cremer, C

    2006-01-01

    Part II of this historical review on the progress of nuclear architecture studies points out why the original hypothesis of chromosome territories from Carl Rabl and Theodor Boveri (described in part I) was abandoned during the 1950s and finally proven by compelling evidence forwarded by laser-uv-microbeam studies and in situ hybridization experiments. Part II also includes a section on the development of advanced light microscopic techniques breaking the classical Abbe limit written for readers with little knowledge about the present state of the theory of light microscopic resolution. These developments have made it possible to perform 3D distance measurements between genes or other specifically stained, nuclear structures with high precision at the nanometer scale. Moreover, it has become possible to record full images from fluorescent structures and perform quantitative measurements of their shapes and volumes at a level of resolution that until recently could only be achieved by electron microscopy. In part III we review the development of experiments and models of nuclear architecture since the 1990s. Emphasis is laid on the still strongly conflicting views about the basic principles of higher order chromatin organization. A concluding section explains what needs to be done to resolve these conflicts and to come closer to the final goal of all studies of the nuclear architecture, namely to understand the implications of nuclear architecture for nuclear functions.

  4. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  5. The Search for Another Earth – Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this part, we will describe various kinds of ... the Earth will also be discussed. 1. .... life. system is oxygen rich because the interstellar cloud from which the Sun and the solar planets were born .... a habitable planet must be rocky in order to sustain liquid ... helped in keeping the atmosphere of the Earth habitable for a long.

  6. Oral Assessment Kit, Levels II & III. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelo-Gonzalez, Maria; And Others

    The assessment packet includes a series of oral tests to help develop speaking as an integral part of second language instruction at levels II and III. It contains: 8 mini-tests for use at level II; 9 mini-tests for use at level III; a rating scale and score sheet masters for evaluating performance on these tests; and a collection of suggested…

  7. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  8. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...

  9. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  10. Indigenous instrumentation for mass spectrometry: Part II - development of plasma source mass spectrometers. PD-5-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraju, V.

    2007-01-01

    The growing demands from analytical community, for a precise isotope ratio and ultra trace concentration measurements, has lead to significant improvement in mass spectrometer instrumentation development with respect to sensitivity, detection limits, precision and accuracy. Among the many analytical techniques available, plasma source mass spectrometers like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), multi collector (MC) ICPMS and Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS), have matured into reliable tools for the above applications. Where as ICPMS is by far the most successful method for aqueous solutions, GDMS is being applied for bulk and impurity analysis of conducting as well non-conducting solids. VPID, BARC has been developing mass spectrometers for different inorganic applications of DAE users. Over the years expertise has been developed in all the aspects of mass spectrometry instrumentation. Part 1 of this indigenous instrumentation on mass spectrometry gives details of magnetic sector instruments with either EI or TI source for isotopic ratio analysis. The present paper is a continuation of that on plasma source and quadrupole mass spectrometers. This paper covers i) ICP-QMS, ii) MC-ICPMS, iii) GDMS and iv) QMS

  11. UNISIST II: Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattery, Lowell H., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The major part of this report of the Intergovernmental Conference on Scientific and Technical Information (UNISIST II), held in Paris May 28-June 1, 1979, focuses on three sets of recommendations which were unanimously approved after combining the recommendations proposed by various groups and blocs: (1) recommendations to the United Nations…

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  13. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  14. Combustion chemistry and flame structure of furan group biofuels using molecular-beam mass spectrometry and gas chromatography – Part II: 2-Methylfuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Luc-Sy; Togbé, Casimir; Liu, Dong; Felsmann, Daniel; Oßwald, Patrick; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Sirjean, Baptiste; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    This is Part II of a series of three papers which jointly address the combustion chemistry of furan and its alkylated derivatives 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) under premixed low-pressure flame conditions. Some of them are considered to be promising biofuels. With furan as a common basis studied in Part I of this series, the present paper addresses two laminar premixed low-pressure (20 and 40 mbar) flat argon-diluted (50%) flames of MF which were studied with electron-ionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry (EI-MBMS) and gas chromatography (GC) for equivalence ratios φ=1.0 and 1.7, identical conditions to those for the previously reported furan flames. Mole fractions of reactants, products as well as stable and reactive intermediates were measured as a function of the distance above the burner. Kinetic modeling was performed using a comprehensive reaction mechanism for all three fuels given in Part I and described in the three parts of this series. A comparison of the experimental results and the simulation shows reasonable agreement, as also seen for the furan flames in Part I before. This set of experiments is thus considered to be a valuable additional basis for the validation of the model. The main reaction pathways of MF consumption have been derived from reaction flow analyses, and differences to furan combustion chemistry under the same conditions are discussed. PMID:24518895

  15. História de uma experiência singular de ensino – Parte II: o caso das disciplinas “Físicas Básicas”, da UFBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Moura Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p527   Neste trabalho relata-se uma experiência singular de ensino, realizada no Curso de Física, Licenciatura, noturno, na Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA, envolvendo o conteúdo da física universitária básica. Nesta experiência, os conteúdos foram estruturados em bases históricas, pelo menos em sua maior parte, e ministrados através das disciplinas Físicas Básicas I, II, III e IV, segundo uma abordagem simultaneamente histórica, fenomenológica (experimental, matemática e conceitual. Estas disciplinas são oferecidas paralelamente às tradicionais Físicas Gerais e Experimentais I, II, III e IV, que são destinadas aos alunos da área de ciências exatas, inclusive aos alunos da Licenciatura em Física, noturno.

  16. Developing a mesophilic co-culture for direct conversion of cellulose to butanol in consolidated bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Cao, Guangli; Zheng, Ju; Fu, Defeng; Song, Jinzhu; Zhang, Junzheng; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of butanol production from cellulosic biomass is a promising strategy for cost saving compared to other processes featuring dedicated cellulase production. CBP requires microbial strains capable of hydrolyzing biomass with enzymes produced on its own with high rate and high conversion and simultaneously produce a desired product at high yield. However, current reported butanol-producing candidates are unable to utilize cellulose as a sole carbon source and energy source. Consequently, developing a co-culture system using different microorganisms by taking advantage of their specific metabolic capacities to produce butanol directly from cellulose in consolidated bioprocess is of great interest. This study was mainly undertaken to find complementary organisms to the butanol producer that allow simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to butanol in their co-culture under mesophilic condition. Accordingly, a highly efficient and stable consortium N3 on cellulose degradation was first developed by multiple subcultures. Subsequently, the functional microorganisms with 16S rRNA sequences identical to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile were isolated from consortium N3. The isolate Clostridium celevecrescens N3-2 exhibited higher cellulose-degrading capability was thus chosen as the partner strain for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. Meanwhile, the established stable consortium N3 was also investigated to produce butanol by co-culturing with C. acetobutylicum ATCC824. Butanol was produced from cellulose when C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 was co-cultured with either consortium N3 or C. celevecrescens N3-2. Co-culturing C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 with the stable consortium N3 resulted in a relatively higher butanol concentration, 3.73 g/L, and higher production yield, 0.145 g/g of glucose equivalent. The newly isolated microbial consortium N3 and strain C. celevecrescens N3

  17. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  18. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II...) Office of the managing director: (1) Legislative affairs officer. (2) Program analysis officer. (d...

  19. 48 CFR 14.201-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-3 Part II—Contract clauses... law or by this regulation and any additional clauses expected to apply to any resulting contract, if...

  20. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  1. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. parte II: consumo hídrico do coqueiro anão verde irrigado Large-scale weighing lysimeter. part II: water requirements of the irrigated dwarf-green coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inajá F. Sousa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, como segunda parte de uma pesquisa realizada no Estado de Sergipe, objetiva determinar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura na fase de crescimento do coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., com base em medições lisimétricas e no modelo do balanço de energia, segundo a razão de Bowen. Obteve-se a evapotranspiração de referência pelo método de Penman-Monteith, na escala diária em todo o período experimental. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi programado para a automação da coleta de todos os sensores necessários à obtenção dos componentes do balanço de energia. O consumo hídrico do coqueiro durante a fase de crescimento é de 1.263,30 mm, com média diária de 3,90 mm d-1. O coeficiente de cultura nessa fase fenológica da palmeira varia entre 0,50 e 1,80, com média de 0,96.This paper, as Part II of a research carried out in Sergipe state, aims to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. based on lysimeter measurements and Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The reference evapotranspiration was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach on daily-scale during the experimental period. The data acquisition system was used to obtain all data from the sensors necessary to determine the energy balance components. The water requirements of coconut palm during the phenological growth stage is 1263.30 mm, with daily average of 3.90 mm d-1. The crop coefficient during this phenological growth stage varies between 0.50 and 1.80, with daily mean of 0.96.

