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Sample records for acetoacetyl coa thiolase

  1. Cloning, Expression and Purification of an Acetoacetyl CoA Thiolase from Sunflower Cotyledon

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    James H. Dyer, Anthony Maina, Iris D. Gomez, Melissa Cadet, Silke Oeljeklaus, Anke C. Schiedel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiolase I and II coexist as part of the glyoxysomal β-oxidation system in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cotyledons, the only system shown to have both forms. The importance of thiolases can be underscored not only by their ubiquity, but also by their involvement in a wide variety of processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Here we describe the cloning, expression and purification of acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT in enzymatically active form. Use of the extensive amount of sequence information from the databases facilitated the efficient generation of the gene-specific primers used in the RACE protocols. The recombinant AACT (1233 bp shares 75% similarity with other plant AACTs. Comparison of specific activity of this recombinant AACT to a previously reported enzyme purified from primary sunflower cotyledon tissue was very similar (263 nkat/mg protein vs 220 nkat/mg protein, respectively. Combining the most pure fractions from the affinity column, the enzyme was purified 88-fold with a 55% yield of the enzymatically active, 47 kDa AACT.

  2. Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-06-01

    Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl CoA. Two AACT-encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T-DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl CoA precursor required for the cytosol-localized, mevalonate-derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

  3. The first case of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency identified by expanded newborn metabolic screening in Italy: the importance of an integrated diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Catanzano, Francesca; Ombrone, Daniela; Di Stefano, Cristina; Rossi, Anna; Nosari, Norberto; Scolamiero, Emanuela; Tandurella, Igor; Frisso, Giulia; Parenti, Giancarlo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Andria, Generoso; Salvatore, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A pilot expanded newborn screening programme to detect inherited metabolic disorders by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) began in the Campania region, southern Italy, in 2007. By October 2009, >8,800 dried blood samples on filter paper from 11 hospitals had been screened. Within this screening programme, we identified a case of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thiolase deficiency [β-ketothiolase (β-KT) deficiency] by analysing the acylc...

  4. A common mutation, R208X, identified in Vietnamese patients with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukao, Toshiyuki; Hoan Thi Nguyen, [No Value; Nhan Thu Nguyen, [No Value; Dung Chi Vu, [No Value; Ngoc Thi Bich Can, [No Value; Anh Thi Van Pham, [No Value; Khanh Ngoc Nguyen, [No Value; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yuki; Thao Phuong Bui, [No Value; Niezen-Koning, Kary E.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; de Koning, Tom; Liem Thanh Nguyen, [No Value; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Kondo, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (12) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting isoleucine catabolism and ketone body utilization. This disorder is clinically characterized by intermittent keto-acidotic episodes with no clinical symptoms between episodes. In general, 12 gene mutati

  5. Generation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from acetate in higher plants: Detection of acetoacetyl CoA reductase- and PHB synthase- activities in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirohisa; Shiraki, Mari; Inoue, Eri; Saito, Terumi

    2016-08-20

    It has been reported that Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is generated from acetate in the rice root. However, no information is available about the biosynthetic pathway of PHB from acetate in plant cells. In the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 (R. eutropha), PHB is synthesized from acetyl CoA by the consecutive reaction of three enzymes: β-ketothiolase (EC: 2.3.1.9), acetoacetyl CoA reductase (EC: 1.1.1.36) and PHB synthase (EC: 2.3.1.-). Thus, in this study, we examined whether the above three enzymatic activities were also detected in rice seedlings. The results clearly showed that the activities of the above three enzymes were all detected in rice. In particular, the PHB synthase activity was detected specifically in the sonicated particulate fractions (2000g 10min precipitate (ppt) and the 8000g 30min ppt) of rice roots and leaves. In addition to these enzyme activities, several new experimental results were obtained on PHB synthesis in higher plants: (a) (14)C-PHB generated from 2-(14)C-acetate was mainly localized in the 2000g 10min ppt and the 8000g 30min ppt of rice root. (b) Addition of acetate (0.1-10mM) to culture medium of rice seedlings did not increase the content of PHB in the rice root or leaf. (c) In addition to C3 plants, PHB was generated from acetate in a C4 plant (corn) and in a CAM plant (Bryophyllum pinnatum). d) Washing with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) strongly suggested that the PHB synthesized from acetate was of plant origin and was not bacterial contamination.

  6. Degradation of aromatics and chloroaromatics by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13: purification and characterization of 3-oxoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) transferase and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschabek, Stefan R; Kuhn, Bernd; Müller, Dagmar; Schmidt, Eberhard; Reineke, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of 3-oxoadipate in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 was investigated and was shown to proceed through 3-oxoadipyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to give acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. 3-Oxoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase of strain B13 was purified by heat treatment and chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and Superose 6 gels. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave a value of 115,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 12 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions resulted in two distinct bands of equal intensities. The subunit A and B values were 32,900 and 27,000 Da. Therefore it can be assumed that the enzyme is a heterotetramer of the type A2B2 with a molecular mass of 120,000 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both subunits are as follows: subunit A, AELLTLREAVERFVNDGTVALEGFTHLIPT; subunit B, SAYSTNEMMTVAAARRLKNGAVVFV. The pH optimum was 8.4. Km values were 0.4 and 0.2 mM for 3-oxoadipate and succinyl-CoA, respectively. Reversibility of the reaction with succinate was shown. The transferase of strain B13 failed to convert 2-chloro- and 2-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Some activity was observed with 4-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Even 2-oxoadipate and 3-oxoglutarate were shown to function as poor substrates of the transferase. 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, blue 3GA, and reactive brown-agarose. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave 162,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 6 column. The molecular mass of the subunit of the denatured protein, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 42 kDa. On the basis of these results, 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase should be a tetramer of the type A4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was determined to be SREVYI-DAVRTPIGRFG. The pH optimum was 7.8. Km values were 0.15 and 0.01 mM for 3-oxoadipyl-CoA and CoA, respectively. Sequence analysis of the thiolase terminus revealed high percentages of identity

  7. Acetoacetylation of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓锋; 高彦芳; 杜奕; 刘德山

    2002-01-01

    The acetoacetyl group can be used to improve superabsorbent resins since it is more active than the hydroxyethyl group. The acetoacetyl group can be introduced into the side group of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) to activate HEC using the ester exchange reaction between HEC and ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) to improve HEC grafting. This paper discusses the main factors affecting the reaction, such as the amount of EAA and catalyzer, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The acetoacetyl group was successfully introduced into HEC. Within specified ranges, increasing the amount of EAA, the reaction temperature and the reaction time will increase the acetoacetylation.

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a thiolase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yonghong; Li, Jilun

    2006-08-01

    A thl gene encoding the thiolase (EC 2.3.1.9) of Clostridium pasteurianum was cloned by thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR. It consists of 1179 bp with 36.8% GC content and encodes 392 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 40,954 Da and shows 77% identity and 88% similarity to that of Clostridium tetani E88 and should be classified as a biosynthetic thiolase with three conserved residues Cys89, Cys382 and His352. The gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the thiolase was purified with Ni-NTA agarose column to homogeneity. The K(m) of this thiolase for acetoacetyl-CoA is 0.13 mM with 0.06 mM CoASH at pH 8.2, 25 degrees C and a V(max) value of 46 micromol min(-1) mg(-1).

  9. Analysis of acyl CoA ester intermediates of the mevalonate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seker, Tamay; Møller, Kasper; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    The mevalonate pathway plays an important role in providing the cell with a number of essential precursors for the synthesis of biomass constituents. With respect to their chemical structure, the metabolites of this pathway can be divided into two groups: acyl esters [acetoacetyl CoA, acetyl Co...

  10. COAs: Behind the Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Szifra

    1993-01-01

    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  11. [Mitochondrial 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kremer, R D; de Boldini, C D; Kelley, R I; Civallero, G E

    1997-01-01

    From the description of two pairs of siblings belonging to unrelated families, one Argentine family with a history of consanguinity and Irish ancestry and the other family native of Paraguay, in whom mitochondrial 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency, commonly known as beta-ketothiolase deficiency (beta-KTD, McKusick 203750; EC 2.3.1.9) was recognized. We tried to outline through this experience the clinical and biochemical consequences of this genetic defect in the 6th step of the isoleucine catabolism. The phenotyoic expression presented by the patients belonged to the classical form of beta-KTD. Seven to 15 months was the age at onset of the uniform clinical pattern this being essentially an association of one or several severe ketoacidotic episodes and hyperglycemia which was observed in two patients. The thin-layer chromatography of the tiglylglycine, and dinitrophenylhydrazone of the butanone were positive; aminoacidemia and aminoaciduria revealed normal levels. The organic acids having a unique profile obtained through gaschromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) showed excretion of large quantities of metabolites characteristic of the disease: 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutirate, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, tiglylglycine and 2-ethylhydracrilic acid which led us to establish the biochemical diagnosis of beta-KTD. The assay of the beta-ketothiolase in lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the only surviving patient (VT) showed absence of activation by the K+ ion when the acetoacetyl-CoA was used as a substrate. This first Argentine report about beta-KTD leads us to mention three amplifying aspects with regards to previous literature: it adds other different ethnic ancestries of patients, points out a morphological analysis of autopsy material with unchanged structures in the brain, liver and kidneys and marks in the patient VT a dissociation between a symptom-free clinical pattern since age 7 and the persistent biochemical abnormality until the

  12. Crystal structure of a monomeric thiolase-like protein type 1 (TLP1 from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

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    Neelanjana Janardan

    Full Text Available An analysis of the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome suggests that it codes for several thiolases and thiolase-like proteins. Thiolases are an important family of enzymes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism. They occur as either dimers or tetramers. Thiolases catalyze the Claisen condensation of two acetyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the synthetic direction and the thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the degradative direction. Some of the M. smegmatis genes have been annotated as thiolases of the poorly characterized SCP2-thiolase subfamily. The mammalian SCP2-thiolase consists of an N-terminal thiolase domain followed by an additional C-terminal domain called sterol carrier protein-2 or SCP2. The M. smegmatis protein selected in the present study, referred to here as the thiolase-like protein type 1 (MsTLP1, has been biochemically and structurally characterized. Unlike classical thiolases, MsTLP1 is a monomer in solution. Its structure has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution by the single wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The structure of the protomer confirms that the N-terminal domain has the thiolase fold. An extra C-terminal domain is indeed observed. Interestingly, it consists of six β-strands forming an anti-parallel β-barrel which is completely different from the expected SCP2-fold. Detailed sequence and structural comparisons with thiolases show that the residues known to be essential for catalysis are not conserved in MsTLP1. Consistent with this observation, activity measurements show that MsTLP1 does not catalyze the thiolase reaction. This is the first structural report of a monomeric thiolase-like protein from any organism. These studies show that MsTLP1 belongs to a new group of thiolase related proteins of unknown function.

  13. Molecular cloning, gene structure and expression profile of two mouse peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes

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    Latruffe Norbert

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, two peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes (A and B have been cloned, whereas only one thiolase gene is found in humans. The aim of this study was thus to clone the different mouse thiolase genes in order to study both their tissue expression and their associated enzymatic activity. Results In this study, we cloned and characterized two mouse peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes (termed thiolase A and B. Both thiolase A and B genes contain 12 exons and 11 introns. Using RNA extracted from mouse liver, we cloned the two corresponding cDNAs. Thiolase A and B cDNAs possess an open reading frame of 1272 nucleotides encoding a protein of 424 amino acids. In the coding sequence, the two thiolase genes exhibited ≈97% nucleotide sequence identity and ≈96% identity at the amino acid level. The tissue-specific expression of the two peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes was studied in mice. Thiolase A mRNA was mainly expressed in liver and intestine, while thiolase B mRNA essentially exhibited hepatic expression and weaker levels in kidney, intestine and white adipose tissue. Thiolase A and B expressions in the other tissues such as brain or muscle were very low though these tissues were chiefly involved in peroxisomal disorders. At the enzymatic level, thiolase activity was detected in liver, kidney, intestine and white adipose tissue but no significant difference was observed between these four tissues. Moreover, thiolase A and B genes were differently induced in liver of mice treated with fenofibrate. Conclusion Two mouse thiolase genes and cDNAs were cloned. Their corresponding transcripts are mostly expressed in the liver of mice and are differently induced by fenofibrate.

  14. Representing COA with Probabilistic Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Situation   Assesment   Mission   Analysis   Decision   COA   Analysis   Execution   Outcomes    Updates   semi-automated planning of...planning process occurs to define which missions to accomplish totally or partially given the existing guidance and available resources . In general...handle all the resources available of many different organizations under its operational control. Each planning level (i.e., operational or tactical

  15. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production: effects of CoA transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Zhao, Jingbo; Xu, Mengmeng; Dong, Jie; Varghese, Saju; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-06-01

    The overexpression of CoA transferase (ctfAB), which catalyzes the reaction: acetate/butyrate + acetoacetyl-CoA → acetyl/butyryl-CoA + acetoacetate, was studied for its effects on acid reassimilation and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). The plasmid pMTL007 was used to co-express adhE2 and ctfAB from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In addition, the sol operon containing ctfAB, adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and ald (aldehyde dehydrogenase) was also cloned from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). Mutants expressing these genes were evaluated for their ability to produce butanol from glucose in batch fermentations at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Compared to C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2) without expressing ctfAB, all mutants with ctfAB overexpression produced more butanol, with butanol yield increased to 0.22 - 0.26 g/g (vs. 0.10 - 0.13 g/g) and productivity to 0.35 g/l h (vs. 0.13 g/l h) because of the reduced acetate and butyrate production. The expression of ctfAB also resulted in acetone production from acetoacetate through a non-enzymatic decarboxylation.

  16. Immobilization of biocatalysts using crosslinked acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels. Acetoacetyl ka polyvinyl alcohol kakyo suisei gel ni yoru seitai shokubai no kateika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M.; Mannen, T. (Food Research Institute, Aichi Prefectural Government, Nagoya (Japan)); Shimokawa, w.; Fukumori, k. (Hoechst Gosei Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1991-09-25

    In order to develop crosslinked hydrogels competent for immobilization of biocatalysts, gelation of acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol (AA-PVA) and immobilization of biocatalysts using the gel were investigated. AA-PVA solution formed crosslinked hydrogels when it was treated with bifunctional gelating agents such as albehyde and hydrazide. Since the gelating times were adjustable at appropriate pH, the hydrogels were able to be formed in various shapes such as granules and thin films. The appearance of the hydrogels was similar to calcium alginate gels, and they were stable under conditions which would cause decomposition of the latter. Acetic acid fermentation by immobilized growing cells were tested using the hydrogels, and then acetic acid productivity up to 3.7 g{center dot} l{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h {minus}1 and stability over six months were exhibited. In addition, activities of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase using the hydrogels were measured. As the results, the hydrogels were concluded to be useful as immpbilization supports for microorganisms and enzymes. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. CoaSim Guile Manual — Using the Guile-based CoaSim Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples...

  18. Getting Started with CoaSim — An Introduction to the Simulator CoaSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2005-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples...

  19. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1992-11-16

    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 [mu]M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 [mu]M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K[sub i] for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

  20. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  1. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic33 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland mosaic...

  2. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservativel Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic66 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland land...

  3. Mutations in COA6 cause cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertling, Fabian; A M van den Brand, Mariel; Hertecant, Jozef L; Al-Shamsi, Aisha; P van den Heuvel, Lambert; Distelmaier, Felix; Mayatepek, Ertan; Smeitink, Jan A; Nijtmans, Leo G J; Rodenburg, Richard J T

    2015-01-01

    COA6/C1ORF31 is involved in cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) biogenesis. We present a new pathogenic COA6 variant detected in a patient with neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and isolated complex IV deficiency. For the first time, clinical details about a COA6-deficient patient are given and patient fibroblasts are functionally characterized: COA6 protein is undetectable and steady-state levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates. Using pulse-chase experiments, we demonstrate an increased turnover of mitochondrial encoded complex IV subunits. Although monomeric complex IV is decreased in patient fibroblasts, the CI/CIII2 /CIVn -supercomplexes remain unaffected. Copper supplementation shows a partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. We conclude that COA6 is required for complex IV subunit stability. Furthermore, the proposed role in the copper delivery pathway to complex IV subunits is substantiated and a therapeutic lead for COA6-deficient patients is provided.

  4. Deletion of the β-acetoacetyl synthase FabY in Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces hypoacylation of lipopolysaccharide and increases antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, David A; Yuan, Yanqiu; Leeds, Jennifer A; Meredith, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    The β-acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein synthase FabY is a key enzyme in the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Deletion of fabY results in an increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa in vitro to a number of antibiotics, including vancomycin and cephalosporins. Because antibiotic susceptibility can be influenced by changes in membrane lipid composition, we determined the total fatty acid profile of the ΔfabY mutant, which suggested alterations in the lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide. The majority of lipid A species in the ΔfabY mutant lacked a single secondary lauroyl group, resulting in hypoacylated lipid A. Adding exogenous fatty acids to the growth media restored the wild-type antibiotic susceptibility profile and the wild-type lipid A fatty acid profile. We suggest that incorporation of hypoacylated lipid A species into the outer membrane contributes to the shift in the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the ΔfabY mutant.

  5. Exome sequence reveals mutations in CoA synthase as a cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Haack, Tobias B; Tsuchiya, Yugo; Venco, Paola; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Goffrini, Paola; Tigano, Marco; Demchenko, Nikita; Wieland, Thomas; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Invernizzi, Federica; Garavaglia, Barbara; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Hamada, Jeffrey; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Chiapparini, Luisa; Zorzi, Giovanna; Kurian, Manju A; Nardocci, Nardo; Prokisch, Holger; Hayflick, Susan; Gout, Ivan; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-01-02

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with progressive extrapyramidal signs and neurological deterioration, characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Exome sequencing revealed the presence of recessive missense mutations in COASY, encoding coenzyme A (CoA) synthase in one NBIA-affected subject. A second unrelated individual carrying mutations in COASY was identified by Sanger sequence analysis. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the final steps of CoA biosynthesis by coupling phosphopantetheine with ATP to form dephospho-CoA and its subsequent phosphorylation to generate CoA. We demonstrate alterations in RNA and protein expression levels of CoA synthase, as well as CoA amount, in fibroblasts derived from the two clinical cases and in yeast. This is the second inborn error of coenzyme A biosynthesis to be implicated in NBIA.

  6. Structural and docking studies of Leucaena leucocephala Cinnamoyl CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Kumar, Vikash; Kabra, Ashish; Phogat, Navneet; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Lignin, a major constituent of plant call wall, is a phenolic heteropolymer. It plays a major role in the development of plants and their defense mechanism against pathogens. Therefore Lignin biosynthesis is one of the critical metabolic pathways. In lignin biosynthesis, the Cinnamoyl CoA reductase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the pathway. Cinnamoyl CoA reductase provides the substrates which represent the main transitional molecules of lignin biosynthesis pathway, exhibits a high in vitro kinetic preference for feruloyl CoA. In present study, the three-dimensional model of cinnamoyl CoA reductase was constructed based on the crystal structure of Grape Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase. Furthermore, the docking studies were performed to understand the substrate interactions to the active site of CCR. It showed that residues ARG51, ASN52, ASP54 and ASN58 were involved in substrate binding. We also suggest that residue ARG51 in CCR is the determinant residue in competitive inhibition of other substrates. This structural and docking information have prospective implications to understand the mechanism of CCR enzymatic reaction with feruloyl CoA, however the approach will be applicable in prediction of substrates and engineering 3D structures of other enzymes as well.

  7. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  8. CoaSim: A Flexible Environment for Simulating Genetic Data under Coalescent Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2005-01-01

    get insight into these. Results We have created the CoaSim application as a flexible environment for Monte various types of genetic data under equilibrium and non-equilibrium coalescent variety of applications. Interaction with the tool is through the Guile version scripting language. Scheme scripts...... for many standard and advanced applications these can easily be modified by the user for a much wider range of applications. interface with less functionality and flexibility is also included. It is primarily exploratory and educational tool. Conclusions CoaSim is a powerful tool because of its flexibility...

  9. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017coa as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Hanjie; Li, Wenxiong; Zhang, Tianmeng; Xu, Zhijian; Yang, Zesheng; Song, Hao; Mo, Jun; Wang, Yuanhao; Zhou, Ziheng; Meng, Xianmin; Qian, Shenban; Jia, Junjun; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-840 nm) of SN 2017coa,discovered by Tsinghua-NAOC Transient Survey (TNTS), on UT Mar.31.49 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  10. Kinetic properties and inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado-Guerrrero, Ramón; Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, Andrea;

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic analysis of the recombinant soluble enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) from Trypanosoma cruzi has been performed. The enzyme catalyzes the normal anabolic reaction and the reductant is NADPH. It also catalyzes the oxidation of mevalonate but at a lower propo...

  11. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  12. A modified pathway for the production of acetone in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Maria Thum, Simone; Schaffer, Steffen; Verseck, Stefan; Dürre, Peter; Bahl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    A modified synthetic acetone operon was constructed. It consists of two genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum (thlA coding for thiolase and adc coding for acetoacetate decarboxylase) and one from Bacillus subtilis or Haemophilus influenzae (teII(srf) or ybgC, respectively, for thioesterase). Expression of this operon in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of acetone starting from the common metabolite acetyl-CoA via acetoacetyl-CoA and acetoacetate. The thioesterases do not need a CoA acceptor for acetoacetyl-CoA hydrolysis. Thus, in contrast to the classic acetone pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum and related microorganisms which employ a CoA transferase, the new pathway is acetate independent. The genetic background of the host strains was crucial. Only E. coli strains HB101 and WL3 were able to produce acetone via the modified plasmid based pathway, up to 64mM and 42mM in 5-ml cultures, respectively. Using glucose fed-batch cultures the concentration could be increased up to 122mM acetone with HB101 carrying the recombinant plasmid pUC19ayt (thioesterase from H. influenzae). The formation of acetone led to a decreased acetate production by E. coli.

  13. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  14. The oxidation of dicarboxylic acid CoA esters via peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosch, M S; Yamazaki, R K

    1989-12-18

    Evidence supporting a common peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for the coenzyme A thioesters of medium-chain-length dicarboxylic acids (DCn-CoA) and monocarboxylic acids (MCn-CoA) has been obtained. Using the mono-CoA esters of dodecanedioic acid (DC12-CoA) and lauroyl-CoA (MC12-CoA) as substrates, parallel inductions of activities and parallel increases in specific activities during purification of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (EC 1.3.99.3) from rat liver after di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate treatment were seen. The purified enzyme was used for antiserum production in rabbits; antiserum specificity was verified by immunoblot analysis. Coincident losses of oxidase activities with MC12-CoA and DC12-CoA were found in immunotitration experiments with rat liver homogenates, supporting the hypothesis that peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase is solely responsible for the oxidation of medium-chain length dicarboxylic acid substrates. Kinetic studies with purified enzyme using the mono-CoA esters of sebacic (DC10-CoA), suberic (DC8-CoA), and adipic (DC6-CoA) acids along with DC12-CoA revealed substrate inhibition. Although these substrates exhibited similar calculated Vmax values, with decreasing chain length, the combination of increasing Km values and decreasing substrate inhibition constant (Ki) caused the maximum obtainable velocity to decrease. These studies offer an explanation for the previously observed limit of the ability of peroxisomes to chain-shorten dicarboxylates and increased urinary excretion of adipic acid when peroxisomal oxidation of dicarboxylic acids is enhanced.

  15. Strategy Planning Visualization Tool (SPVT) for the Air Operations Center (AOC) Volume I: SPVT Summary and COA Sketch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    achieve the Joint Commander’s desired effects. COA Sketch supports COA analysis and comparison by     22 offering a collection of intelligent forms...Services Gateway Initiative ( OSGi ) compliant plug-in infrastructure based upon the Eclipse RCP. IOPC-X client components included the following...software needs to be written to allow dynamic update – this capability is provided by the workbench and the OSGi framework. 3.7.2 EXTERNAL INTERFACES

  16. Association between the enterotoxin production and presence of Coa, Nuc genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various sources, in Shiraz

    OpenAIRE

    Moghassem Hamidi, R; Hosseinzadeh, S; Shekarforoush, S. S.; Poormontaseri, M; Derakhshandeh, A

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the frequency of coagulase (Coa) and thermonuclease (Nuc) genes and Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (Sea) production among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various sources in Shiraz. Moreover, the correlation between the Sea gene and coagulase and thermonuclease enzymes is also considered. A total of 100 S. aureus were isolated from various sources including 40 humans, 30 animals and 30 food samples by the routine biochemical tests. The frequency of Coa...

  17. Cooperation between COA6 and SCO2 in COX2 maturation during cytochrome c oxidase assembly links two mitochondrial cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheu-Grau, David; Bareth, Bettina; Dudek, Jan; Juris, Lisa; Vögtle, F-Nora; Wissel, Mirjam; Leary, Scot C; Dennerlein, Sven; Rehling, Peter; Deckers, Markus

    2015-06-02

    Three mitochondria-encoded subunits form the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain. COX1 and COX2 contain heme and copper redox centers, which are integrated during assembly of the enzyme. Defects in this process lead to an enzyme deficiency and manifest as mitochondrial disorders in humans. Here we demonstrate that COA6 is specifically required for COX2 biogenesis. Absence of COA6 leads to fast turnover of newly synthesized COX2 and a concomitant reduction in cytochrome c oxidase levels. COA6 interacts transiently with the copper-containing catalytic domain of newly synthesized COX2. Interestingly, similar to the copper metallochaperone SCO2, loss of COA6 causes cardiomyopathy in humans. We show that COA6 and SCO2 interact and that corresponding pathogenic mutations in each protein affect complex formation. Our analyses define COA6 as a constituent of the mitochondrial copper relay system, linking defects in COX2 metallation to cardiac cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

  18. A Chemo-Enzymatic Road Map to the Synthesis of CoA Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M. Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a ubiquitous cofactor present in every known organism. The thioesters of CoA are core intermediates in many metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including polyketide biosynthesis. Synthesis of CoA-thioesters is vital for the study of CoA-dependent enzymes and pathways, but also as standards for metabolomics studies. In this work we systematically tested five chemo-enzymatic methods for the synthesis of the three most abundant acyl-CoA thioester classes in biology; saturated acyl-CoAs, α,β-unsaturated acyl-CoAs (i.e., enoyl-CoA derivatives, and α-carboxylated acyl-CoAs (i.e., malonyl-CoA derivatives. Additionally we report on the substrate promiscuity of three newly described acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that allow the simple conversion of acyl-CoAs into enoyl-CoAs. With these five methods, we synthesized 26 different CoA-thioesters with a yield of 40% or higher. The CoA esters produced range from short- to long-chain, include branched and α,β-unsaturated representatives as well as other functional groups. Based on our results we provide a general guideline to the optimal synthesis method of a given CoA-thioester in respect to its functional group(s and the commercial availability of the precursor molecule. The proposed synthetic routes can be performed in small scale and do not require special chemical equipment, making them convenient also for biological laboratories.

  19. Very long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which was accepted as infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Tuba F; Tumer, Leyla; Okur, Ilyas; Ezgu, Fatih S; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-07-15

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) (OMIM #201475) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Major phenotypic expressions are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, elevated creatinine kinase, and lipid infiltration of liver and muscle. At the same time, it is a rare cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or unexplained death in the neonatal period [1-4]. We report a patient with VLCADD whose parents were investigated for infanticide because her three previous siblings had suddenly died after normal deliveries.

  20. Insulin signaling regulates fatty acid catabolism at the level of CoA activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS. We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.

  1. CoaSim: A flexible environment for simulating genetic data under coalescent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Christian NS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coalescent simulations are playing a large role in interpreting large scale intra-specific sequence or polymorphism surveys and for planning and evaluating association studies. Coalescent simulations of data sets under different models can be compared to the actual data to test the importance of different evolutionary factors and thus get insight into these. Results We have created the CoaSim application as a flexible environment for Monte Carlo simulation of various types of genetic data under equilibrium and non-equilibrium coalescent processes for a variety of applications. Interaction with the tool is through the Guile version of the Scheme scripting language. Scheme scripts for many standard and advanced applications are provided and these can easily be modified by the user for a much wider range of applications. A graphical user interface with less functionality and flexibility is also included. It is primarily intended as an exploratory and educational tool Conclusion CoaSim is a powerful tool because of its flexibility and ease of use. This is illustrated through very varied uses of the application, e.g. evaluation of association mapping methods, parametric bootstrapping, and design and choice of markers for specific questions

  2. Association between the enterotoxin production and presence of Coa, Nuc genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various sources, in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghassem Hamidi, R; Hosseinzadeh, S; Shekarforoush, S S; Poormontaseri, M; Derakhshandeh, A

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the frequency of coagulase (Coa) and thermonuclease (Nuc) genes and Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (Sea) production among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various sources in Shiraz. Moreover, the correlation between the Sea gene and coagulase and thermonuclease enzymes is also considered. A total of 100 S. aureus were isolated from various sources including 40 humans, 30 animals and 30 food samples by the routine biochemical tests. The frequency of Coa, Nuc and Sea genes was evaluated by PCR assay. Correlation among those genes was finally evaluated by statistical analysis. The PCR results showed that the prevalence of Coa, Nuc and Sea genes was 91%, 100% and 14%, respectively. The evaluation of the enterotoxin production indicated that 78.6% of the Sea gene was expressed. The presence of enterotoxin A was not necessarily correlated to the production of toxin. As a final conclusion to detect the enterotoxigenic strains, both genotypic and phenotypic methods are highly recommended.

  3. A key role of PGC-1α transcriptional coactivator in production of VEGF by a novel angiogenic agent COA-Cl in cultured human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Junsuke; Okamoto, Ryuji; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Karita, Sakiko; Nakai, Kozo; Kubota, Yasuo; Takata, Maki; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Konishi, Ryoji; Hirano, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    We previously demonstrated a potent angiogenic effect of a newly developed adenosine-like agent namedCOA-Cl.COA-Cl exerted tube forming activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the presence of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). We therefore explored whether and howCOA-Cl modulates gene expression and protein secretion ofVEGF, a master regulator of angiogenesis, inNHDFRT-PCRandELISArevealed thatCOA-Cl upregulatedVEGF mRNAexpression and protein secretion inNHDFHIF1α(hypoxia-inducible factor 1α), a transcription factor, andPGC-1α(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γcoactivator-1α), a transcriptional coactivator, are known to positively regulate theVEGFgene. Immunoblot andRT-PCRanalyses revealed thatCOA-Cl markedly upregulated the expression ofPGC-1αprotein andmRNACOA-Cl had no effect on the expression ofHIF1αprotein andmRNAin both hypoxia and normoxia. SilencingPGC-1αgene, but notHIF1αgene, by small interferingRNAattenuated the ability ofCOA-Cl to promoteVEGFsecretion. When an N-terminal fragment ofPGC-1αwas cotransfected with its partner transcription factorERRα(estrogen-related receptor-α) inCOS-7 cells,COA-Cl upregulated the expression of the endogenousVEGF mRNA However,COA-Cl had no effect on the expression ofVEGF, whenHIF1αwas transfected.COA-Cl inducesVEGFgene expression and protein secretion in fibroblasts. The transcriptional coactivatorPGC-1α, in concert withERRα, plays a key role in theCOA-Cl-inducedVEGFproduction.COA-Cl-induced activation ofPGC-1α-ERRα-VEGFpathway has a potential as a novel means for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  4. A Case of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Associated with 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG CoA Lyase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. C. Leung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA lyase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by impairment of ketogenesis and leucine catabolism resulting in an organic acidopathy. In 1994, a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and fatal arrhythmia was reported in a 7-month-old infant. We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with HMG CoA lyase deficiency in a 23-year-old man with the acute presentation of heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in an adult.

  5. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Is Dispensable for CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Differentiation of T cells is closely associated with dynamic changes in nutrient and energy metabolism. However, the extent to which specific metabolic pathways and molecular components are determinative of CD8+ T cell fate remains unclear. It has been previously established in various tissues that acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2 regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO in mitochondria. Here, we explore the cell-intrinsic role of ACC2 in T cell immunity in response to infections. We report here that ACC2 deficiency results in a marginal increase of cellular FAO in CD8+ T cells, but does not appear to influence antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cell responses during infection with listeria or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These results suggest that ACC2 is dispensable for CD8+ T cell responses.

  6. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase in complex with the feedback inhibitor CoA reveals only one active-site conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wubben, T.; Mesecar, A.D. (Purdue); (UIC)

    2014-10-02

    Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) catalyzes the penultimate step in the coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway, reversibly transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to 4'-phosphopantetheine to form dephosphocoenzyme A (dPCoA). To complement recent biochemical and structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPAT (MtPPAT) and to provide further insight into the feedback regulation of MtPPAT by CoA, the X-ray crystal structure of the MtPPAT enzyme in complex with CoA was determined to 2.11 {angstrom} resolution. Unlike previous X-ray crystal structures of PPAT-CoA complexes from other bacteria, which showed two distinct CoA conformations bound to the active site, only one conformation of CoA is observed in the MtPPAT-CoA complex.

  7. Model simulations of cooking organic aerosol (COA) over the UK using estimates of emissions based on measurements at two sites in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Riinu; Vieno, Massimo; Allan, James D.; Reis, Stefan; Nemitz, Eiko; Young, Dominique E.; Coe, Hugh; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Heal, Mathew R.