  2. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE SPECIAL GENERATOR CIRCUITS, GENERATOR TESTING, AND GENERATOR POLARITY. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "DC GENERATORS II--GENERATOR…

  4. Angiotensin II and Renal Tubular Ion Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valles

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  5. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  6. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE's efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public's perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations

  7. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Carter, Sarah; Knowles, Tony; Middelink, Erik; Haefele, Stephan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO 2 t −1 . Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO 2 t −1 , and agronomic value of $3 t −1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t −1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t −1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t −1 char; assuming $5 CO 2 t −1 , the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t −1 .

  8. European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeulemeester, Y.

    2005-01-01

    SCK-CEN co-ordinates a project called European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II (EUNDETRAF II) in the Sixth Framework Programme on Community activities in the field of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 2002 to 2006. This was a continuation of the FP5 project EUNDETRAF. EUNDETRAF II is a consortium of main European decommissioners, such as SCK-CEN, EWN (Energie Werke Nord, Greifswald Germany), Belgatom (Belgium), SOGIN Societa Gestione Impiantio Nucleari, Italy), Universitaet Hannover (Germany), RWE NUKEM (United Kingdom), DECOM Slovakia Slovakia), CEA Centre d'Energie Atomique, France), UKAEA (United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Agency, United Kingdom) and NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Netherlands). The primary objective of this project is to bring together this vast skill base and experience; to consolidate it for easy assimilation and to transfer to future generations by organising a comprehensive training programme.Each training course has a one-week theoretical and a one-week practical component. The theoretical part is for a broader audience and consists of lectures covering all the main aspects of a decommissioning. The practical part of the course includes site visits and desk top solutions of anticipated decommissioning problems. Due to operational constraints and safety considerations, the number of participants to this part of the course is strictly limited. The partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to

  9. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  10. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  11. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  12. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II: ISO Models and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    In Part II of this paper, we present formulations for three two-settlement market models: baseline cost-minimization (Stoch-Opt); and two sequential market models in which an independent system operator (ISO) runs real-time (RT) balancing markets after making day-ahead (DA) generating unit...... commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq......-SS build on components of the two-settlement equilibrium model (Stoch-MP) defined in Part I of this paper [1]. We then provide numerical results for all four models. A simple single-node case illustrates the economic impacts of flexibility, virtual bidding, and self-schedules, and is followed by a larger...

  13. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, H.W.; Thackston, M.G.; McDaniel, E.W.; Mason, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper updates and extends in scope our two previous papers entitled ''Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.'' The references to the earlier publications (referred to as ''Part I'' and ''Part II'') are I, H. W. Ellis, R. Y. Pai, E. W. McDonald, E. A. Mason, and L. A. Viehland, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 17, 177--210 (19876); and II, H. W. Ellis, E. W. McDaniel, D. L. Albritton, L. A. Veihland, S. L. Lin, and E. A. Mason, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 22, 179--217 (1978). Parts I and II contained compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gase (almost exclusively at room temperature) in an externally applied electric field

  14. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  15. Developing of risk-hedging CO2-emission policy. Part II: risks associated with measures to limit emissions, synthesis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is Part II of a two-part series in which the risk associated with unrestrained greenhouse-gas emissions, and with measures to limit emissions, are reviewed. The following risks associated with these efforts to limit CO 2 emissions are reviewed here: (1) resources might be diverted from other urgent needs; (2) economic growth might be reduced; (3) reduction measures might cost more than expected; (4) early action might cost more than later action; (5) reduction measures might have undesired side effects; (6) reduction measures might require heavy-handed government intervention; and (7) reduction measures might not work. With gradual implementation of a diversified portfolio of measures, these risks can be greatly reduced. Based on the review of risks associated with measures to limit emissions here, and the review of the risk associated with unrestrained emissions presented in Part I, it is concluded that a reasonable near-term (20-30 year) risk hedging strategy is one which seeks to stabilize global fossil CO 2 emissions at the present (early 1990s) level. This is turn implies an emission reduction of 26% for industrialized countries as a whole and 40-50% for Canada and the USA if developing country emissions are to increase by no more than 60%, which in itself would require major assistance from the industrialized countries. The framework and conclusions presented here are critically compared with so-called optimization frameworks. 82 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control-Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.

  17. The PIP-II Reference Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri, [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-06-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is a high-intensity proton facility being developed to support a world-leading neutrino program over the next two decades at Fermilab. PIP-II is an integral part of the U.S. Intensity Frontier Roadmap as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 [1]. As an immediate goal PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing a beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of LBNF [1,2] operations. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term concept for a sustained campaign of upgrades and improvements to achieve multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab. PIP-II is based on three major thrusts. They are (1) the recently completed upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector (MI) for the NOvA experiment, (2) the Proton Improvement Plan [3] currently underway, and (3) the Project X Reference Design [4]. Note that: The Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) consolidates a set of improvements to the existing Linac, Booster, and Main Injector (MI) aimed at supporting 15 Hz Booster beam operation. In combination, the NOvA upgrades and PIP create a capability of delivering 700 kW beam power from the Main Injector at 120 GeV; The scope of the Project X Reference Design Report was aimed well beyond PIP. It described a complete concept for a multi-MW proton facility that could support a broad particle physics program based on neutrino, kaon, muon, and nucleon experiments [5,6]. The Project X conceptual design has evolved over a number of years, incorporating continuous input on physics research goals and advances in the underlying technology development programs [7,8,9]. PIP-II, to high degree, inherits these goals as the goals for future developments and upgrades. This document (PIP-II Reference Design Report) describes an initial step in the development of the Fermilab accelerating complex. The plan described in this Report balances the far-term goals of the Laboratory

  18. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  19. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  20. Distribution of Si II in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P.; Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A map of the Galactic center region in the forbidden Si II 34.8-micron line is presented. The line emission arises from within the photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the neutral gas ring surrounding an ionized gas core confined within 2 pc of the Galactic center. Si II is a useful probe of the inner regions of the ring since it is always optically thin. The Si II data, when analyzed in conjunction with O I, C II, and molecular measurements, outlines the transition region between the PDR and the surrounding molecular cloud. The Si II emission is found to extend beyond that of the O II into the neutral gas ring. Although the interpretation is not unique, the data are consistent with a constant gas-phase abundance of silicon within the inner part of the PDR while the gaseous silicon is depleted by molecule formation in the transition region.

  1. As sure as tax, rain or death (Part II) : digitalisation dragons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Tax evasion, delayed trains & untidy death seem to be parts of our daily lives. But what about the digitalisation dragons? Will they wipe away B2B sales and procurement as we know it, our will we see a more nuanced picture? The first Part on this topic so far has attracted 3700+ readers at our PSF

  2. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  3. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  4. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  5. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  6. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    1976-01-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Homology modeling and docking of AahII-Nanobody complexes reveal the epitope binding site on AahII scorpion toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Ayoub; Ghedira, Kais; Ben Abderrazek, Rahma; Shankar, B A Gowri; Benkahla, Alia; Bishop, Ozlem Tastan; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2018-02-19

    Scorpion envenoming and its treatment is a public health problem in many parts of the world due to highly toxic venom polypeptides diffusing rapidly within the body of severely envenomed victims. Recently, 38 AahII-specific Nanobody sequences (Nbs) were retrieved from which the performance of NbAahII10 nanobody candidate, to neutralize the most poisonous venom compound namely AahII acting on sodium channels, was established. Herein, structural computational approach is conducted to elucidate the Nb-AahII interactions that support the biological characteristics, using Nb multiple sequence alignment (MSA) followed by modeling and molecular docking investigations (RosettaAntibody, ZDOCK software tools). Sequence and structural analysis showed two dissimilar residues of NbAahII10 CDR1 (Tyr27 and Tyr29) and an inserted polar residue Ser30 that appear to play an important role. Indeed, CDR3 region of NbAahII10 is characterized by a specific Met104 and two negatively charged residues Asp115 and Asp117. Complex dockings reveal that NbAahII17 and NbAahII38 share one common binding site on the surface of the AahII toxin divergent from the NbAahII10 one's. At least, a couple of NbAahII10 - AahII residue interactions (Gln38 - Asn44 and Arg62, His64, respectively) are mainly involved in the toxic AahII binding site. Altogether, this study gives valuable insights in the design and development of next generation of antivenom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  9. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: EVERYTHING JUST BEGINS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review is devoted to a comorbidity of myocardial infarction and anxious and depressive disorders. In the first part (Rational Pharmacother. Cardiol. 2007;3:41-51 data concerning prevalence of depression in myocardial infarction, pathophysiological mechanisms connecting depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD were given. Influence of concomitant depressive disorders on clinical state and forecast of patients after myocardial infarction was discussed. The second part of the review is devoted to the anxious disorders in myocardial infarction as well as to influence of anxious and depressive disorders on life quality of patients with myocardial infarction. Besides, contemporary approaches to the therapy of anxious and depressive disorders in patients with IHD are discussed.