    2016-11-01

    Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is currently not included in European emission inventories. However, recent positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements have suggested important contributions of COA in several European cities. In this study, emissions of COA were estimated for the UK, based on hourly AMS measurements of COA made at two sites in London (a kerbside site in central London and an urban background site in a residential area close to central London) for the full calendar year of 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Iteration of COA emissions estimates and subsequent evaluation and sensitivity experiments were conducted with the EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport modelling system with a horizontal resolution of 5 km × 5 km. The spatial distribution of these emissions was based on workday population density derived from the 2011 census data. The estimated UK annual COA emission was 7.4 Gg per year, which is an almost 10 % addition to the officially reported UK national total anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 (82 Gg in 2012), corresponding to 320 mg person-1 day-1 on average. Weekday and weekend diurnal variation in COA emissions were also based on the AMS measurements. Modelled concentrations of COA were then independently evaluated against AMS-derived COA measurements from another city and time period (Manchester, January-February 2007), as well as with COA estimated by a chemical mass balance model of measurements for a 2-week period at the Harwell rural site (˜ 80 km west of central London). The modelled annual average contribution of COA to ambient particulate matter (PM) in central London was between 1 and 2 µg m-3 (˜ 20 % of total measured OA1) and between 0.5 and 0.7 µg m-3 in other major cities in England (Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds). It was also shown that cities smaller than London can have a central hotspot of population density of smaller area than the

  8. Biotin deficiency in the cat and the effect on hepatic propionyl CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C J; Morris, J G

    1977-02-01

    Biotin deficiency was produced in growing kittens by feeding a diet containing dried, raw egg white. After receiving either an 18.5% egg white diet for 25 weeks, or a 32% egg white diet for 12 weeks, they exhibited dermal lesions characterized by alopecia, scaly dermatitis and achromotrichia, which increased in severity with the deficiency. Females developed accumulations of dried salivary, nasal and lacrymal secretions in the facial region although a male did not. There was a loss of body weight in all cats as the deficiency progressed. Hepatic propionyl CoA carboxylase activities were measured on biopsy samples of liver during biotin deficiency and after biotin supplementation. In the deficient state, activities were 4% and 24% of that following biotin supplementation. Propionyl carboxylase activity in the liver of the cat was comparable to that reported in the rat and chick in the deficient and normal states. Subcutaneous injection of 0.25 mg biotin every other day while continuing to receive the egg white diet caused remission of clinical signs, a body weight gain and increased food intake.

  9. Mutations underlying 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Lyase deficiency in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Mohammed S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaric aciduria (3HMG, McKusick: 246450 is an autosomal recessive branched chain organic aciduria caused by deficiency of the enzyme 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL, HMGCL, EC 4.1.3.4. HL is encoded by HMGCL gene and many mutations have been reported. 3HMG is commonly observed in Saudi Arabia. Methods We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying 3HMG in the Saudi population. Two patients from two unrelated families and thirty-four 3HMG positive dried blood spots (DBS were included. Results We detected the common missense mutation R41Q in 89% of the tested alleles (64 alleles. 2 alleles carried the frame shift mutation F305fs (-2 and the last two alleles had a novel splice site donor IVS6+1G>A mutation which was confirmed by its absence in more than 100 chromosomes from the normal population. All mutations were present in a homozygous state, reflecting extensive consanguinity. The high frequency of R41Q is consistent with a founder effect. Together the three mutations described account for >94% of the pathogenic mutations underlying 3HMG in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion Our study provides the most extensive genotype analysis on 3HMG patients from Saudi Arabia. Our findings have direct implications on rapid molecular diagnosis, prenatal and pre-implantation diagnosis and population based prevention programs directed towards 3HMG.

  10. Conformational transitions of cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 from Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Prashant D; Khan, Bashir M; Gaikwad, Sushama M

    2014-03-01

    Conformational transitions of cinnamoyl CoA reductase, a key regulatory enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, from Leucaena leucocephala (Ll-CCRH1) were studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The native protein possesses four trp residues exposed on the surface and 66% of helical structure, undergoes rapid structural transitions at and above 45 °C and starts forming aggregates at 55 °C. Ll-CCRH1 was transformed into acid induced (pH 2.0) molten globule like structure, exhibiting altered secondary structure, diminished tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic residues. The molten globule like structure was examined for the thermal and chemical stability. The altered secondary structure of L1-CCRH1 at pH 2.0 was stable up to 90 °C. Also, in presence of 0.25 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), it got transformed into different structure which was stable in the vicinity of 2M GdnHCl (as compared to drastic loss of native structure in 2M GdnHCl) as seen in far UV-CD spectra. The structural transition of Ll-CCRH1 at pH 2.0 followed another transition after readjusting the pH to 8.0, forming a structure with hardly any similarity to that of native protein.

  11. Liberdade e coação no direito de Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Celso de Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kant divide a filosofia moral em duas partes: Ética e Teoria da Justiça. Cada uma é compota de diferentes descrições de deveres e direitos. A ética contém deveres e direitos internos, voluntários e não-coercitivos. A teoria da justiça contém deveres e direitos externos e coercitivos. Os dois tipos de deveres e direitos são definidos em sua relação um com o outro. O que distingue os deveres éticos, ou deveres de virtude, dos deveres jurídicos, é que a compulsão externa para o dever de virtude é baseado na livre coerção própria. Assim, a finalidade deste artigo é pesquisar a noção de dever, e a relação entre dever, liberdade e coação

  12. Mutations in COA3 cause isolated complex IV deficiency associated with neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Ravn, Kirstine Johanne Theresia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated a subject with an isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting with an unusual phenotype characterised by neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis...... showed an almost complete lack of COX assembly in subject fibroblasts, consistent with the very low enzymatic activity, and pulse-labelling mitochondrial translation experiments showed a specific decrease in synthesis of the COX1 subunit, the core catalytic subunit that nucleates assembly...... assembly and mitochondrial translation defects, confirming the pathogenicity of the mutations, and resulted in increased steady-state levels of COX1 in control cells, demonstrating a role for COA3 in the stabilisation of this subunit. COA3 exists in an early COX assembly complex that contains COX1...

  13. The development of the 2, 4-dienoyl CoA reductase 1 gene (DECR 1) in pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase gene (DECR 1) is mapped on pig 4 q1.2, includes ten exons and nine introns of variable sizethat span 30 kb. DECR 1 gene participates in the β-oxidation pathway, affects the content of intramuscular fatty acid, especially thepercentage of linoleic acid. The expression of DECR 1 gene has important influence on IMF, the pH, and the meat colour of pork,further affects the meat quality.

  14. Correlation of ATP Citrate Lyase and Acetyl CoA Levels with Trichothecene Production in Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Sakamoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II and an enhancer (cobalt chloride of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of sucrose and that acetyl CoA produced by the increased ALC level may be used for trichothecene production in the fungus. These findings also suggest that sucrose is important for the action of cobalt chloride in activating trichothecene production and that precocene II may affect a step down-stream of the target of cobalt chloride.

  15. Correlation of ATP citrate lyase and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Usuma, Jermnak; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2013-11-21

    The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of sucrose and that acetyl CoA produced by the increased ALC level may be used for trichothecene production in the fungus. These findings also suggest that sucrose is important for the action of cobalt chloride in activating trichothecene production and that precocene II may affect a step down-stream of the target of cobalt chloride.

  16. Biochemical characterization of recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) from Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-07-01

    Recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) protein from Leucaena leucocephala was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified to apparent homogeneity. Optimum pH for forward and reverse reaction was found to be 6.5 and 7.8 respectively. The enzyme was most stable around pH 6.5 at 25°C for 90 min. The enzyme showed Kcat/Km for feruloyl, caffeoyl, sinapoyl, coumaroyl CoA, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde as 4.6, 2.4, 2.3, 1.7, 1.9 and 1.2 (×10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), respectively, indicating affinity of enzyme for feruloyl CoA over other substrates and preference of reduction reaction over oxidation. Activation energy, Ea for various substrates was found to be in the range of 20-50 kJ/mol. Involvement of probable carboxylate ion, histidine, lysine or tyrosine at the active site of enzyme was predicted by pH activity profile. SAXS studies of protein showed radius 3.04 nm and volume 49.25 nm(3) with oblate ellipsoid shape. Finally, metal ion inhibition studies revealed that Ll-CCRH1 is a metal independent enzyme.

  17. Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) Strain CC 1192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Copeland, L

    1997-09-01

    To investigate why Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192 cells accumulate poly-R-3-hydroxybutyrate in the free-living state but not as bacteroids in nodules on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants, we have examined the kinetic properties of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-ketothiolase [EC 2.3.1.9]) from both types of cells. The enzyme had a native molecular mass of 180 (plusmn) 4 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was 44 (plusmn) 1 kDa. The seven amino acids from the N terminus were Lys-Ala-Ser-Ile-Val-Ile-Ala. Thiolysis and condensation activity of the enzyme from free-living CC 1192 cells were optimal at pHs 7.8 and 8.1, respectively. The relationship between substrate concentrations and initial velocity for the thiolysis reaction were hyperbolic and gave K(infm) values for acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA of 42 and 56 (mu)M, respectively. The maximum velocity in the condensation direction was approximately 10% of that of the thiolysis reaction. With highly purified preparations of the enzyme, a value of approximately 1 mM was determined for the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA. However, with partially purified enzyme preparations or when N-ethylmaleimide was included in reaction mixtures the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA was close to 0.3 mM. In the condensation direction, CoA was a potent linear competitive inhibitor with an inhibition constant of 11 (mu)M. The much higher affinity of the enzyme for the product CoA than the substrate acetyl-CoA could have significance in view of metabolic differences between bacteroid and free-living cells of CC 1192. We propose that in free-living CC 1192 cells, the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio reaches a value that allows condensation activity of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, but that in CC 1192 bacteroids, the ratio is poised so that the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA is not favored.

  18. 4-coumarate: CoA ligase partitions metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kumar, Ritesh; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan M; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Shasany, Ajit K

    2013-08-01

    Biosynthesis of eugenol shares its initial steps with that of lignin, involving conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to their corresponding coenzyme A (CoA) esters by 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs). In this investigation, a 4CL (OS4CL) was identified from glandular trichome-rich tissue of Ocimum sanctum with high sequence similarity to an isoform (OB4CL_ctg4) from Ocimum basilicum. The levels of OS4CL and OB4CL_ctg4-like transcripts were highest in O. sanctum trichome, followed by leaf, stem and root. The eugenol content in leaf essential oil was positively correlated with the expression of OS4CL in the leaf at different developmental stages. Recombinant OS4CL showed the highest activity with p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic, caffeic and trans-cinnamic acids. Transient RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of OS4CL in O. sanctum leaves caused a reduction in leaf eugenol content and trichome transcript level, with a considerable increase in endogenous p-coumaric, ferulic, trans-cinnamic and caffeic acids. A significant reduction in the expression levels was observed for OB4CL_ctg4-related transcripts in suppressed trichome compared with transcripts similar to the other four isoforms (OB4CL_ctg1, 2, 3 and 5). Sinapic acid and lignin content were also unaffected in RNAi suppressed leaf samples. Transient expression of OS4CL-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts was associated with the cytosol. These results indicate metabolite channeling of intermediates towards eugenol by a specific 4CL and is the first report demonstrating the involvement of 4CL in creation of virtual compartments through substrate utilization and committing metabolites for eugenol biosynthesis at an early stage of the pathway.

  19. Partial genetic characterization of Stearoyl Coa-Desaturase´s structural region in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Thomazine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs comprise a family of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. The main form of CLA, cis-9, trans-11-C18:2 show positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. The major dietary sources of these fatty acids are derived from ruminant animals, in particular dairy products. In these animals, the endogenous synthesis mainly occurs in mammary gland by the action of enzyme Stearoyl CoA Desaturase (SCD. Different levels of expression and activity of SCD in mammary gland can explain partially the variation of CLA levels in fat milk. Considering a great fat concentration in bubaline milk and the benefit of a high and positive correlation between fat milk and CLA production, this study was carried on with the intention of sequencing and characterizing part of the gene that codifies SCD in buffaloes. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of lactating bubaline which begins to the breed Murrah. After the (acho que nao precisa desse the extractions, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 and E143F1. The fragments obtained in PCR were cloned into “T” vectors and transformed in competent cells DH10B line. After this, three samples of each fragment were sequenced from 5’ and 3’ extremities using a BigDye kit in an automatic sequencer. Sequences were edited in a consensus of each fragment and were submitted to BLAST-n / NCBI for similarity comparisions among other species. The sequence obtained with Z43D1 primers shows 938 bp enclosing exons 1 and 2 and intron 1. The primers E143F1 show 70 bp corresponding to exon 3 of bubaline SCD gene. Similarities were obtained between 85% and 97% among bubaline sequences and sequences of SCD gene described in human, mouse, rat, swine, bovine, caprine and ovine species. This study has permitted the identification and partial characterization of SCD codifing region in Bubalus bubalis specie.

  20. Cloning and expressional analyses of a cinnamoyl CoA reductase cDNA from rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yong; GONG Wei; LIU Tianyun; ZHU Yuxian

    2003-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR: EC 1.2.1.44), the entry-point enzyme of the lignin specific biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the conversion of cinnamoyl CoA esters to their corresponding cinnamaldehydes. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the deduced polypeptide shared 70% similarity and 30% sequence identity at the amino acid level with defined CCR genes from other plant species and they all contain the common signature sequences thought to be the catalytic site as well as the putative NADP binding domain. Using a conserved OsCCR cDNA fragment as the probe for library screening, we isolated the genomic DNA that covered the whole coding region of OsCCR with total length of 3045 bp including 4 introns and 5 exons. The open reading frame for our OsCCR gene contains 337 amino acids. Northern blot indicated that OsCCR was expressed in different organs with the highest level found in stems. In situ hybridization results showed that OsCCR mRNA was localized mainly along the vascular bundles in stems and leaves, and also in lateral roots that was differentiating from the tillering node. We conclude that the vascular-localized expression of OsCCR gene may suggest its possible involvement in lignin biosynthesis. Cloning and characterization of OsCCR will help to clarify how lignifications in plants are regulated and will provide a physical basis for creating genetically engineered rice plants with optimal lignin contents.

  1. Cross sections for production of the CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma) fourth positive band system and O(3 S) by photodissociation of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentieu, E. P.; Mentall, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The CO(A 1 Pi) cross sections reported here, along with previously determined electron impact results, establish the basis for calculating CO fourth positive system volume emission rates in the Martian dayglow. Calculated volume emission rates in turn determine relative distribution of photon vs. electron impact as mechanisms for producing CO(A 1 Pi) in the Mars atmosphere. The smallness of the O(1304) cross section confirms previous indirect evidence that photodissociative excitation of CO2 is not an important source of O(3 S) in the upper atmosphere of Mars.

  2. Characterization of the JWST Pathfinder mirror dynamics using the center of curvature optical assembly (CoCOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James B.; Olczak, Gene; Cosentino, Joseph; Johnston, John D.; Whitman, Tony; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Knight, J. Scott; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 m clear aperture, 18 segment primary mirror, all-reflective, three-mirror anastigmat operating at cryogenic temperatures. To verify performance of the primary mirror, a full aperture center of curvature optical null test is performed under cryogenic conditions in Chamber A at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) using an instantaneous phase measuring interferometer. After phasing the mirrors during the JWST Pathfinder testing, the interferometer is utilized to characterize the mirror relative piston and tilt dynamics under different facility configurations. The correlation between the motions seen on detectors at the focal plane and the interferometer validates the use of the interferometer for dynamic investigations. The success of planned test hardware improvements will be characterized by the multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) at the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA).

  3. Characterization of the JWST Pathfinder Mirror Dynamics Using the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C.; Hadaway, J.; Olczak, G.; Cosentino, J.; Johnston, J.; Whitman, T.; Connolly, M.; Chaney, D.; Knight, J.; Telfer, R.

    2016-01-01

    The JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 meter clear aperture, 18-segment primary mirror, all-reflective, three-mirror anastigmat operating at cryogenic temperatures. To verify performance of the primary mirror, a full aperture center of curvature optical null test is performed under cryogenic conditions in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center using an instantaneous phase measuring interferometer. After phasing the mirrors during the JWST Pathfinder testing, the interferometer is utilized to characterize the mirror relative piston and tilt dynamics under different facility configurations. The correlation between the motions seen on detectors at the focal plane and the interferometer validates the use of the interferometer for dynamic investigations. The success of planned test hardware improvements will be characterized by the multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) at the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA).

  4. Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) ablation in mice increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and delays fat absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The family of acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes (ACSL) activates fatty acids within cells to generate long chain fatty acyl CoA (FACoA). The differing metabolic fates of FACoAs such as incorporation into neutral lipids, phospholipids, and oxidation pathways are differentially regulated by the ...

  5. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus by PCR amplification of coa and nuc genes Identificação de Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius e S. hyicus através de seqüências dos genes coa e nuc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Padilha da Silva

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-five strains of coagulase positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus were identified at species level by PCR amplification of the coa gene, specific for S. aureus, and of the nuc gene, specific for S. intermedius and for S. hyicus.Sessenta e cinco cepas de estafilococos coagulase positiva foram identificadas em nível de espécie, através da amplificação, por PCR, de seqüências do gene coa, específicas para S. aureus, e do gene nuc, específicas para S. intermedius e para S. hyicus.

  6. Enzymology of butyrate formation by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Jenesel, S E

    1979-04-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is a major butyrate-forming species in the bovine and ovine rumen. The enzymology of butyrate formation from pyruvate was investigated in cell-free extracts of B. fibrisolvens D1. Pyruvate owas oxidized to acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) in the presence of CoA.SH and benzyl viologen or flavin nucleotides. The bacterium uses thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, and crotonyl-CoA reductase to form butyryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. Reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was faster with NADH than with NADPH. Crotonyl-CoA was reduced to butyryl-CoA by NADH, but not by NADPH, only in the presence of flavin nucleotides. Reduction of flavin nucleotides by NADH was much slower than the flavin-dependent reduction of crotonyl-CoA. This indicates that flavoproteins rather than free flavin participated in the reduction of crotonyl-CoA. Butyryl-CoA was converted to butyrate by phosphate butyryl transferase and butyrate kinase.

  7. Inhibition of HMG CoA reductase reveals an unexpected role for cholesterol during PGC migration in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewing Andrew G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the embryonic precursors of the sperm and eggs. Environmental or genetic defects that alter PGC development can impair fertility or cause formation of germ cell tumors. Results We demonstrate a novel role for cholesterol during germ cell migration in mice. Cholesterol was measured in living tissue dissected from mouse embryos and was found to accumulate within the developing gonads as germ cells migrate to colonize these structures. Cholesterol synthesis was blocked in culture by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR resulting in germ cell survival and migration defects. These defects were rescued by co-addition of isoprenoids and cholesterol, but neither compound alone was sufficient. In contrast, loss of the last or penultimate enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis did not alter PGC numbers or position in vivo. However embryos that lack these enzymes do not exhibit cholesterol defects at the stage at which PGCs are migrating. This demonstrates that during gestation, the cholesterol required for PGC migration can be supplied maternally. Conclusion In the mouse, cholesterol is required for PGC survival and motility. It may act cell-autonomously by regulating clustering of growth factor receptors within PGCs or non cell-autonomously by controlling release of growth factors required for PGC guidance and survival.

  8. Feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis:sterol-accelerated ubiquitination and degradation of HMG CoA reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Russell A DeBose-Boyd

    2008-01-01

    3Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase produces mevalonate,an important intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol and essential nonsterol isoprenoids.The reductase is subject to an exorbitant amount of feedback control through multiple mechanisms that are mediated by sterol and nonsterol end-products of mevalonate metabolism.Here,Ⅰwill discuss recent advances that shed light on one mechanism for control of reductase,which involves rapid degradation of the enzyme.Accumulation of certain sterols triggers binding of reductase to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2.Reductase-Insig binding results in recruitment of a membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase called gp78,which initiates ubiquitination of reductase.This ubiquitination is an obligatory reaction for recognition and degradation of reductase from ER membranes by cytosolic 26S proteasomes.Thus,sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase represents an example of how a general cellular process (ER-associated degradation) is used to control an important metabolic pathway (cholesterol synthesis).

  9. SIRT3 deacetylates mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 and regulates ketone body production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimazu, Tadahiro; Hirschey, Matthew D; Hua, Lan;

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT3 regulates metabolic homeostasis during fasting and calorie restriction. We identified mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) as an acetylated protein and a possible target of SIRT3 in a proteomics survey in hepatic mitochondria from Sirt3......(-/-) (SIRT3KO) mice. HMGCS2 is the rate-limiting step in β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and is hyperacetylated at lysines 310, 447, and 473 in the absence of SIRT3. HMGCS2 is deacetylated by SIRT3 in response to fasting in wild-type mice, but not in SIRT3KO mice. HMGCS2 is deacetylated in vitro when incubated...... with SIRT3 and in vivo by overexpression of SIRT3. Deacetylation of HMGCS2 lysines 310, 447, and 473 by incubation with wild-type SIRT3 or by mutation to arginine enhances its enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations show that in silico deacetylation of these three lysines causes conformational...

  10. Probing the active site of cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) from Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Prashant; Patel, Krunal; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Srivastava, Sameer; Singh, Somesh; Gaikwad, Sushama; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-09-01

    Lack of three dimensional crystal structure of cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) limits its detailed active site characterization studies. Putative active site residues involved in the substrate/NADPH binding and catalysis for Leucaena leucocephala CCR (Ll-CCRH1; GenBank: DQ986907) were identified by amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling. Putative active site residues and proximal H215 were subjected for site directed mutagenesis, and mutated enzymes were expressed, purified and assayed to confirm their functional roles. Mutagenesis of S136, Y170 and K174 showed complete loss of activity, indicating their pivotal roles in catalysis. Mutant S212G exhibited the catalytic efficiencies less than 10% of wild type, showing its indirect involvement in substrate binding or catalysis. R51G, D77G, F30V and I31N double mutants showed significant changes in Km values, specifying their roles in substrate binding. Finally, chemical modification and substrate protection studies corroborated the presence Ser, Tyr, Lys, Arg and carboxylate group at the active site of Ll-CCRH1.

  11. A Turkish Patient With Succinyl-CoA:3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase Deficiency Mimicking Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Erdol MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of ketone body utilization that is clinically characterized with intermittent ketoacidosis crises. We report here the second Turkish case with SCOT deficiency. She experienced 3 ketoacidotic episodes: The first ketoacidotic crisis mimicked diabetic ketoacidosis because of the associated hyperglycemia. Among patients with SCOT deficiency, the blood glucose levels at the first crises were variable, and this case had the highest ever reported blood glucose level. She is a compound heterozygote with 2 novel mutations, c.517A>G (K173E and c.1543A>G (M515V, in exons 5 and 17 of the OXCT1 gene, respectively. In patient’s fibroblasts, SCOT activity was deficient and, by immunoblot analysis, SCOT protein was much reduced. The patient attained normal development and had no permanent ketosis. The accurate diagnosis of SCOT deficiency in this case had a vital impact on the management strategy and outcome.

  12. Nonthermal rotational distribution of CO/A 1Pi/ fragments produced by dissociative excitation of CO2 by electron impact. [in Mars atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, M. J.; Stone, E. J.; Zipf, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of the rotational profiles of specific bands of the CO fourth-positive group (4PG). The CO 4PG bands were excited by electron impact dissociative excitation of CO2. The results are applicable to analysis of the Mariner observations of the CO 4PG in the dayglow of Mars. The results indicate that dissociative excitation of CO2 by electron impact leads to CO(A 1Pi) fragments with a rotational distribution that is highly nonthermal. The parent CO2 temperature was about 300 K in the experiment, while the fragment CO(A 1Pi) showed emission band profiles consistent with a rotational temperature greater than about 1500 K. Laboratory measurement of the reduced transmission of the hot bands by thermal CO appears to be the most direct way of determining the column density responsible for the CO(v',0) absorption of Mars.

  13. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie [Nankai; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Genetic dissection of methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase indicates a complex role for mitochondrial leucine catabolism during seed development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Geng; Che, Ping; Ilarslan, Hilal; Wurtele, Eve S; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-05-01

    3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MCCase) is a nuclear-encoded, mitochondrial-localized biotin-containing enzyme. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is required for leucine (Leu) catabolism, and it may also play a role in the catabolism of isoprenoids and the mevalonate shunt. In Arabidopsis, two MCCase subunits (the biotinylated MCCA subunit and the non-biotinylated MCCB subunit) are each encoded by single genes (At1g03090 and At4g34030, respectively). A reverse genetic approach was used to assess the physiological role of MCCase in plants. We recovered and characterized T-DNA and transposon-tagged knockout alleles of the MCCA and MCCB genes. Metabolite profiling studies indicate that mutations in either MCCA or MCCB block mitochondrial Leu catabolism, as inferred from the increased accumulation of Leu. Under light deprivation conditions, the hyper-accumulation of Leu, 3-methylcrotonyl CoA and isovaleryl CoA indicates that mitochondrial and peroxisomal Leu catabolism pathways are independently regulated. This biochemical block in mitochondrial Leu catabolism is associated with an impaired reproductive growth phenotype, which includes aberrant flower and silique development and decreased seed germination. The decreased seed germination phenotype is only observed for homozygous mutant seeds collected from a parent plant that is itself homozygous, but not from a parent plant that is heterozygous. These characterizations may shed light on the role of catabolic processes in growth and development, an area of plant biology that is poorly understood.

  15. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Foulon, V; Croes, K; Waelkens, E

    1999-01-01

    Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

  16. Mutation analysis of methylmalonyl CoA mutase gene exon 2 in Egyptian families: Identification of 25 novel allelic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A. Ghoraba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA is an autosomal recessive disorder of methylmalonate and cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12 metabolism. It is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism which commonly results from a defect in the gene encoding the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM apoenzyme. Here we report the results of mutation study of exon 2 of the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT gene, coding MCM residues from 1 to 128, in ten unrelated Egyptian families affected with methylmalonic aciduria. Patients were presented with a wide-anion gap metabolic acidosis. The diagnosis has established by the measurement of C3 (propionylcarnitine and C3:C2 (propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine in blood by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS–MS and was confirmed by the detection of an abnormally elevated level of methylmalonic acid in urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS and isocratic cation exchange high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC. Direct sequencing of gDNA of the MUT gene exon 2 has revealed a total of 26 allelic variants: ten of which were intronic, eight were located upstream to the exon 2 coding region, four were novel modifications predicted to affect the splicing region, three were novel mutations within the coding region: c.15G>A (p.K5K, c.165C>A (p.N55K and c.7del (p.R3EfsX14, as well as the previously reported mutation c.323G>A (p.R108H.

  17. Selective n-butanol production by Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 during continuous synthesis gas fermentation due to expression of synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Vel; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Acetogen Clostridum sp. MT1962 produced 287 mM acetate (p < 0.005) and 293 mM ethanol (p < 0.005) fermenting synthesis gas blend 60% CO and 40% H₂ in single-stage continuous fermentation. This strain was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365. The engineered biocatalyst lost production of ethanol and acetate while initiated the production of 297 mM of n-butanol (p < 0.005). The metabolic engineering comprised Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase along with integration to chromosome synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase. This is the first report on elimination of acetate and ethanol production genes and expression of synthetic gene cluster encoding n-butanol biosynthesis pathway in acetogen biocatalyst for selective fuel n-butanol production with no antibiotic support for the introduced genes.

  18. Synthesis of O-[{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA, O-[{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine, and L-[{sup 11}C]carnitine labelled in specific positions, applied in PET studies on rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Valind, Sven; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1997-07-01

    The syntheses of L-carnitine, O-acetyl CoA, and O-acetyl-L-carnitine labelled with {sup 11}C at the 1- or 2-position of the acetyl group or the N-methyl position of carnitine, using the enzymes acetyl CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase, are described. With a total synthesis time of 45 min, O-[1-{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA and O-[2-{sup 11}C]acetyl CoA was obtained in 60-70% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, and O-[1-{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine and O-[2-{sup 11}C]acetyl-L-carnitine in 70-80% yield, based on [1-{sup 11}C]acetate or [2-{sup 11}C]acetate, respectively. By an N-methylation reaction with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide, L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]carnitine was obtained within 30 min, and O-acetyl-L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]carnitine within 40 min, giving a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 60% and 40-50%, respectively, based on [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. Initial data of the kinetics of the different {sup 11}C-labelled L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitines in renal cortex of anaesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta) are presented.

  19. A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Ruta graveolens L. exhibits p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase activity (C2'H): a missing step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialart, Guilhem; Hehn, Alain; Olry, Alexandre; Ito, Kyoko; Krieger, Celia; Larbat, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2012-05-01

    Coumarins are important compounds that contribute to the adaptation of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among coumarins, umbelliferone occupies a pivotal position in the plant phenylpropanoid network. Previous studies indicated that umbelliferone is derived from the ortho-hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid by an unknown biochemical step to yield 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which then undergoes spontaneous lactonization. Based on a recent report of a gene encoding a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibited feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase activity (Bourgaud et al., 2006), we combined a bioinformatic approach and a cDNA library screen to identify an orthologous ORF (Genbank accession number JF799117) from Ruta graveolens L. This ORF shares 59% amino acid identity with feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and converted feruloyl CoA into scopoletin and p-coumaroyl CoA into umbelliferone with equal activity. Its bi-functionality was further confirmed in planta: transient expression of JF799117 in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded plants with leaves containing high levels of umbelliferone and scopoletin when compared to control plants, which contained barely detectable traces of these compounds. The expression of JF799117 was also tightly correlated to the amount of umbelliferone that was found in UV-elicited R. graveolens leaves. Therefore, JF799117 encodes a p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase in R. graveolens, which represents a previously uncharacterized step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants. Psoralen, which is an important furanocoumarin in R. graveolens, was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, and it may exert this effect through negative feedback on the enzyme at an upstream position in the pathway.

  20. Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II as potential control sites for ketogenesis during mitochondrion and peroxisome proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, L; Garras, A; Asins, G; Serra, D; Hegardt, F G; Berge, R K

    1999-05-01

    3-Thia fatty acids are potent hypolipidemic fatty acid derivatives and mitochondrion and peroxisome proliferators. Administration of 3-thia fatty acids to rats was followed by significantly increased levels of plasma ketone bodies, whereas the levels of plasma non-esterified fatty acids decreased. The hepatic mRNA levels of fatty acid binding protein and formation of acid-soluble products, using both palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrates, were increased. Hepatic mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) -II and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase activities, immunodetectable proteins, and mRNA levels increased in parallel. In contrast, the mitochondrial CPT-I mRNA levels were unchanged and CPT-I enzyme activity was slightly reduced in the liver. The CoA ester of the monocarboxylic 3-thia fatty acid, tetradecylthioacetic acid, which accumulates in the liver after administration, inhibited the CPT-I activity in vitro, but not that of CPT-II. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and HMG-CoA lyase activities involved in ketogenesis were increased, whereas the citrate synthase activity was decreased. The present data suggest that 3-thia fatty acids increase both the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria and the capacity of the beta-oxidation process. Under these conditions, the regulation of ketogenesis may be shifted to step(s) beyond CPT-I. This opens the possibility that mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and CPT-II retain some control of ketone body formation.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  2. Identification of the structure and origin of a thioacidolysis marker compound for ferulic acid incorporation into angiosperm lignins (and an indicator for cinnamoyl CoA reductase deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, John; Kim, Hoon; Lu, Fachuang; Grabber, John H; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Berrio-Sierra, Jimmy; Derikvand, Mohammad Mir; Jouanin, Lise; Boerjan, Wout; Lapierre, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignin in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco), has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,2-tris(ethylthio)ethane]. Its truncated side chain and distinctive oxidation state suggest that it derives from ferulic acid that has undergone bis-8-O-4 (cross) coupling during lignification, as validated by model studies. A diagnostic contour for such structures is found in two-dimensional (13)C-(1)H correlated (HSQC) NMR spectra of lignins isolated from cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR)-deficient poplar. As low levels of the marker are also released from normal (i.e. non-transgenic) plants in which ferulic acid may be present during lignification, notably in grasses, the marker is only an indicator for CCR deficiency in general, but is a reliable marker in woody angiosperms such as poplar. Its derivation, together with evidence for 4-O-etherified ferulic acid, strongly implies that ferulic acid is incorporated into angiosperm lignins. Its endwise radical coupling reactions suggest that ferulic acid should be considered an authentic lignin precursor. Moreover, ferulic acid incorporation provides a new mechanism for producing branch points in the polymer. The findings sharply contradict those reported in a recent study on CCR-deficient Arabidopsis.

  3. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  4. Abiotic stress induces change in Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) protein abundance and lignin deposition in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sameer; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Arafat, Yasir Ali; Gupta, Sushim K; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-04-01

    Aboitic stress such as drought and salinity are class of major threats, which plants undergo through their lifetime. Lignin deposition is one of the responses to such abiotic stresses. The gene encoding Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis, which has been shown to be over-expressed under stress conditions. In the present study, developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Vernacular name: Subabul, White popinac) were treated with 1 % mannitol and 200 mM NaCl to mimic drought and salinity stress conditions, respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) based expression pattern of CCR protein was monitored coupled with Phlorogucinol/HCl activity staining of lignin in transverse sections of developing L. leucocephala seedlings under stress. Our result suggests a differential lignification pattern in developing root and stem under stress conditions. Increase in lignification was observed in mannitol treated stems and corresponding CCR protein accumulation was also higher than control and salt stress treated samples. On the contrary CCR protein was lower in NaCl treated stems and corresponding lignin deposition was also low. Developing root tissue showed a high level of CCR content and lignin deposition than stem samples under all conditions tested. Overall result suggested that lignin accumulation was not affected much in case of developing root however developing stems were significantly affected under drought and salinity stress condition.