  10. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  11. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  12. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  13. Impact of a commercial glyphosate formulation on adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divisekara, T; Navaratne, A N; Abeysekara, A S K

    2018-05-01

    Use of glyphosate as a weedicide on rice cultivation has been a controversial issue in Sri Lanka, due to the hypothesis that the metal complexes of commercial glyphosate is one of the causative factors of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) prevalent in some parts of Sri Lanka. The effect of commercial glyphosate on the adsorption and desorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on selective paddy soil studied using batch experiments, over a wide concentration range, indicates that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model is obeyed at low initial metal ion concentrations while the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model obeys at high metal ion concentrations in the presence and absence of glyphosate. For all cases, adsorption of both Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions obeys pseudo second order kinetics, suggesting that initial adsorption is a chemisorption process. In the presence of glyphosate formulation, the extent of adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on soil is decreased, while their desorption is increased at high concentrations of glyphosate. Low concentrations of glyphosate formulation do not significantly affect the desorption of metal ions from soil. Reduction of adsorption leads to enhance the concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in the aqueous phase when in contact with soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  16. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  17. Kreditní rizika z pohledu Basel II

    OpenAIRE

    Čabrada, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    The thesis "Credit risk from Basel II point of view" deals with new capital concept with main focus on the credit risk. The particular emphasis is laid on the chief issue of Basel II concept i.e. internal models. The thesis quite in detail describes the usage of basel parameters - LGD particularly - in various day-to-day business processes of credit institutions. An individual part of the thesis is devoted to credit risk mitigants and their impacts on the amount of capital requirements. The a...

  18. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part II: potential clinical application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    Full Text Available Oncolytic engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs possess many biologic and functional attributes that support their use in clinical trials in children with solid tumors. Tumor cells, in an effort to escape regulatory mechanisms that would impair their growth and progression, have removed many mechanisms that would have protected them from virus infection and eventual virus-mediated destruction. Viruses engineered to exploit this weakness, like mutant HSV, can be safely employed as tumor cell killers, since normal cells retain these antiviral strategies. Many preclinical studies and early phase trials in adults demonstrated that oncolytic HSV can be safely used and are highly effective in killing tumor cells that comprise pediatric malignancies, without generating the toxic side effects of nondiscriminatory chemotherapy or radiation therapy. A variety of engineered viruses have been developed and tested in numerous preclinical models of pediatric cancers and initial trials in patients are underway. In Part II of this review series, we examine the preclinical evidence to support the further advancement of oncolytic HSV in the pediatric population. We discuss clinical advances made to date in this emerging era of oncolytic virotherapy.

  19. Physical therapy in the 21st century (Part II): evidence-based practice within the context of evidence-informed practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Part II of this two-part introduction to this Special Issue on physical therapy practice in the 21st century outlines a health-focused strategy for physical therapists to lead in the assault on lifestyle conditions, global health care priorities, described in Part I. Consistent with contemporary definitions of physical therapy, its practice, professional education, and research, physical therapy needs to reflect 21st-century health priorities and be aligned with global and regional public health strategies. A proposed focus on health emphasizes clinical competencies, including assessments of health, lifestyle health behaviors, and lifestyle risk factors; and the prescription of interventions to promote health and well-being in every client or patient. Such an approach is aimed to increase the threshold for chronic conditions over the life cycle and reduce their rate of progression, thereby preventing, delaying, or minimizing the severity of illness and disability. The 21st-century physical therapist needs to be able to practice such competencies within the context of a culturally diverse society to effect positive health behavior change. The physical therapist is uniquely positioned to lead in health promotion and prevention of the lifestyle conditions, address many of their causes, as well as manage these conditions. Physical therapists need to impact health globally through public and social health policy as well as one-on-one care. This role is consistent with contemporary definitions of physical therapy as the quintessential noninvasive health care practitioner, and the established efficacy and often superiority of lifestyle and lifestyle change on health outcomes compared with invasive interventions, namely, drugs and surgery. A concerted commitment by physical therapists to health and well-being and reduced health risk is consistent with minimizing the substantial social and economic burdens of lifestyle conditions globally.

  20. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  1. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. FERENC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  2. La Historia de la Contabilidad, vía privilegiada de aproximación a la investigación histórica: Cuentas de los fondos recibidos por la Factoría General de los Reinos de España para financiar la guerra de Felipe II contra el Papa Pablo IV y Enrique II de Francia (1556-1559 PARTE 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Hernández Esteve

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Historia de la Contabilidad, vía privilegiada de aproximación a la investigación histórica: Cuentas de los fondos recibidos por la Factoría General de los Reinos de España para financiar la guerra de Felipe II contra el Papa Pablo IV y Enrique II de Francia (1556-1559 PARTE 1

  3. PERICARDITIS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis maybe caused by different agents: viruses, bacteria, tuberculosis, and it may be autoimmune. All these types of diseases have similar clinical signs, but differ by prevalence, prognosis and medical tactics. Due to achievements of radial methods of visualization, molecular biology, and immunology, we have an opportunity to provide early specific diagnostics and etiological treatment of inflammatory diseases of pericardium. The second part of lecture presents main principles of differential diagnostics of specific types of pericarditis, gives characteristics of several often accruing types of disease, and describes treatment and tactics of management of patients with pericarditis.Key words: children, pericarditis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:76-81

  4. TRUPACT-II 157 Examination Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry H. O'Brien; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Kip E. Archibald

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of examination and recovery activities performed on the TRUPACT-II 157 shipping container. The container was part of a contact-handled transuranic waste shipment being transported on a truck to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico when an accident occurred. Although the transport vehicle sustained only minor damage, airborne transuranic contamination was detected in air samples extracted from inside TRUPACT-II 157 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Consequently, the shipping container was rejected, resealed, and returned to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory where the payload was disassembled, examined, and recovered for subsequent reshipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This report documents the results of those activities

  5. TRUPACT-II 157 Examination Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry H. O& #39; Brien; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Kip E. Archibald

    2003-12-01

    This report presents the results of examination and recovery activities performed on the TRUPACT-II 157 shipping container. The container was part of a contact-handled transuranic waste shipment being transported on a truck to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico when an accident occurred. Although the transport vehicle sustained only minor damage, airborne transuranic contamination was detected in air samples extracted from inside TRUPACT-II 157 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Consequently, the shipping container was rejected, resealed, and returned to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory where the payload was disassembled, examined, and recovered for subsequent reshipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This report documents the results of those activities.

  6. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  7. Ubiquitylation and degradation of elongating RNA polymerase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Harreman, Michelle; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2013-01-01

    During its journey across a gene, RNA polymerase II has to contend with a number of obstacles to its progression, including nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, DNA damage, and sequences that are intrinsically difficult to transcribe. Not surprisingly, a large number of elongation factors have....... In this review, we describe the mechanisms and factors responsible for the last resort mechanism of transcriptional elongation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation....

  8. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  9. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II Complexes of N-Thiophenoyl-N′-Phenylthiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II complex of N-thiophenoyl -N′-phenylthiocarbohydrazide (H2 TPTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H TPTH2], [Co(TPTH (H2O2], [Ni(TPTH (H2O2], [Cu(TPTH], [Zn(H TPTH], [Cd(H TPTH2], and [Fe(H TPTH2(EtOH]. The magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for [Cu(TPTH], tetrahedral geometry for [Zn(TPTH] and [Cd(H TPTH2], and octahedral geometry for rest of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies of the 1 : 1 deprotonated complexes suggest bonding through enolic oxygen, thiolato sulfur, and both the hydrazinic nitrogens. Thus, H2TPTH acts as a binegative tetradentate ligand. H2 TPTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  12. On Railroad Tank Car Puncture Performance: Part II - Estimating Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    This paper is the second in a two-part series on the puncture performance of railroad tank cars carrying hazardous materials in the event of an accident. Various metrics are often mentioned in the open literature to characterize the structural perfor...

  13. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  14. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  15. Microbunching phenomena in LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Qiang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Papadopoulos, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marcus, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nosochkov, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wang, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Woodley, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The microbunching instability has long been recognized as a potential limiting factor to the performance of X-ray FELs. It is of particular relevance in LCLS-II due, in part, to a layout that includes a long bypass beamline between the Linac and the undulators. Here we focus on two aspects of the instability that highlight the importance of 3D effects.

  16. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  17. Anesthesia and ventilation strategies in children with asthma: part II - intraoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Adrian; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S

    2014-06-01

    As asthma is a frequent disease especially in children, anesthetists are increasingly providing anesthesia for children requiring elective surgery with well controlled asthma but also for those requiring urgent surgery with poorly controlled or undiagnosed asthma. This second part of this two-part review details the medical and ventilatory management throughout the perioperative period in general but also includes the perioperative management of acute bronchospasm and asthma exacerbations in children with asthma. Multiple observational trials assessing perioperative respiratory adverse events in healthy and asthmatic children provide the basis for identifying risk reduction strategies. Mainly, animal experiments and to a small extent clinical data have advanced our understanding of how anesthetic agents effect bronchial smooth muscle tone and blunt reflex bronchoconstriction. Asthma treatment outside anesthesia is well founded on a large body of evidence.Perioperative prevention strategies have increasingly been studied. However, evidence on the perioperative management, including mechanical ventilation strategies of asthmatic children, is still only fair, and further research is required. To minimize the considerable risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events in asthmatic children, perioperative management should be based on two main pillars: the preoperative optimization of asthma treatment (please refer to the first part of this two-part review) and - the focus of this second part of this review - the optimization of anesthesia management in order to optimize lung function and minimize bronchial hyperreactivity in the perioperative period.