  5. Moonlighting proteins Hal3 and Vhs3 form a heteromeric PPCDC with Ykl088w in yeast CoA biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Amparo; González, Asier; Muñoz, Ivan; Serrano, Raquel; Abrie, J Albert; Strauss, Erick; Ariño, Joaquín

    2009-12-01

    Unlike most other organisms, the essential five-step coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway has not been fully resolved in yeast. Specifically, the genes encoding the phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) activity still remain unidentified. Sequence homology analyses suggest three candidates-Ykl088w, Hal3 and Vhs3-as putative PPCDC enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, Hal3 and Vhs3 have been characterized as negative regulatory subunits of the Ppz1 protein phosphatase. Here we show that YKL088w does not encode a third Ppz1 regulatory subunit, and that the essential roles of Ykl088w and the Hal3 and Vhs3 pair are complementary, cannot be interchanged and can be attributed to PPCDC-related functions. We demonstrate that while known eukaryotic PPCDCs are homotrimers, the active yeast enzyme is a heterotrimer that consists of Ykl088w and Hal3/Vhs3 monomers that separately provides two essential catalytic residues. Our results unveil Hal3 and Vhs3 as moonlighting proteins involved in both CoA biosynthesis and protein phosphatase regulation.

  6. Effect of various eicosanoid products of arachidonic acid on the acyl CoA: Cholesterol acyl transferase activity in three different mammalian cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, P.El.

    1988-01-01

    Acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes cholesterol ester synthesis intracellularly and has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. An in vitro assay has been adapted for determining ACAT activity from rat FU5AH hepatoma, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle (RSM) cells. Formation of {sup 14}C-labelled cholesteryl oleate at 0 to 60 min {plus minus} cholesterol was determined; in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT activity was approximately linear and surpassed the plateau observed in ACAT activity without cholesterol. Increasing exogenous cholesterol concentration, the amount of oleoyl CoA or the amount of microsomal protein produced a corresponding increase in ACAT activity, while ester formation was slightly increased by decreasing the ratio of Triton WR-1339 to cholesterol. Both the thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) mimic, U-44069, and the inflammatory lipoxygenase product, LTB{sub 4}, decreased optimal in vitro microsomal ACAT activity from RSM, but not form FU5AH, while CHO ACAT activity was suppressed by LTB{sub r} only. PGI{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} had minimal effects for each cell type.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and temperature on the transcription of an ACAT gene in Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijiang; Zheng, Minggang; Wan, Wenwen; Sun, Zhongtao

    2014-11-01

    Thiolases are functionally divided into two groups: 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (ACAT). Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase plays a key role in the mevalonate pathway. In this study, a novel gene, IgACAT, which encodes ACAT was cloned from Isochrysis galbana and characterized. The cDNA of IgACAT was 1551 bp in length, consisting of an open reading frame of 1173 bp, a 5' untranslated region of 69 bp and a 3' untranslated region of 309 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of IgACAT was 390 amino acid residues in length with a predicted molecular weight of 53.59 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 9.04. The triterpenes content and the expression of IgACAT under nitrogen and temperature stress were analyzed. When I. galbana was treated with excessive nitrogen and at 35 °C, respectively, both the triterpenes content and the abundance of IgACAT gene transcript increased. Our findings will facilitate the regulation of gene expression and genetic modification of the triterpenes synthesis pathway of I. galbana.

  8. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL): Mouse and human HL gene (HMGCL) cloning and detection of large gene deletions in two unrelated HL-deficient patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.P.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL, EC 4.1.3.4) catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA to acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA, the final reaction of both ketogenesis and leucine catabolism. Autosomal-recessive HL deficiency in humans results in episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and coma. Using a mouse HL cDNA as a probe, we isolated a clone containing the full-length mouse HL gene that spans about 15 kb of mouse chromosome 4 and contains nine exons. The promoter region of the mouse HL gene contains elements characteristic of a housekeeping gene: a CpG island containing multiple Sp1 binding sites surrounds exon 1, and neither a TATA nor a CAAT box are present. We identified multiple transcription start sites in the mouse HL gene, 35 to 9 bases upstream of the translation start codon. We also isolated two human HL genomic clones that include HL exons 2 to 9 within 18 kb. The mouse and human HL genes (HGMW-approved symbol HMGCL) are highly homologous, with identical locations of intron-exon junctions. By genomic Southern blot analysis and exonic PCR, was found 2 of 33 HL-deficient probands to be homozygous for large deletions in the HL gene. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  10. Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O-methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiez, Thomas; Hartman, Thomas G; Dudai, Nativ; Yan, Qing; Lawton, Michael; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2011-08-01

    Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells of pods of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Characterization of the corresponding two enzymes, designated Vp-OMT4 and Vp-OMT5, revealed that in vitro both enzymes preferred as a substrate the flavone tricetin, yet their sequences and phylogenetic relationships to other enzymes are distinct from each other. Quantitative analysis of gene expression indicated a dramatic tissue-specific expression pattern for Vp-OMT4, which was highly expressed in the hair cells of the developing pod, the likely location of vanillin biosynthesis. Although Vp-OMT4 had a lower activity with the proposed vanillin precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, than with tricetin, the tissue specificity of expression suggests it may be a candidate for an enzyme involved in vanillin biosynthesis. In contrast, the Vp-OMT5 gene was mainly expressed in leaf tissue and only marginally expressed in pod hair cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Vp-OMT5 evolved from a cyanobacterial enzyme and it clustered within a clade in which the sequences from eukaryotic species had predicted chloroplast transit peptides. Transient expression of a GFP-fusion in tobacco demonstrated that Vp-OMT5 was localized in the plastids. This is the first flavonoid OMT demonstrated to be targeted to the plastids.

  11. Pseudoketogenesis in the perfused rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, G.; Desrochers, S.; Des Rosiers, C.; Garneau, M.; David, F.; Daloze, T.; Landau, B.R.; Brunengraber, H.

    1988-12-05

    Ketogenesis is usually measured in vivo by dilution of tracers of (3R)-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate. We show that, in perfused working rat hearts, the specific activities of (3R)-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are diluted by isotopic exchanges in the absence of net ketogenesis. We call this process pseudoketogenesis. When hearts are perfused with buffer containing 2.3 mM of (4-3H)- plus (3-14C)acetoacetate, the specific activities of (4-3H) and (3-14C)acetoacetate decrease while C-1 of acetoacetate becomes progressively labeled with 14C. This is explained by the reversibility of reactions catalyzed by mitochondrial 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. After activation of labeled acetoacetate, the specific activity of acetoacetyl-CoA is diluted by unlabeled acetoacetyl-CoA derived from endogenous fatty acids or glucose. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase partially exchanges 14C between C-1 and C-3 of acetoacetyl-CoA. Finally, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase liberates weakly labeled acetoacetate which dilutes the specific activity of extracellular acetoacetate. An isotopic exchange in the reverse direction is observed when hearts are perfused with unlabeled acetoacetate plus (1-14C)-, (13-14C)-, or (15-14C)palmitate; here also, acetoacetate becomes labeled on C-1 and C-3. Computations of specific activities of (3R)-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetyl-CoA yield minimal rates of pseudoketogenesis ranging from 19 to 32% of the net uptake of (3R)-hydroxybutyrate plus acetoacetate by the heart.

  12. Cloning and characterization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylgIutary CoA reductase cDNA of Glycyrrhiza uralensis%乌拉尔甘草HMGR基因cDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣齐仙; 许巧仙; 刘春生; 黄璐琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To clone and analysis the sequence of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase (HMGR) cDNA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Method: The primers were designed based on the conservative region of HMGR nucleic acids sequence from public database.The target gene was obtained from root of G.uralensis by use of homologous cDNA amplificati on and RACE technologies.The sequence alignment was performed using BLAST.The open reading frame was identified by use of the ORF Finder.The protein domains were defined by use of Prosite software.Clustal was used to conduct multiple amino acid sequence alignment and MEGA 5.0 was used to conduct the phylogenetic tree.Result: The GuHMGR cDNA sequence was obtained contains 1 842 bp contains a 1 722 bp ORF, encoding 573 amino acids with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductases family profile.Deduced amino acid sequence had 84% and 76% homology to the amino acid sequence of Pisum sativum, Medicago truncatula.Conclusion: The cloning of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase (HMGR) cDNA will provide a foundation for exploring the function of HMGR in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis.%目的:对乌拉尔甘草3.羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A还原酶(3-hydroxy-3methylglutary CoA reductase,HMGR)的cDNA克隆并进行序列分析.方法:根据NCBI数据库中的豆科其他物种HMGR的cDNA保守区设计引物,利用同源扩增和cDNA末端快速扩增技术从甘草根中获得目的基因;利用BLAST进行序列比对,ORF Finder寻找开发阅读框,Prosite分析蛋白质的基本结构域,Clustal x比对已有HMGR的氨基酸序列,并构建进化树.结果:得到1个全长为1 842 bp的HMGR的cDNA序列,含有1 722 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),编码573个氨基酸,具有HMGR家族的特异序列,推测的氨基酸序列与豌豆、蒺藜苜蓿的氨基酸序列一致性分别为84%,76%.结论:对甘草HMGR基因的cDNA进行了克隆,为进一步研究3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A在甘草酸生物合成途径中的作用提供了理论依据.

  13. Human mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase: Liver cDNA and partial genomic cloning, chromosome mapping to 1p12-p13, and possible role in vertebrate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukaftane, Y.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (mHS) is the first enzyme of ketogenesis, whereas the cytoplasmic HS isozyme (cHS) mediates an early step in cholersterol synthesis. We here report the sequence of human and mouse liver mHS cDNAs, the sequence of an HS-like cDNA from Caenorhabditis elegans, the structure of a partial human mHS genomic clone, and the mapping of the human mHS gene to chromosome 1p12-p13. the nucleotide sequence of the human mHS cDNA encodes a mature mHS peptide of 471 residues, with a mean amino acid identity of 66.5% with cHS from mammals and chicken. Comparative analysis of all known mHS and cHS protein and DNA sequences shows a high degree of conservation near the N-terminus that decreases progressively toward the C-terminus and suggests that the two isozymes arose from a common ancestor gene 400-900 million years ago. Comparison of the gene structure of mHS and cHS is also consistant with a recent duplication event. We hypothesize that the physiologic result of the HS gene duplication was the appearance of HS within the mitochondria around the time of emergence of early vertebrates, which linked preexisting pathways of beta oxidation and leucine catabolism and created the HMG CoA pathway of ketogenesis, thus providing a lipid-derived energy source for the vertebrate brain. 56 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Structure of the Transcriptional Repressor KstR in Complex with CoA Thioester Cholesterol Metabolites Sheds Light on the Regulation of Cholesterol Catabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ngoc Anh Thu; Dawes, Stephanie S; Crowe, Adam M; Casabon, Israël; Gao, Chen; Kendall, Sharon L; Baker, Edward N; Eltis, Lindsay D; Lott, J Shaun

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol can be a major carbon source forMycobacterium tuberculosisduring infection, both at an early stage in the macrophage phagosome and later within the necrotic granuloma. KstR is a highly conserved TetR family transcriptional repressor that regulates a large set of genes responsible for cholesterol catabolism. Many genes in this regulon, includingkstR, are either induced during infection or are essential for survival ofM. tuberculosis in vivo In this study, we identified two ligands for KstR, both of which are CoA thioester cholesterol metabolites with four intact steroid rings. A metabolite in which one of the rings was cleaved was not a ligand. We confirmed the ligand-protein interactions using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and showed that ligand binding strongly inhibited KstR-DNA binding using surface plasmon resonance (IC50for ligand = 25 nm). Crystal structures of the ligand-free form of KstR show variability in the position of the DNA-binding domain. In contrast, structures of KstR·ligand complexes are highly similar to each other and demonstrate a position of the DNA-binding domain that is unfavorable for DNA binding. Comparison of ligand-bound and ligand-free structures identifies residues involved in ligand specificity and reveals a distinctive mechanism by which the ligand-induced conformational change mediates DNA release.

  15. 尾叶桉GLU4肉桂酰-辅酶A还原酶基因克隆及原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of cinnamoyl Co-A reductase of Eucalyptus urophylla clone GLU4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈博雯; 盖颖; 蒋湘宁

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamoyl Co-A reductase is a key enzyme in lignin synthesis pathway. A CCR gene was cloned from the immature stem of Eucalyptus urophylla clone GLU4 and named EuCCR by using speciifc primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CCR. The gDNA and cDNA sequence of EuCCR were 2918 bp and 1045 bp respectively, which CDS encodes 336 amino acid residues. EuCCR had more than 96%sequence homology with Eucalyptus that had been logged in GenBank, and its homology with Angophora and Corymbia were over 85%. EuCCR encoding sequence was analyzed, the result shows it has an entire FR_SDR_e domain, a NADP binding site and a substrate binding site. The homology with Theobroma cacao and others were over 84%. The physicochemical property, structure of EuCCR and its phylogenetic analysis were analyzed by using bioinformatics tools and MEGA. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that EuCCR was transformed into pQE30/M15 system and fusion protein with molecular weighting about 39 kD was successfully expressed in transformant. The cloning and expression of EuCCR gene provided some effective resources for enzymology research and further transgenic research.%肉桂酰-辅酶A还原酶(Cinnamoyl Co-A Reductase,CCR)是木质素合成中的关键酶,根据植物中CCR保守序列设计引物,以尾叶桉GLU4嫩茎为材料克隆到其CCR基因,命名为EuCCR。该基因gDNA长2918 bp,cDNA长1045 bp,CDS区编码336个氨基酸。EuCCR核酸序列与GenBank已登录的桉属植物CCR基因同源性达到96%以上,与伞房属、杯果木属植物CCR的同源性达85%以上,其编码的氨基酸序列经比对发现具有完整FR_SDR_e结构域及NADP结合位点和底物结合位点,与可可树等植物中CCR基因编码序列同源性也在84%以上,确定为CCR基因。对EuCCR蛋白序列理化性质及结构进行生物信息学分析,利用MEGA软件对基因序列进行系统进化树分析。采用pQE30/M15系统对EuCCR进行原核表达,重组

  16. Increased accumulation of the cardio-cerebrovascular disease treatment drug tanshinone in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots by the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Yu, Xiaohong; Hao, Xiaolong; Huang, Qiang; Xiao, Jianbo; Cui, Lijie; Kai, Guoyin

    2014-09-01

    Tanshinone is widely used for treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases with increasing demand. Herein, key enzyme genes SmHMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase) and SmDXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase) involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway were introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza (Sm) hairy roots to enhance tanshinone production. Over-expression of SmHMGR or SmDXR in hairy root lines can significantly enhance the yield of tanshinone. Transgenic hairy root lines co-expressing HMGR and DXR (HD lines) produced evidently higher levels of total tanshinone (TT) compared with the control and single gene transformed lines. The highest tanshinone production was observed in HD42 with the concentration of 3.25 mg g(-1) DW. Furthermore, the transgenic hairy roots showed higher antioxidant activity than control. In addition, transgenic hairy root harboring HMGR and DXR (HD42) exhibited higher tanshinone content after elicitation by yeast extract and/or Ag(+) than before. Tanshinone can be significantly enhanced to 5.858, 6.716, and 4.426 mg g(-1) DW by YE, Ag(+), and YE-Ag(+) treatment compared with non-induced HD42, respectively. The content of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone was effectively elevated upon elicitor treatments, whereas there was no obvious promotion effect for the other two compounds tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA. Our results provide a useful strategy to improve tanshinone content as well as other natural active products by combination of genetic engineering with elicitors.

  17. COA User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, B.; Pautz, J.; Sellers, C.

    1999-01-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  18. Mixed-Initiative COA Critic Advisors (MICCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Adaptive Replanning ( JAGUAR ) Air Tasking Order domain that supports dynamic tactical air mission planning and execution. MICCA software agents operate in...33 4.2 JAGUAR ...13 8. Ranking Agent displays the ranked Retrieved Plans for the JAGUAR domain. ..........13 9. What-If

  19. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  20. Efeito das mutações I16T, I21V, I47T e S94A na afinidade da enzima 2-trans-Enoil-ACP (CoA) redutase de Mycobacterium tuberculosis pelo cofator NADH : estudos por simulação pela dinâmica molecular e docking molecular

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Koeche Schroeder

    2004-01-01

    aumento do número de casos de tuberculose e o surgimento de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) resistentes a múltiplas drogas, entre elas a isoniazida (INH) representa um sério problema de saúde pública. A enzima InhA, ou 2-trans-Enoil-ACP (CoA) redutase de MTB, catalisa a redução NADHdependente de ácidos graxos α,β-insaturados, precursores dos ácidos micólicos (importantes componentes do envelope celular do MTB). Mutações no gene estrutural da InhA estão associadas à resistência in vi...

  1. Degradation of the cleaved leader peptide of thiolase by a peroxisomal proteinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, F; Bergeron, J J; Ou, W J; Rachubinski, R A; Posner, B I; Walton, P A

    1995-01-01

    A peroxisomal location for insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) has been defined by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of stably transfected CHO cells overexpressing IDE and digitonin-permeabilization studies in normal nontransfected fibroblasts. The functional significance of IDE in degrading cleaved leader peptides of peroxisomal proteins targeted by the type II motif was evaluated with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the type II leader peptide of prethiolase. The peptide effectively com...

  2. Regulation of Isoprenoid Pheromone Biosynthesis in Bumblebee Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchalová, Darina; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2016-02-02

    Males of the closely related species Bombus terrestris and Bombus lucorum attract conspecific females by completely different marking pheromones. MP of B. terrestris and B. lucorum pheromones contain mainly isoprenoid (ISP) compounds and fatty acid derivatives, respectively. Here, we studied the regulation of ISP biosynthesis in both bumblebees. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses indicated that acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) transcripts are abundant in the B. terrestris labial gland. Maximal abundance of these transcripts correlated well with AACT enzymatic activity detected in the LG extracts. In contrast, transcript abundances of AACT, HMGR, and FPPS in B. lucorum were low, and AACT activity was not detected in LGs. These results suggest that transcriptional regulation plays a key role in the control of ISP biosynthetic gene expression and ISP pheromone biosynthesis in bumblebee males.

  3. 应用聚合酶链式反应快速特异鉴定假单胞菌和伯克霍尔德氏菌(R)-3-羟基酯酰载酯蛋白-辅酶A转酰基酶基因%Specific Identification of ( R )-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP: CoA Transacylase Gene from Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Strains by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑重; 陈金春; 田鸿磊; 贝锋锋; 陈国强

    2005-01-01

    聚羟基脂肪酸酯(PHA)是一类具有广泛应用前景的可降解生物塑料.因其可以以葡萄糖等廉价底物直接发酵生产PHA而日益受到重视.目前的研究表明在积累中长链PHA的假单胞菌中,由phaG基因编码的(R)-3-羟基酯酰载酯蛋白-辅酶A转酰基酶(PhaG)起关键作用,但目前为止对该蛋白还知之甚少.通过聚合酶链式反应(PCR)建立了一种快速、特异鉴定phaG基因的方法,应用该方法成功地从两株积累不同PHA的假单胞菌Pseudomonas stutzeri 1317和Pseudomonas nitroreducens0802中分别克隆得到phaG基因,并在phaG基因突变株Pseudomonasputida PHAGN-21中表达成功.同时,还首次报道了从非假单胞菌菌株Burkholderia caryophylli AS 1.2741中鉴定得到phaG基因,提示PhaG介导的中长链PHA合成途径作为一种通用的代谢模式在细菌中广泛存在,为进一步实现从廉价的非相关底物合成中长链PHA提供了必要的分子生物学基础.%Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) were biodegradable thermoplastics. Due to their broad applications, direct biosynthesis of PHA from inexpensive substrates, such as carbohydrates, is actively pursued. It has been recently revealed that (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP: CoA transacylase (PhaG) played an important role in this pathway. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction(PCR) protocol was developed for the rapid and specific identification of phaG gene from various bacteria. Using the PCR strategy, the complete open reading frames of two phaG genes from Pseudomonas stutzeri 1317 and Pseudomonas nitroreducens 0802were cloned from the genomic DNA and functionally expressed in Pseudomonas putida PHAGN-21. Furthermore, this strategy was successful applied in non-Pseudomonas strains, such as Burkholderia. These results suggest that PhaG-mediated pathway of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates was widespread among bacteria.

  4. Model-based Derivation of the Safety Operating Limits of a Semi-batch Reactor for the Catalytic Acetoacetylation of Pyrrole Using a Generalized Sensitivity Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, G; A Dan; Stefan, D.-N.

    2010-01-01

    The safe operation of a semi-batch catalytic reactor remains a sensitive issue when highly exothermic side reactions may occur, and various elements such as controllability, stability, safety, and economic aspects have to be considered in the process development. Nominal operating conditions are set to avoid excessive thermal sensitivity to variations in the process parameters. Several shortcuts or model-based methods are used to estimate the safety limits and runaway boundaries for the op...

  5. Domain analysis of 3 Keto Acyl-CoA synthase for structural variations in Vitis vinifera and Oryza brachyantha using comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Mamta; Pandey, Neetesh; Qamar, Naseha; Singh, Brijendra; Shukla, Akanksha

    2015-03-01

    The long chain fatty acids incorporated into plant lipids are derived from the iterative addition of C2 units which is provided by malonyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA after interactions with 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), found in several plants. This study provides functional characterization of three 3 ketoacyl CoA synthase like proteins in Vitis vinifera (one) and Oryza brachyantha (two proteins). Sequence analysis reveals that protein of Oryza brachyantha shows 96% similarity to a hypothetical protein in Sorghum bicolor; total 11 homologs were predicted in Sorghum bicolor. Conserved domain prediction confirm the presence of FAE1/Type III polyketide synthase-like protein, Thiolase-like, subgroup; Thiolase-like and 3-Oxoacyl-ACP synthase III, C-terminal and chalcone synthase like domain but very long chain 3-keto acyl CoA domain is absent. All three proteins were found to have Chalcone and stilbene synthases C terminal domain which is similar to domain of thiolase and β keto acyl synthase. Its N terminal domain is absent in J3M9Z7 protein of Oryza brachyantha and F6HH63 protein of Vitis vinifera. Differences in N-terminal domain is responsible for distinguish activity. The J3MF16 protein of Oryza brachyantha contains N terminal domain and C terminal domain and characterized using annotation of these domains. Domains Gcs (streptomyces coelicolor) and Chalcone-stilbene synthases (KAS) in 2-pyrone synthase (Gerbera hybrid) and chalcone synthase 2 (Medicago sativa) were found to be present in three proteins. This similarity points toward anthocyanin biosynthetic process. Similarity to chalcone synthase 2 reveals its possible role in Naringenine and Chalcone synthase like activity. In 3 keto acyl CoA synthase of Oryza brachyantha. Active site residues C-240, H-407, N-447 are present in J3MF16 protein that are common in these three protein at different positions. Structural variations among dimer interface, product binding site, malonyl-CoA binding sites, were predicted in

  6. Engineered synthetic pathway for isopropanol production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, T; Atsumi, S; Liao, J C

    2007-12-01

    A synthetic pathway was engineered in Escherichia coli to produce isopropanol by expressing various combinations of genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, E. coli K-12 MG1655, Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593, and Thermoanaerobacter brockii HTD4. The strain with the combination of C. acetobutylicum thl (acetyl-coenzyme A [CoA] acetyltransferase), E. coli atoAD (acetoacetyl-CoA transferase), C. acetobutylicum adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and C. beijerinckii adh (secondary alcohol dehydrogenase) achieved the highest titer. This strain produced 81.6 mM isopropanol in shake flasks with a yield of 43.5% (mol/mol) in the production phase. To our knowledge, this work is the first to produce isopropanol in E. coli, and the titer exceeded that from the native producers.

  7. Transcriptional repression by glycerol of genes involved in the assimilation of n-alkanes and fatty acids in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Katsuki; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2013-03-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica assimilates n-alkanes or fatty acids as carbon sources. Transcriptional activation by n-alkanes of ALK1 encoding a cytochrome P450 responsible for the terminal hydroxylation has been well studied so far, but its regulation by other carbon sources is poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of ALK1 by glycerol. Glycerol is a preferable carbon source compared to glucose for Y. lipolytica. The n-decane-induced transcript levels of ALK1 as well as the reporter gene under the control of ALK1 promoter were significantly decreased in the simultaneous presence of glycerol, but not of glucose. Similarly, the expression of PAT1 encoding acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase involved in β-oxidation was induced by n-decane or oleic acid, but its transcript level was decreased when glycerol was supplemented. These results indicate that glycerol represses the transcription of the genes involved in the metabolism of hydrophobic carbon sources in Y. lipolytica. Repression of ALK1 transcription by glycerol was not observed in the deletion mutant of GUT1 encoding glycerol kinase, implying that the phosphorylation of glycerol is required for the glycerol repression.

  8. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  9. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  10. Production of isopropanol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    A genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli JM109 harboring the isopropanol-producing pathway consisting of five genes encoding four enzymes, thiolase, coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii NRRL B593, produced up to 227 mM of isopropanol from glucose under aerobic fed-batch culture conditions. Acetate production by the engineered strain was approximately one sixth that produced by a control E. coli strain bearing an expression vector without the clostridial genes. These results demonstrate a functional isopropanol-producing pathway in E. coli and consequently carbon flux from acetyl-CoA directed to isopropanol instead of acetate. This is the first report on isopropanol production by genetically engineered microorganism under aerobic culture conditions.

  11. Crystal structures of human HMG-CoA synthase isoforms provide insights into inherited ketogenesis disorders and inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafqat, Naeem; Turnbull, Andrew; Zschocke, Johannes; Oppermann, Udo; Yue, Wyatt W

    2010-05-14

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (HMGCS) catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA into 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA. It is ubiquitous across the phylogenetic tree and is broadly classified into three classes. The prokaryotic isoform is essential in Gram-positive bacteria for isoprenoid synthesis via the mevalonate pathway. The eukaryotic cytosolic isoform also participates in the mevalonate pathway but its end product is cholesterol. Mammals also contain a mitochondrial isoform; its deficiency results in an inherited disorder of ketone body formation. Here, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the human cytosolic (hHMGCS1) and mitochondrial (hHMGCS2) isoforms in binary product complexes. Our data represent the first structures solved for human HMGCS and the mitochondrial isoform, allowing for the first time structural comparison among the three isoforms. This serves as a starting point for the development of isoform-specific inhibitors that have potential cholesterol-reducing and antibiotic applications. In addition, missense mutations that cause mitochondrial HMGCS deficiency have been mapped onto the hHMGCS2 structure to rationalize the structural basis for the disease pathology.

  12. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  13. Fuel utilization in patients with very long-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ØRngreen, Mette C; Nørgaard, Mette; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Fuel utilization in two adult patients with the myopathic form of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and five healthy subjects was investigated with stable isotopes during exercise at 50% of VO2max. The findings indicate that residual VLCAD activity in the patients...

  14. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that are at least 75 meters...

  15. Rehabilitation of an old palm-tree plantation in Ivory Coas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abodou Ake, N.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the "Sous-prefecture" of Anyama, South-east of Ivory Coast, an old palm-tree plantation run at village level had to be replaced by another activity such as cassava cultivation or broiler production. The success of such a rehabilitation is closely associated with an adequate choice of the new agricultural activity, with technical competence, with the acceptance of the new techniques and with an appropriate regional extension service. The conjunction of all these factors has made the operation a success. The poultry production is more profitable than cassava to substitute palm-oil plantation in the context concerned.

  16. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of a 4-coumarate CoA ligase from liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Cheng, Ai-Xia; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Plant phenylpropanoids represent a large group of secondary metabolites which have played an important role in terrestrial plant life, beginning with the evolution of land plants from primitive green algae. 4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a provider of activated thioester substrates within the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Although 4CLs have been extensively characterized in angiosperm, gymnosperm and moss species, little is known of their functions in liverworts. Here, a 4CL homolog (designated as Pa4CL1) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pa4CL1 contains 1644bp and is predicted to encode a protein with 547amino acids. The gene products were 40-50% identical with 4CL sequences reported in public databases. The recombinant protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited a high level of 4CL activity, catalyzing formation of hydroxycinnamate-CoA thioesters by a two-step reaction mechanism from corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids. Kinetic analysis indicated that the most favorable substrate for Pa4CL1 is p-coumaric acid. The transcription of Pa4CL1 was induced when P. appendiculatum thallus was treated with either salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate.

  18. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  19. Relevance of expanded neonatal screening of medium-chain acyl co-a dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couce, M L; Castiñeiras, D E; Moure, J D;

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal screening of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is of major importance due to the significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. MCADD screening has been performed routinely in Galicia since July 2000, and until now 199,943 newborns have been screened. W...

  20. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  1. High Performance Computing (HPC) for Real-Time Course of Action (COA) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    architectures including Beowulf clusters . Installing FSS is discussed in the Installation Guide FSS supports a force on force simulation which...workstations, clusters , or combinations of architectures. FSS is a discrete event simulation meaning there is no ‘time step’ to the simulation

  2. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that area at least 395...

  3. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation during seed development represses seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Vaistij, Fabián E; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A

    2011-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis.

  4. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 μm, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB.

  5. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly

  6. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117

  7. 乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB克隆及其表达初探%Molecular cloning and primary expressed exploration of acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene (phbB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍晶; 姜晓娟; 徐志超; 林忠平; 杜娟

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of NADPH-dependent acetyl-CoA enzyme reductase gene named phbB (GenBank ID: KC191672) as the key enzymes of PHB synthase gene were cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis (Alcaligenes eutrophus). According to entrophusPhbB (FJ897462.1) sequences that has been speculated. The gene homology was 70.99%, with the length of 740 bp encoded 246 amino acids( aa). The recombinant plasmid named pET28a (+)-phbB-HE were constructed successfully.The products were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis, it confirmed that high efficiency expression of the phbB protein fragments (ca.31 ku) were demonstrated. It laid a solid foundation for further study of phbB gene activity and late protein identification.%从真养产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes eutrophus)中克隆得到PHB合成的关键酶基因,NADPH依赖性的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB(GenBank ID:KC191672),其DNA长度为741 bp,编码246个氨基酸(aa),与GenBank数据库中的entrophusPhbB(FJ897462.1)的同源性为70.99%。属于膜蛋白或分泌蛋白,推测该蛋白可能定位在细胞膜上。成功构建原核表达载体pET28a(+)-phbB-HE。经SDS-PAGE电泳检测获得phbB基因表达蛋白,其分子质量为31 ku,为研究乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶活性及后期蛋白功能鉴定奠定基础。

  8. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 1e-93 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 2e-51 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 4e-94 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 1e-51 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK072460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072460 J023121H13 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 2e-87 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK069768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069768 J023030K20 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 6e-68 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK069768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069768 J023030K20 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 2e-67 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 2e-71 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 2e-51 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 5e-72 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 3e-52 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 1e-51 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK072460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072460 J023121H13 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 6e-88 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK107395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107395 002-127-D04 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 1e-86 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 3e-53 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK107395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107395 002-127-D04 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 8e-87 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 (P33290) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) (Thiolase IA) THIKA_CANTR 4e-52 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (P33291) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) (Thiolase IB) THIKB_CANTR 3e-53 ...

  6. Fatal malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency due to maternal uniparental isodisomy of the telomeric end of chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, S; Papi, L; Morrone, A; Donati, M A; Ciani, F; Pasquini, E; la Marca, G; Scholte, H R; Genuardi, M; Zammarchi, E

    2007-11-01

    Malonic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, encoded by the MLYCD gene. We report on a patient with clinical presentation in the neonatal period. Metabolic investigations led to a diagnosis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, confirmed by decreased activity in cultured fibroblasts. High doses of carnitine and a diet low in lipids led to a reduction in malonic acid excretion, and to an improvement in his clinical conditions, but at the age of 4 months he died suddenly and unexpectedly. No autopsy was performed. Molecular analysis of the MLYCD gene performed on the proband's RNA and genomic DNA identified a previously undescribed mutation (c.772-775delACTG) which was homozygous. This mutation was present in his mother but not in his father; paternity was confirmed by microsatellite analysis. A hypothesis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was investigated using fourteen microsatellite markers on chromosome 16, and the results confirmed maternal UPD. Maternal isodisomy of the 16q24 region led to homozygosity for the MLYCD mutant allele, causing the patient's disease. These findings are relevant for genetic counselling of couples with a previously affected child, since the recurrence risk in future pregnancies is dramatically reduced by the finding of UPD. In addition, since the patient had none of the clinical manifestations previously associated with maternal UPD 16, this case provides no support for the existence of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 16 with a major effect on phenotype.

  7. Comparison of the effect of two HMG CoA reductase inhibitors on LDL susceptibility to oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Portal

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the differences between fluvastatin and pravastatin regarding LDL susceptibility to oxidation, plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides (TG in hypercholesterolemic patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD. METHODS: A double-blind randomized parallel study was conducted that included 41 hypercholesterolemic outpatients with CHD treated at the Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. The inclusion criteria were LDL-C above 100 mg/dL and triglycerides below 400 mg/dL based on 2 measures. After 4 weeks on a low cholesterol diet, those patients that fullfilled the inclusion criteria were randomized into 2 groups: the fluvastatin group (fluvastatin 40 mg/day and the pravastatin group (pravastatin 20 mg/day, for 24 weeks of treatment. LDL susceptibility to oxidation was analyzed with copper-induced production of conjugated dienes (Cu2+ and water-soluble free radical initiator azo-bis (2'-2'amidinopropanil HCl (AAPH. Spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance was used for determination of lipids. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of drug therapy, fluvastatin and pravastatin significantly reduced LDL susceptibility to oxidation as demonstrated by the reduced rate of oxidation (azo and Cu and by prolonged azo-induced lag time (azo lag. The TC, LDL-C, and TG reduced significantly and HDL-C increased significantly. No differences between the drugs were observed. CONCLUSION: In hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD, both fluvastatin and pravastatin reduced LDL susceptibility to oxidation.