  18. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  20. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation

  1. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation.

  2. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part II: moving from resuscitative to end-of-life or palliative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events addresses decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps. Part II concerns communications moving from resuscitative to palliative and end-of-life treatments. After completing the steps involved in determining decision-making, emergency physicians (EPs) should consider starting palliative measures versus continuing resuscitative treatment. As communications related to these end-of-life decisions increasingly fall within the scope of emergency medicine (EM) practice, we need to become educated about and comfortable with them. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Fiber, Fabric and Fashion. Environment II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective), and each of which includes competencies and learning activities for each of three instructional levels. The topics for this volume (Environment II--cognitive) are…

  4. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  5. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part II: Product labeling and product knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part II of this series discusses specific issues regarding product labeling, such as developing the labeling, changing the labeling, and the legal as well as commercial ramifications of the contents of the labeling. An adverse event report scenario is further analyzed and suggestions are offered for maintaining the product labeling as an accurate reflection of the drug safety surveillance data. This article also emphasizes the necessity of product knowledge in adverse event database management. Both scientific and proprietary knowledge are required. Acquiring product knowledge is a part of the day-to-day activities of drug safety surveillance. A knowledge of the history of the product may forestall adverse publicity, as shown in the illustration. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction of the components of the process. Suggestions are offered

  6. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  7. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and son...

  8. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  9. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  10. A shot parameter specification subsystem for automated control of PBFA II accelerator shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports on the shot parameter specification subsystem (SPSS), an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The author discusses how the PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  11. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  12. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating. Part II: Air Quality and City Breathability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Norford, Leslie; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Urban morphology and inter-building shadowing result in a non-uniform distribution of surface heating in urban areas, which can significantly modify the urban flow and thermal field. In Part I, we found that in an idealized three-dimensional urban array, the spatial distribution of the thermal field is correlated with the orientation of surface heating with respect to the wind direction (i.e. leeward or windward heating), while the dispersion field changes more strongly with the vertical temperature gradient in the street canyon. Here, we evaluate these results more closely and translate them into metrics of "city breathability," with large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy-balance model employed for this purpose. First, we quantify breathability by, (i) calculating the pollutant concentration at the pedestrian level (horizontal plane at z≈ 1.5 -2 m) and averaged over the canopy, and (ii) examining the air exchange rate at the horizontal and vertical ventilating faces of the canyon, such that the in-canopy pollutant advection is distinguished from the vertical removal of pollution. Next, we quantify the change in breathability metrics as a function of previously defined buoyancy parameters, horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers (Ri_h and Ri_v , respectively), which characterize realistic surface heating. We find that, unlike the analysis of airflow and thermal fields, consideration of the realistic heating distribution is not crucial in the analysis of city breathability, as the pollutant concentration is mainly correlated with the vertical temperature gradient (Ri_v ) as opposed to the horizontal (Ri_h ) or bulk (Ri_b ) thermal forcing. Additionally, we observe that, due to the formation of the primary vortex, the air exchange rate at the roof level (the horizontal ventilating faces of the building canyon) is dominated by the mean flow. Lastly, since Ri_h and Ri_v depend on the meteorological factors (ambient air temperature, wind speed, and

  13. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  14. Exploring the metal coordination properties of the pyrimidine part of purine nucleobases: isomerization reactions in heteronuclear Pt(II)/Pd(II) of 9-methyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Susana; Albertí, Francisca M; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Lippert, Bernhard

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis and characterization of three heteronuclear Pt(2)Pd(2) (4, 5) and PtPd(2) (6) complexes of the model nucleobase 9-methyladenine (9-MeA) is reported. The compounds were prepared by reacting [Pt(NH(3))(3)(9-MeA-N7)](ClO(4))(2) (1) with [Pd(en)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2) at different ratios r between Pt and Pd, with the goal to probe Pd(II) binding to any of the three available nitrogen atoms, N1, N3, N6 or combinations thereof. Pd(II) coordination occurs at N1 and at the deprotonated N6 positions, yet not at N3. 4 and 5 are isomers of [{(en)Pd}(2){N1,N6-9-MeA(-)-N7)Pt(NH(3))(3)}(2)](ClO(4))(6)·nH(2)O, with a head-head orientation of the two bridging 9-MeA(-) ligands in 4 and a head-tail orientation in 5. 6 is [{(en)Pd}(2)(OH)(N1,N6-9MeA(-)-N7)Pt(NH(3))(3)](ClO(4))(4)·4H(2)O, hence a condensation product between [Pt(NH(3))(3)(9-MeA-N7)](2+) and a μ-OH bridged dinuclear (en)Pd-OH-Pd(en) unit, which connects the N1 and N6 positions of 9-MeA(-) in an intramolecular fashion. 4 and 5, which slowly interconvert in aqueous solution, display distinct structural differences such as significantly different intramolecular Pd···Pd contacts (3.124 0(16) Å in 4; 2.986 6(14) Å in 5), among others. Binding of (en)Pd(II) to the exocyclic N6 atom in 4 and 5 is accompanied by a large movement of Pd(II) out of the 9-MeA(-) plane and a trend to a further shortening of the C6-N6 bond as compared to free 9-MeA. The packing patterns of 4 and 5 reveal substantial anion-π interactions.

  15. Applications of multiple change point detections to monthly streamflow and rainfall in Xijiang River in southern China, part II: trend and mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongqin David; Jiang, Jianmin; Zhu, Yuxiang; Huang, Changxing; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    This article, as part II, illustrates applications of other two algorithms, i.e., the scanning F test of change points in trend and the scanning t test of change points in mean, to both series of the normalized streamflow index (NSI) at Makou section in the Xijiang River and the normalized precipitation index (NPI) over the watershed of Xijiang River. The results from these two tests show mainly positive coherency of changes between the NSI and NPI. However, some minor negative coherency patches may expose somewhat impacts of human activities, but they were often associated with nearly normal climate periods. These suggest that the runoff still depends upon well the precipitation in the Xijiang catchment. The anthropogenic disturbances have not yet reached up to violating natural relationship on the whole in this river.

  16. Tritium system design for the mirror reactors FPD-I, FPD-II, and FPD-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tritium system design for the Fusion Power Demonstration Reactor (FPD-I, II, and III) is described. The device operates at 25% availability. For FPD-II, an engineering mode using tritium neutral beams is part of the design

  17. The 'miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Bellettini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Muon detection is fundamental to many of the interesting analyses at CDF II. For more efficient muon registration in Run II it was decided to increase geometrical coverage. The so-called 'miniskirt' counters are part of this upgrade. The original design parameters of the 'miniskirt' and mixed 'miniskirt' scintillation counters for the CDF Muon System are presented. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of mixed 'miniskirt' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns

  18. A full-field residual stress estimation scheme for fitness-for-service assessment of pipe girth welds: Part II – A shell theory based implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shaopin; Dong, Pingsha; Pei, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    With the two key controlling parameters identified and their effectiveness demonstrated in Part I of this study series for constructing a continuous residual stress profile at weld region, a classical shell theory based model is proposed in this paper (Part II) for describing through-thickness residual stress distributions of both axial and hoop components at any axial location beyond weld region. The shell theory based model is analytically constructed through an assembly of two parts: One represents weld region and the other represents the remaining component section away from weld. The final assembly of the two parts leads to a closed form solution to both axial and hoop residual stress components as a function of axial distance from weld toe position. The effectiveness of the full-field residual stress estimation scheme is demonstrated by comparing with a series of finite element modeling results over a broad range of pipe weld geometries and welding conditions. The present development should provide a consistent and effective means for estimating through-thickness residual stress profile as a continuous function of pipe geometry, welding heat input, as well as material characteristics. - Highlights: • A shell theory based two-part assembly model is developed for generalizing residual stress distributions. • A full-field estimation of through-thickness residual stress profiles can be achieved. • The proposed estimation scheme offers both consistency and mechanics basis in residual stress profile generation. • An estimation scheme for welding-induced plastic zone size is proposed and validated. • The shell theory based estimation scheme can also provide a reasonable estimate on distortion in radial direction

  19. Evolution of thermal-hydraulics testing in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, G.H.; Planchon, H.P.; Sackett, J.I.; Singer, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulics testing and modeling program has been underway at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for 12 years. This work culminated in two tests of historical importance to commercial nuclear power, a loss of flow without scram and a loss of heat sink wihout scram, both from 100% initial power. These tests showed that natural processes will shut EBR-II down and maintain cooling without automatic control rod action or operator intervention. Supporting analyses indicate that these results are characteristic of a range of sizes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs), if these reactors use metal driver fuel. This type of fuel is being developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory. Work is now underway at EBR-II to exploit the inherent safety of metal-fueled LMRs with regard to development of improved plant control strategies. (orig.)

  20. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce

    2004-01-01

    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  1. Arbitrary order 2D virtual elements for polygonal meshes: part II, inelastic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, E.; Beirão da Veiga, L.; Lovadina, C.; Sacco, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is the second part of a twofold work, whose first part is reported in Artioli et al. (Comput Mech, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1404-5), concerning a newly developed Virtual element method (VEM) for 2D continuum problems. The first part of the work proposed a study for linear elastic problem. The aim of this part is to explore the features of the VEM formulation when material nonlinearity is considered, showing that the accuracy and easiness of implementation discovered in the analysis inherent to the first part of the work are still retained. Three different nonlinear constitutive laws are considered in the VEM formulation. In particular, the generalized viscoelastic model, the classical Mises plasticity with isotropic/kinematic hardening and a shape memory alloy constitutive law are implemented. The versatility with respect to all the considered nonlinear material constitutive laws is demonstrated through several numerical examples, also remarking that the proposed 2D VEM formulation can be straightforwardly implemented as in a standard nonlinear structural finite element method framework.

  2. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This light echo offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves. 22 references

  3. Strategic planning for hotel operations: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, S J

    1993-01-01

    The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1992. One key to its success is its strategic planning process. In this second part of a two-part article, Stephen Shriver concludes his review of the Ritz-Carlton's approach to strategic planning. Shriver begins by outlining some key steps in plan development and goes on to describe how the Ritz-Carlton disseminates, implements, and evaluates the plan.

  4. Epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland: part II. What are the causes of the different epidemiological situation in various regions of Poland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowińska-Zakrzewska, Ewa; Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Roszkowski-Śliż, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    influence transmission of tuberculosis. There is also the possibility that the differences in the epidemiological situation in various regions of Poland are caused by historical events. In the past the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis was much worse in the east of Europe than in the west. Just after the Second World War, according to the changes of the Polish territory, many Polish citizens (mainly ancestors of those from Group I) were displaced from the east to the west. In conclusion, the greater number of patients lost from observation, together with the higher density of population in the regions from Group I in comparison with those from Group II, seems to be partly responsible for the difference in the epidemiological situation in the two regions. It is also possible that some patients from Group I are more susceptible to infection and disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to their ancestors, who lived in the east of Europe.

  5. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  6. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  7. Part I. Analyzing the distribution of gas law questions in chemistry textbooks. Part II. Chlorine-35 NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Gabriel

    Part I. Two studies involving the gas law questions in eight high school and Advanced Placement/college chemistry textbooks were performed using loglinear analysis to look for associations among six variables. These variables included Bloom's Taxonomy (higher-order, lower-order), Book Type (high school, college), Question Format (multiple-choice, problem, short answer), Question Placement (in-chapter, end-of-chapter, test bank), Representation (macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and Arkansas Science Standard (conceptual, mathematical; gas laws, pressure conversion, stoichiometry). The first study, involving the conceptual gas law questions, found the Book Type and Question Placement variables had the biggest impact, each appearing in 5 of the 11 significant associations. The second study, involving the mathematical gas law questions, found the Question Placement had the biggest impact, appearing in 7 of the 11 significant associations, followed by Book Type and the Arkansas Science Standard variables, which appeared in 5 of the 11 significant associations. These studies showed that compared to the high school books, college books have fewer multiple-choice questions (compared to short-answer and problem questions), fewer in-chapter questions (compared to end-of-chapter and test bank questions), fewer questions in the chapters and more questions at the end of the chapters and fewer multiple-choice questions in and at the end of the books and more multiple-choice questions in the test banks. Part II. The dichloromethanesulfonate salts of several +1 charged cations, M+Cl2CHSO3 - (M = Li, Na, K, Rb Ag, Cs Tl) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, which was neutralized with the metal carbonates to produce the corresponding metal dichloromethanesulfonate salts. This study completed the NQR investigation of the family of chloroacetates

  8. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  9. E-READING II: words database for reading by students from Basic Education II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriana Marques de; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    To develop a database of words of high, medium and low frequency in reading for Basic Education II. The words were taken from the teaching material for Portuguese Language, used by the teaching network of the State of São Paulo in the 6th to the 9th year of Basic Education. Only nouns were selected. The frequency with which each word occurred was recorded and a single database was created. In order to classify the words as of high, medium and low frequency, the decision was taken to work with the distribution terciles, mean frequency and the cutoff point of the terciles. In order to ascertain whether the words of high, medium and low frequency corresponded to this classification, 224 students were assessed: G1 (6th year, n= 61); G2 (7th year, n= 44); G3 (8th year, n= 65); and G4 (9th year, n= 54). The lists of words were presented to the students for reading out loud, in two sessions: 1st) words of high and medium frequency and 2nd) words of low-frequency. Words which encompassed the exclusion criteria, or which caused discomfort or joking on the part of the students, were excluded. The word database was made up of 1659 words and was titled 'E - LEITURA II' ('E-READING II', in English). The E-LEITURA II database is a useful resource for the professionals, as it provides a database which can be used for research, educational and clinical purposes among students of Basic Education II. The professional can choose the words according to her objectives and criteria for elaborating evaluation or intervention procedures involving reading.

  10. Small Business Management. Part II. A Suggested Adult Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This teacher's guide is a companion to "Small Business Management Part I" published by the New York State Education Department in 1968. The course outlined by the guide is primarily for those who aspire to own and operate their own business, and those in business who wish to improve their operations. The course consists of six lessons covering…

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  12. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  13. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... to all equipment, including computer, electronic, or other technologic aids used with Class II games..., computer, or other technologic aids in connection with the play of Class II games. This part establishes... gaming system, causes a discontinuance of game play or other component functions. Financial instrument...

  14. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II

  15. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  16. Historia de la Conservación Preventiva. Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    La segunda parte de la historia de la conservación preventiva comienza en 1990; esta etapa es mucho más corta que la primera,pero más prolífica en materiales, proyectos y publicaciones. Vamos a ver cómo desde sus inicios, la conservación preventiva ha ido cobrando protagonismo en todos los ámbitos relacionados con la preservación y uso del patrimonio. En este artículo vamos a destacar los hitos fundamentales que han conseguido afianzar esta disciplina en los últimos 25 años y valorar- su desa...

  17. Centric relation: concepts revision and recording techniques. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Varo, Ana; Arroyo Cruz, Gema; Martinez De Fuentes, Rafael; Ventura de la Torre, Javier; Cañadas Rodríguez, Diego; Jiménez-Castellanos Ballesteros, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    La relación céntrica ha sido objeto de disparidad de criterios en la odontología durante más de un siglo. A lo largo de este trabajo, vamos a exponer diferentes métodos usados tanto para obtener el registro, como para comprobar su certeza y corroborar la posición condilar. Dado que no existe evidencia científica en el tema, en este trabajo, revisaremos los estudios experimentales que aparecen en la literatura. Los hemos divididos en dos partes, la primera relacionada con la definición de rela...

  18. Computer augumented modelling studies of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-glutamic acid in 1,2-propanediol–water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHESWARA RAO VEGI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-glutamic acid was studied at 303 K in 0–60 vol. % 1,2-propanediol–water mixtures, whereby the ionic strength was maintained at 0.16 mol dm-3. The active forms of the ligand are LH3+, LH2 and LH–. The predominant detected species were ML, ML2, MLH, ML2H and ML2H2. The trend of the variation in the stability constants with changing dielectric constant of the medium is explained based on the cation stabilizing nature of the co-solvents, specific solvent–water interactions, charge dispersion and specific interactions of the co-solvent with the solute. The effect of systematic errors in the concentrations of the substances on the stability constants is in the order alkali > > acid > ligand > metal. The bioavailability and transportation of metals are explained based on distribution diagrams and stability constants.

  19. Personalisatie in academische bibliotheeksystemen. - II: MyLibrary voorbij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunsucker, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Personalisation in academic library systems - II: Beyond MyLibrary The academic libraries' attempt to 'personalise' tracking down and accessing relevant literature and information sources developed into an undeniably meagre performance. So wrote R.L. Hunsucker in the first part of his contribution

  20. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Paeivioe, Josefin

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles

  1. The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP). Part II. MONITOR: A Program and Data Base for Retrieval and Utilization of Pollutant Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, Keith F.; Stowe, Ralph F.; Frigerio, Norman A.