  8. Diagnostico De La Deficiencia De Acil-Coa Deshidrogenasa De Cadena Muy Larga Mediante El Uso De Sustratos Tritiados

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Laboratorio de Patología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud. Universidad de Caldas. e.mail:; Ribes, Antonia; Instituto de Bioquímica Clínica. Corporació Sanitaria Clínic. Barcelona. España Correspondencia: Universidad de Caldas, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud. Calle 65 N0. 26-10. Manizales; Lluc, Montse; Instituto de Bioquímica Clínica. Corporació Sanitaria Clínic. Barcelona. España Correspondencia: Universidad de Caldas, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud. Calle 65 N0. 26-10. Manizales

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: la acil-CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena muy larga (VLCAD) cataliza la primera reacción de la degradación de ácidos grasos de 14 a 24 átomos de carbono. Su deficiencia debe ser siempre confirmada por estudios de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos: en el presente trabajo, fueron incubados fibroblastos de pacientes que presentaban la deficiencia de VLCAD, en presencia de sustratos tritiados. Resultados y discusión: Fue encontrada diferencia significativa (P<0.05) al comparar la degr...

  9. Comparative evaluation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in experimentally-induced myocardial necrosis: Biochemical, morphological and histological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Patel, Snehal S; Trivedi, Jinal I; Gandhi, Hardik P; Rathod, S P

    2015-10-05

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of different statins on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis. Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin (10 mg/kg/day) were administered for 12 weeks. After pretreatment of 12 weeks myocardial necrosis was induced by subsequent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.) to wistar rats. Serum biochemical parameters like glucose, lipid profile, cardiac markers and transaminases were evaluated. Animals were killed and heart was excised for histopathology and antioxidant study. Statins pretreated rats showed significant protection against ISO induced elevation in serum biochemical parameters and serum level of cardiac marker enzymes and transaminase level as compared to ISO control group. Mild to moderate protection was observed in different statins treated heart in histopathology and TTC stained sections. Result from our study also revealed that statins could efficiently protect against ISO intoxicated myocardial necrosis by impairing membrane bound enzyme integrity and endogenous antioxidant enzyme levels. Amongst all statins used, rosuvastatin and pravastatin were found to have maximum cardio-protective activity against ISO induced myocardial necrosis as compared to other statins.

  10. UV-Induced DNA Damage Promotes Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bernard A.; Dando, Paige K.; Grice, Desma M.; Mohr, Peter G.; Schenk, Peer M.; Cahill, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant innate immunity to pathogenic microorganisms is activated in response to recognition of extracellular or intracellular pathogen molecules by transmembrane receptors or resistance proteins, respectively. The defense signaling pathways share components with those involved in plant responses to UV radiation, which can induce expression of plant genes important for pathogen resistance. Such intriguing links suggest that UV treatment might activate resistance to pathogens in normally susceptible host plants. Here, we demonstrate that pre-inoculative UV (254 nm) irradiation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) susceptible to infection by the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, the causative agent of downy mildew, induces dose- and time-dependent resistance to the pathogen detectable up to 7 d after UV exposure. Limiting repair of UV photoproducts by postirradiation incubation in the dark, or mutational inactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase, (6-4) photoproduct photolyase, or nucleotide excision repair increased the magnitude of UV-induced pathogen resistance. In the absence of treatment with 254-nm UV, plant nucleotide excision repair mutants also defective for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or (6-4) photoproduct photolyase displayed resistance to H. parasitica, partially attributable to short wavelength UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation emitted by incubator lights. These results indicate UV irradiation can initiate the development of resistance to H. parasitica in plants normally susceptible to the pathogen and point to a key role for UV-induced DNA damage. They also suggest UV treatment can circumvent the requirement for recognition of H. parasitica molecules by Arabidopsis proteins to activate an immune response. PMID:18667719

  11. The natural history of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Netherlands : Clinical presentation and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Waterham, Hans R; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; van den Berg, Maarten P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Smit, G Peter A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation and long-term follow-up of a large cohort of patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide, retrospective analysis of clinical presentation and follow-up in 155 Dutch patients with MCAD deficiency. RE

  12. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek;

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  13. Ethylene and Not Embolism Is Required for Wound-Induced Tylose Development in Stems of Grapevines1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L.; Reid, Michael S.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The pruning of actively growing grapevines (Vitis vinifera) resulted in xylem vessel embolisms and a stimulation of tylose formation in the vessels below the pruning wound. Pruning was also followed by a 10-fold increase in the concentration of ethylene at the cut surface. When the pruning cut was made under water and maintained in water, embolisms were prevented, but there was no reduction in the formation of tyloses or the accumulation of ethylene. Treatment of the stems with inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and/or action (silver thiosulfate) delayed and greatly reduced the formation of tyloses in xylem tissue and the size and number of those that formed in individual vessels. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that wound ethylene production is the cause of tylose formation and that embolisms in vessels are not directly required for wound-induced tylosis in pruned grapevines. The possible role of ethylene in the formation of tyloses in response to other stresses and during development, maturation, and senescence is discussed. PMID:17921344

  14. Synthesis of spherical COA12O4 pigment particles with high reflectivity by polymeric-aerosol pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guorong; DENG Xinrong; CAO Yanbing; PENG Zhongdong

    2007-01-01

    Spherical cobalt blue particles with good reflectivity characteristics were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. Two different spray solutions were prepared to investigate the differences in the morphology and the reflectivity properties of cobalt blue particles. One was an aqueous solution, and the other was a polycation solution that was obtained by chemically modifying the aqueous solution with NH4OH. The cobalt blue particles prepared with the aqueous solution had an irregular morphology after heat treatment at 1000℃ for 2 h. On the contrary, spherical and dense particles were obtained from the polycation solution. The spherical and dense cobalt blue particles showed remarkable improvement in reflectivity compared with that of irregular morphology particles as well as the commercial.

  15. Overexpression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumaroyl CoA ligase prompted flavone accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, YeJi; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Sang Un

    2014-06-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a species of the Lamiaceae family, is considered as one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to enhance flavone (baicalein, baicalin, and wogonin) content in S. baicalensis roots, we overexpressed a single gene of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumaroyl coenzyme A ligase (4CL) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated system. SbC4H- and Sb4CL-overexpressed hairy root lines enhanced the transcript levels of SbC4H and Sb4CL compared with those in the control and also increased flavones contents by approximately 3- and 2.5-fold, respectively. We successfully engineered the flavone biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial flavones in S baicalensis hairy roots. The importance of upstream gene C4H and 4CL in flavone biosynthesis and the efficiency of metabolic engineering in promoting flavone biosynthesis in S. baicalensis hairy roots have been indicated in this study.

  16. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the e...

  17. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  18. CoasTing: un Ambicioso Programa de Investigación que Combinó Diferentes Estrategias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arias Masis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Después de dos décadas de no presentarse un cambio radical en el mercado de las bicicletas en Estados Unidos, en el 2002 surgió un programa de investigación con el objetivo de modificar la visión del negocio de bicicletas en ese mercado y provocar sinergias entre actores de la cadena de valor de este producto (proveedores, fabricantes, distribuidores, vendedores y clientes. Se trata de un caso en que se combinaron una serie de estrategias, impulsadas por el proveedor líder de componentes para bicicletas (Shimano, con el propósito de enfrentar nuevas condiciones y oportunidades que este proveedor percibió, y que afectarían el negocio de las bicicletas en ese país. El programa no sólo creó un producto innovador, sino también determinó que se debía ir más allá del producto tangible.   Este artículo se basa en distintas publicaciones con el fin mostrar el contexto, las estrategias y las lecciones que se derivaron de esta experiencia empresarial.   ABSTRACT After two decades with no radical change in the bicycle market in the USA, a research program arose in 2002 with the aim to modify that sector’s business vision for and to stimulate synergies among the different participants in this product’s value chain (suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, salespersons and customers. It is a case in which several strategies were combined, triggered by the leading supplier of bicycle components (Shimano, to face new limitations and opportunities that this supplier observed would affect the bicycle business in that country. The program not only created an innovative product, but also established that business practice should go beyond the tangible product. This article is based in several publications with the goal to show the span, strategies and lessons derived from the business experience.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Amino Acid Composition Analysis of A Halophilic Thiolase Gene%极端嗜盐硫解酶基因的克隆和氨基酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁汉; 周培瑾

    2002-01-01

    根据嗜盐菌(Halobacterium salinarum)NRC-34001中硫解酶的基因序列信息,采用PCR技术从菌株Halobacterium sp.ZP-6中克隆了极端嗜盐硫解酶的基因,并对此酶的氨基组成进行了分析.同非嗜盐硫解酶相比,极端嗜盐硫解酶不但含有较多的负电荷氨基酸,较少的正电荷氨基酸和强疏水氨基酸,而且同类氨基酸中的小氨基酸含量明显增高.这表明极端嗜盐硫解酶的嗜盐特性不单来自形成的分子静电屏蔽网和疏水作用的调节,且与分子表面张力减小密切相关.

  20. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  1. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M; Mitchell, Robert D; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  2. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Zhu

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT. However, when the tick MTs

  3. 3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P S; Kekwick, R G; Smith, C G; Sidebottom, C; Slabas, A R

    1992-04-01

    3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.100, alternatively known as beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] reductase), a component of fatty acid synthetase has been purified from seeds of rape by ammonium sulphate fractionation, Procion Red H-E3B chromatography, FPLC gel filtration and high performance hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified enzyme appears on SDS-PAGE as a number of 20-30 kDa components and has a strong tendency to exist in a dimeric form, particularly when dithiothreitol is not present to reduce disulphide bonds. Cleveland mapping and cross-reactivity with antiserum raised against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase both indicate that the multiple components have similar primary structures. On gel filtration the enzyme appears to have a molecular mass of 120 kDa suggesting that the native structure is tetrameric. The enzyme has a strong preference for the acetoacetyl ester of acyl carrier protein (Km = 3 microM) over the corresponding esters of the model substrates N-acetyl cysteamine (Km = 35 mM) and CoA (Km = 261 microM). It is inactivated by dilution but this can be partly prevented by the inclusion of NADPH. Using an antiserum prepared against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase, the enzyme has been visualised inside the plastids of rape embryo and leaf tissues by immunoelectron microscopy. Amino acid sequencing of two peptides prepared by digestion of the purified enzyme with trypsin showed strong similarities with 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from avocado pear and the Nod G gene product from Rhizobium meliloti.

  4. Fire fighting design of coaI chemicaI project intermediate tank farm%煤化工项目中间罐区消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆元

    2015-01-01

    以西北某煤化工项目为例,介绍了中间罐区的消防设计思路和方法,系统地阐述了泡沫灭火系统、消防冷却水系统的设计计算及设计时需注意的问题。%Tanking a coal chemical project in northwest China as an example, the design thinking and method of intermediate tank farm fire fighting were introduced; besides, the design and calculation of foam extin-guishing system, fire fighting cooling water system as well as the problems need to be noticed were elaborated systematically.

  5. Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5 ablation in mice increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and delays fat absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Bowman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: In summary, ACSL5−/− mice have increased hepatic and serum FGF21 levels, reduced adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure and delayed triglyceride absorption. These studies suggest that ACSL5 is an important regulator of whole-body energy metabolism and ablation of ACSL5 may antagonize the development of obesity and insulin resistance.

  6. Association between HMG CoA reductase inhibitors and anxiety: an experimental study using elevated plus maze and light dark arena behavioural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama M. Gudadappanavar

    2015-06-01

    Results: Going through the results of this study an evidence for the association between lowered serum cholesterol and symptoms of anxiety can be seen as statins used in the present study failed to show significant anxiolytic effect when compared to standard but in turn showed even more less activity when compared to control, indicating anxiogenic behavior. Conclusions: Our findings support the evidence of the negative effects of statins on psychological outcomes. Its generally understood that having low cholesterol is a good health sign, combined with other factors; it could actually put a person at risk by causing anxiety and stress. Further research comprising a greater number of studies is required to confirm the effects of this agent on psychological outcomes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1329-1335

  7. Engineering and systems level analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of 3 hydroxypropionic acid via malonyl CoA reductase dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Schneider, Konstantin;

    2016-01-01

    In the future, oil- and gas-derived polymers may be replaced with bio-based polymers, produced from renewable feedstocks using engineered cell factories. Acrylic acid and acrylic esters with an estimated world annual production of approximately 6 million tons by 2017 can be derived from 3...

  8. Study on the Efficacy of Some Current Herbicides for Control of Resistant and Susceptible Canarygrass (Phalaris spp. Biotypes to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two separate greenhouse experiments were conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, to study the efficacy of some herbicides to control of resistant and susceptible P. minor and P. paradoxa biotypes. In each experiment, resistant and susceptible biotypes were treated separately by 19 herbicide treatments. Treatments included 10 ACCase inhibitors, 6 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS inhibitors, prosulfocarb, flamprop-M-isopropyl, isoproturon plus diflufenican and a non-sprayed control. To evaluate the effects of treatments, different characteristics including percent damage based on EWRC scores at 15 and 30 days after spraying, percentage of survived plants after spraying relative to before spraying, and percentage of dry weight and wet weight of individual plants relative to control were studied. Results showed that the susceptible biotypes of P. minor were best controlled by clodinafop propargyl and pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha while pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha and cycloxydim were best options for control of the resistant biotype. Among ALS inhibitors, iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron could control susceptible and resistant biotypes of P. minor very effectively and semi-satisfactory, respectively. Iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron could remarkably reduce the wet weight of individual plants compared to control so that the plants were not damaging any more. Among other herbicides, isoproturon plus diflufenican could control the susceptible and resistant biotypes semi-satisfactory and very effectively, respectively. Keywords: Herbicide resistance, ACCase inhibitors, ALS inhibitors

  9. Transcriptional and functional analysis of oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA transferase genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M; Hassan, Hosni M; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2006-03-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene (oxc) was identified in the genome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Physiological analysis of a mutant harboring a deleted version of the frc gene confirmed that frc expression specifically improves survival in the presence of oxalic acid at pH 3.5 compared with the survival of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the frc mutant was unable to degrade oxalate. These genes, which have not previously been described in lactobacilli, appear to be responsible for oxalate degradation in this organism. Transcriptional analysis using cDNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that mildly acidic conditions were a prerequisite for frc and oxc transcription. As a consequence, oxalate-dependent induction of these genes occurred only in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 5.5. Where genome information was available, other lactic acid bacteria were screened for frc and oxc genes. With the exception of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium lactis, none of the other strains harbored genes for oxalate utilization.

  10. Structural and biochemical characterisation of Archaeoglobus fulgidus esterase reveals a bound CoA molecule in the vicinity of the active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayer, Christopher; Finnigan, William; Isupov, Michail N.; Levisson, Mark; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Oost, van der John; Harmer, Nicholas J.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    A new carboxyl esterase, AF-Est2, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus has been cloned, over-expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically and structurally characterized. The enzyme has high activity towards short- to medium-chain p-nitrophenyl carboxylic esters with optim

  11. Immunophilins, Refsum disease, and lupus nephritis: the peroxisomal enzyme phytanoyl-COA alpha-hydroxylase is a new FKBP-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambraud, B; Radanyi, C; Camonis, J H; Rajkowski, K; Schumacher, M; Baulieu, E E

    1999-03-01

    FKBP52 (FKBP59, FKBP4) is a "macro" immunophilin that, although sharing high structural and functional homologies in its amino-terminal domain with FKBP12 (FKBP1), does not have immunosuppressant activity when complexed with FK506, unlike FKBP12. To investigate the physiological function of FKBP52, we used the yeast two-hybrid system as an approach to find its potential protein partners and, from that, its cellular role. This methodology, which already has allowed us to find the FK506-binding protein (FKBP)-associated protein FAP48, also led to the detection of another FKBP-associated protein. Determination of the sequence of this protein permitted its identification as phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase (PAHX), a peroxisomal enzyme that so far was unknown as an FKBP-associated protein. Inactivation of this enzyme is responsible for Refsum disease in humans. The protein also corresponds to the mouse protein LN1, which could be involved in the progress of lupus nephritis. We show here that PAHX has the physical capacity to interact with the FKBP12-like domain of FKBP52, but not with FKBP12, suggesting that it is a particular and specific target of FKBP52. Whereas the binding of calcineurin to FKBP12 is potentiated by FK506, the specific association of PAHX and FKBP52 is maintained in the presence of FK506. This observation suggests that PAHX is a serious candidate for studying the cellular signaling pathway(s) involving FKBP52 in the presence of immunosuppressant drugs.

  12. Brain pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes are mitochondrial targets of the CoA ester of the Refsum disease marker phytanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria I; Raddatz, Günter; Wanders, Ronald J A; Reiser, Georg

    2006-06-12

    Pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes are strongly inhibited by phytanoyl-CoA (IC(50) approximately 10(-6)-10(-7) M). Palmitoyl-CoA is 10-fold less potent. Phytanic or palmitic acids have no inhibitory effect up to 0.3 mM. At the substrate saturation, the acyl-CoA's affect the first and second enzymatic components of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, while the third component is inhibited only at a low saturation with its substrate dihydrolipoamide. Thus, key regulatory branch points of mitochondrial metabolism are targets of a cellular derivative of phytanic acid. Decreased activity of the complexes might therefore contribute to neurological symptoms upon accumulation of phytanic acid in Refsum disease.

  13. HMG CoA Lyase (HL): Mutation detection and development of a bacterial expression system for screening the activity of mutant alleles from HL-deficient patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, M.F.; Ashmarina, L.; Poitier, E. [Hospital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    HL catalyzes the last step of ketogenesis, and autosomal recessive HL deficiency in humans can cause episodes of hypoglycemia and coma. Structurally, HL is a dimer of identical 325-residue peptides which requires a reducing environment to maintain activity. We cloned the human and mouse HL cDNAs and genes and have performed mutation analysis on cells from 30 HL-deficient probands. Using SSCP and also genomic Southern analysis we have identified putative mutations on 53/60 alleles of these patients (88%). To date, we have found 20 mutations: 3 large deletions, 4 termination mutations, 5 frameshift mutations, and 8 missense mutations which we suspect to be pathogenic based on evolutionary conservation and/or our previous studies on purified HL protein. We have also identified 3 polymorphic variants. In order to directly test the activity of the missense mutations, we established a pGEX-based system, using a glutathione S transferase (GST)-HL fusion protein. Expressed wild-type GST-HL was insoluble. We previously located a reactive Cys at the C-terminus of chicken HL which is conserved in human HL. We produced a mutant HL peptide, C323S, which replaced Cys323 with Ser. Purified C323S is soluble and has similar kinetics to wild-type HL. C323S-containing GST-HL is soluble and enzymatically active. We are cloning and expressing the 8 missense mutations.

  14. Effects of HMG-COA Reductase Inhibitor Therapy on LDL Cholesterol Blood Levels in Hyperlipidemia: A Longitudinal Retrospective Anlaysis Using a Department of Defense Integrated Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Kinlay, and Peter Ganz, Atherogenesis and Ischemic Heart Disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1997; 80(8B):3H-7H. 33. A. L. Lehninger , D. L. Nelson...of its Pharmacology and Therapeutic Potential in the Management of Hyperlipidaemias. Drugs 1997; 53(5):828-847. A. L. Lehninger , D. L. Nelson, and M

  15. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shiyou; Song, Tao; Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Rowland, Owen; Jenks, Matthew A

    2009-08-01

    Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of wax in all chemical classes on the stem and leaf, except in the very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) class wherein acids longer than 24 carbons (C(24)) were elevated more than 155%. The C(16) cutin monomers on lacs1 were reduced by 37% and 22%, whereas the C(18) monomers were increased by 28% and 20% on stem and leaf, respectively. Amounts of wax and cutin on a lacs1-1 lacs2-3 double mutant were much lower than on either parent, and lacs1-1 lacs2-3 had much higher cuticular permeability than either parent. These additive effects indicate that LACS1 and LACS2 have overlapping functions in both wax and cutin synthesis. We demonstrated that LACS1 has synthetase activity for VLCFAs C(20)-C(30), with highest activity for C(30) acids. LACS1 thus appears to function as a very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in wax metabolism. Since C(16) but not C(18) cutin monomers are reduced in lacs1, and C(16) acids are the next most preferred acid (behind C(30)) by LACS1 in our assays, LACS1 also appears to be important for the incorporation of C(16) monomers into cutin polyester. As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis.

  16. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (Q921H8) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) THIKA_MOUSE 2e-57 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (Q921H8) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) THIKA_MOUSE 2e-60 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 (P09110) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_HUMAN 1e-54 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 2e-60 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 2e-56 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (Q8BWT1) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIM_MOUSE 2e-58 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK072460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072460 J023121H13 (P13437) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIM_RAT 4e-55 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (P13437) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIM_RAT 7e-46 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (Q05493) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YARLI 5e-51 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (P21775) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) THIKA_RAT 1e-107 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK072460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072460 J023121H13 (P42765) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) (T1) THIM_HUMAN 1e-57 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (P42765) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) (T1) THIM_HUMAN 7e-59 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK069768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069768 J023030K20 (P13437) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIM_RAT 7e-48 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK069768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069768 J023030K20 (Q05493) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YARLI 6e-82 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 (P21775) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase A) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase A) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase A) THIKA_RAT 1e-57 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (Q570C8) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 5, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase 5) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 5) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 5) THIK5_ARATH 1e-145 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (Q05493) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YARLI 5e-52 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (P13437) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIM_RAT 2e-62 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (Q05493) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YARLI 1e-115 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (P07871) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_RAT 3e-98 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK072460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072460 J023121H13 (P07871) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_RAT 1e-113 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 1e-107 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (Q570C8) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 5, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase 5) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 5) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 5) THIK5_ARATH 4e-85 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (Q570C8) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 5, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se 5) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 5) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 5) THIK5_ARATH 8e-52 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (P27796) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YEAST 4e-69 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK069768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069768 J023030K20 (P42765) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) (T1) THIM_HUMAN 2e-49 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (Q8LF48) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 1, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase 1) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 1) THIK1_ARATH 6e-87 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (Q8LF48) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 1, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se 1) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 1) THIK1_ARATH 3e-53 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK102536 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102536 J033096I21 (P27796) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YEAST 4e-50 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 (Q8LF48) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 1, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase 1) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase 1) THIK1_ARATH 1e-157 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 3e-60 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK107395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107395 002-127-D04 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 2e-86 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK101017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101017 J023149F12 (Q05493) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) THIK_YARLI 5e-51 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (P42765) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase) (Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) (T1) THIM_HUMAN 5e-65 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK108135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108135 002-139-E02 (Q8VCH0) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiol...ase B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_MOUSE 3e-95 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK103194 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103194 J033121P11 (P07871) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B, peroxisomal precursor (EC 2.3.1.16) (Beta-ketothiola...se B) (Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase B) (Peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase B) THIKB_RAT 2e-60 ...

  12. Cloning of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-Con A reductase gene phbB and its expression in Escherichia coli%NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB的克隆和在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁辉; 华子春

    2004-01-01

    目的:在大肠杆菌中克隆和表达NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因.方法:通过PCR方法克隆来源于Alcaligenes eutrophus菌的NADPH依赖性的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB,将其克隆在大肠杆菌表达质粒pET28a中,进行PCR和DNA序列测定验证,并通过IPTG诱导表达.结果:通过PCR和DNA核酸序列分析,证实获得的基因片段为phbB全编码序列,phbB被克隆在大肠杆菌表达质粒pET28a中,重组表达质粒在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中经IPTG诱导获得表达.结论:获得了Alcaligenes eutrophus菌的NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因, 将其克隆在pET28a中,经诱导获得PhbB的表达,为进一步研究PhbB的理化性质和酶动力学性质奠定了坚实的基础.

  13. CoaI quaIity characteristics of No. Ⅱ1 coaI seam in ShiIin expIoration area of Hebi City%鹤壁石林勘探区二1煤煤质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海英

    2015-01-01

    为了解鹤壁石林勘探区二1煤煤质特征和工艺性能,评价其工业用途。采取钻孔煤芯样35孔81个样,分析了二1煤的煤岩成分与宏观煤岩类型、显微煤岩组分特征、化学性质、工艺性能,研究了煤类分布及变质特征。结果表明,二1煤显微组分中镜质组含量59.50%~69.20%,镜质组最大反射率1.67%~2.01%,灰分16.18%~20.28%,挥发分14.73%~15.92%,发热量28.40~29.95 MJ/ kg,黏结指数2~35,哈氏可磨性指数109~149。根据现行中国煤炭分类,二1煤属贫煤、贫瘦煤、瘦煤。各煤类在平面上分布为:贫煤位于南部的 F1~ F22断层,贫瘦煤位于中部的 F31~ F114断层,瘦煤位于北部的 F50~ F66断层。煤层在深成变质作用的基础上叠加了区域岩浆热变质作用,使煤化程度达到以高煤级为主的烟煤阶段,形成贫煤—贫瘦煤—瘦煤的带状分布。贫瘦煤、瘦煤可作工业炼焦配煤,贫煤符合发电煤粉锅炉用煤和高炉喷吹用煤技术条件。%In order to get knowledge of characteristics of coal quality and processing properties of No. Ⅱ1 coal seam in Shilin Exploration Area,Hebi City,and evaluate its industrial utilization application,81 coal core samples in 35 boreholes were collected,the chemical proper-ties,processing property and microlithotype of coal property of No. Ⅱ1 coal seam were investigated. The distribution of coal class and its metamorphic characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that,the vitrinite content of maceral in No. Ⅱ1 coal seam ranged from 59. 50% to 69. 20% ,with the max reflectivity of vitrain 1. 67% ~ 2. 01% ,ash content 16. 18% ~ 20. 28% ,calorific value 28. 40 ~29. 95 MJ/ kg,volatile matter 14. 73% ~ 15. 92% ,caking index 2 ~ 35,and grindability index 109 ~ 149. According to the current coal classification in China,the coal classes of No. Ⅱ1 coal seam were meager coal,meager lean coal and lean coal. The distribution of va-rious coal in different levels was that meager coal lay between faults F1 to F22 in the south,meager lean coal lay between faults F31 to F114 in central part,while the lean coal lay between faults F50 to F66 in the north. On the basis of hypozonal metamorphism,the coal seam was o-verlapped regional magmatic thermal metamorphism,which changed the degree of coalification to the high rank coal,mainly bituminous coal phase,and formed the belt shape distribution of meager coal - meager lean coal and lean coal. In which,meager lean coal and lean coal could be used as blended coal in industrial coking,while the meager coal was accord with the specifications of pulverized coal-fired boiler in power plant and blast furnace injection.

  14. From arylamine N-acetyltransferase to folate-dependent acetyl CoA hydrolase: impact of folic acid on the activity of (HUMAN)NAT1 and its homologue (MOUSE)NAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurieri, Nicola; Dairou, Julien; Egleton, James E; Stanley, Lesley A; Russell, Angela J; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Sim, Edith; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Acetyl Coenzyme A-dependent N-, O- and N,O-acetylation of aromatic amines and hydrazines by arylamine N-acetyltransferases is well characterised. Here, we describe experiments demonstrating that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its murine homologue (Type 2) can also catalyse the direct hydrolysis of acetyl Coenzyme A in the presence of folate. This folate-dependent activity is exclusive to these two isoforms; no acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis was found when murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 or recombinant bacterial arylamine N-acetyltransferases were incubated with folate. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed chemical modifications occurring during the catalytic reaction to be analysed in real time, revealing that the disappearance of acetyl CH3 from acetyl Coenzyme A occurred concomitantly with the appearance of a CH3 peak corresponding to that of free acetate and suggesting that folate is not acetylated during the reaction. We propose that folate is a cofactor for this reaction and suggest it as an endogenous function of this widespread enzyme. Furthermore, in silico docking of folate within the active site of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 suggests that folate may bind at the enzyme's active site, and facilitate acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis. The evidence presented in this paper adds to our growing understanding of the endogenous roles of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its mouse homologue and expands the catalytic repertoire of these enzymes, demonstrating that they are by no means just xenobiotic metabolising enzymes but probably also play an important role in cellular metabolism. These data, together with the characterisation of a naphthoquinone inhibitor of folate-dependent acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1/murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 2, open up a range of future avenues of exploration, both for elucidating the developmental role of these enzymes and for improving chemotherapeutic approaches to pathological conditions including estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  15. From arylamine N-acetyltransferase to folate-dependent acetyl CoA hydrolase: impact of folic acid on the activity of (HUMANNAT1 and its homologue (MOUSENAT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Laurieri

    Full Text Available Acetyl Coenzyme A-dependent N-, O- and N,O-acetylation of aromatic amines and hydrazines by arylamine N-acetyltransferases is well characterised. Here, we describe experiments demonstrating that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its murine homologue (Type 2 can also catalyse the direct hydrolysis of acetyl Coenzyme A in the presence of folate. This folate-dependent activity is exclusive to these two isoforms; no acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis was found when murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 or recombinant bacterial arylamine N-acetyltransferases were incubated with folate. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed chemical modifications occurring during the catalytic reaction to be analysed in real time, revealing that the disappearance of acetyl CH3 from acetyl Coenzyme A occurred concomitantly with the appearance of a CH3 peak corresponding to that of free acetate and suggesting that folate is not acetylated during the reaction. We propose that folate is a cofactor for this reaction and suggest it as an endogenous function of this widespread enzyme. Furthermore, in silico docking of folate within the active site of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 suggests that folate may bind at the enzyme's active site, and facilitate acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis. The evidence presented in this paper adds to our growing understanding of the endogenous roles of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1 and its mouse homologue and expands the catalytic repertoire of these enzymes, demonstrating that they are by no means just xenobiotic metabolising enzymes but probably also play an important role in cellular metabolism. These data, together with the characterisation of a naphthoquinone inhibitor of folate-dependent acetyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 1/murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type 2, open up a range of future avenues of exploration, both for elucidating the developmental role of these enzymes and for improving chemotherapeutic approaches to pathological conditions including estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  16. A new hypotensive polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary combination regulates oleic acid accumulation by suppression of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 gene expression in the SHR model of genetic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellenger, J.; Bellenger, S.; Clement, L.; Mandard, S.J.; Diot, C.; Poisson, J.P.; Narce, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to repress SCD-1 gene expression, key enzyme of monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Alterations of the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio have been implicated in various diseases related to the metabolic syndrome, including hypertension. We

  17. 移动床生物膜反应器在煤气化废水处理中的应用%AppIication of MBBR in coaI gasification wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯家军; 俞凯

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical process with MBBR as the core technology was used to treat coal gasification wastewater. The application of MBBR for wastewater anaerobic, aerobic and advanced treatment in secondary bio-chemical treatment unit was analyzed; besides, the optimal combination of MBBR and other processes was also investigated. The pilot scale test results showed that, using biochemical process with core technology of MBBR to treat coal gasification wastewater was technically feasible, which could obtain good CODCr and ammonia nitrogen removing effect. Through the treatment by the said process, the mass concentrations of CODCr and ammonia nitro-gen in effluent water were not above 80 and 5 mg/L respectively.%采用移动床生物膜反应器为核心的生化工艺处理煤气化废水,对移动床生物膜反应器在二级生化的厌氧、好氧处理,以及深度处理中的应用进行了分析,并对移动床生物膜反应器与其它工艺优化组合进行了研究。中试结果表明,采用以移动床生物膜反应器为核心的生化工艺处理煤气化废水,在技术上可行,对CODCr、氨氮有较好的去除效果,经该工艺处理后,出水CODCr、氨氮的质量浓度分别不超过80 mg/L和5mg/L。

  18. Production stages division and drainage production system deveIopment of coaIbed methane%煤层气排采阶段划分及排采制度制定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 房茂军; 廖夏

    2015-01-01

    In order to mine coalbed methane reasonably,a division of different production stages of coalbed methane was needed,different drainage and production system also should be developed. In this paper,the authors comprehensively compared and evaluated the classifi-cation criterion,each stages characteristics,the merits and demerits of different division methods which were focused on different production stages. A six-stage division method of coalbed methane drainage and production system which was combined with production control were put forward. The method divided the drainage and production process into six stages,which were no gas period,initial gas period,gas pro-duction rising period,gas production stable period,gas production decline period and abandoned period. The production control methods and technical measures of six-stage division method were investigated. The importance of quantitative study about six-stage division meth-od was also researched.%为了合理开采煤层气,需要对煤层气的不同阶段进行合理划分,并针对不同排采阶段相应制定不同的排采生产制度。综合对比评价了不同排采阶段划分方法的划分依据、阶段特征、划分方法的优缺点,提出了与生产控制相结合的煤层气排采生产六段划分法,将煤层气生产阶段划分为未见气阶段、初见气阶段、产气量上升阶段、产气量稳定阶段、产气量下降阶段和废弃阶段,给出了六段划分法在不同排采阶段生产控制方与法与技术对策,指明了六段排采阶段定量化研究的重要性。

  19. Mitochondrial HMG to CoA synthase (mHS): cDNA cloning in human, mouse and C. elegans, mapping to human chromosome 1p12-13 and partial human genomic cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukaftane, Y.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[Kingston General Hospital, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    mHS catalyzes the rate-limiting first step of ketogenesis in the liver. A cytoplasmic HS isozyme, encoded by another gene, catalyzes an early step in cholesterol synthesis. Starting from a rat mHS cDNA obtained by RT-PCR from the published rat cDNA sequence, we obtained and sequenced human and mouse cDNAs spanning the entire coding sequence of natural human and mouse mHS, as well as sequencing C. elegans HS-like cDNA. Consensus sequences for 3 mitochondrial and 4 cytoplasmic HSs were created and compared to invertebrate HS sequences. We found high conversation in the active site and at other regions presumably important for HS function. We mapped the mHS locus, HMGCS2 by in situ hybridization to chromosome 1P12-13, in contrast to the human cHS locus (HMGCS1) known to be on chromosome 5p13. Comparative mapping results suggest that these two chromosomal regions may be contiguous in other species, constant with a recent gene duplication event. Furthermore, we have characterized a human genomic mHS subclone containing 4 mHS exons, and found the position of all splice junctions to be identical to that of the hamster cHS gene except for one site in the 3{prime} nontranslated region. We calculate that the mHS and cHS genes were derived from a common ancestor 400-700 Myrs ago, implying that ketogenesis from fat may have become possible around the time of emergence of vertebrates ({approximately}500 Myr ago). Ketogenesis has evolved into an important pathway of energy metabolism, and we predict the mHS deficiency may prove to be responsible for some as yet explained cases of Reye-like syndromes in humans. This hypothesis can now be tested at the molecular level without the necessity of obtaining hepatic tissue.

  20. Efecto de la dieta en el nivel de expresión génica de las enzimas Acetil-Coa Carboxilasa, Lipoprotein Lipasa y Estearoil-Coa Desaturasa, enzimas lipogénicas implicadas en la síntesis y acumulación de ácidos grasos insaturados en el depósito subcutáneo de ovino

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia Vera, Olaia

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fin de carrera realizado es el de estudiar el efecto de la dieta en el nivel de expresión génica de varias enzimas lipogénicas implicadas en la síntesis de ácidos grasos insaturados en el deposito subcutáneo de ovino. El trabajo se ha realizado utilizando 36 corderos ternascos, provenientes de la explotación experimental de ovino de carne “El Serrón” del ITGG en Valtierra, divididos en tres lotes de 12 animales que recibieron tres dietas diferentes en función de ...

  1. Diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry%串联质谱联合气相色谱-质谱检测遗传性代谢病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩连书; 叶军; 邱文娟; 高晓岚; 王瑜; 金晶; 顾学范

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in children. Methods Amino acids and acylcarnitines in the dry blood filter papers were tested by MS/MS, and the organic acid profiles in urea were tested by GC-MS among 4981 children suspected to be with inborn errors of metabolism from more than 100 hospitals in China. A few pediatric patients underwent analysis of activity of enzyme and gene mutation analysis too. Results 319 of the 4981 children (6.4%) were diagnosed as with 24 kinds of diseases: 155 of the 319 cases (48.6%) with 8 kinds of amino acid diseases (97 with hyperphenylalaninemia, 14 with maple syrup urine disease 13 with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, 13 with citrullinemia type Ⅱ, 10 with tyrosinemia type Ⅰ , 5 with citrullinemia type Ⅰ ,2 with homocystinuria, and 1 with arginasemia) ; 150 of the 319 cases (47.0%) were diagnosed as with 10 kinds of organic acidemias (81 with methylmalonic acidemia, 17 with propionic acidemia, 17 with multiple CoA carboxylase deficiency, 11 with glutaric acidemia type Ⅱ, 8 with isovaleric acidemia, 6 with β-keto thiolase deficiency, 5 with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, and 3 with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency) ; 14 cases (4.4%) were diagnosed as with 6 kinds of fatty acid disorders (5 with medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 3 with very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 2 with short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 2 with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 with carnitine palmitoyl transferase type Ⅱ , and 1 with carnitine palmitoyl transferase type Ⅰ ). Conclusion MS/MS is specific for amino acid diseases and fatty acid disorders. GC-MS is specific for detect organic acidemias. And the diagnoses of part of amino acid diseases need the combination of both methods.%目的 应用串联质谱检测

  2. SYNTHESIS, CROSSLINKING MECHANISM AND PROPERTIES OF A POLYACRYLATE/POLYURETHANE COMPOSITE COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liming; GUO Wei; ZHOU Qixiang

    1997-01-01

    A polyacrylate/polyurethane (P(A)/P(U)) composite coating has been prepared by crosslinking an acetoacetylated polyacrylate with a vinylic group terminated polyurethane at room temperature. A model Michael reaction between ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) and methyl acrylate (MA) was designed to study the crosslinking mechanism. It was found that the two active hydrogen atoms in acetoacetyl group can both add to vinylic groups and the yield of mono- and bis-adducts are much affected by the molar ratio of acetoacetyl to vinylic groups. Higher crosslinking degree and better properties could be obtained with decreasing the molar ratio of the two active groups from 1/1 to 0.6/1 in the composite coatings.

  3. Delayed administration of the nucleic acid analog 2Cl-C.OXT-A attenuates brain damage and enhances functional recovery after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Naohiko; Nakamura, Emi; Himi, Naoyuki; Narita, Kazuhiko; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Maruyama, Tokumi; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Nakamura, Takehiro; Itano, Toshifumi; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2013-04-19

    2Cl-C.OXT-A (COA-Cl) is a novel nucleic acid analog that enhances angiogenesis through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) activation. ERK1/2 is a well-known kinase that regulates cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in the central nervous system. We performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate whether COA-Cl can attenuate neuronal damage and enhance recovery after brain ischemia. In primary cortical neuron cultures, COA-Cl prevented neuronal injury after 2h of oxygen-glucose deprivation. COA-Cl increased phospho-ERK levels in a dose-dependent manner and COA-Cl-induced neuroprotection and ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by suramin or PD98059. The effect of COA-Cl was evaluated in vivo with 60min of middle cerebral artery occlusion combined with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. COA-Cl or saline was injected intracerebroventricularly 5min after reperfusion. COA-Cl significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits upon injection of 15 or 30μg/kg COA-Cl. Moreover, COA-Cl reduced the number of TUNEL positive cells in ischemic boundary, while rCBF was not significantly changed by COA-Cl administration. We also evaluated the effect of delayed COA-Cl administration on recovery from brain ischemia by continuous administration of COA-Cl from 1 to 8 days after reperfusion. Delayed continuous COA-Cl administration also reduced infarct volume. Furthermore, COA-Cl enhanced peri-infarct angiogenesis and synaptogenesis, resulting in improved motor function recovery. Our findings demonstrate that COA-Cl exerts both neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects over a broad therapeutic time window, suggesting COA-Cl might be a novel and potent therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke.

  4. Coarctatio aortae: 40 års opfølgning efter kirurgisk korrektion - sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høimyr, Hilde; Pedersen, Thais A L; Christensen, Thomas D;

    2009-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) was previously considered cured after surgical repair. Among 229 patients operated for CoA in Aarhus between 1965 and 1985, 14 died at surgery and 35 died during 20-40 years of follow-up, mainly due to cardiovascular disease. The mortality among CoA patients was 4...

  5. Implantation of an Andrastent XL in an adult with advanced chronic heart failure due to coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białkowski, Jacek; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Tomasz; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa; Zembala, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 49 year-old-man with congenital coarctation of the aorta (CoA), admitted in a critical clinical condition due to advanced secondary cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure. An Andrastent XL was implanted successfully in the CoA. The procedure resulted in an almost completely resolved CoA and prompt clinical improvement in the patient.

  6. EST Table: FS768686 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS768686 E_FL_fcaL_49N10_F_0 10/09/28 98 %/213 aa ref|NP_001093296.1| acetoacetyl-C...P011329-PA Protein|3L:21118672:21119913:1|gene:AGAP011329 10/09/10 74 %/214 aa gnl|Amel|GB18952-PA 10/09/10 68

  7. EST Table: CA946188 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA946188 KUE000030 10/09/28 90 %/164 aa ref|NP_001093296.1| acetoacetyl-CoA thiolas...a gi|189234785|ref|XP_975008.2| PREDICTED: similar to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial [Tribolium castaneum] FS793760 L9 ...

  8. Coenzyme A and its derivatives: renaissance of a textbook classic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoulou, Frederica L; Sibon, Ody C M; Jackowski, Suzanne; Gout, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    In 1945, Fritz Lipmann discovered a heat-stable cofactor required for many enzyme-catalysed acetylation reactions. He later determined the structure for this acetylation coenzyme, or coenzyme A (CoA), an achievement for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. CoA is now firmly embedded in the literature, and in students' minds, as an acyl carrier in metabolic reactions. However, recent research has revealed diverse and important roles for CoA above and beyond intermediary metabolism. As well as participating in direct post-translational regulation of metabolic pathways by protein acetylation, CoA modulates the epigenome via acetylation of histones. The organization of CoA biosynthetic enzymes into multiprotein complexes with different partners also points to close linkages between the CoA pool and multiple signalling pathways. Dysregulation of CoA biosynthesis or CoA thioester homoeostasis is associated with various human pathologies and, although the biochemistry of CoA biosynthesis is highly conserved, there are significant sequence and structural differences between microbial and human biosynthetic enzymes. Therefore the CoA biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for drug discovery. The purpose of the Coenzyme A and Its Derivatives in Cellular Metabolism and Disease Biochemical Society Focused Meeting was to bring together researchers from around the world to discuss the most recent advances on the influence of CoA, its biosynthetic enzymes and its thioesters in cellular metabolism and diseases and to discuss challenges and opportunities for the future.

  9. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malanchuk O. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A. Methods. Hybridoma technique. KLH carrier protein conjugated with CoA was used for immunization. Screening of positive clones was performed with BSA conjugated to CoA. Results. Monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes CoA and CoA derivatives, but not its precursors ATP and cysteine has been generated. Conclusion. In this study, we describe for the first time the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against CoA. The monoclonal antibody 1F10 was shown to recognize specifically CoA in Western blotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. These properties make this antiboby a particularly valuable reagent for elucidating CoA function in health and disease.

  10. AcEST: DK944175 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51|FADA_ECOLI 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase OS=Escherichia coli... 30 9.0 sp|Q9ERQ6|CSPG5_RAT Chondroitin...L PRA Sbjct: 213 ETTVEALATLRPAFDPVNGMVTAGTSSALSDGAAAMLVMSESRAHELGLKPRA 265 >sp|Q9ERQ6|CSPG5_RAT Chondroiti

  11. Fluid dynamics of coarctation of the aorta and effect of bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery.

  12. Extracellular 4'-phosphopantetheine is a source for intracellular coenzyme A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Baratashvili, Madina; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Kanon, Bart; Colombelli, Cristina; Lambrechts, Roald A; Schaap, Onno; Nollen, Ellen A; Podgoršek, Ajda; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje; Hayflick, Susan; Tiranti, Valeria; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Sibon, Ody C M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic cofactor coenzyme A (CoA) gained renewed attention because of its roles in neurodegeneration, protein acetylation, autophagy and signal transduction. The long-standing dogma is that eukaryotic cells obtain CoA exclusively via the uptake of extracellular precursors, especially vitamin B5, which is intracellularly converted through five conserved enzymatic reactions into CoA. This study demonstrates an alternative mechanism that allows cells and organisms to adjust intracellular CoA levels by using exogenous CoA. Here CoA was hydrolyzed extracellularly by ectonucleotide pyrophosphatases to 4'-phosphopantetheine, a biologically stable molecule able to translocate through membranes via passive diffusion. Inside the cell, 4'-phosphopantetheine was enzymatically converted back to CoA by the bifunctional enzyme CoA synthase. Phenotypes induced by intracellular CoA deprivation were reversed when exogenous CoA was provided. Our findings answer long-standing questions in fundamental cell biology and have major implications for the understanding of CoA-related diseases and therapies.

  13. Complications of Aortic Stenting in Patients below 20 Years Old: Immediate and Intermediate Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Molaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal timing and mode of treatment for patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA remain controversial, particularly in children. Surgery, balloon dilatation, and stent implantation have all proven effective in the treatment of moderate or severe obstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the complications of COA stenting angioplasty in pediatric patients. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on patients less than 20 years of age who underwent aortic stenting angioplasty because of congenital COA in the pediatric catheterization laboratory of Rajaie cardiovascular, medical and research Center, Tehran between 2005 and 2010. Results: A total of 26 patients (18 [65.4%] males and 9 [34.6%] females with congenital COA who had undergone aortic stenting angioplasty were recruited. Nineteen (73.1% of these patients had native COA and 7 (26.9% had recurrent COA. Most of the early complications were minor and temporary; only one patient developed early major complications. During the follow-up, whereas none of the native group patients developed late complications, in the re-COA group 28.57% of the patients had re-stenosis and 14.28% had chronic systemic hypertension, requiring drug therapy. Conclusion: Our investigation into post-stenting complications in patients with native COA and re-COA showed that endovascular stenting could be an effective and safe method, even in young patients with native COA.

  14. Synthesis of COA12O4 Spinel-Type Cobalt Blue Pigments via Citric Acid Chelating Precursor Technique%柠檬酸螯合前驱体法制备COAl2O4尖晶石型钴蓝色料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾军; 卢希龙; 汪伟星; 陈云霞; 曹春娥

    2011-01-01

    以Co(NO3)2·6H2O、Al(NO3)3· 9H2O为前躯体,柠檬酸为螯合剂,乙二醇为溶剂,采用柠檬酸螯合前驱体法制备出CoAl2O4尖晶石型钴蓝色料.研究了不同热处理温度及钴铝比对色料呈色的影响,采用TG/DTA研究了螯合反应过程,采用色度仪、XRD、FT-IR等现代测试分析技术对样品进行了表征.结果表明,柠檬酸螯合前驱体法可在700℃制备出呈色良好的CoAl2O4尖晶石型钴蓝色料;前驱体经450℃热处理已经有尖晶石相生成,但其外观仍呈黑色;色料呈色随热处理温度的提高而随之加深;保温2h、钴铝比为1∶3制得的色料呈色效果最佳.%COAI2O4 spinel-type cobalt blue pigments were prepared by the citric acid chelating method, using citric acid as chelating agent and Co(NO3)2·6H2O and AI(NO3)3·9H2O as the precursors. The influence of different calcining temperatures and different ratios of Co to Al on the coloration of pigments was systematically investigated. TG/DTA was employed to investigate the reaction process of chelation. The samples were characterized by colorimetric measurement, XRD and FT-IR techniques. The results indicate that COAI2O4 spinel-type cobalt blue pigments with good coloration were prepared at a minimum temperature of 700℃ via citric acid chelating precursor method. The spinel phase were obtained after thermal treatment at 450℃, and still appeared black. The color became more intense as the temperature rose. The sample with the Co/AI ratio of 1:3 and the soaking time of 2h had the best coloration.

  15. EFFECT OF FREE FATTY ACIDS ON LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 EXPRESSION LEVEL AND LIPID METABOLISM IN LIVER CELLS%游离脂肪酸对肝细胞ACSL1表达及相关脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 施文荣; 洪振丰; 郑海音; 李颖

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究游离脂肪酸(FFA)的诱导对L02肝细胞长链脂酰CoA合成酶1(ACSL1)的表达及相关代谢的影响.方法 用含不同浓度(0.2、0.4、0.8 mmol/L) FFA的培养液诱导L02细胞48 h,Western blot检测ACSL1蛋白水平,荧光定量PCR检测ACSL1 mRNA水平,比色法测定甘油三酯(TG)含量、ATP水平和培养上清FFA浓度变化,生化法测定酮体含量和培养上清葡萄糖浓度变化.结果 FFA的诱导可显著提高ACSL1蛋白表达水平(P<0.01),但对ACSL1 mRNA水平无明显影响(P>0.05),细胞内TG含量显著升高(P<0.01或P<0.05),酮体含量显著升高(P<0.05),培养上清葡萄糖消耗显著增加(P<0.01),胞内ATP水平无明显变化(P>0.05),与0.2 mmol/L、0.4 mmol/L FFA组相比,0.8 mmol/L FFA组培养上清FFA消耗显著增加(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 FFA通过上调ACSL1蛋白表达水平致肝细胞TG蓄积.%Objective To investigate the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) on long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase l(ACSL1) expression level and lipid metabolism in L02 cells.Methods The cells were treated by FFA (0.2,0.4,0.8 mmol/L) for 48 h.ACSL1 mRNA level was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and protein level by Western blotting.Cellular triglyceride (TG),ketone bodies (Ket),ATP and consumption of FFA and glucose in culture supernatant were measured.Results Compared with normal control group,treatment of L02 cells with FFA did not affect ACSL1 mRNA expression level but significantly increased ACSL1 protein expression level.TG content,Ket level and consumption of glucose in culture supernatant were significantly higher and ATP level was not affected.Compared with 0.2 and 0.4 mmol/L FFA group,the consumption of FFA in culture supernatant was significantly higher in treatment with 0.8 mmol/L FFA.Conclusion FFA induced intracellular TG accumulation by up-regulating ACSL1 protein level in L02 cells.

  16. Ni-P-SiC-MoS2化学复合镀层的组织结构及耐磨性能%Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Electroless Ni - P -SiC-MoS2 Composite Coaing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春平

    2013-01-01

    在Ni-P化学镀液中添加第二相粒子可提高镀层性能,但目前已有的此类研究中镀层性能还不甚理想.在35CrNi钢基体上沉积了Ni-P-SiC-MoS2复合镀层,借助扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪、显微硬度计、磨损试验机等分析了复合镀层的表面形貌、成分、硬度及耐磨性.结果表明:Ni-P-SiC-MoS2镀层为非晶态结构;镀层硬度随SiC和MoS2混合微粒含量的增加而增加,随热处理温度的升高先升后略降;添加SiC和MoS2的混合微粒6g/L的镀层摩擦磨损性能最好.%Electroless Ni - P -SiC-MoS2 composite coating was deposited on 35CrNi steel substrate by introducing SiC and MoS2 particulates into electroless Ni - P bath. The surface morphology and elemental composition of as-plated composite coating were observed with a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive spectrometer, and its hardness and wear resistance were evaluated with a microhardness meter and a friction and wear tester. It was found that as - plated Ni-P-SiC-MoS2 composite coating had amorphous structure. The hardness of Ni - P - SiC - MoS2 composite coating rose with increasing content of SiC and MoS2 particulates, but rose initially and slightly declined later with elevating heat - treatment temperature. Moreover, the Ni - P - SiC - MoS2 composite coating obtained from the plating bath containing 6 g/L particulates consisted of SiC and MoS2 had the best wear resistance.

  17. Fluorescently labelled bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein acting as an acyl-CoA sensor: interaction with CoA and acyl-CoA esters and its use in measuring free acyl-CoA esters and non-esterified fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, M.C.; Villadsen, J.K.; Feddersen, S.;

    2002-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in lipid synthesis and b-oxidation but, at the same time, are important regulators of intermediate metabolism, insulin secretion, vesicular trafficking and gene expression. Key tools in studying the regulatory functions of acyl-CoA esters are reliabl...

  18. 煤焦油、生物质油与重油共减黏裂化的可行性研究%FeasibiIity study of co-vis breaking to coaI tar or biomass-oiI and heavy oiI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗强

    2015-01-01

    为获得经济的燃料油,论述了重油减黏裂化工艺现状及煤焦油与生物质油加工处理工艺现状,分析了煤焦油、生物质油和重油的减黏裂化机理,研究了煤焦油、生物质油与重油的共减黏裂化工艺的技术可行性。结果表明,减黏裂化工艺主要处理来自石油的重油,煤焦油和生物质油则主要靠加氢裂化来进行轻化和精制处理。煤焦油和生物质油中有机含氧化合物和氧含量明显高于来自石油的重油。煤焦油、生物质油与重油共减黏裂化可实现反应互补,利用煤焦油、生物质油中有机含氧化合物的有机含氧官能团裂解产生的氢质子和游离基碎片,可有效防止重油在减黏裂化时发生聚合反应,减轻结焦,降低燃料液体产物黏度。煤焦油、生物质油与重油的共减黏裂化不仅可提升煤焦油、生物质油和重油的品位,获得更多的轻质油品馏分,还能降低煤焦油、生物质油和重油的综合加工处理成本。%In order to obtain lower-priced fuel oil,the feasibility of process for co-vis breaking to coal tar or biomass-oil and heavy oil was explored. The vis-breaking technology was mainly used for processing heavy oil from fossil oil,coal tar and biomass-oil mainly depended on the hydro-cracking of light and refined processing. By studying the mechanism of vis breaking to coal tar or biomass-oil and heavy oil, it was concluded that their reaction on vis-breaking had complementary advantages if they were subjected to co- vis breaking. More organ-ic oxygen functional group were presented in coal tar or biomass-oil,they could become hydrogen donors and / or small free radical frag-ments generators with small molecular weight during vis breaking,the hydrogen donors and/ or small free radical fragments were benefit to vs breaking to coal tar or biomass-oil and vis breaking to heavy oil. The co-vis breaking of coal tar or biomass-oil and heavy oil could im-prove the quality of coal tar,biomass oil and heavy oil,and get more light oil fraction,it also could greatly reduce the comprehensive pro-cessing treatment cost of coal tar or biomass-oil and heavy oil.

  19. Evaluating Courses of Actions at the Strategic Planning Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Like almost all real life problems, Strategic planning is a good example of a problem with more than one objective. One of the most important steps...of strategic planning is to generate and evaluate the courses of actions (COA) which can fulfill the mission and vision of the organization. This is a...tool to assess COAs. A general model is created to select the best COA for strategic planning such as air force operation planning. To validate the

  20. Molecular Research on the Anamorph of Three Strains of Cordyceps taishanensis%3株泰山虫草无性型的分子生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵品苍; 曲志才; 王波; 苏延友

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究3株泰山虫草无性型的分子生物学特性.[方法]以野生泰山虫草子实体分离出的3个菌株为材料,通过对rDNAITS区的扩增、克隆和测序来鉴定虫草的无性型.[结果]3个菌株不是同1种,COA1为蛹草拟青霉,COA2为球孢白僵菌,COA3为细脚棒束孢,由此推断泰山虫草只是以地理位置得名.[结论]研究了3株泰山虫草无性型的分子生物学特性.%[ Objective ] To identify the anamorph of Cordyceps taishanensis. [ Method ] The rDNA ITS fragment was amplified, cloned and se-quenced using total DNA extracted from three strains of COA1, COA2 and COA3. [ Result] COA1 was Paecilomyces militaris, COA2 was Beauveria bassina and COA3 was Isaria tenuipes. The findings indicated that Cordyceps taishanensis was named based on the geographical po-sition. [ Conclusion] Molecular biological characteristics of three tested strains are studied.

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK061948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061948 001-042-E07 AF267243.2 Azotobacter vinelandii PhbF (phbF), putative phasin protein PhbP (phb...P), putative transcription activator PhbR (phbR), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phbB), polyhy...droxybutyrate biosynthetic beta-ketothiolase (phbA), and PHB synthase (phbC) genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 1e-56 +3 ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK059654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059654 001-031-C10 AF267243.2 Azotobacter vinelandii PhbF (phbF), putative phasin protein PhbP (phb...P), putative transcription activator PhbR (phbR), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phbB), polyhy...droxybutyrate biosynthetic beta-ketothiolase (phbA), and PHB synthase (phbC) genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 3e-82 +1 ...

  3. Evaluation of Critical Operating Conditions for a Semi-batch Reactor by Complementary Use of Sensitivity and Divergence Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, G; Stefan, D.-N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several effective methods of deriving the critical feeding conditions for the case of a semi-batch catalytic reactor used for the acetoacetylation of pyrrole with diketene in homogeneous liquid phase. The reaction is known to be of high risk due to the very exothermic (polymerisation) side-reactions involving reactive diketene. In order to perform the sensitivity analysis, both the Morbidelli-Varma sensitivity criterion and div-methods were used, the latter...

  4. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5

  5. Lauric acid dependent enhancement in hepatic SCPx protein requires an insulin deficient environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Dayami; Niesen, Melissa; Bedi, Mohini; McLean, Mark P

    2008-02-01

    Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) is a peroxisomal protein with both lipid transfer and thiolase activity. Treating with the fatty acid, lauric acid, induced SCPx mRNA levels in rat liver and in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells but enhanced protein levels of SCPx and the thiolase produced as a post-translational modification of SCPx were only seen in H4IIE cells. Further investigation revealed that the presence of insulin can mask lauric acid effects on the SCPx gene especially at the protein level. These data are in agreement with the findings that diabetes, a medical condition characterized by high levels of fatty acids in an insulin deficient environment, enhances the hepatic expression of SCPx.

  6. When a Student Does Not Want to Be in School: A Reading of Paulo Freire through Family Alcoholism Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edric C.

    2009-01-01

    As Richardson reminds us, "People make sense of their lives, for the most part, in terms of specific events." The author develops a set of poems based on his autoethnography study on Children of Alcoholics (COA). As the author reads Paulo Freire through alcoholism discourse, he creates a link between COA and his own school experiences.…

  7. Social Competence in Children of Alcoholic Parents over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Puttler, Leon I.

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15.…

  8. Quantitative assessment of systolic left ventricular function with speckle-tracking echocardiography in adult patients with repaired aortic coarctation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Menting (Myrthe); R.W.J. van Grootel (Roderick W. J.); A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); J.A. Eindhoven (Jannet); J.S. McGhie (Jackie); J.A.A.E. Cuypers (Judith); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); W.A. Helbing (Willem); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite successful aortic coarctation (CoA) repair, systemic hypertension often recurs which may influence left ventricular (LV) function. We aimed to detect early LV dysfunction using LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) in adults with repaired CoA, and to identify associations with pati

  9. Effects of carnitine and its congeners on eicosanoid discharge from rat cells: Implications for release of TNFα

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); W.M. Pruimboom (Wanda); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTHE acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA) is involved in fatty acid metabolism. The carnitine/CoA ratio is of particular importance in regulating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. Also CoA has a role in the formation and breakdown of products from both the

  10. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phen

  11. Coenzyme A : to make it or uptake it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibon, Ody C. M.; Strauss, Erick

    2016-01-01

    The consensus has been that intracellular coenzyme A (CoA) is obtained exclusively by de novo biosynthesis via a universal, conserved five-step pathway in the cell cytosol. However, old and new evidence suggest that cells (and some microorganisms) have several strategies to obtain CoA, with 4'-phosp

  12. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships for Organophosphate Enzyme Inhibition (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    Cleft Muscarinic/Nicotinic Receptor Cholinergic Nervous System “Normal Mechanism of Action” Citrate Pyruvate Acetyl CoA + + 6 Cholinergic...Choline Carrier Synaptic Cleft Muscarinic/Nicotinic Receptor CoA + + Acetylcholinesterase Hyperstimulation Citrate Pyruvate 7 Physiologically...neurotoxicity FAAH, CB1 Cannabinoid interactions AFMID teratogenesis APH neuropeptide metabolism Carboxylesterases Amidases Toxicity

  13. 75 FR 51950 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 51. Copies may be inspected at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For... with the requirements of the corresponding onshore area (``COA''), as mandated by the Clean Air Act... as would be applicable if the sources were located in the corresponding onshore area (COA)....

  14. Extracellular 4 '-phosphopantetheine is a source for intracellular coenzyme A synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Baratashvili, Madina; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Kanon, Bart; Colombelli, Cristina; Lambrechts, Roald A.; Schaap, Onno; Nollen, Ellen A.; Podgorsek, Ajda; Kosec, Gregor; Petkovic, Hrvoje; Hayflick, Susan; Tiranti, Valeria; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic cofactor coenzyme A (CoA) gained renewed attention because of its roles in neurodegeneration, protein acetylation, autophagy and signal transduction. The long-standing dogma is that eukaryotic cells obtain CoA exclusively via the uptake of extracellular precursors, especially vitamin B

  15. Diagnostic Value of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Coarctation of Aorta: The Chinese Experience in 53 Patients Studied between 2008 and 2012 in One Major Medical Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Sun

    Full Text Available Although aortography is well known as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of coarctation of aorta (CoA, the method is invasive, expensive and not readily accepted by some patients. Ultrasound diagnosis for CoA is non-invasive, inexpensive, readily accepted by every patient, and can be repeated as frequently as necessary. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the applicability of transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis of CoA. The echocardiographic appearances of 53 patients with CoA who had undergone surgery during a 5-year period from January 2008 to October 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, and the results were compared with findings at surgery. Fifty-three patients with CoA include six with isolated CoA and 47 of CoA associated with other cardiac anomalies. Of the 53 operated patients, 48 were correctly diagnosed preoperatively by echocardiography, while two were misdiagnosed as interrupted aortic arch and the diagnosis were missed in three other patients. Thus the diagnostic accuracy rate was 90.6%, and the misdiagnosis rate was 9.4%. Preoperative echocardiographic evaluation offers very satisfactory anatomic assessment in most patients with CoA. It makes preoperative angiography unnecessary. Thus transthoracic echocardiography should be the first-line method for the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta.

  16. Cofilin/Twinstar Phosphorylation Levels Increase in Response to Impaired Coenzyme A Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neur

  17. 76 FR 59470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... allocation algorithm shall apply for COB and/or COA executions on a class-by-class basis, subject to certain conditions. Currently, as described in more detail below, the allocation algorithms for COB and COA default to the allocation algorithms in effect for a given options class. As proposed, the rule change...

  18. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  19. Validity of MSCT angiography in guiding selection of the appropriate treatment modality in patients with coarctation of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Hamed Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: MDCT readily delineates aortic and CoA site anatomic and morphologic features that may negate catheter-based intervention in favor of surgical repair. This may help avoid complications and enhance successful and safe management of patients with native CoA.

  20. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_001087.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001087.2 chr17 A detailed description of the structure of Succinyl-COA synthetas...e from Escherichia coli c2scue_ chr17/NP_001087.2/NP_001087.2_holo_4-415.pdb psi-blast 39D,42R,281G,282G,283G,284A,304Y COA,NEP 0 ...

  2. Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Genes in Escherichia coli for Acetone Production and Acetate Detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, Lourdes L.; Welker, Neil E.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    1998-01-01

    A synthetic acetone operon (ace4) composed of four Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 genes (adc, ctfAB, and thl, coding for the acetoacetate decarboxylase, coenzyme A transferase, and thiolase, respectively) under the control of the thl promoter was constructed and was introduced into Escherichia coli on vector pACT. Acetone production demonstrated that ace4 is expressed in E. coli and resulted in the reduction of acetic acid levels in the fermentation broth. Since different E. coli strains...

  3. Improvement of H2 yield of Fermentative Bacteria by Gene Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiko Harada; Takashi Kaneko; Shigeharu Tanisho [Department of Environmental and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University Hodogaya-Ku, Yokohama 240-8501, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Two method were proposed in this paper. One is to destroy the NADH dehydrogenase complex in the electron transport chain of a facultative anaerobic bacterium Enterobacter aerogenes and the other is to disrupt the butyrate producing pathway of a strict anaerobic bacterium Clostridium butyricum. In case of E. aerogenes, one of the 14 membrane-bound NADH dehydrogenases, nuoG, is targeted to destroy. In case of C. butyricum, function of thiolase is targeted to disrupt. (authors)

  4. Constitutive uptake and degradation of fatty acids by Yersinia pestis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B. J.; Hillier, S L; Charnetzky, W T

    1983-01-01

    Yersinia pestis was found to utilize palmitic acid as a primary carbon and energy source. No inhibition of growth by palmitic acid was observed. Comparison of palmitic acid uptake by cells pregrown either with or without palmitic acid demonstrated that fatty acid uptake was constitutive. High basal levels of two enzymes of beta-oxidation, beta-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and thiolase, and the two enzymes of the glyoxylate shunt, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were found in cel...

  5. 2D NMR-based metabolomics uncovers interactions between conserved biochemical pathways in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Robinette, Steven L; Bose, Neelanjan; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Ascarosides are small-molecule signals that play a central role in C. elegans biology, including dauer formation, aging, and social behaviors, but many aspects of their biosynthesis remain unknown. Using automated 2D NMR-based comparative metabolomics, we identified ascaroside ethanolamides as shunt metabolites in C. elegans mutants of daf-22, a gene with homology to mammalian 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases predicted to function in conserved peroxisomal lipid β-oxidation. Two groups of ethanolamide...

  6. Induction of Neuron-Specific Degradation of Coenzyme A Models Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration by Reducing Motor Coordination in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Shumar

    Full Text Available Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, PKAN, is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive impairment in motor coordination and caused by mutations in PANK2, a human gene that encodes one of four pantothenate kinase (PanK isoforms. PanK initiates the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA, an essential cofactor that plays a key role in energy metabolism and lipid synthesis. Most of the mutations in PANK2 reduce or abolish the activity of the enzyme. This evidence has led to the hypothesis that lower CoA might be the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in PKAN patients; however, no mouse model of the disease is currently available to investigate the connection between neuronal CoA levels and neurodegeneration. Indeed, genetic and/or dietary manipulations aimed at reducing whole-body CoA synthesis have not produced a desirable PKAN model, and this has greatly hindered the discovery of a treatment for the disease.Cellular CoA levels are tightly regulated by a balance between synthesis and degradation. CoA degradation is catalyzed by two peroxisomal nudix hydrolases, Nudt7 and Nudt19. In this study we sought to reduce neuronal CoA in mice through the alternative approach of increasing Nudt7-mediated CoA degradation. This was achieved by combining the use of an adeno-associated virus-based expression system with the synapsin (Syn promoter. We show that mice with neuronal overexpression of a cytosolic version of Nudt7 (scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt exhibit a significant decrease in brain CoA levels in conjunction with a reduction in motor coordination. These results strongly support the existence of a link between CoA levels and neuronal function and show that scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt mice can be used to model PKAN.

  7. Fluid dynamics of coarctation of the aorta: analytical solution, in vitro validation and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a narrowing in the aorta. Cardiac catheterization is considered to be the reference standard for definitive evaluation of COA severity, based on the peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PtoP TCPG) and instantaneous systolic value of trans-COA pressure gradient (TCPG). However, invasive cardiac catheterization may carry high risks given that undergoing multiple follow-up cardiac catheterizations in patients with COA is common. The objective of this study is to present an analytical description of the COA that estimates PtoP TCPG and TCPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. Coupled Navier-Stokes and elastic deformation equations were solved analytically to estimate TCPG and PtoP TCPG. The results were validated against data measured in vitro (e.g., 90% COA: TCPG: root mean squared error (RMSE) = 3.93 mmHg; PtoP TCPG: RMSE = 7.9 mmHg). Moreover, the estimated PtoP TCPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated using clinical data in twenty patients with COA (maximum RMSE: 8.3 mmHg). Very good correlation and concordance were found between TCPG and PtoP TCPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vitro and in vivo data. The suggested methodology can be considered as an alternative to cardiac catheterization and can help preventing its risks.