    1977-02-01

    The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP) is an ongoing project of the Laboratory's Division of Environmental Impact Studies that aims at developing methodologies for assessing the carcinogenic hazards associated with nuclear power development. The project's first report (ANL/ES-26, Part I), published in September.l973, discussed models of radiation carcinogenesis and the contribution of U .. S. background radiation levels to hazardous dose rates. The current report (Part II) treats the storage and access of available data on radiation and radioactivity levels in the u. S. A compute-r code. (the MONITOR program) is prf!sented, which can serve as a ready-access data. bank for all monitoring data acquired over the past two decades. The MONITOR program currently stores data on monitoring locations, types of monitoring efforts, and types of monitoring data. reported in Radiation Data and Reports by the various state and federal ne-tworks; expansion of this data base to include nuclear power facilities in operation or on order is ongoing ·. The MONITOR code retrieves information within a search radius, or rectangl.e ,. circumscribed by parameters of latitude and longitude, and l:.ists or maps the data_as: requested. The code, with examples, is given in full in the report ..

  2. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part II: Approximations and Pipe-Flow Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a work dealing with key issues that have not been addressed in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. We consider new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. Part I was concerned with issues concerning the class of admissible controls and their approximations, since the classical definitions are inadequate for our models. This part is concerned with transportation equation representations and their approximations. Such representations of nonlinear stochastic delay models have been crucial in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements. The representations for the new models are not obvious and are developed. They also provide a template for the adaptation of the Markov chain approximation numerical methods.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of heterobimetallic complexes of the type [Cu(pn2][MCl4] where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new bimetallic transition metal complexes of the type [Cu(pn2] [MCl4] have been synthesized (where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II, pn = 1,3-diaminopropane and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, TGA, IR and electronic spectra. All the compounds are 1:1 electrolyte in DMF. The Cu(II ion is square-planar while metal ions in the anionic moiety acquire their usual tetrahedral arrangement. On the basis of these studies it is concluded that anionic moiety is electrically stabilized by its cationic counterpart.

  4. Angiotensin II Regulates Th1 T Cell Differentiation Through Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-PKA-Mediated Activation of Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Yun-Long; Chi, Ya-Fei; Yan, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Li, Hui-Hua; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into T helper cells (Th1 and Th2) that play an essential role in the cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes Th1 differentiation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation regulated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Jurkat cells were treated with Ang II (100 nM) in the presence or absence of different inhibitors. The gene mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The protein levels were measured by ELISA assay or Western blot analysis, respectively. Ang II treatment significantly induced a shift from Th0 to Th1 cell differentiation, which was markedly blocked by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor Losartan (LST). Moreover, Ang II significantly increased the activities and the expression of proteasome catalytic subunits (β1, β1i, β2i and β5i) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Ang II-induced proteasome activities were remarkably abrogated by LST and PKA inhibitor H-89. Mechanistically, Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation was at least in part through proteasome-mediated degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB. This study for the first time demonstrates that Ang II activates AT1R-PKA-proteasome pathway, which promotes degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB thereby leading to Th1 differentiation. Thus, inhibition of proteasome activation might be a potential therapeutic target for Th1-mediated diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. In-situ Moessbauer spectroscopy with MIMOS II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Iris, E-mail: fleischi@uni-mainz.de; Klingelhoefer, Goestar [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Germany); Morris, Richard V. [NASA Johnson Space Center (United States); Schroeder, Christian [University of Bayreuth and University of Tuebingen (Germany); Rodionov, Daniel [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Germany); Souza, Paulo A. de [Tasmanian ICT Centre (Australia); Collaboration: MIMOS II Team

    2012-03-15

    The miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II was developed for the exploration of planetary surfaces. Two MIMOS II instruments were successfully deployed on the martian surface as payload elements of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and have returned data since landing in January 2004. Moessbauer spectroscopy has made significant contributions to the success of the MER mission, in particular identification of iron-bearing minerals formed through aqueous weathering processes. As a field-portable instrument and with backscattering geometry, MIMOS II provides an opportunity for non-destructive in-situ investigations for a range of applications. For example, the instrument has been used for analyses of archaeological artifacts, for air pollution studies and for in-field monitoring of green rust formation. A MER-type MIMOS II instrument is part of the payload of the Russian Phobos-Grunt mission, scheduled for launch in November 2011, with the aim of exploring the composition of the martian moon Phobos. An advanced version of the instrument, MIMOS IIA, that incorporates capability for elemental analyses, is currently under development.

  6. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  7. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), Zinc(II), manganese(II), cadmium(II) and uranium(VI) complexes of α-oximinoacetoacet-o/p-anisidide thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Patel, M.M.; Ray, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A few metal complexes of α-oximinoacetoacet-o/p-anisidide thiosemicarbazones (OAOATS)/(OAPATS) with Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and UO 2 (II) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry study, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared and electronic spectral measurements in conjunction with magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature. They have also been tested for their antimicrobial activities. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  9. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  11. Angiotensin II induced catabolic effect and muscle atrophy are redox dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Yoshida, Tadashi; Rezk, Bashir M.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Vaughn, Charlotte; Tabony, A. Michael; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes skeletal muscle wasting via an increase in muscle catabolism. To determine whether the wasting effects of Ang II were related to its ability to increase NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) we infused wild-type C57BL/6J or p47phox−/− mice with vehicle or Ang II for 7 days. Superoxide production was increased 2.4 fold in the skeletal muscle of Ang II infused mice, and this increase was prevented in p47phox−/− mice. Apocynin treatment prevented Ang II-induced superoxide production in skeletal muscle, consistent with Ang II increasing NADPH oxidase derived ROS. Ang II induced loss of body and skeletal muscle weight in C57BL/6J mice, whereas the reduction was significantly attenuated in p47phox−/− animals. The reduction of skeletal muscle weight caused by Ang II was associated with an increase of proteasome activity, and this increase was completely prevented in the skeletal muscle of p47phox−/− mice. In conclusion, Ang II-induced skeletal muscle wasting is in part dependent on NADPH oxidase derived ROS. PMID:21570954

  12. Um exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos: parte II A survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems: part II

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel R. Bitran; Reinaldo Morabito

    1995-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a segunda (e última) parte do nosso exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos. Nosso enfoque é em modelos de projeto e planejamento de job-shops. Na primeira parte (BITRAN & MORABITO, 1995b) revisamos métodos de decomposição exatos e aproximados para modelos de avaliação de desempenho em sistemas com múltiplas classes de produtos e diversas estações de trabalho. Nesta segunda parte examinamos modelos de otimização de três ca...

  13. The decision to extract: part II. Analysis of clinicians' stated reasons for extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L; Maxwell, R

    1996-04-01

    In a recently reported study, the pretreatment records of each subject in a randomized clinical trial of 148 patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions presenting for orthodontic treatment were evaluated independently by five experienced clinicians (drawn from a panel of 14). The clinicians displayed a higher incidence of agreement with each other than had been expected with respect to the decision as to whether extraction was indicated in each specific case. To improve our understanding of how clinicians made their decisions on whether to extract or not, the records of a subset of 72 subjects randomly selected from the full sample of 148, have now been examined in greater detail. In 21 of these cases, all five clinicians decided to treat without extraction. Among the remaining 51 cases, there were 202 decisions to extract (31 unanimous decision cases and 20 split decision cases). The clinicians cited a total of 469 reasons to support these decisions. Crowding was cited as the first reason in 49% of decisions to extract, followed by incisor protrusion (14%), need for profile correction (8%), Class II severity (5%), and achievement of a stable result (5%). When all the reasons for extraction in each clinician's decision were considered as a group, crowding was cited in 73% of decisions, incisor protrusion in 35%, need for profile correction in 27%, Class II severity in 15% and posttreatment stability in 9%. Tooth size anomalies, midline deviations, reduced growth potential, severity of overjet, maintenance of existing profile, desire to close the bite, periodontal problems, and anticipation of poor cooperation accounted collectively for 12% of the first reasons and were mentioned in 54% of the decisions, implying that these considerations play a consequential, if secondary, role in the decision-making process. All other reasons taken together were mentioned in fewer than 20% of cases. In this sample at least, clinicians focused heavily on appearance

  14. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  15. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yongjie; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing

    2009-01-01

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO 3 . In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH 50 (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems

  16. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Yongjie [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co. Ltd., Hubei, Wuhan (China)], E-mail: xueyj@mail.whut.edu.cn; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China)

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}. In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH{sub 50} (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  17. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongjie; Hou, Haobo; Zhu, Shujing

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01M NaNO(3). In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84mM in the single element system and 0.21mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH(50) (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd in single-element systems, but Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  18. Preparation of Schiff s base complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) and their spectroscopic, magnetic, thermal, and antifungal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, H.M.; Patel, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The potassium salt of salicylidene-DL-alanine (KHL), bis(benzylidene)ethylenediamine (A 1 ), thiophene-o-carboxaldene-p-toluidine (A 2 ), and its metal complexes of the formula [(M II (L)(A)(H 2 O)] (M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II); A = A 1 or A 2 ) are prepared. They are characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The electronic spectral and magnetic moment data suggest an octahedral geometry for the complexes. All of these complexes, metal nitrates, fungicides (bavistin and emcarb), and ligands are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus using a plate poison technique. The complexes show higher activity than those of the free ligands, metal nitrate, and the control (DMSO) and moderate activity against bavistin and emcarb [ru

  19. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  20. Theoretical analysis of nuclear reactors (Phase II), I-V, Part III, Reactor poisoning; Razrada metoda teorijske analize nuklearnih reaktora (II faza) I-V, III Deo, Zatrovanje reaktora, II faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-10-15

    This phase is dealing with influence of all the fission products except Xe{sup 135} on the reactivity of a reactor, usually named as reactor poisoning. The first part of the report is a review of methods for calculation of reactor poisoning. The second part shows the most frequently used method for calculation of cross sections and yields of pseudo products (for thermal neutrons). The system of equations was adopted dependent on the conditions of the available computer system. It is described in part three. Detailed method for their application is described in part four and results obtained are presented in part five.