  8. Mild coarctation of the aorta: to touch or not to touch the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Randles, Amanda; Rikhtegar Nezami, Farhad; Partida, Ramon; Nakamura, Kenta; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Bhatt, Ami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is an aortic obstruction. A peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PKdP) of greater than 20 mmHg warns severe COA and the need for interventional/surgical repair. The optimal method and timing of intervention remain uncertain especially for mild COA (PKdP <20 mmHg); even it is unclear if mild COA should be treated at all. Although it was recently suggested that treatment strategies for mild COA may need to be redefined as transcatheter interventions emerge, benefits of such interventions are unclear. We investigated the effects of transcatheter interventions on the aorta and left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics in 11 patients with mild COA using a developed computational fluid dynamics and lumped parameter modeling framework along with particle image velocimetry and clinical measurements. Such interventions can improve aortic hemodynamics to some extent (e.g., time-averaged wall shear stress and kinetic energy were reduced by about 20%). However there is no concomitant effect on the LV hemodynamics (e.g., stroke work and LV pressure were reduced by only less than 4%). Our computational approach can effectively predict clinical conditions. Herein one must question intervention for mild COA, as it has limited utility in reducing myocardial strain.

  9. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  10. Pantothenate kinase 1 is required to support the metabolic transition from the fed to the fasted state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leonardi

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthesis is regulated by the pantothenate kinases (PanK, of which there are four active isoforms. The PanK1 isoform is selectively expressed in liver and accounted for 40% of the total PanK activity in this organ. CoA synthesis was limited using a Pank1(-/- knockout mouse model to determine whether the regulation of CoA levels was critical to liver function. The elimination of PanK1 reduced hepatic CoA levels, and fasting triggered a substantial increase in total hepatic CoA in both Pank1(-/- and wild-type mice. The increase in hepatic CoA during fasting was blunted in the Pank1(-/- mouse, and resulted in reduced fatty acid oxidation as evidenced by abnormally high accumulation of long-chain acyl-CoAs, acyl-carnitines, and triglycerides in the form of lipid droplets. The Pank1(-/- mice became hypoglycemic during a fast due to impaired gluconeogenesis, although ketogenesis was normal. These data illustrate the importance of PanK1 and elevated liver CoA levels during fasting to support the metabolic transition from glucose utilization and fatty acid synthesis to gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The findings also suggest that PanK1 may be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic disorders that feature hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. On the origin of 3-methylglutaconic acid in disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikon, Nikita; Ryan, Robert O

    2016-09-01

    3-methylglutaconic acid (3MGA)-uria occurs in numerous inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) associated with compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism. This organic acid arises from thioester cleavage of 3-methylglutaconyl CoA (3MG CoA), an intermediate in leucine catabolism. In individuals harboring mutations in 3MG CoA hydratase (i.e., primary 3MGA-uria), dietary leucine is the source of 3MGA. In secondary 3MGA-uria, however, no leucine metabolism defects have been reported. While others have suggested 3MGA arises from aberrant isoprenoid shunting from cytosol to mitochondria, an alternative route posits that 3MG CoA arises in three steps from mitochondrial acetyl CoA. Support for this biosynthetic route in IEMs is seen by its regulated occurrence in microorganisms. The fungus, Ustilago maydis, the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus and the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscule, generate 3MG CoA (or acyl carrier protein derivative) in the biosynthesis of iron chelating siderophores, iso-odd chain fatty acids and polyketide/nonribosomal peptide products, respectively. The existence of this biosynthetic machinery in these organisms supports a model wherein, under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of acetyl CoA in the inner mitochondrial space as a result of inefficient fuel utilization drives de novo synthesis of 3MG CoA. Since humans lack the downstream biosynthetic capability of the organisms mentioned above, as 3MG CoA levels rise, thioester hydrolysis yields 3MGA, which is excreted in urine as unspent fuel. Understanding the metabolic origins of 3MGA may increase its utility as a biomarker.

  12. Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-28

    Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine.

  13. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of resveratrol or an oligomeric or glycosidically-bound derivative thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism producing resveratrol by a pathway in which phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) produces trans-cinnamic acid from phenylalanine, cinnamate 4- hydroxylase (C4H) produces 4-coumaric acid from said trans- cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) produces 4- coumaroyl Co......A from said 4-coumaric acid, and resveratrol synthase (VST) produces said resveratrol from said 4- coumaroyl CoA, or in which L-phenylalanine- or tyrosine- ammonia lyase (PAL/TAL) produces 4-coumaric acid, 4- coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) produces 4-coumaroyl CoA from said 4-coumaric acid, and resveratrol...

  14. Phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling, molecular dynamics and docking studies of caffeoyl-CoA-O- methyl transferase (CCoAOMT 1 and 2) isoforms isolated from subabul (Leucaena leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar Pagadala, Nataraj; Arha, Manish; Reddy, P S; Kumar, Ranadheer; Sirisha, V L; Prashant, S; Janardhan Reddy, K; Khan, Bashir; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2009-02-01

    Caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an important enzyme that participates in lignin biosynthesis especially in the formation of cell wall ferulic esters of plants. It plays a pivotal role in the methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl CoA. Two cDNA clones that code CCoAOMT were isolated earlier from subabul and in the present study; 3D models of CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 enzymes were built using the MODELLER7v7 software to find out the substrate binding sites. These two proteins differed only in two amino acids and may have little or no functional redundancy. Refined models of the proteins were obtained after energy minimization and molecular dynamics in a solvated water layer. The models were further assessed by PROCHECK, WHATCHECK, Verify_3D and ERRAT programs and the results indicated that these models are reliable for further active site and docking analysis. The refined models showed that the two proteins have 9 and 10 alpha-helices, 6 and 7 beta-sheets respectively. The models were used for docking the substrates CoA, SAM, SAH, caffeoyl CoA, feruloyl CoA, 5-hydroxy feruloyl CoA and sinapyl CoA which showed that CoA and caffeoyl CoA are binding with high affinity with the enzymes in the presence and absence of SAM. It appears therefore that caffeoyl CoA is the substrate for both the isoenzymes. The results also indicated that CoA and caffeoyl CoA are binding with higher affinity to CCoAOMT2 than CCoAOMT1. Therefore, CCoAOMT2 conformation is thought to be the active form that exists in subabul. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues Met58, Thr60, Val63, Glu82, Gly84, Ser90, Asp160, Asp162, Thr169, Asn191 and Arg203 in CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 enzymes create the positive charge to balance the negatively charged caffeoyl CoA and play an important role in maintaining a functional conformation and are directly involved in donor-substrate binding.

  15. Contribution of coagulases towards Staphylococcus aureus disease and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice G Cheng

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus seeds abscesses in host tissues to replicate at the center of these lesions, protected from host immune cells via a pseudocapsule. Using histochemical staining, we identified prothrombin and fibrin within abscesses and pseudocapsules. S. aureus secretes two clotting factors, coagulase (Coa and von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp. We report here that Coa and vWbp together are required for the formation of abscesses. Coa and vWbp promote the non-proteolytic activation of prothrombin and cleavage of fibrinogen, reactions that are inhibited with specific antibody against each of these molecules. Coa and vWbp specific antibodies confer protection against abscess formation and S. aureus lethal bacteremia, suggesting that coagulases function as protective antigens for a staphylococcal vaccine.

  16. Organization Mission Planning: Methodology and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Mission planning of organization is to select best strategy to complete its mission under the conditions of organizational states. A new methodology of generating and optimizing strategy of organizational course of actions (COA) was illuminated with a joint campaign. A process of generating and optimizing COA in military force was modeled. And enumerative and heuristic techniques were employed to search optimal strategy for the case of joint campaign. The complex between the two approaches to find best strategy was analyzed. The results from our case were given and compared with reality of joint campaign, on which deficiency of models was taken apart. The optimal COA, obtained from our new methodology under diverse campaigns conditions, is given and analyzed. Results from the simulation of the COA show that our approach to solve optimal strategy of organizational processes accords with traits of general landing campaign.

  17. Hypertension Associated with Coarctation of the Aorta Revisited: Case-Based Update from Experience of Three Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baykan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the aorta (CoA can present with different clinical pictures depending on the severity of the narrowness in the coarcted aortic segment in an age range between newborn and adolescence. Sometimes, it can cause intracranial hemorrhage or infarction when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The aim of this report is taking attention to CoA as a cause of systemic hypertension and is also emphasizing the differences of diagnostic approach for hypertension in children from adults. Two cases of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and one case of hypertensive cerebellar infarction associated with CoA are reported. These cases help us to pay attention to the possibility of CoA in adolescents with hypertensive stroke. We want to emphasize the importance of physical examination for evaluation of hypertension and to impress the diagnostic approach for secondary hypertension in children.

  18. USCG MARPOL Servicing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Datasets containing a listing of U.S. Ports and Terminals holding valid MARPOL Certificates of Adequacy (COAs). U.S. Ports and Terminals are issued Certificates of...

  19. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  20. 77 FR 10026 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...'' against the individual orders and quotes in the CBOE and CBSX electronic books (``EBooks'') will no longer... stock-option orders in the complex order book (``COB'') and the complex order RFR auction (``COA'');...

  1. A Dual-Band Coaxial Waveguide Mode Converter for High-Power Microwave Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; YUAN Cheng-Wei; LIU Lie

    2011-01-01

    @@ A dual-band coaxial waveguide mode converter is investigated.In the converter, the TEM mode (Coa.TEM) and TMol circular waveguide (Cir.TM) mode are transformed simultaneously into TE coaxial waveguide (Coa.TE) mode and TE circular waveguide (Cir.TE) mode, respectively.The optimized geometrical di- mensions are achieved by employing the mode coupling theory.A mode converter at 1.3GHz and 5.0GHz is designed, and conversion efficiencies of Coa.TEM-to-Coa.TE and Cir.TM-to-Cir.TE are 99.88% and 99.70% at central frequency, respectively.Over the frequency ranges 1.15 1.51 GHz and 4.87-5.19CHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90%.A good agreement between theoretical calculations and computer simulations is observed, demonstrating the feasibility of the dual-band mode converter.

  2. Sequestration of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to useful products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.; Hawkins, Aaron B.; Menon, Angeli Lal; Lipscomb, Gina Lynette Pries; Schut, Gerrit Jan

    2017-03-07

    Provided herein are genetically engineered microbes that include at least a portion of a carbon fixation pathway, and in one embodiment, use molecular hydrogen to drive carbon dioxide fixation. In one embodiment, the genetically engineered microbe is modified to convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof at levels greater than a control microbe. Other products may also be produced. Also provided herein are cell free compositions that convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof. Also provided herein are methods of using the genetically engineered microbes and the cell free compositions.

  3. Paradoxical Hypertension after Successful Cheatham Platinum Stent Implantation in an Adolescent with Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin Ling; Chih, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chen, Chun-An

    2016-01-01

    Stent implantation using a Cheatham Platinum (CP) stent for coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a promising treatment alternative to traditional surgical repair. However, there are no earlier reports in the literature focusing on use of this stent in a Taiwanese patient. Herein we report a 16-year-old boy with CoA presenting with heart murmur and exercise intolerance who underwent successful CP stent placement. However, severe hypertension with arterial blood pressure increasing to 207/104 mmHg occurred four hours after stent implantation. There was no abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. The patient’s hypertension was controlled by intravenous nitroglycerin infusion, followed by an oral antihypertensitve agent for the following 7 days. Experience from this case highlighted the usefulness of CP stent implantation for native CoA, and the importance of early recognition and management of paradoxical hypertension after CoA stenting. PMID:27899866

  4. Most Coarctations, Recoarctations, and Coarctation-Related Aneurysms Should Be Treated Endovascularly Based on a Presentation at the 2013 VEITH Symposium, November 19–23, 2013 (New York, NY, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    For patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA), surgical intervention results in an overall survival rate nearly twice that of medical management. Therefore, surgical correction of CoA has traditionally been warranted in the majority of patients, even though open repair entails its own complications. With the advent of endovascular technology, many interventionalists hoped that this approach would decrease the complications associated with open surgical repair of CoA. Nevertheless, there is still an ongoing debate about the merits of traditional open surgery versus endovascular therapy. In this review, we discuss the role of these two approaches for the management of CoA, recoarctation, and coarctation-related aneurysms. PMID:27069944

  5. Adult thoracic and abdominal aortic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa O. Kaddah

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Aortic COA could be found in any segment of the aorta. Proper identification of the anatomical details and pressure gradient studies are important factors affecting the plan of management.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature atherosclerosis, and other diseases. An increasing body of evidence has linked the metabolic syndrome to abnormalities in lipid metabolism that ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction. We review here the hypothesis that, in many instances, the cause of these lipid abnormalities could be a dysregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) fuel-sensing and signaling mechanism. Such dysregulation could be reflected by isolated increases in malonyl CoA or by concurrent changes in malonyl CoA and AMPK, both of which would alter intracellular fatty acid partitioning. The possibility is also raised that pharmacological agents and other factors that activate AMPK and/or decrease malonyl CoA could be therapeutic targets.

  7. Novel loci for non-syndromic coarctation of the aorta in sporadic and familial cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Moosmann

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the aorta (CoA accounts for 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. CoA can be detected in up to 20% of patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS, in which a part or all of one of the X chromosomes is absent. The etiology of non-syndromic CoA is poorly understood. In the present work, we test the hypothesis that rare copy number variation (CNV especially on the gonosomes, contribute to the etiology of non-syndromic CoA.We performed high-resolution genome-wide CNV analysis using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarray platform for 70 individuals with sporadic CoA, 3 families with inherited CoA (n=13 and 605 controls. Our analysis comprised genome wide association, CNV burden and linkage. CNV was validated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.We identified a significant abundance of large (>100 kb CNVs on the X chromosome in males with CoA (p=0.005. 11 out of 51 (~ 22% male cases had these large CNVs. Association analysis in the sporadic cohort revealed 14 novel loci for CoA. The locus on 21q22.3 in the sporadic CoA cohort overlapped with a gene locus identified in all familial cases of CoA (candidate gene TRPM2. We identified one CNV locus within a locus with high multipoint LOD score from a linkage analysis of the familial cases (SEPT9; another locus overlapped with a region implicated in Kabuki syndrome. In the familial cases, we identified a total of 7 CNV loci that were exclusively present in cases but not in unaffected family members.Of all candidate loci identified, the TRPM2 locus was the most frequently implicated autosomal locus in sporadic and familial cases. However, the abundance of large CNVs on the X chromosome of affected males suggests that gonosomal aberrations are not only responsible for syndromic CoA but also involved in the development of sporadic and non-syndromic CoA and their male dominance.

  8. Social Competence in Children of Alcoholic Parents Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; Puttler, Leon I.

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15. Hierarchical linear growth models revealed different patterns of change in social competence across development as a function of the reporter of var...

  9. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to beta-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters presen...

  10. Biochemical characterization and substrate specificity of jojoba fatty acyl-CoA reductase and jojoba wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Wax esters are used in industry for production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The only natural source of wax esters is jojoba oil. A much wider variety of industrial wax esters-containing oils can be generated through genetic engineering. Biotechnological production of tailor-made wax esters requires, however, a detailed substrate specificity of fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) and wax synthases (WS), the two enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis. In this study we have successfully characterized the substrate specificity of jojoba FAR and jojoba WS. The genes encoding both enzymes were expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activity of tested enzymes was confirmed by in vivo studies and in vitro assays using microsomal preparations from transgenic yeast. Jojoba FAR exhibited the highest in vitro activity toward 18:0-CoA followed by 20:1-CoA and 22:1-CoA. The activity toward other 11 tested acyl-CoAs was low or undetectable as with 18:2-CoA and 18:3-CoA. In assays characterizing jojoba WS combinations of 17 fatty alcohols with 14 acyl-CoAs were tested. The enzyme displayed the highest activity toward 14:0-CoA and 16:0-CoA in combination with C16-C20 alcohols as well as toward C18 acyl-CoAs in combination with C12-C16 alcohols. 20:1-CoA was efficiently utilized in combination with most of the tested alcohols.

  11. Aortic Wall Injury Related to Endovascular Therapy for Aortic Coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Jones, Thomas K; McElhinney, Doff B

    2015-09-01

    Aortic wall complications can occur in unrepaired aortic coarctation (CoA) and after surgical repair or endovascular treatment. This review summarizes the available literature and current understanding of aortic wall injury (AWI) surrounding the management of CoA, focusing specifically on acute and follow-up AWI after endovascular treatment. There have been 23 reported cases of aortic rupture after endovascular treatment for CoA, including angioplasty alone, bare metal stenting, and primary covered stent therapy. Even if these published cases represent only a minority of ruptures that have actually occurred, the incidence is substantially <1%. The incidence of acute aneurysm formation was 0% to 13% after angioplasty, 0% to 5% after bare metal stent placement, and <1% after covered stent placement. The reported incidence and natural history of both acute and new AWI during follow-up after endovascular therapy for CoA varies considerably, likely secondary to ascertainment and reporting biases and inconsistent definitions. Although important AWI after endovascular treatment of CoA seems to be declining in frequency with increasing experience and improving technology, it remains one of the most important potential adverse outcomes. Long-term surveillance for new AWI and monitoring of existing AWI is mandatory, with institution of appropriate treatment when necessary. A central research focus in this population should be determination of the appropriate treatment for both native and recurrent CoA across various ages with regard to limiting recurrent CoA and preventing associated aortic wall complications, in addition to determining the appropriate treatment of various AWI. Consistent definitions and reporting are necessary to truly understand the incidence of, risk factors for, and measures protective against AWI after angioplasty or stent implantation for CoA.

  12. Gene Expression in Experimental Aortic Coarctation and Repair: Candidate Genes for Therapeutic Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDisa, John F; Bozdag, Serdar; Olson, Jessica; Ramchandran, Ramani; Kersten, Judy R; Eddinger, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a constriction of the proximal descending thoracic aorta and is one of the most common congenital cardiovascular defects. Treatments for CoA improve life expectancy, but morbidity persists, particularly due to the development of chronic hypertension (HTN). Identifying the mechanisms of morbidity is difficult in humans due to confounding variables such as age at repair, follow-up duration, coarctation severity and concurrent anomalies. We previously developed an experimental model that replicates aortic pathology in humans with CoA without these confounding variables, and mimics correction at various times using dissolvable suture. Here we present the most comprehensive description of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to date from the pathology of CoA, which were obtained using this model. Aortic samples (n=4/group) from the ascending aorta that experiences elevated blood pressure (BP) from induction of CoA, and restoration of normal BP after its correction, were analyzed by gene expression microarray, and enriched genes were converted to human orthologues. 51 DEGs with >6 fold-change (FC) were used to determine enriched Gene Ontology terms, altered pathways, and association with National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headers (MeSH) IDs for HTN, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CoA. The results generated 18 pathways, 4 of which (cell cycle, immune system, hemostasis and metabolism) were shared with MeSH ID's for HTN and CVD, and individual genes were associated with the CoA MeSH ID. A thorough literature search further uncovered association with contractile, cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins related to excitation-contraction coupling and metabolism that may explain the structural and functional changes observed in our experimental model, and ultimately help to unravel the mechanisms responsible for persistent morbidity after treatment for CoA.

  13. Levosimendan in a neonate with severe coarctation of aorta and low cardiac output syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Olivier Boegli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful use of levosimendan after failed balloon angioplasty in a critically ill neonate with coarctation of aorta (CoA and severe low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS. Treatment with levosimendan improved left heart function, and decreased lactate and brain natriuretic peptide levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the safe and successful use of levosimendan in the management of LCOS due to severe CoA in a neonate awaiting surgical repair.

  14. Evaluation of Exercise-Induced Hypertension Post Endovascular Stenting of Coarctation of Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Shah Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coarctation of the aorta (COA is a defect that accounts for 5-8% of all congenital heart diseases. Balloon angioplasty as a treatment for COA is increasingly performed, with endovascular stents having been proposed as a means of improving the efficacy and safety of the procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the systolic blood pressure gradient at rest and during maximal exercise at follow-up in patients post endovascular stenting of COA.Methods: Thirteen patients (4 native and 9 re-coarctation cases of COA after surgery or balloon angioplasty with a mean age of 11.1 ± 4.7 years underwent endovascular stenting between November 2007 and December 2009 via standard techniques for native COA as an alternative to surgical repair. Doppler echocardiography was performed pre and post stenting. Resting and exercise assessment of blood pressure was performed at follow-up.Results: Post stent implantation, no angiographic major complications were evident. Systolic blood pressure gradient decreased from 42 ± 8.8 mm Hg before stent placement to 7 ± 10 mm Hg at follow-up (p value < 0.001. Peak Doppler pressure gradient decreased from 30 ± 14 mm Hg to 14 ± 10 mm Hg at follow-up (p value < 0.007. One case of exerciseinduced hypertension was seen in patients.Conclusion: Endovascular stenting for native COA in older children and post-surgical COA repair in patients with residual COA and re-coarctation is a reasonable alternative to surgical correction. During early follow-up, stenting effectively alleviates the aortic arch obstruction with normalization of the systemic blood pressure both at rest and during maximal exercise.

  15. Department of Clinical Investigation, Annual Research Progress Report Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) CUSHNER, HM T Assessment of Calcium Acetate as a Phosphate Binder 90 #87/113 and Calcium Supplement in Patients with...Calcium Supplement _n Patients with Chronic Renal Failure Start Date: 18 Sep 87 Est Completion Date: Apr 88 Dept/Svc: Med ici ne/Nenhroloqy Facility... carnitine O-acyl trancferase and palmitoy! CoA deacylase would fall into the lat- * ter category. Ligase differs from the other acyl CoA dependent

  16. Serology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: W-antigen serogrouping by coagglutination and protein I serotyping by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay both detect protein I antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandstrom, E G; Knapp, J S; Buchanan, T B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 224 strains were serogrouped by coagglutination (COA) and serotyped by protein I enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of these strains, 61 were from patients with disseminated gonococcal infection, 21 were from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, and 115 were from patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infection in Singapore, the Philippines, and Denmark. Twenty-seven were laboratory reference strains. Of the patient strains, 102 belonged to COA serogroup WI, and all o...

  17. Alteration of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, Paola; Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-08-01

    NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator, iron overload in specific brain areas, mainly basal ganglia and globus pallidus. In the past decade a bunch of disease genes have been identified, but NBIA pathomechanisms are still not completely clear. PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA. It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. A distinct form of NBIA, denominated CoPAN (CoA synthase protein-associated neurodegeneration), is caused by mutations in the CoASY (CoA synthase) gene coding for a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme, which catalyses the final steps of CoA biosynthesis. These two inborn errors of CoA metabolism further support the concept that dysfunctions in CoA synthesis may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NBIA.

  18. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of ({sup 14}C) CO{sub 2} production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate.

  19. Synthesis and transformations of 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyran-2-one and 4-chromene 4-hydroxycoumarin conjugates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; Venkata Swamy Tangeti

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of -methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4-chromen-2-amine and its derivatives with 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyran-2-one in EtOH reflux for 5 min furnish 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-(2-(methylamino)-3-nitro-4-chromen-4-yl)-2-pyran-2-ones in quantitative yield. By extending EtOH reflux for 2 h, the 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyranone conjugates get converted into acetoacetyl coumarins. Similar reaction of -methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4-chromen-2-amine and its derivatives with 4-hydroxycoumarin in EtOH reflux furnish 4-hydroxy-2'-(methylamino)-3'-nitro-2,4'-3,4'-bichromen-2-ones. In contrast to earlier system, prolonging reflux in EtOH or in -PrOH reflux the product gets transformed into trans-ethyl 3-(2-hydroxyaryl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-furo[3,2-c]chromene-2-carboxylates. Thus, facile synthesis and characterization of 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone, 4-chromene 4-hydroxycoumarin conjugates, acetoacetyl coumarins and trans2,3-disubstituted dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins is described.

  20. Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from unrelated carbon sources in engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Different genes encoding pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (pntAB, udhA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductases (phaB) were heterologously overexpressed in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. A recombinant strain, which harbored the gene encoding the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB from Escherichia coli MG1655 and the phaB1 gene coding for an NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Ralstonia eutropha H16, accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [Poly(3HB-co-3HV)] with a 3HV fraction of up to 13 mol% from fructose. This was a 13-fold increase of the 3HV content when compared to the wild-type strain. Higher contents of 3HV are known to reduce the brittleness of this polymer, which is advantageous for most applications. The engineered R. rubrum strain was also able to synthesize this industrially relevant copolymer from CO2 and CO from artificial synthesis gas (syngas) with a 3HV content of 56 mol%. The increased incorporation of 3HV was attributed to an excess of propionyl-CoA, which was generated from threonine and related amino acids to compensate for the intracellular redox imbalance resulting from the transhydrogenase reaction. Thereby, our study presents a novel, molecular approach to alter the composition of bacterial PHAs independently from external precursor supply. Moreover, this study also provides a promising production strain for syngas-derived second-generation biopolymers.

  1. Ketogenesis in muscle: artifact or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, G.; Desrochers, S.; Garneau, M.; David, F.; Landau, B.R.; Brunengraber, H.

    1986-05-01

    It has been proposed that muscle is the site of net ketogenesis. This hypothesis was based on a discrepancy between the balance of unlabeled and labeled ketone bodies across muscle beds in humans infused with (/sup 14/C)acetoacetate. It has been pointed out that the dilution of the specific activity of acetoacetate could be explained by the reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase. Catabolism of endogenous or exogenous fatty acids dilutes the specific activities of acetoacetyl-CoA and, presumably, of acetoacetate. The latter mechanism was tested in perfused working hearts and hemicorpi of rats. Organs were perfused with mM concentrations of (4-/sup 3/H)acetoacetate. The specific activities of perfusate acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate equilibrated rapidly, and then decreased 15-20% over 90 min. There was net uptake of ketone bodies. The authors conclude that (i) the data purporting to show ketogenesis in muscle can be explained by isotopic exchange between acetoacetate and acetoacetyl-CoA, and (ii) there is no net ketogenesis in muscle.

  2. On the Origin of AMS "Cooking Organic Aerosol" at a Rural Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M; Paglione, M; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; O'Dowd, C; Plass-Duellmer, Christian; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-12-15

    A number of field observations employing aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) have demonstrated that organic matter rich in monocarboxylic acids and aliphatic carbonyls originating from cooking activities (the COA factor) contributes significantly to ambient organic matter (OM) in urban environments. Little is known about the contribution and nature of COA in rural localities. We studied the correlation of COA with chemical tracers at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy. Our statistical approach, based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) shows that the COA factor was clearly linked to local emissions of chloride and methanesulfonic acid (MSA), chemical tracers not associated with cooking emissions, or with combustion sources. While the association with Cl is not understood at this stage, the emission of reduced sulfur compounds, aliphatic carbonyls and monocarboxylic acids is consistent with several agricultural practices (e.g., manure storage) and waste disposal systems (e.g., landfills) which characterize the suburban and rural areas of the Po Valley and of other many populated environments. It is concluded that the nature and origins of the AMS COA factor measured at a rural site are complex and include far more than the emissions from food cooking.

  3. Fast and lossless handoff method considering duplicate address detection in IPv6-based mobile/wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Jin; Joo, Sung-Bum; Kang, Chul-Hee

    2001-10-01

    IPv6 has an inherent characteristic of supporting mobility. When a mobile host (MH) undergoes handoff from one link to another, it needs to obtain a new Care-of Address (CoA) at the New Access Router (N.AR) as soon as possible in order to be able to send and receive IP packets. The basic MIPv6 is the case that MH acquired CoA after moving to handoff expected candidate region. MH obtained CoA before handoff, MH have experienced in reduced handoff latencies. The latency involved in forming a new CoA in MIPv6 comes mainly from both Neighbor Discovery (ND) and Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) in stateless auto-configuration scheme. As MH obtained CoA before handoff and P.AR is using a buffer management, our proposed method is fast and lossless. It is expected that DAD check is indispensable to detect the bad guys who use MH's address by stealth.

  4. Impaired coenzyme A synthesis in fission yeast causes defective mitosis, quiescence-exit failure, histone hypoacetylation and fragile DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Pluskal, Tomáš; Nakaseko, Yukinobu; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) requires a five-step process using pantothenate and cysteine in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. CoA contains a thiol (SH) group, which reacts with carboxylic acid to form thioesters, giving rise to acyl-activated CoAs such as acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is essential for energy metabolism and protein acetylation, and, in higher eukaryotes, for the production of neurotransmitters. We isolated a novel S. pombe temperature-sensitive strain ppc1-537 mutated in the catalytic region of phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (designated Ppc1), which is essential for CoA synthesis. The mutant becomes auxotrophic to pantothenate at permissive temperature, displaying greatly decreased levels of CoA, acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation. Moreover, ppc1-537 mutant cells failed to restore proliferation from quiescence. Ppc1 is thus the product of a super-housekeeping gene. The ppc1-537 mutant showed combined synthetic lethal defects with five of six histone deacetylase mutants, whereas sir2 deletion exceptionally rescued the ppc1-537 phenotype. In synchronous cultures, ppc1-537 cells can proceed to the S phase, but lose viability during mitosis failing in sister centromere/kinetochore segregation and nuclear division. Additionally, double-strand break repair is defective in the ppc1-537 mutant, producing fragile broken DNA, probably owing to diminished histone acetylation. The CoA-supported metabolism thus controls the state of chromosome DNA.

  5. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo by Morus indica (Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles and statins (94.46 nm was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 < M5 < V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug. The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

  6. Chaos optimization algorithms based on chaotic maps with different probability distribution and search speed for global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dixiong; Liu, Zhenjun; Zhou, Jilei

    2014-04-01

    Chaos optimization algorithms (COAs) usually utilize the chaotic map like Logistic map to generate the pseudo-random numbers mapped as the design variables for global optimization. Many existing researches indicated that COA can more easily escape from the local minima than classical stochastic optimization algorithms. This paper reveals the inherent mechanism of high efficiency and superior performance of COA, from a new perspective of both the probability distribution property and search speed of chaotic sequences generated by different chaotic maps. The statistical property and search speed of chaotic sequences are represented by the probability density function (PDF) and the Lyapunov exponent, respectively. Meanwhile, the computational performances of hybrid chaos-BFGS algorithms based on eight one-dimensional chaotic maps with different PDF and Lyapunov exponents are compared, in which BFGS is a quasi-Newton method for local optimization. Moreover, several multimodal benchmark examples illustrate that, the probability distribution property and search speed of chaotic sequences from different chaotic maps significantly affect the global searching capability and optimization efficiency of COA. To achieve the high efficiency of COA, it is recommended to adopt the appropriate chaotic map generating the desired chaotic sequences with uniform or nearly uniform probability distribution and large Lyapunov exponent.

  7. Electrical/thermal transport and electronic structure of the binary cobalt pnictides CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Goto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the electrical and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb between 300 and 900 K. CoAs2 shows semiconducting electrical transport up to 900 K, while CoSb2 exhibits degenerate conduction. Sign inversion of the Seebeck coefficient is observed at ∼310 and ∼400 K for CoAs2 and CoSb2, respectively. Thermal conductivity at 300 K is 11.7 Wm−1K−1 for CoAs2 and 9.4 Wm−1K−1 for CoSb2. The thermoelectric power factor of CoAs2 is ∼10 μWcm−1K−2, although the dimensionless figure of merit is limited to ∼0.1 due to relatively high thermal conductivity. Using electronic structure calculations, the band gap value is calculated to be 0.55 eV for CoAs2 and 0.26 eV for CoSb2.

  8. Sustained maternal hyperoxygenation improves aortic arch dimensions in fetuses with coarctation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai; Deng, Wen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yili; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of maternal hyperoxygenation (HO) on cardiac dimensions in fetuses with isolated Coarctation (CoA). Fetal echocardiography was performed serially in 48 fetuses with CoA and gestation age matched normal fetues. The Z-scores for the mitral valve (MV), tricuspid valve (TV), aortic valve (AV), ascending aorta (AAo), isthmus, pulmonary valve (PV), main pulmonary artery (MPA), and descending aorta (DAo) were measured and compared among normal fetuses, CoA fetuses with oxygen and CoA fetuses with air. In the group with oxygen, 6 L/min oxygen was administered to the mother using a face mask. Regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors for HO outcome. The left heart dimension Z-scores increased gradually during HO therapy periods, especially at 4 weeks after oxygen therapy (P < 0.05). As for the case group with air, the left heart dimension remained unchanged. The duration of HO was associated with aortic arch Z-scores (adjusted R2 = 0.199, 0.60 for AAO and isthmus, respectively). Sustained maternal middle-flow oxygenation can be safely used to improve left heart dimensions in fetuses with isolated CoA. The duration of HO were associated with treatment outcome. These findings may provide useful information for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:27982102

  9. Inhibitors of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases: synthesis, molecular docking, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chao; Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues--sT-CH2-CoA (26 a) and sTet-CH2-CoA (26 b)--as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26 a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26 a and 26 b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase.

  10. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  11. Reducing the Handover Delay in FMIPv6 Using Proactive Care-of Address Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    To deal with the increasing number of mobile devices accessing the Internet and the increasing demands of mobility management, IETF has proposed Mobile IPv6 and its fast handover protocol FMIPv6. In FMIPv6, the possibility of Care-of Address (CoA) collision and the time for Return Routability (RR) procedure result in long handover delay, which makes it unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we propose an improved handover scheme for FMIPv6, which reduces the handover delay by using proactive CoA acquisition, configuration and test method. In our proposal, collision-free CoA is proactively prepared, and the time for RR procedure does not contribute to the handover delay. Furthermore, we analyze our proposal's benefits and overhead tradeoff. The numerical results demonstrate that it outperforms the current schemes, such as FMIPv6 and enhanced FMIPv6, on the aspect of handover delay and packet transmission delay.

  12. Murine FATP alleviates growth and biochemical deficiencies of yeast fat1Delta strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirusso, C C; Connell, E J; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2000-01-01

    -acid analogue 4, 4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-do decanoic acid (C1-BODIPY-C12), have a greatly diminished capacity to transport exogenous long-chain fatty acids, and have very long-chain acyl CoA synthetase activities that were 40% wild-type. The depression in very long-chain acyl Co......A synthetase activities were not apparent in cells grown in the presence of oleate. Additionally, beta-oxidation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids is depressed to 30% wild-type levels. The reduction of beta-oxidation was correlated with a depression of intracellular oleoyl CoA levels in the fat1Delta strain...

  13. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  14. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  15. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice.

  16. Assessment of ventriculo-vascular properties in repaired coarctation using cardiac magnetic resonance-derived aortic, left atrial and left ventricular strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Quanliang [University of Nebraska College of Medicine and Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Central South University, Department of Radiology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Sarikouch, Samir; Beerbaum, Philipp [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Patel, Shivani; Danford, David A.; Kutty, Shelby [University of Nebraska College of Medicine and Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Schuster, Andreas [Department of Cardiology and Pneumonology, Georg-August-University and German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK, Partner Site), Goettingen (Germany); Steinmetz, Michael [Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Georg-August-University and German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK, Partner Site), Goettingen (Germany); Ou, Phalla [University Paris Diderot, Department of Radiology, Hospital Bichat, APHP, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    In patients with repaired coarctation of aorta (CoA), we assessed ventriculo-vascular characteristics using CMR-derived aortic area strain (AAS), left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and circumferential strain (LS, CS). Seventy-five subjects including 50 with repaired CoA divided into hypertensive (n = 25), normotensive (n = 25) and 25 controls were studied. AAS was measured at 3 levels: ascending aorta, proximal descending and descending aorta. LA and LV LS were measured using CMR-feature tracking. LA and LV end-diastolic volumes, ejection fraction (EF) and mass were measured. Mean patient age was 19.7 ± 6.7 and controls 23 ± 15 (years). All strains (LA, LV, ascending and descending aortic) were lower in CoA subgroups compared to controls except the AAS at diaphragm, which was not different. Comparisons between hypertensive and normotensive CoA showed no differences in LV mass, LV volumetric indices, and LA and LV strain indices; however, ascending AAS was lower in hypertensive subgroup (p = 0.02). Ascending AAS was correlated with LV mass (r = -0.4, p = 0.005), LVEF (r = -0.4, p = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.5, p = 0.0001) and LVLS (r = 0.5, p = 0.001). Ascending AAS correlated with LV mass, EF and LVLS. In hypertensive CoA, ascending AAS was reduced compared to normotensive CoA and controls, indicating vascular remodelling differences influenced by ongoing hypertension. (orig.)

  17. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  18. The role of two-dimensional echocardiography in diagnostics of coarctation of the aorta in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilisić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosis of neonatal coarctation of the aorta (CoA still presents a challenge in routine practice because of absence of reliable morphologic and functional parameters for early detection of this congenital heart defect in newborns. Objective. The aim of this study is to identify easy obtainable two-dimensional echocardiographic parameters for detection of the CoA in newborns. Methods. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in 30 newborns with CoA and 20 healthy neonates (control group. Measurements of the proximal transverse arch (PTA, distal transverse arch (DTA, isthmus, distance between the left common carotid artery (LCCA at the origin of the left subclavian artery (LSA, were obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography. Aortic arch hypoplasia was defined using Mouleart, Karl and Mee criteria, and Z-value. Index 1 was calculated as a ratio of DTA and distance between origins LCCA-LSA, Index 2 was calculated as a ratio of the ascending aorta and the distance between LCCA-LSA origins, and Index 3 was calculated as a ratio of PTA and distance between LCCA-LSA origins. Results. Index 1 was significantly lower in patients with CoA in comparison with control group (0.50 vs. 1.39; p≤0.01. A cutoff point at 0.39, for Index 1, showed a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 99% for the diagnosis of neonatal CoA, while cut off points at 0.69 and 0.44, for Index 2 and Index 3, showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CoA in newborns. Conclusion. By using these echo indexes, two-dimensional echocardiographic aortic arch measurement becomes a simple, reliable noninvasive method for the evaluation of aortic coarctation in newborns and may lead to earlier diagnosis and subsequent surgical correction.

  19. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  20. Bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation are linked to deletion of the X chromosome short arm in Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Carolyn; Bakalov, Vladimir K; Cheng, Clara; Olivieri, Laura; Rosing, Douglas R; Arai, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a cardinal feature of X chromosome monosomy, or Turner syndrome (TS). Haploinsufficiency for gene(s) located on Xp have been implicated in the short stature characteristic of the syndrome, but the chromosomal region related to the CHD phenotype has not been established. Design We used cardiac MRI to diagnose cardiovascular abnormalities in four non-mosaic karyotype groups based on 50-metaphase analyses: 45,X (n=152); 46,X,del(Xp) (n=15); 46,X,del(Xq) (n=4); and 46,X,i(Xq) (n=14) from peripheral blood cells. Results Bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) were found in 52/152 (34%) 45,X study subjects and aortic coarctation (COA) in 19/152 (12.5%). Isolated anomalous pulmonary veins (APV) were detected in 15/152 (10%) for the 45,X study group, and this defect was not correlated with the presence of BAV or COA. BAVs were present in 28.6% of subjects with Xp deletions and COA in 6.7%. APV were not found in subjects with Xp deletions. The most distal break associated with the BAV/COA trait was at cytologic band Xp11.4 and ChrX:41,500 000. One of 14 subjects (7%) with the 46,X,i(Xq) karyotype had a BAV and no cases of COA or APV were found in this group. No cardiovascular defects were found among four patients with Xq deletions. Conclusions The high prevalence of BAV and COA in subjects missing only the X chromosome short arm indicates that haploinsufficiency for Xp genes contributes to abnormal aortic valve and aortic arch development in TS. PMID:23825392

  1. Corpora amylacea deposition in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A new role for an old gene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is the most common medically refractory epilepsy syndrome in adults, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the most frequently encountered lesion in patients with MTLE. Premature accumulation of corpora amylacea (CoA, which plays an important role in the sequestration of toxic cellular metabolites, is found in the hippocampus of 50-60% of the patients who undergo surgery for medically refractory MTLE-HS. However, the etiopathogenesis and clinical importance of this phenomenon are still uncertain. The ABCB1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp plays a prominent role as an antiapoptotic factor in addition to its efflux transporter function. ABCB1 polymorphism has been found to be associated with downregulation of P-gp expression. We hypothesized that a similar polymorphism will be found in patients with CoA deposition, as the polymorphism predisposes the hippocampal neuronal and glial cells to seizure-induced excitotoxic damage and CoA formation ensues as a buffer response. Materials and Methods: We compared five single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene Ex06+139C/T (rs1202168, Ex 12 C1236T (rs1128503, Ex 17-76T/A (rs1922242, Ex 21 G2677T/A (rs2032582, Ex26 C3435T (rs1045642 among 46 MTLE-HS patients of south Indian ancestry with and without CoA accumulation. Results: We found that subjects carrying the Ex-76T/A polymorphism (TA genotype had a five-times higher risk of developing CoA accumulation than subjects without this genotype (Odds ratio 5.0, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-18.55; P = 0.016. Conclusion: We speculate that rs1922242 polymorphism results in the downregulation of P-gp function, which predisposes the hippocampal cells to seizure-induced apoptosis, and CoA gets accumulated as a buffer response.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  3. Engineering a synthetic pathway in cyanobacteria for isopropanol production directly from carbon dioxide and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Tamami; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Tsuruno, Keigo; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Atsumi, Shota; Liao, James C; Hanai, Taizo

    2013-11-01

    Production of alternate fuels or chemicals directly from solar energy and carbon dioxide using engineered cyanobacteria is an attractive method to reduce petroleum dependency and minimize carbon emissions. Here, we constructed a synthetic pathway composed of acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase (encoded by thl), acetoacetyl-CoA transferase (encoded by atoAD), acetoacetate decarboxylase (encoded by adc) and secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (encoded by adh) in Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 to produce isopropanol. The enzyme-coding genes, heterogeneously originating from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (thl and adc), Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 (atoAD) and Clostridium beijerinckii (adh), were integrated into the S. elongatus genome. Under the optimized production conditions, the engineered cyanobacteria produced 26.5 mg/L of isopropanol after 9 days.

  4. Ciphertext-only attack on a joint transform correlator encryption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggong; Liao, Meihua; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

    2013-11-18

    A ciphertext-only attack (COA) on a joint transform correlator (JTC) encryption system is proposed. From the perspective view of optical cryptanalysis, we find out that the issue to be solved in the COA scheme could be transferred into a phase retrieval problem with single intensity measurement. And in this paper, the hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm is employed to handle this issue with the help of an inartificial signal domain support and a given frequency domain constraint. Meanwhile, we provide a set of numerical simulations to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the presented method.

  5. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of phenolics-enriched extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in HepG2 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peera Tabboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves via lowering serum levels of cholesterol, but the mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of a phenolics-enriched extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (PMO in HepG2 cells. When compared to the control treatment, PMO significantly decreased total intracellular cholesterol, inhibited the activity of HMG CoA reductase in a dosedependent manner and enhanced LDL receptor binding activity. Moreover, PMO also significantly increased the genetic expressions of HMG CoA reductase and LDL receptor.

  6. Detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies in cerbrospinal fluid of patients with chronic meningitis Detecção de antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em fluido cerebrospinal de pacientes com meningite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Parija

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic meningitism is a less frequent manifestation of neurocysticercosis caused by Taenia solium cysticerci. In the present study we used Co-agglutination (Co-A, a simple and rapid slide agglutination test to detect specific Cysticercus antigen in the 67 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with chronic meningitis of unknown etiology. The results were compared with that of ELISA for detection of antibodies. Among these samples four (5.97% were positive for Cysticercus antigen by Co-A test and six (8.95% were positive for antibodies by ELISA. Two samples were positive by both Co-A and ELISA, two were positive only by Co-A and four were positive only by ELISA. In the present study, although Cysticercus antigen and antibodies were present in CSF samples from eight (11.94% patients, we cannot affirm that all the cases of chronic meningitis are due to cysticercosis, but for any case of chronic meningitis of unknown origin, it would be useful to consider the possibility of cysticercal meningitis.Meningite crônica é manifestação pouco freqüente de neurocisticercose causada por cisticerco de Taenia solium. No presente estudo utilizamos co-aglutinação (Co-A um teste simples e rápido de aglutinação para detectar antígeno específico de Cysticercus nas 67 amostras de fluido cerebrospinal (CSF de pacientes com meningite crônica de etiologia desconhecida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos. Dentre estas amostras quatro (5,97% foram positivas para antígenos de Cysticercus pelo teste Co-A e seis (8,95% foram positivas para anticorpos por ELISA. Duas amostras foram positivas por ambos Co-A e ELISA, duas foram positivas somente por Co-A e quatro foram positivas somente por ELISA. No presente estudo embora antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus estivessem presentes nas amostras de CSF de oito pacientes (11,94%, não podemos afirmar que todos os casos de meningite crônica sejam devidos

  7. ROSS: The Remotely-Operated Surface Sampler - A MediumEndurance, Precision-Navigated Platform Optimized for Uncontaminated Measurement of Upper-Ocean Velocity, Density and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ROSS : The Remotely-­‐Operated Surface Sampler A medium-­‐endurance, precision-­‐navigated  platform optimized...coas.oregonstate.edu Award N00014-­‐14-­‐1-­‐0490 http://kai.coas.oregonstate.edu/ OVERVIEW The Remotely Operated Surface   Sampler ( ROSS )  is an  open...configuration,   ROSS cruises at 4 knots,  is equipped  with  300 kHz  and 2 MHz  ADCPs,  and tows a 20-­‐m  lon thermistor/CTD  chain. Its

  8. The Magnitude and Regional Distribution of Needs for Hydropower - Phase II Future Electric Power Supply and Demand. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    llliN015 COAPS Of INGINUaS HIL MACii’III’!"UOE AND REGIONAl OISTRi8UTION OF NEED JOR UYOROPOM:Il Til( NATIONAl ttYOfiOPOWt:R STUDY PROJECTIONS OF...AWO, IL UNO IS COaPS Of INGINIUl THE MAGNifUOl. AND REGIONAL lliSTHIBUTION Of NHO FOR HVCROPOWI:H Tttl:: NATIONAL tiVOROPOWlH STIJOY PROJECTIONS OF...RUOUICU CHICAGO, IlliNOIS coaPS Of INGINIIaJ lHl MAUNITI)(lE AkO REGIONAL OISTRI&UTION Of NEED FOR HVOROPOWt:U THE NATIONAL HVUAOPOWER STUIJV

  9. Drug: D07474 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07474 Drug Atorvastatin (INN); Lipitor (TN); Sortis (TN) C33H35FN2O5 558.253 558.6398 D07474...YING AGENTS C10A LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, PLAIN C10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors... C10AA05 Atorvastatin D07474 Atorvastatin (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents D...yslipidemics, HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors Atorvastatin D07474 Atorvastatin (INN) Target-based classificatio...(HMG-CoA) reductase [HSA:3156] [KO:K00021] Atorvastatin [ATC:C10AA05] D07474 Atorvastatin (INN) CAS: 134523-

  10. NuMED CHEATHAM-PLATINUM STENT AND BALLOON IN BALLOON DELIVERY CATHETER FOR TREATMENT OF NATIVE COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ COARCTATION of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital heart defect involving a narrowing of the aorta. The narrowed segment called coarctation is most likely to happen in the segment just after the aortic arch. The narrowing can be removed by surgery or sometimes by a nonsurgical balloon dilation. However, aortic coarctation may recur even after successful surgery or balloon dilation. Fortunately, coarctation can now be treated with nonsurgical balloon dilation associated with implanting a stent using cardiac catheterization. Herein we reported our experience in a 19-year-old boy with CoA who underwent successful covered Cheatham-Platinum (CP) stent implantation for the coarctation.

  11. Dual Arterial Access for Stenting of Aortic Coarctation in Patients with Near-Total Descending Aortic Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tahir; Jamallulail, Syed Ibrahim; Clarke, Bernard; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2015-12-01

    Endovascular stenting is a recognized treatment strategy for the treatment of coarctation of aorta (COA) in adults. The aortic coarctation is usually crossed retrogradely from the descending aorta via the femoral approach. We report three patients who had near-total descending aortic interruption and underwent successful stenting of severe COA using a combined radial/brachial and femoral approach due to difficulty in crossing the lesion retrogradely via a femoral approach. There were no procedural complications and no adverse events during 6 months of follow-up.

  12. Thoracic aorta coarctation in the adults: open surgery is still the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzani, Antonio; Arici, Vittorio; Ragni, Franco

    2013-04-01

    Aortic coarctation (CoA) is the fifth most common congenital heart defect, accounting for 6% to 8% of live births with congenital heart disease. Traditional treatment for CoA consists of open surgical repair, and the endovascular procedures have been proposed as an alternative treatment. We describe the case of a 50-year-old man presented to our department with mild lower limbs claudication and hypertension. The computed tomography scan diagnosed an aortic postductal coarctation, which we treated with aortoplasty with Dacron patch. The open surgery, in our opinion, is nowadays still preferable due to the time-stable and effective outcome.

  13. Drug: D01862 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01862 Drug Pitavastatin calcium (JAN); NK 104; Livalo (TN) (C25H23FNO4)2. Ca 880.2...:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 218 Hyperlipidemia agents 2189 Others D01862 Pita...10AA HMG CoA reductase inhibitors C10AA08 Pitavastatin D01862 Pitavastatin calcium (JAN) USP drug classifica...tion [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Dyslipidemics, HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors Pita...Oxidoreductases hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase [HSA:3156] [KO:K00021] Pitavastatin [ATC:C10AA08] D01862 Pita

  14. A new approach to control the modified LinVerter for high frequency applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhang, Peyman; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    control perspective, a novel control approach based on bidirectional interface between LTspice and MATLAB is created. In this case, the circuit is modeled in LTspice environment and a Chaos Optimization Algorithm (COA) is coded in MATLAB in order to find out the optimal solution in control process....... In fact, this new approach combines the advantages of LTspice for simulation of different circuit configurations using actual component obtained from manufactures' models with advanced intelligent techniques capabilities from COA in MATLAB. First, the performance of proposed multi-device LinVerter along...

  15. Apuntamentos para un estudo da historia da violencia entre as clases traballadoras da Galicia urbana (1890-1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Míguez Macho, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A violencia como conceito culturalmente construido é obxecto de análise no presente artigo, en particular, canto a relación existente entre a violencia política e os movementos sociais, a partir do caso de estudio histórico do movemento obreiro en Galicia. Un movemento social creador dun novo repertorio de acción colectiva que tivo que competir coa existencia de repertorios pretéritos baseados na protesta comunitaria e, ao tempo, coa acción represiva do Estado e doutros contramove...

  16. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: characterisation of beta-oxidation and ultrastructural changes in the genus Sporidiobolus sp. cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Blin-Perrin, Caroline; Krasniewski, Isabelle; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeannine

    2005-09-01

    Cell structure modifications and beta-oxidation induction were monitored in two strains of Sporidiobolus, Sp. Ruinenii and Sp. pararoseus after cultivation on ricinoleic acid methyl ester. Ultrastructural observations of the yeast before and after cultivation on fatty acid esters did not reveal major modifications in Sp. ruinenii. Unexpectedly, in Sp. pararoseus a proliferation of the mitochondrion was observed. After induction, Sp. ruinenii principally exhibited an increase in the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), hydroxyacyl-CoA deshydrogenase (HAD), thiolase and catalase. In contrast, Sp. pararoseus lacked ACO and catalase activities, but an increase in acyl-CoA deshydrogenase (ACDH) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH) activity was observed. These data suggest that in Sp. ruinenii, beta-oxidation is preferentially localized in the microbody, whereas in Sp. pararoseus it might be localized in the mitochondria.

  17. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria

    -CoA esters between different enzymatic systems. However, little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice show decreased growth...

  18. Modeling SOA formation from the oxidation of intermediate volatility n-alkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee-Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical mechanism leading to SOA formation and ageing is expected to be a multigenerational process, i.e. a successive formation of organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. This process is here investigated with the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere. Gas phase oxidation schemes are generated for the C8–C24 series of n-alkanes. Simulations are conducted to explore the time evolution of organic compounds and the behavior of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation for various preexisting organic aerosol concentration (COA. As expected, simulation results show that (i SOA yield increases with the carbon chain length of the parent hydrocarbon, (ii SOA yield decreases with decreasing COA, (iii SOA production rates increase with increasing COA and (iv the number of oxidation steps (i.e. generations needed to describe SOA formation and evolution grows when COA decreases. The simulated oxidative trajectories are examined in a two dimensional space defined by the mean carbon oxidation state and the volatility. Most SOA contributors are not oxidized enough to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA but reduced enough to be categorized as hydrocarbon like organic aerosols (HOA, suggesting that OOA may underestimate SOA. Results show that the model is unable to produce highly oxygenated aerosols (OOA with large yields. The limitations of the model are discussed.

  19. Modeling SOA formation from the oxidation of intermediate volatility n-alkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee-Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical mechanism leading to SOA formation and ageing is expected to be a multigenerational process, i.e. a successive formation of organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. This process is here investigated with the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere. Gas phase oxidation schemes are generated for the C8–C24 series of n-alkanes. Simulations are conducted to explore the time evolution of organic compounds and the behavior of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation for various preexisting organic aerosol concentration (COA. As expected, simulation results show that (i SOA yield increases with the carbon chain length of the parent hydrocarbon, (ii SOA yield decreases with decreasing COA, (iii SOA production rates increase with increasing COA and (iv the number of oxidation steps (i.e. generations needed to describe SOA formation and evolution grows when COA decreases. The simulated oxidative trajectories are examined in a two dimensional space defined by the mean carbon oxidation state and the volatility. Most SOA contributors are not oxidized enough to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA but reduced enough to be categorized as hydrocarbon like organic aerosols (HOA, suggesting that OOA may underestimate SOA. Results show that the model is unable to produce highly oxygenated aerosols (OOA with large yields. The limitations of the model are discussed.

  20. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  1. Adding Extra Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NiYanshuo

    2011-01-01

    A total of 210 orphans in the three states around Abuja,capital of Nigeria,went to a summer camp to celebrate the country's Children's Day on May 27.Huawei Tech nologies Co.,a leading global informa tion and communications technology solutions provider from China,sponsored the event.

  2. Win-Win Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and Afrca find new ways to drive mutual development On May 27,a total of 210 orphans in the three states around Abuja,capital of Nigeria,went to a summer camp to celebrate the country’s Children’s Day. Huawei Technologies Co.,a leading global information and communications technology solutions provider from China,sponsored the event.

  3. Win-Win Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI YANSHUO

    2011-01-01

    On May 27,a total of 210 orphans in the three states around Abuja,capital of Nigeria,went to a summer camp to celebrate the country's Children's Day.Huawei Technologies Co.,a leading global information and communications technology solutions provider from China,sponsored the event.

  4. Detecting ALS and ACCase herbicide tolerant accession of Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch. in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altop, Emine Kaya; Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    -sodium) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (cyhalofob-butyl) inhibiting herbicides. Comparison of 95% lower confidence intervals of ED90 derived from log-logistic dose-response curves, and twice the recommended field rates of the herbicides showed some, but not distinct separation of susceptible and tolerant accessions. We...

  5. PI3K/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway – new players and new functional links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filonenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes experimental data related to the studies of PI3K/mTOR/S6K signaling conducted at the department of cell signaling. Analysis of novel S6Ks protein-protein interactions provided valuable information for understanding molecular mechanisms of regulation of S6Ks functional activity and subcellular localization mediated by PKC, CK2 and ROC1 ubiquitin ligase. We discuss the identification and functional analysis of novel isoform of ribosomal protein S6 kinase – S6K2 and of mTOR kinase – mTOR, as well as their oncogenic properties. Identification of CoA synthase responsible for last two steps in CoA biosynthesis and characterization of its interactions with S6K1 and other signaling molecules uncovere a potential link between mTOR/S6K signaling pathway and energy metabolism through regulation of CoA biosynthesis. The data concerning new molecular mechanisms of CoA synthase regulation are presented.

  6. 78 FR 40232 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... order should reduce confusion and provide for a less disruptive COA process, thus aiding in perfecting... Burden on Competition The Exchange does not believe that the proposed rule change will impose any burden on competition that is not necessary or appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of the...

  7. Predicting Student Academic Performance: A Comparison of Two Meta-Heuristic Algorithms Inspired by Cuckoo Birds for Training Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fung Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting student academic performance with a high accuracy facilitates admission decisions and enhances educational services at educational institutions. This raises the need to propose a model that predicts student performance, based on the results of standardized exams, including university entrance exams, high school graduation exams, and other influential factors. In this study, an approach to the problem based on the artificial neural network (ANN with the two meta-heuristic algorithms inspired by cuckoo birds and their lifestyle, namely, Cuckoo Search (CS and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA is proposed. In particular, we used previous exam results and other factors, such as the location of the student’s high school and the student’s gender as input variables, and predicted the student academic performance. The standard CS and standard COA were separately utilized to train the feed-forward network for prediction. The algorithms optimized the weights between layers and biases of the neuron network. The simulation results were then discussed and analyzed to investigate the prediction ability of the neural network trained by these two algorithms. The findings demonstrated that both CS and COA have potential in training ANN and ANN-COA obtained slightly better results for predicting student academic performance in this case. It is expected that this work may be used to support student admission procedures and strengthen the service system in educational institutions.

  8. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an effectively intelligent model to forecast short-term wind speed series. A hybrid forecasting technique is proposed based on recurrence plot (RP and optimized support vector regression (SVR. Wind caused by the interaction of meteorological systems makes itself extremely unsteady and difficult to forecast. To understand the wind system, the wind speed series is analyzed using RP. Then, the SVR model is employed to forecast wind speed, in which the input variables are selected by RP, and two crucial parameters, including the penalties factor and gamma of the kernel function RBF, are optimized by various optimization algorithms. Those optimized algorithms are genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA. Finally, the optimized SVR models, including COA-SVR, PSO-SVR, and GA-SVR, are evaluated based on some criteria and a hypothesis test. The experimental results show that (1 analysis of RP reveals that wind speed has short-term predictability on a short-term time scale, (2 the performance of the COA-SVR model is superior to that of the PSO-SVR and GA-SVR methods, especially for the jumping samplings, and (3 the COA-SVR method is statistically robust in multi-step-ahead prediction and can be applied to practical wind farm applications.

  9. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  10. AcEST: BP917133 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 775_CUPTR Putative PROPIONYL-COA CARBOXYLASE (BETA SUBUNIT) PROTEIN OS=Cupriavidus taiwan...TA SUBUNIT) PROTEIN OS=Cupriavidus taiwanensis (strain R1 / LMG 19424) GN=RALTA_A2850 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 533

  11. MCTP2 is a dosage-sensitive gene required for cardiac outflow tract development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Seema R.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Wang, Xueqing; Zapata, Gladys; Tian, Qi; Franco, Luis M.; Jiang, Zhengxin; Bucasas, Kristine; Scott, Daryl A.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Hanchard, Neil; Umaña, Luis; Cast, Ashley; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W.; McBride, Kim L.; Bray, Molly; Craig Chinault, A.; Boggs, Barbara A.; Huang, Miao; Baker, Mariah R.; Hamilton, Susan; Towbin, Jeff; Jefferies, John L.; Fernbach, Susan D.; Potocki, Lorraine; Belmont, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have been reported in rare individuals with large terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26. However, no single gene important for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) development has been identified in this region. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified two half-siblings with CoA with a 2.2 Mb deletion on 15q26.2, inherited from their mother, who was mosaic for this deletion. This interval contains an evolutionary conserved, protein-coding gene, MCTP2 (multiple C2-domains with two transmembrane regions 2). Using gene-specific array screening in 146 individuals with non-syndromic LVOT obstructive defects, another individual with HLHS and CoA was found to have a de novo 41 kb intragenic duplication within MCTP2, predicted to result in premature truncation, p.F697X. Alteration of Mctp2 gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryos by morpholino knockdown and mRNA overexpression resulted in the failure of proper OT development, confirming the functional importance of this dosage-sensitive gene for cardiogenesis. Our results identify MCTP2 as a novel genetic cause of CoA and related cardiac malformations. PMID:23773997

  12. Relations of Temperament to Maladjustment and Ego Resiliency in At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Chassin, Laurie; Zhou, Qing; Kupfer, Anne; Smith, Cynthia L.; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The relations of control/regulation-related temperamentally based dispositions (effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and approach/avoidance) to externalizing problems and personality ego resiliency were examined in a sample of 467 children (M age = 7.46 years), some of whom were children of alcoholics (COAs). In addition, we examined if the…

  13. Measuring Air Force Contracting Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    firm’s market research budget (Olsen, Witell & Gustafsson, 2014). With all the research and popularity surrounding Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ... Customer Relationship Management CS Contracting Specialist DAU Defense Acquisition University DFARS Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...AFSVA Air Force Services Activity AMC Air Mobility Command CE Civil Engineering CEM Customer Experience Management CO Contracting Officer COA

  14. CCoAOMT down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in petunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F.M. Shaipulah; J.K. Muhlemann; B.D. Woodworth; A. Van Moerkercke; J.C. Verdonk; A.M. Ramirez; M.A. Haring; N. Dudareva; R.C. Schuurink

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl CoA in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacu

  15. A geo-electric and gravimetric survey in the delta of the rivers Fluvia and Muga (Gerona), Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geirnaert, W.

    1976-01-01

    In the delta of the rivers Fluvia and Muga, the Quaternary is hydrogeologically the most important deposit. It is underlain by Pliocene marls and clays. From geo-electrical soundings and bore-hole data a map with depth contours of the Quaternary-Pliocene boundary plane was constructed. Near the coas

  16. Removal of Trace Pharmaceuticals from Water using coagulation and powdered activated carbon as pretreatment to ultrafiltration membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chenguang; Nnanna, A G Agwu; Liu, Yanghe; Vargo, John D

    2016-04-15

    In this study, the efficacy of water treatment technologies: ultra-filtration (UF), powdered activated carbon (PAC), coagulation (COA) and a combination of these technologies (PAC/UF and COA/UF) to remove target pharmaceuticals (Acetaminophen, Bezafibrate, Caffeine, Carbamazepine, Cotinine, Diclofenac, Gemfibrozil, Ibuprofen, Metoprolol, Naproxen, Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfamethazine, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfathiazole, Triclosan and Trimethoprim) was investigated. Samples of wastewater from municipal WWTPs were analyzed using direct aqueous injection High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) detection. On concentration basis, results showed an average removal efficiency of 29%, 50%, and 7%, respectively, for the UF, PAC dosage of 50ppm, and COA dosage of 10ppm. When PAC dosage of 100ppm was used as pretreatment to the combined PAC and UF in-line membrane system, a 90.3% removal efficiency was achieved. The removal efficiency of UF in tandem with COA was 33%, an increase of 4% compared with the single UF treatment. The adsorption effect of PAC combined with the physical separation process of UF revealed the best treatment strategy for removing pharmaceutical contaminant from water.

  17. MOLECULAR PHENOTYPING OF LIGNIN-MODIFIED TOBACCO REVEALS ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN CELL WALL METABOLISM, PRIMARY METABOLISM, STRESS METABOLISM AND PHOTORESPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin is an important component of secondary thickened cell walls. Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) are two key enzymes catalyzing the penultimate and last step in the biosynthesis of the monolignols. Down-regulation of CCR in tobacco has been shown to reduce l...

  18. Synthesis of coenzyme A thioesters using methyl acyl phosphates in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mohan; Bearne, Stephen L

    2014-12-28

    Regioselective S-acylation of coenzyme A (CoA) is achieved under aqueous conditions using various aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids activated as their methyl acyl phosphate monoesters. Unlike many hydrophobic activating groups, the anionic methyl acyl phosphate mixed anhydride is more compatible with aqueous solvents, making it useful for conducting acylation reactions in an aqueous medium.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VFJ446 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available map 4071862-4101005 strain AX4, complete sequence. 62 3e-29 8 X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimastix frontalis mRN...A for beta-succinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 3e-21 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimas

  20. Dicty_cDB: SFC186 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4101005 strain AX4, complete sequence. 62 5e-32 9 X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimastix frontalis mRNA for beta-su...ccinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 4e-21 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimastix patriciarum succinyl-CoA syn

  1. Dicty_cDB: VFA764 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimastix frontalis mRNA for beta-succinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 8e-22 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallima...ideum chromosome 2 map 4071862-4101005 strain AX4, complete sequence. 62 5e-26 6

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFI894 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71862-4101005 strain AX4, complete sequence. 52 3e-19 4 X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimas...tix frontalis mRNA for beta-succinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 5e-18 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimas

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFI453 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available map 1685067-2090751 strain AX4, complete sequence. 928 0.0 5 X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimastix frontalis mRNA... for beta-succinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 1e-21 4 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimastix patriciarum succ

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFA258 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m chromosome 2 map 1685067-2090751 strain AX4, complete sequence. 494 0.0 10 AF493055 |AF493055.1 Neocallimas... 74 8e-19 2 X84222 |X84222.2 Neocallimastix frontalis mRNA for beta-succinyl CoA synthetase precursor. 74 3e

  5. Influence of precursor solution parameters on chemical properties of calcium phosphate coatings prepared using Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Schoonman, J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A novel coating technique, referred to as Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD), was used to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a variety of chemical properties. The relationship between the composition of the precursor solutions and the crystal and molecular structure of the deposited coa

  6. Optical imaging beyond the diffraction limit by SNEM: Effects of AFM tip modifications with thiol monolayers on imaging quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumurcu, Aysegul; Diaz, J.; Lindsay, I.D.; Beer, de S.; Duvigneau, J.; Schön, P.M.; Vancso, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tip-enhanced nanoscale optical imaging techniques such as apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (a-SNOM) and scanning near-field ellipsometric microscopy (SNEM) applications can suffer from a steady degradation in performance due to adhesion of atmospheric contaminants to the metal coa

  7. Investigating the Usefulness of Operator Aids for Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles Performing Reconnaissance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Finally, if an unexpected Jersey wall appeared as an obstacle, a new route was needed to be planned (“reroute”). COAs were executed by speaking aloud...RM 221 FORT SILL OK 73503-9043 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED (PDF) RDRL HRM AV W CULBERTSON 91012 STATION AVE FORT HOOD TX 76544

  8. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders: 85 Cases Detected by Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E.; Landau, Yuval; Wilson, Jenna; Vockley, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders include conditions in which the transport of activated acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) into the mitochondria or utilization of these substrates is disrupted or blocked. This results in a deficit in the conversion of fat into energy. Most patients with fatty acid oxidation defects are now identified through…

  9. A new species of palaemonid shrimp, Chacella tricornuta spec. nov (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the southeastern Gulf of California, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Chacella Bruce is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico, in the eastern Pacific, and represents the second known species of this genus. The type-species, Chacella kerstitchi (Wicksten, 1983), was described from a single female captured off the coa

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_001073923.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073923.1 chr12 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE MEDIUM-CHAIN FAMILY MEMBER 2A (L64P MUTA...TION) IN COMPLEX WITH IBUPROFEN p2wd9c_ chr12/NP_001073923.1/NP_001073923.1_holo_45

  11. Navy Operational Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    combat logistics force COA course of action EOD explosive ordinance disposal GAMS general algebraic modeling system INTEL...to mission-based planning, but still relies mostly on the fundamental requirement to establish and maintain some degree of maritime superiority ...planner (master’s thesis). Retrieved from Calhoun http://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/3317 GAMS Development Corporation (2014). General algebraic

  12. Special Operations Liaison Officer: Looking Back to See the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    for Intelligence ASI additional skill identifier BA Bachelor of Arts BPC building partner capacity CA civil affairs CDR Commander COA...Consensus, Solve Problems, and Make Decisions (San Francisco , CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002), 40, Kindle Edition. 10...plans and approved all staff agreements for the new program. Additional skill identifiers ( ASIs ) were used as personnel 59 Brad Plumer, “America’s

  13. Insight into cofactor recognition in arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ximing; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Kubiak, Xavier Jean Philippe;

    2015-01-01

    for Bacillus anthracis NAT1 and Homo sapiens NAT2. Therefore, in contrast to previous data, this study shows that different orthologous NATs can bind their cofactors in a similar way, suggesting that the mode of binding CoA in this family of enzymes is less diverse than previously thought. Moreover...