  1. Metabolic engineering of an ATP-neutral Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum: growth restoration by an adaptive point mutation in NADH dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komati Reddy, Gajendar; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis and gains 2 mol of ATP per mol of glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). To engineer glycolysis without net ATP formation by SLP, endogenous phosphorylating NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was replaced by nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which irreversibly converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) without generating ATP. As shown recently (S. Takeno, R. Murata, R. Kobayashi, S. Mitsuhashi, and M. Ikeda, Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7154-7160, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01464-10), this ATP-neutral, NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway did not allow for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with glucose as the sole carbon source unless hitherto unknown suppressor mutations occurred; however, these mutations were not disclosed. In the present study, a suppressor mutation was identified, and it was shown that heterologous expression of udhA encoding soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli partly restored growth, suggesting that growth was inhibited by NADPH accumulation. Moreover, genome sequence analysis of second-site suppressor mutants that were able to grow faster with glucose revealed a single point mutation in the gene of non-proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-II) leading to the amino acid change D213G, which was shared by these suppressor mutants. Since related NDH-II enzymes accepting NADPH as the substrate possess asparagine or glutamine residues at this position, D213G, D213N, and D213Q variants of C. glutamicum NDH-II were constructed and were shown to oxidize NADPH in addition to NADH. Taking these findings together, ATP-neutral glycolysis by the replacement of endogenous NAD-dependent GAPDH with NADP-dependent GapN became possible via oxidation of NADPH formed in this pathway by mutant NADPH

  2. SASSYS validation with the EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    SASSYS is a coupled neutronic and thermal hydraulic code developed for the analysis of transients in liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). The code is especially suited for evaluating of normal reactor transients -- protected (design basis) and unprotected (anticipated transient without scram) transients. Because SASSYS is heavily used in support of the IFR concept and of innovative LMR designs, such as PRISM, a strong validation base for the code must exist. Part of the validation process for SASSYS is analysis of experiments performed on operating reactors, such as the metal fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor -- II (EBR-II). During the course of a series of historic whole-plant experiments, EBR-II illustrated key safety features of metal fueled LMRs. These experiments, the Shutdown Heat Removal Tests (SHRT), culminated in unprotected loss of flow and loss of heat sink transients from full power and flow. Analysis of these and earlier SHRT experiments constitutes a vital part of SASSYS validation, because it facilitates scrutiny of specific SASSYS models and of integrated code capability. 12 refs., 11 figs

  3. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  4. Managing the professional nurse. Part I. The organizational theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, M L

    1984-02-01

    How do employment organizations outside the hospital field deal with issues such as staff productivity, motivation, burnout, and high turnover? In Part I of this two-part article, the author presents an overview of modern management theory and practice, drawn from the literature on organizational behavior. She shows how nursing administrators can use this scholarly foundation to better understand the organizing principles and problems of their departments. In Part II (to be published in March 1984), the author applies these classic and relevant theories to the specific challenges that face the manager of professional nurses.

  5. MAPLE-II. A program for plotting fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.; Van Den Muyzenberg, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The MAPLE II code is an improved version of the MAPLE program for plotting fault trees. MAPLE II has added features which make it a versatile tool for drawing large and complex logic trees. The code is developed as part of a package for computer aided fault tree construction and analysis in which it is integrated and used as a documentation tool. However the MAPLE II code can be used as a separate program which uses as input a structure function of a tree and a description of the events and gates which make up the tree. This report includes a short description of the code and of its features. Moreover it contains the how-to-use and some indications for implementing the code and for adapting it to different graphics systems

  6. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Club Restaurant Operations, Part II, 9-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    These programmed instructional materials for part 2 of a secondary-postsecondary subcourse in club management operations are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian settings. This part of the subcourse consists of three lessons and an…

  7. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  8. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II complexes with paracetamol drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamen S. Refat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II with paracetamol drug were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, UV–Vis, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis, as well as screened for antimicrobial activity. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as paracetamol behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. From the microanalytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes reacts with Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II by molar ratios (2:1 (paracetamol:metal ion. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG of the complexes was studied. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened against both of antibacterial and fungicidal activities.

  9. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II: Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II. We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I. Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting.

  10. Angiotensin II up-regulates PAX2 oncogene expression and activity in prostate cancer via the angiotensin II type I receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sudeep K; Gibson, Willietta; Giri, Shailendra; Nath, Narender; Donald, Carlton D

    2009-09-01

    Paired homeobox 2 gene (PAX2) is a transcriptional regulator, aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and its down-regulation promotes cell death in these cells. The molecular mechanisms of tumor progression by PAX2 over-expression are still unclear. However, it has been reported that angiotensin-II (A-II) induces cell growth in prostate cancer via A-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and is mediated by the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here we have demonstrated that A-II up-regulates PAX2 expression in prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines resulting in increased cell growth. Furthermore, AT1R receptor antagonist losartan was shown to inhibit A-II induced PAX2 expression in prostate cancer. Moreover, analysis using pharmacological inhibitors against MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JAK-II, and phospho-STAT3 demonstrated that AT1R-mediated stimulatory effect of A-II on PAX2 expression was regulated in part by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JAK II, and STAT3 pathways. In addition, we have showed that down-regulation of PAX2 by an AT1R antagonist as well as JAK-II and STAT3 inhibitors suppress prostate cancer cell growth. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote prostate tumorigenesis via up-regulation of PAX2 expression. Therefore, PAX2 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of carcinomas such as prostate cancer via the down-regulation of its expression by targeting the AT1R signaling pathways.

  11. 21 CFR 316.1 - Scope of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drugs for rare diseases or conditions, including biological products and antibiotics. This part sets... for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions; (ii) Requests for designation of a drug for a rare disease or condition; and (iii) Requests for gaining exclusive approval for a drug product...

  12. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-06-01

    The Summary Report of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors contains the Minutes of the Meeting (Part I); the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting (Part II); and the discussions on the review of the national programmes (Part III)

  13. Um exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos: parte II A survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bitran

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a segunda (e última parte do nosso exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos. Nosso enfoque é em modelos de projeto e planejamento de job-shops. Na primeira parte (BITRAN & MORABITO, 1995b revisamos métodos de decomposição exatos e aproximados para modelos de avaliação de desempenho em sistemas com múltiplas classes de produtos e diversas estações de trabalho. Nesta segunda parte examinamos modelos de otimização de três categorias de problemas: a primeira minimiza o investimento de capital de maneira a atingir uma medida de desempenho (estoque em processo ou leadtime, a segunda busca otimizar a medida de desempenho sujeito às restrições de recursos, e a terceira explora resultados de pesquisas recentes com a redução de complexidade mediante reprojeto da planta e da partição de produtos.This paper presents the second (and last part of our survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems. We focus on design and planning for job-shops. In the first part (Bitran and Morabito, 1995b we reviewed exact and approximate decomposition methods for performance evaluation models for single and multiple product class systems. The second part reviews optimization models of three categories of problems: the first minimizes capital investment subject to attaining a performance measure (WIP or leadtime, the second seeks to optimize the performance measure subject to resource constraints, and the third explores recent research developments in complexity reduction through shop redesign and products partitioning.

  14. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Traditionally power distribution networks are either not observable or only partially observable. This complicates development and implementation of new smart grid technologies, such as those related to demand response, outage detection and management, and improved load-monitoring. In this two part paper, inspired by proliferation of the metering technology, we discuss estimation problems in structurally loopy but operationally radial distribution grids from measurements, e.g. voltage data, which are either already available or can be made available with a relatively minor investment. In Part I, the objective is to learn the operational layout of the grid. Part II of this paper presents algorithms that estimate load statistics or line parameters in addition to learning the grid structure. Further, Part II discusses the problem of structure estimation for systems with incomplete measurement sets. Our newly suggested algorithms apply to a wide range of realistic scenarios. The algorithms are also computationally efficient – polynomial in time– which is proven theoretically and illustrated computationally on a number of test cases. The technique developed can be applied to detect line failures in real time as well as to understand the scope of possible adversarial attacks on the grid.

  15. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report 1987. Volume 2, Part B. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    1978. Williams. B.C. Qualitative Analysis of MOS Circuits. Artificial Inteligence . 1984. 24.. Wilson. K. From Association to Structure. Amsterdam:North...D-A208 378 RADC-TR-88-324, Vol II (of nine), Part B Interim Report March 1969 4. NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT 1987...II (of nine), Part B 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial (ff ’aolicbl

  16. 50 CFR 23.4 - What are Appendices I, II, and III?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF... of Appendix-I, -II, and -III species and their parts, products, and derivatives through a system of...

  17. Testing the Gossamer Albatross II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Gossamer Albatross II is seen here during a test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The original Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. The Albatross II was the backup craft for the Channel flight. It was fitted with a small battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program in low-speed flight. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II and began analysis of the results in April, 1980. During the six week program, 17 actual data gathering flights and 10 other flights were flown here as part of the joint NASA Langley/Dryden flight research program. The lightweight craft, carrying a miniaturized instrumentation system, was flown in three configurations; using human power, with a small electric motor, and towed with the propeller removed. Results from the program contributed to data on the unusual aerodynamic, performance, stability, and control characteristics of large, lightweight aircraft that fly at slow speeds for application to future high altitude aircraft. The Albatross' design and research data contributed to numerous later high altitude projects, including the Pathfinder.

  18. Museums and Philosophy--Of Art, and Many Other Things. Part 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This two-part article examines the very limited engagement by philosophers with museums, and proposes analysis under six headings: cultural variety, taxonomy, and epistemology in Part I, and teleology, ethics, and therapeutics and aesthetics in Part II. The article establishes that fundamental categories of museums established in the 19th century – of art, of anthropology, of history, of natural history, of science and technology – still persist. Among them, it distinguishes between hegemonic...

  19. Solar photocatalytic removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II): Speciation modeling of metal-citric acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabra, Kavita; Chaudhary, Rubina; Sawhney, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is targeted on solar photocatalytic removal of metal ions from wastewater. Photoreductive deposition and dark adsorption of metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), using solar energy irradiated TiO 2 , has been investigated. Citric acid has been used as a hole scavenger. Modeling of metal species has been performed and speciation is used as a tool for discussing the photodeposition trends. Ninety-seven percent reductive deposition was obtained for copper. The deposition values of other metals were significantly low [nickel (36.4%), zinc (22.2%) and lead (41.4%)], indicating that the photocatalytic treatment process, using solar energy, was more suitable for wastewater containing Cu(II) ions. In absence of citric acid, the decreasing order deposition was Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Zn(II), which proves the theoretical thermodynamic predictions about the metals

  20. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  1. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Catherine R; McNamara, Anne V; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Nelson, David E; White, Mike R; Watson, Alastair J M; Jenkins, John R

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90-topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.

  2. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  3. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES and H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the

  4. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  5. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  6. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Paeivioe, Josefin [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles.

  7. Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CARDOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  9. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  10. Sequestration of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) by ethyleneimine immobilized on silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Luiza N.H.; Alves, Ana Paula M.; Silva Filho, Edson C. da; Fonseca, Maria G.; Oliveira, Severino F.; Espinola, Jose Geraldo P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic data on interaction of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) with silica modified with ethyleneimine are obtained by calorimetric titration. The amount of ethyleneimine anchored on silica surface was estimated to be 0.70 mmol g -1 . The enthalpies of binding Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II), are -3.59 ± 0.001, -4.88 ± 0.001, and -7.75 ± 0.003 kJ mol -1 , respectively

  11. Acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses. An effective factor of some symbiotic organisms against an abnormal fermentation. [Torula utilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shige, A; Kinoshita, S; Okumura, T

    1954-01-01

    There were three types of industrial acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses; one of them, called B type, was characterized by the extremely prolonged acidity peak, and sluggishness experiments were carried out to find some symbiotic organisms among various aerobic bacteria and yeasts for several strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Torula utilis showed an outstanding effectiveness for a rapid completion of the fermentation, and the yields of solvents was much increased. Culture filtrate of T. utilis contained a soluble and invertase activity. A close relation was found between high yields of solvents and the degree of inversion of molasses medium. Thus, the effective factor against sluggishness was ascribed to the invertase activity of the yeast. Some inhibiting factors to invertase of C. acetobutylicum were presumed to be present in molasses as the principal cause of the sluggishness.

  12. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results

  13. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  14. Formal system of communication and understanding. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsuzsanna, M

    1982-01-01

    For pt.I see IBID., no.5, p.252-8 (1982). In this article G. Pask's (1975) formal theory of dialogues and talk is summarized. Part II describes the talk-environment and modelling. The conscious systems and machine-intelligence are mainly dealt with. Finally a couple of cases with Pask's theory implemented are looked at. 7 references.

  15. Technical realisation of the VISA-II project, phase I, part IV, IZ-165-o268-1962; Tehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-II, I faza (I-V), IV deo, IZ-165-o268-1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-12-15

    Project VISA-II is described in IX chapters as follows: introduction, definition of experiments and possibilities of performance; VISA-II channel, new experimental space in the RA reactor; hydraulic tests in the VISA-II channel; measurement of fast neutron and gamma flux in VISA-II channels; measurement of water flow through different VISA-2 irradiation capsules; fabrication of VISA-II capsules; corrosion and heavy water purity problems; safety problems of experiment VISA-2; experimental operation of VISA-II. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-II project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. [Serbo-Croat] Projekat VISA-2 opisan je u sledecih IX poglavlja: uvod, definicija eksperimenta VISA-2 i mogucnost njegovog izvodjenja; kanal VISA-2 novi eksperimentalni prostor u reaktoru RA; hidraulicna ispitivanja na tehnoloskom kanalu VISA-2; Realizacija merenja fluksa brzih neutrona i gama zracenja u kanalima VISA-2; merenje protoka vode kroz razne tipove kapsula VISA-2; Kapsule VISA-2 i njihova realizacija; problemi korozije i cistoce teske vode u projektu VISA-2; problemi sigurnosti eksperimenta VISA-2; probni pogon eksperimenta VISA-2. Ova VI glava elaborata sadrzi dokumentaciju za svaku vrstu kapsula, preglednu sliku o svakom eksperimentu u okviru projekta VISA-2, o njegovom cilju i nameni kao i o eksperimentalnom uredjaju.

  16. Nonterminals, homomorphisms and codings in different variations of OL-systems. II. Nondeterministic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Rozenberg, Grzegorz; Salomaa, Arto

    1974-01-01

    Continuing the work begun in Part I of this paper, we consider now variations of nondeterministic OL-systems. The present Part II of the paper contains a systematic classification of the effect of nonterminals, codings, weak codings, nonerasing homomorphisms and homomorphisms for all basic variat...

  17. Planning and conducting meetings effectively, part I: planning a meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay

    2011-12-01

    Meetings are held by leaders for many purposes, including conveying information, raising morale, asking for opinions, brain storming, making people part of the problem-solving process, building trust, getting to a consensus, and making decisions. However, many meetings waste time, some undermine the leader's power, and some decrease morale. Part I of this series of articles gives some tips on basic planning for decision-making meetings. Part II of this series of articles analyzes selected components of decision-making meetings. Part III of this series will be on how the chairperson keeps decision-making meetings on track to make them efficient and productive.

  18. Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This

  19. Embedded SoPC design with NIOS II processor and VHDL examples

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Pong P

    2011-01-01

    The book is divided into four major parts. Part I covers HDL constructs and synthesis of basic digital circuits. Part II provides an overview of embedded software development with the emphasis on low-level I/O access and drivers. Part III demonstrates the design and development of hardware and software for several complex I/O peripherals, including PS2 keyboard and mouse, a graphic video controller, an audio codec, and an SD (secure digital) card. Part IV provides three case studies of the integration of hardware accelerators, including a custom GCD (greatest common divisor) circuit, a Mandelb

  20. Integration of new nuclear power plants into transmission grids part I: Transmission system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi-Samra, N.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of new nuclear plants into a transmission system is a two sided problem. On one side, adding the nuclear plant into an existing grid will change the attributes of that grid: e.g., loading of certain transmission lines will increase; voltages will be affected, etc. On the other side, the grid itself will affect the plant, and the plant needs to be designed to accommodate the specifics of the grid. Based on that, this paper is divided into two parts. Part I addresses the grid issues with the integration of the new plant, with emphasis on the electrical aspects of these issues. Part II of this paper, concentrates on the vulnerability of the plant from grid disturbances. Part II reintroduces a relatively new concept by this author called the Zone of Vulnerability (ZoV) for the new nuclear plants. (authors)