  14. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant a-Synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail; Rosenberger, Thad; Færgeman, Nils J.;

    2006-01-01

    an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control, and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored...

  15. Scientific understanding of students in the picture : The evaluation of Video Feedback Coaching for upper grade teachers during science and technology education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vondel, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Scientific understanding of students in the picture Scientific understanding is becoming more important in today's society. Eliciting and stimulating these talents in the form of science and technology education will become increasingly incorporated in the Dutch school curriculum. Video Feedback Coa

  16. USEPA Approach for the Detection and Quantification of Enterococcus by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Beach Act 2000 specified that EPA should develop: Appropriate and effective indicators for improviding detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters Appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coas...

  17. Bridging the Chasm: A Comparison of the Army’s 1997 and 2012 Doctrinal Planning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    addition, the Decision Support Template (DST) and accompanying Decision Support Matrix ( DSM ) received renewed emphasis. An examination of the doctrinal... v Introduction...Officer Course COA Course of Action COL Colonel COIN Counterinsurgency DP Decision Point DSM Decision Support Matrix DST Decision Support Template

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10229-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ame: Full=3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A red... 179 1e-81 AY995181_1( AY99...5181 |pid:none) Datura innoxia HMG CoA reductase m... 262 4e-81 ( O59469 ) RecName: Full=3-hydroxy-3-methylg

  19. Disturbed hepatic carbohydrate management during high metabolic demand in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, H.J.; Derks, T.G.; Dijk, van T.H.; Bloks, V.W.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Tietge, U.J.; Müller, M.R.; Smit, G.P.; Kuipers, F.; Reijngoud, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes crucial steps in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, a process that is of key relevance for maintenance of energy homeostasis, especially during high metabolic demand. To gain insight into the metabolic consequences of MCAD deficiency

  20. 76 FR 77878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... the operation of the proposed system functionality: Example 1: Assume an incoming market complex order... and open market and a national market system, and protect investors and the public interest. The... applicable). The Exchange is proposing to revise the operation of COB and COA as it relates to...

  1. Probabilistic Deviation Detection and Optimal Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    JAGUAR , CDAP/ICAP, etc.) and (2) substituting the blackboard-based DEEP dependency with a common global world state structure. We would be happy to...Markov Model ICAP Interactive Collaboration Environment for COA Assessment Planning ICD Interface Control Document JAGUAR Joint Air Ground Unified

  2. Comparison of latex agglutination and co-agglutination for the diagnosis and prognosis of cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyriem A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare a commercially available Latex agglutination test and an in house co-agglutination test for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in cases of chronic meningitis. METHODS: One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 150 cases of chronic meningitis were tested for the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans by modified India ink, culture and antigen detection by latex agglutination test (LAT and co-agglutination (Co-A test. RESULTS: Thirty-nine cases were positive by one or more tests employed. Antigen detection in CSF by LAT and Co-A was found to be most sensitive (94.9% while culture was the least (25.6%. Of the two antigen detection methods, Co-A was found to be more sensitive than the LAT, the difference being statistically significant. Initial CSF antigen titres did not have any prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS: Co-A for antigen detection is an inexpensive and useful adjunct to direct microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis, though its usefulness in prognosis needs to be evaluated further.

  3. The value of low-dose prospective ECG-gated dual-source CT angiography in the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, P. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, X., E-mail: wxming369@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cheng, Z.; Duan, Y.; Ji, X. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, J. [CT Research Collaboration, Siemens, Beijing (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Aim: To investigate the value of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Materials and methods: Seventeen patients clinically suspected of having CoA underwent prospective ECG-gated DSCT angiography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Surgery was performed in all patients. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT angiography and TTE was compared with the surgical findings as the reference standard. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point scale. Effective radiation dose was calculated from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: CoA was diagnosed in 17 patients by DSCT angiography and in 16 patients by TTE. A total of 46 separate cardiovascular abnormalities were confirmed by surgical findings. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT angiography and TTE was 96.32% and 97.06%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between DSCT angiography and TTE ({chi}{sup 2} = 0, p > 0.05). The mean score of image quality was 4.2 {+-} 0.8. The mean effective dose was 0.69 {+-} 0.09 mSv. Conclusion: Prospective ECG-gated DSCT with a low radiation dose is a valuable technique in the diagnosis of CoA in infants and children.

  4. CCoAOMT down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in petunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaipulah, N.F.M.; Muhlemann, J.K.; Woodworth, B.D.; Van Moerkercke, A.; Verdonk, J.C.; Ramirez, A.M.; Haring, M.A.; Dudareva, N.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl CoA in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacu

  5. CCoAOMT down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in petunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaipulah, N.F.M.; Muhlemann, Joëlle K.; Woodworth, Benjamin D.; Moerkercke, Van Alex; Verdonk, J.C.; Ramirez, A.A.; Haring, Michel A.; Dudareva, Natalia; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower d

  6. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR α -Regulated Fatty Acid β -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR α ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR α transcription of the fatty acid β -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR α in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes.

  7. Magnetic properties of cobalt-based oxypnictide SmCoAsO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic properties of cobalt-based oxypnictides SmCoAsO are investigated by measuring magnetization,magnetoresistance and specific heat.The compound undergoes a ferromagnetic(FM) transition around Tc of 80 K,and a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic(AFM) transition below TN1 of about 45 K,and finally an AFM order of Sm ion at TN2 of 5.6 K.The weak FM order should originate from the itinerant 3d electrons of Co ions in the CoAs layers.We propose that the magnetic structure should be A-type AFM,which means that the FM order remains within the CoAs layer and the magnetic coupling between the CoAs layers becomes AFM below TN1 of 45 K.The AFM coupling between the CoAs layers should be very weak.A magnetic field μ0H of about 2 T may cause an AFM-FM metamagnetic transition.A rich magnetic phase diagram is established and the interplay between the 3d electrons of Co ions and 4f electrons of Sm ions is discussed.

  8. A Feasibility Study of Implementing a Bring-Your-Own-Computing-Device Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS: Bring-your-own device ( BYOD ), hardware and software procurement plans, cost analysis, cloud...Full BYOC/ BYOD Policy for the GSBPP ....44 viii c. COA 3—Partial Secession of the Smart Classroom Construct...ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AE academic edition BYOC bring your own computer BYOD bring your own device CA cost analysis CAL client access license

  9. Drosophila phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase is required for tissue morphogenesis during oogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, Floris; Rana, Anil; Lemstra - Wierenga, Willemina; Kampinga, Harm; Sibon, Ody

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in detai

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_996667.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996667.1 chr6 The crystal structure of human peroxisomal delta3, delta2 enoyl Co...A isomerase (PECI) d2f6qa_ chr6/NP_996667.1/NP_996667.1_holo_1-215.pdb forte 121P,122K,123I,124M,125S 91D,94

  11. 75 FR 32523 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... in advance. \\5\\ Rule 6.53 sets out definitions for the following order types: market order; limit...), Process for Complex Order RFR Auction (``COA''), which provide that the Exchange, among other things... methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form (...

  12. Exposure, Health and Ecological Effects Review of Engineered Nanoscale Cerium and Cerium Oxide Associated with its Use as a Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances of nanoscale science have produced nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties at commercial levels which are now incorporated into over 1000 products. Nanoscale cerium (di) oxide (CeO(2)) has recently gained a wide range of applications which includes coa...

  13. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Clinical Specimens During an Eight-Year Period (2005 - 2012 in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangarzadeh Rezaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious public health problem worldwide. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility pattern and molecular typing of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients during eight years, from 2005 to 2012. Materials and Methods A total of 151 randomly selected S. aureus isolates, identified with phenotypic tests and detection of nuc gene, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method. Moreover, molecular typing of the isolates was carried out by PCR-RFLP based on coa and spa genes. Results All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. High rates of susceptibility were also observed with rifampin (98.1%, imipenem (94.7%, and linezolid (94.1%. On the other hand, most of the isolates were resistant against penicillin (95.4%, erythromycin (68.9% and clindamycin (57.6%. Four types of spa and coa were distinguished among the isolates based on PCR results; however, the HaeII digestion resulted in a total of sixteen and nine RFLP patterns for spa and coa genes, respectively. Conclusions The outcome of this study indicates a higher discriminatory power of the RFLP analysis based on the spa gene compared to the coa gene. Moreover, the results of our study reveal that the resistance rate of S. aureus to some antimicrobial agents including linezolid is a growing concern.

  14. High-quality global hydrogen silsequioxane contact planarization for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; Wiel, van der W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a novel global contact planarization technique based on the spin-on-glass material hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) and demonstrate its excellent performance on patterns of 70 nm up to several microns generated by UV-based nanoimprint lithography. The HSQ layer (∼165 nm) is spin coa

  15. Dicty_cDB: SSK163 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1362 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromo... 37 0.66 DQ790236_1( DQ790236 |pid:none) Champereia man...illana acetyl co-A c... 36 0.86 DQ790237_1( DQ790237 |pid:none) Agonandra macrocarp

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSC792 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 362 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromo... 37 0.59 DQ790236_1( DQ790236 |pid:none) Champereia mani...llana acetyl co-A c... 37 0.59 DQ790237_1( DQ790237 |pid:none) Agonandra macrocarpa

  17. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic protein in MARTINI water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2014-01-01

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of protein G in multiscale water. We couple atomistic water around the protein with mesoscopic water, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead, farther away. We circumvent the difficulties that arise from coupling to the coa

  18. Computer-Assisted Community Planning and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME.

    The College of the Atlantic (COA) developed a broad-based, interdisciplinary curriculum in ecological policy and community planning and decision-making that incorporates two primary computer-based tools: ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) and STELLA, a systems-dynamics modeling tool. Students learn how to use and apply these tools…

  19. InterProScan Result: FS900335 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS900335 FS900335_4_ORF2 EDF28B1419502E38 PANTHER PTHR11815 SUCCINYL-COA SYNTHETASE... BETA CHAIN 6.7e-130 T IPR005809 Succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit Molecular Function: catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152) ...

  20. InterProScan Result: FS813823 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS813823 FS813823_2_ORF1 568BDFAFA7D4AEA5 PANTHER PTHR11815 SUCCINYL-COA SYNTHETASE... BETA CHAIN 1.5e-121 T IPR005809 Succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit Molecular Function: catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152) ...

  1. InterProScan Result: FS834043 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS834043 FS834043_5_ORF1 E01B7DF3B3BDFA2E PANTHER PTHR11815 SUCCINYL-COA SYNTHETASE... BETA CHAIN 3.6e-101 T IPR005809 Succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit Molecular Function: catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152) ...

  2. InterProScan Result: FS905721 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS905721 FS905721_3_ORF1 6F3F9DB05A0968FC PANTHER PTHR11815 SUCCINYL-COA SYNTHETASE... BETA CHAIN 9.2e-151 T IPR005809 Succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit Molecular Function: catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152) ...

  3. InterProScan Result: FS792720 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS792720 FS792720_3_ORF2 016D7C682CC31DDA PANTHER PTHR11815 SUCCINYL-COA SYNTHETASE... BETA CHAIN 2.1e-87 T IPR005809 Succinyl-CoA synthetase, beta subunit Molecular Function: catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152) ...

  4. 78 FR 13906 - Agreements in Force as of December 31, 2012 Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Provincial Fruit ] Marketing Cooperative (TPFMC) supervised by the Taiwan Council of Agriculture (COA... Alteration in Form or Content of Irradiated Fuel elements. Signed June 20, 2011 and June 20, 2011. Entered... international convention on tonnage measurement. Effected by exchange of letters at Arlington and Washington...

  5. GenBank blastn search result: AK120964 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120964 J023040C04 E64536.1 4-Coumaric acid: cDNA of CoA ligase, gene prepared by using said... cDNA, and transformed plant having said gene introduced thereinto.|PAT PAT 7e-15 Plus Plus ...

  6. GenBank blastn search result: AK105636 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105636 001-200-D12 E64536.1 4-Coumaric acid: cDNA of CoA ligase, gene prepared by using said... cDNA, and transformed plant having said gene introduced thereinto.|PAT PAT 1e-19 Plus Plus ...

  7. GenBank blastn search result: AK068985 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068985 J023002B16 E64536.1 4-Coumaric acid: cDNA of CoA ligase, gene prepared by using said... cDNA, and transformed plant having said gene introduced thereinto.|PAT PAT 3e-20 Plus Plus ...

  8. GenBank blastn search result: AK068985 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068985 J023002B16 E64537.1 4-Coumaric acid: cDNA of CoA ligase, gene prepared by using said... cDNA, and transformed plant having said gene introduced thereinto.|PAT PAT 6e-31 Plus Plus ...

  9. Molecular typing of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A gene polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Zamani, Hojjatolah; Langeroudi, Maedeh Keshtkar; Mirzaie, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen responsible for a variety numbers of nosocomial and community acquired infections. Biofilm formation is regarded as an important factor in the establishment of S. aureus infection. The contribution of the genetic background of S. aureus to biofilm formation is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to genotype S. aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A genes and to evaluate the association between the genetic background and the biofilm forming ability of clinical S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 S. aureus were isolated from nosocomial infections and biofilm formation capability was investigated using phenotypic assay and molecular detection of biofilm associated genes. The strains were genotyped based on coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms using restriction fragments length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Results: RFLP-PCR of coa gene generated two types and three subtypes. Amplification of spa gene resulted in two banding patterns and their restriction digestion generated three subtypes. The combined coa and spa RFLP patterns generated nine genotypes (G1-G9). The genotypes G4 and G1 were the most prevalent (32.1% and 24.3%, respectively). Conclusion: High clonal diversity of S. aureus strains able to produce biofilm was observed. Biofilm formation correlates with the spa and coa clonal lineage in our population and testing for multiple gene polymorphisms could be employed for local epidemiologic purposes. PMID:28096965

  10. Molecular typing of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen responsible for a variety numbers of nosocomial and community acquired infections. Biofilm formation is regarded as an important factor in the establishment of S. aureus infection. The contribution of the genetic background of S. aureus to biofilm formation is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to genotype S. aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A genes and to evaluate the association between the genetic background and the biofilm forming ability of clinical S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 S. aureus were isolated from nosocomial infections and biofilm formation capability was investigated using phenotypic assay and molecular detection of biofilm associated genes. The strains were genotyped based on coagulase (coa and protein A (spa gene polymorphisms using restriction fragments length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR. Results: RFLP-PCR of coa gene generated two types and three subtypes. Amplification of spa gene resulted in two banding patterns and their restriction digestion generated three subtypes. The combined coa and spa RFLP patterns generated nine genotypes (G1-G9. The genotypes G4 and G1 were the most prevalent (32.1% and 24.3%, respectively. Conclusion: High clonal diversity of S. aureus strains able to produce biofilm was observed. Biofilm formation correlates with the spa and coa clonal lineage in our population and testing for multiple gene polymorphisms could be employed for local epidemiologic purposes.

  11. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA, Coagulase, Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of the genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA), staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C (sea, seb and sec), coagulase (coa) and 16S rRNA. The primers for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were specific for Staphylococcus spp., and ...

  12. Acyl-CoA binding proteins; structural and functional conservation over 2000 MYA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Nils J; Wadum, Majken; Feddersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    -CoA binding protein, ACBP, has been proposed to play a pivotal role in the intracellular trafficking and utilization of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters. Depletion of acyl-CoA binding protein in yeast results in aberrant organelle morphology incl. fragmented vacuoles, multi-layered plasma membranes...

  13. Biochemical competition makes fatty-acid β-oxidation vulnerable to substrate overload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available Fatty-acid metabolism plays a key role in acquired and inborn metabolic diseases. To obtain insight into the network dynamics of fatty-acid β-oxidation, we constructed a detailed computational model of the pathway and subjected it to a fat overload condition. The model contains reversible and saturable enzyme-kinetic equations and experimentally determined parameters for rat-liver enzymes. It was validated by adding palmitoyl CoA or palmitoyl carnitine to isolated rat-liver mitochondria: without refitting of measured parameters, the model correctly predicted the β-oxidation flux as well as the time profiles of most acyl-carnitine concentrations. Subsequently, we simulated the condition of obesity by increasing the palmitoyl-CoA concentration. At a high concentration of palmitoyl CoA the β-oxidation became overloaded: the flux dropped and metabolites accumulated. This behavior originated from the competition between acyl CoAs of different chain lengths for a set of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases with overlapping substrate specificity. This effectively induced competitive feedforward inhibition and thereby led to accumulation of CoA-ester intermediates and depletion of free CoA (CoASH. The mitochondrial [NAD⁺]/[NADH] ratio modulated the sensitivity to substrate overload, revealing a tight interplay between regulation of β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration.

  14. Energy transfers and spectral eddy viscosity in large-eddy simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence: Comparison of dynamic Smagorinsky and multiscale models over a range of discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.J.R.; Wells, G.N.; Wray, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Energy transfers within large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) grids are studied. The spectral eddy viscosity for conventional dynamic Smagorinsky and variational multiscale LES methods are compared with DNS results. Both models underestimate the DNS results for a very coa

  15. The formation of propionate and acetate as terminal processes in the energy metabolism of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, F. van; Meer, P. van der; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. The formation of propionate from succinate occurs in the mitochondria of the adult common liver fluke essentially by a reversal of the pathway operating in mammalian mitochondria in the conversion of propionate into succinate. 2. 2. The conversion of succinate into its CoA ester is linked by

  16. Cuando las piedras se mueven. Nueva sede de la Delegación Provincial de Salud en Almería

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Baeza, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Nueva sede de la Delegación Provincial de Salud en Almería. Alberto Campo Baeza, Modesto Sánchez Morales, Jose María García Ramírez, Francisco Salvador Granados. Premio ARCO 2004. COA de Almería.

  17. Methylmalonic aciduria (cblF): case report and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, D J; Ueda, K; Mantia, C; Dowton, S B

    1998-10-12

    Methylmalonic acidemia can be secondary to a deficiency of methylmalonyl CoA mutase or to a defect of cobalamin metabolism that is classified by complementation group. We report on a new patient with cblF complementation group that is associated with an elevation of both methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, and her outcome in response to routine therapy and a dietary restriction.

  18. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  19. Co-ETS-10 and Co-AM-6 as active catalysts for the oxidation of styrene to styrene oxide and benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuvo Jit Datta; Kyung Byung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Pristine ETS-10 and AM-6 and their Co2+-exchanged forms were prepared, and their catalytic activi-ties toward the oxidation of styrene in oxygen atmosphere were studied in dimethylformamide. The catalysts were denoted as Co-E10-n (n=0, 9, 26, 68, 81) and Co-A6-m (m=0, 8, 23, 63, 79), where n and m denote the degree of Co2+exchange. The products of the oxidation process were identified as styrene epoxide (E) and benzaldehyde (B). Both the pristine forms, ETS-10 (Co-E10-0) and AM-6 (Co-A6-0), and Co2+-exchanged forms displayed catalytic activities. With increasing n or m, the con-version, and hence the rate, increased. Specifically, the rates varied from 6.1 to 12.5 mmol·g−1·h−1 with increasing n (Co-E10-n catalysts) and from 5.4 to 12.4 mmol·g−1·h−1 with increasing m (Co-A6-m catalysts). In contrast, the E/B ratio decreased with increasing n or m. More specifically, the E/B ratio decreased from 2.1 to 0.1 with increasing n from 0 to 81 (Co-E10-n catalysts) and from 1.3 to 0.1 with increasing m from 0 to 79 (Co-A6-m catalysts). Co-E10-9 displayed the highest E yield and Co-A6-79 generated the highest B yield. The highest turnover frequency obtained was 36.3 Co−1·h−1, which was the highest one obtained among those obtained for the Co2+-exchanged zeolites and mesoporous silica reference materials studied in this work.

  20. Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawiński, Adam; Banaś, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity.

  1. The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolley C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloe Tolley,1 Diana Rofail,2 Adam Gater,1 Justine K Lalonde31Adelphi Values Ltd, Bollington, UK; 2Roche Products Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, UK; 3Roche S.A.S, Paris, France Abstract: Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12, their informal (unpaid caregivers (n=12, and research support staff (n=6 to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc is a topic for future investigation. Keywords: ePRO, eCOA, mode of administration, electronic data capture, usability 

  2. Thiolation-enhanced substrate recognition by D-alanyl carrier protein ligase DltA from Bacillus cereus [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3dx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Du

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available D-alanylation of the lipoteichoic acid on Gram-positive cell wall is dependent on dlt gene-encoded proteins DltA, DltB, DltC and DltD. The D-alanyl carrier protein ligase DltA, as a remote homolog of acyl-(coenzyme A (CoA synthetase, cycles through two active conformations for the catalysis of adenylation and subsequent thiolation of D-alanine (D-Ala. The crystal structure of DltA in the absence of any substrate was observed to have a noticeably more disordered pocket for ATP which would explain why DltA has relatively low affinity for ATP in the absence of any D-alanyl carrier. We have previously enabled the thiolation of D-alanine in the presence of CoA as the mimic of D-alanyl carrier protein DltC which carries a 4’-phosphopantetheine group on a serine residue. Here we show that the resulting Michaelis constants in the presence of saturating CoA for both ATP and D-alanine were reduced more than 10 fold as compared to the values obtained in the absence of CoA. The presence of CoA also made DltA ~100-fold more selective on D-alanine over L-alanine. The CoA-enhanced substrate recognition further implies that the ATP and D-alanine substrates of the adenylation reaction are incorporated when the DltA enzyme cycles through its thiolation conformation.

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  4. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  5. The roles of culture and gender in the relationship between divorce and suicide risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Yousuf, Saman; Chan, Chee Hon; Yung, Tiffany; Wu, Kevin C-C

    2015-03-01

    With some exceptions, literature has consistently shown that divorced populations are at higher risk for suicide than married ones. Here we make use of coefficients of aggravation (COAs), suicide rate ratios of the divorcees over the married, to study patterns of COAs and test the contribution of international sociocultural factors and gender to the relationship between divorce and suicide. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases to identify ecological studies reporting suicide rates and ratios of those rates within different marital statuses between Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2013. In total, ten studies consisting in suicide statistics of eleven countries/areas were selected. Using random-effect modeling, we noted that the pooled COA for men and women were 3.49 (95% CI 2.43-4.56) and 3.15 (95% CI 1.74-4.56), suggesting both divorced men and women exhibited a greater risk of suicide than their married counterparts. Subgroup analyses revealed that COAs in Asian countries are significantly higher than those in non-Asian ones. Among the sociocultural measures retrieved from the HOFSTEDE index and the World Values Surveys, we noted significant associations between COA and four measures, including the individualism-collectivism score, the long-term orientation scores, the survival/self-expression score, and the gender inequality indices. The magnitudes and the directions of the associations however differ by sex. The results confirm that overall divorced people have an aggregate higher suicide risk than married ones. The method used in our research could reveal what cultural indicators are exerting effect on the relationship between divorce and suicide risk, which might change with sociocultural transition. More investigation into the relationships and then the construction of culturally appropriate suicide prevention policy is recommended.

  6. The effect of aortic coarctation surgical repair on QTc and JTc dispersion in severe aortic coarctation newborns: a short-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, G; Russo, V; Rago, A; Papa, A A; Cioppa, N D; Scarpati, C; Palladino, T; Corcione, A; Sarubbi, B; Caianiello, G; Russo, M G

    2014-01-01

    Sudden death is a possible occurrence for newborns younger than 1 year with severe aortic coarctation (CoA) before surgical correction. In our previous study, we showed a significant increase of QTc-D and JTc-D in newborns with isolated severe aortic coarctation, electrocardiographic parameters that clinical and experimental studies have suggested could reflect the physiological variability of regional and ventricular repolarization and could provide a substrate for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of surgical repair of CoA on QTc-d, JTc-d in severe aortic coarctation newborns with no associated congenital cardiac malformations. The study included 30 newborns (18M; 70+/-12 h old) affected by severe congenital aortic coarctation, without associated cardiac malformations. All newborns underwent to classic extended end-to-end repair. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed in each patient 24 h before and 24 h after the interventional procedure and at the end of the follow-up period, 1 month after the surgical correction. All patients at baseline, 24 h and one month after CoA surgical repair did not significantly differ in terms of heart rate, weight, height, and echocardiographic parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in QTc-D (111.7+/-47.4 vs 111.9+/-63.8 ms vs 108.5+/-55.4 ms; P=0.4) and JTc-D (98.1+/-41.3 vs 111.4+/-47.5 vs 105.1+/-33.4 ms; P=0.3) before, 24 h and 1 month after CoA surgical correction. In conclusions, our study did not show a statistically significant decrease in QTc-D and JTc-D, suggesting the hypothesis that the acute left ventricular afterload reduction, related to successful CoA surgical correction, may not reduce the ventricular electrical instability in the short-term follow-up.

  7. Impact of Hospital Volume on Outcomes of Endovascular Stenting for Adult Aortic Coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parth; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Patel, Achint; Sonani, Rajesh; Patel, Aashay; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Thakkar, Badal; Savani, Chirag; Jhamnani, Sunny; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Pant, Sadip; Patel, Samir; Arora, Shilpkumar; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Vikas; Chothani, Ankit; Patel, Jay; Ansari, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Bhimani, Ronak; Grines, Cindy; Cleman, Michael; Mangi, Abeel; Forrest, John K; Badheka, Apurva O

    2015-11-01

    Use of transcatheter endovascular stenting has been increasing in the treatment of coarctation of aorta (CoA). The present study was undertaken on adults with CoA who underwent stent placement from 2000 to 2011 to analyze the relation of hospital volumes to the outcomes of stenting in adults with CoA. It was a retrospective study based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2000 to 2011 and identified subjects using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code of 747.10 (CoA). Annual hospital volume was calculated using unique hospital identifiers. Weights provided by the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to generate national estimates. A total of 105 (weighted 521) subjects were identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 39.90 (Endovascular stent). Hospital volumes were divided into tertiles. We compared the highest tertile (≥3 procedures annually) with other tertiles (<3 procedure annually). The composite outcomes of the analysis were procedure-related complications, length of stay (LOS), and cost in relation to the hospital volume. No inhospital death was reported in either group. Hospitals with ≥3 procedures annually had significantly lower incidence of complications (9.5% vs 23.0%) compared to the hospitals with <3 procedures annually (p-value 0.002). Similar results were obtained after multivariate regression analysis in relation to hospital volume. Shorter LOS and lower cost were observed with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. In conclusion, stenting adults for CoA is remarkably safe, and the outcomes of the procedure have improved in centers with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. There is also decreasing trend of procedure-related complications, shorter LOS, and lower costs compared to centers with annual volume <3 procedures.

  8. Effects of repetitive loading on the growth-induced changes in bone mass and cortical bone geometry: a 12-month study in pre/peri- and postmenarcheal tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, Gaele; Bass, Shona L; Saxon, Leanne; Daly, Robin M

    2011-06-01

    Pre- and early puberty may be the most opportune time to strengthen the female skeleton, but there are few longitudinal data to support this claim. Competitive female premenarcheal (pre/peri, n = 13) and postmenarcheal (post, n = 32) tennis players aged 10 to 17 years were followed over 12 months. The osteogenic response to loading was studied by comparing the playing and nonplaying humeri for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral content (BMC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) total bone area (ToA), medullary area (MedA), cortical area (CoA), and muscle area (MCSA) at the humerus. Over 12 months, growth-induced gains (nonplaying arm) in BMC, ToA, and CoA were greater in pre/peri (10% to 19%, p < .001) than in post (3% to 5%, p < .05 to .001) players. At baseline, BMC, ToA, CoA, and MCSA were 8% to 18% greater in the playing versus nonplaying arms in pre/peri and post players (all p < .001); MedA was smaller in the playing versus nonplaying arms in post only players (p < .05). When comparing the annual gains in the playing arm relative to changes in the nonplaying arm, the increases in ToA and CoA were greater in pre/peri than post players (all p < .05). The smaller the side-to-side differences in BMC and CoA at baseline, the larger the exercise benefits at 12 months (r = -0.39 to -0.48, p < .01). The exercise-induced change in MCSA was predictive of the exercise benefits in BMC in pre/peri players only (p < .05). In conclusion, both pre/peri- and postmenarcheal tennis players showed significant exercise-induced skeletal benefits within a year, with greater benefits in cortical bone geometry in pre/perimenarcheal girls.

  9. Quantification of local hemodynamic alterations caused by virtual implantation of three commercially available stents for the treatment of aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Dholakia, Ronak J; Ladisa, John F

    2014-04-01

    Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting to date, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of Genesis XD and modified NuMED CP stents, also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy and blood pressure data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood flow velocity and time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) results. TAWSS was quantified longitudinally and circumferentially in the stented region and dAo. While modest differences were seen in the distal portion of the stented region, marked differences were observed downstream along the posterior dAo and depended on stent type. The Genesis XD model had the least area of TAWSS values exceeding the threshold for platelet aggregation in vitro, followed by the Palmaz and NuMED CP stents. Alterations in local blood flow patterns and WSS imparted on the dAo appear to depend on the type of stent implanted for CoA. Following confirmation in larger studies, these findings may aid pediatric interventional cardiologists in selecting the most appropriate stent for each patient, and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity following treatment for CoA by stenting.

  10. Screening for aortic aneurysm after treatment of coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James L; Gray, Robert G; LuAnn Minich, L; Wilkinson, Stephen E; Heywood, Mason; Edwards, Reggie; Weng, Hsin Ti; Su, Jason T

    2014-01-01

    Isolated coarctation of the aorta (CoA) occurs in 6-8 % of patients with congenital heart disease. After successful relief of obstruction, patients remain at risk for aortic aneurysm formation at the site of the repair. We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of echocardiography compared with advanced arch imaging (AAI) in diagnosing aortic aneurysms in pediatric patients after CoA repair. The Congenital Heart Databases from 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. All patients treated for CoA who had AAI defined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or catheterization were identified. Data collected included the following: type, timing, and number of interventions, presence and time to aneurysm diagnosis, and mortality. Patients were subdivided into surgical and catheterization groups for analysis. Seven hundred and fifty-nine patients underwent treatment for CoA during the study period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients had at least one AAI. Aneurysms were diagnosed by AAI in 28 of 399 patients at a mean of 10 ± 8.4 years after treatment. Echocardiography reports were available for 380 of 399 patients with AAI. The sensitivity of echocardiography for detecting aneurysms was 24 %. The prevalence of aneurysms was significantly greater in the catheterization group (p Aneurysm was also diagnosed earlier in the catheterization group compared with the surgery group (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly increased risk of aneurysm diagnosis in patients in the catheterization subgroup and in patients requiring more than three procedures. Aortic aneurysms continue to be an important complication after CoA repair. Although serial echocardiograms are the test of choice for following-up most congenital cardiac lesions in pediatrics, our data show that echocardiography is inadequate for the detection of aneurysms after CoA repair. Because the time to aneurysm diagnosis was shorter and the risk greater in the

  11. Risk factors for surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery: a review of 9296 procedures from a national database and comparison with a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Johnston, James M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry; Rocque, Brandon G

    2017-02-10

    OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations. SSI included deep (intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis) and superficial wound infections. The authors performed univariate analyses of SSI association with procedure, demographic, comorbidity, operative, and hospital variables, with subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors for SSI within 30 days of the index procedure. A similar analysis was performed using a detailed institutional infection database from Children's of Alabama (COA). RESULTS A total of 9296 nonshunt procedures were identified in NSQIP-P with an overall 30-day SSI rate of 2.7%. The 30-day SSI rate in the COA institutional database was similar (3.3% of 1103 procedures, p = 0.325). Postoperative time to SSI in NSQIP-P and COA was 14.6 ± 6.8 days and 14.8 ± 7.3 days, respectively (mean ± SD). Myelomeningocele (4.3% in NSQIP-P, 6.3% in COA), spine (3.5%, 4.9%), and epilepsy (3.4%, 3.1%) procedure categories had the highest SSI rates by procedure category in both NSQIP-P and COA. Independent SSI risk factors in NSQIP-P included postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.761, 95% CI 1.269-17.857, p = 0.021), immune disease/immunosuppressant use (OR 3.671, 95% CI 1.371-9.827, p = 0.010), cerebral palsy (OR 2.835, 95% CI 1.463-5.494, p = 0.002), emergency operation (OR 1

  12. Effects of exercise training and coronary ablation on swimming performance, heart size, and cardiac enzymes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FARRELL, AP; JOHANSEN, JA; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1990-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exercise trained for 28-52 days. Trained fish were 13% larger and swam 12% faster in an aerobic swimming test. Training induced cardiac growth that was isometric with body growth, since ventricle mass relative to body mass was constant. The proportions...... of compact and spongy myocardia in the ventricle were also unchanged by training. Trained fish had significantly higher levels of citrate synthase, ß-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and hexokinase in both compact and spongy myocardium. Ligation of a 0.5- to 1.0-cm section of the coronary artery produced only......% increase in the levels of the aerobic enzymes citrate synthase and ß-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and a 32% increase in the mass of spongy myocardium. As a result of these compensations and coronary regrowth, chronic coronary ligation did not affect maximum prolonged swimming speed. These experiments...

  13. A Case of Glutaric Aciduria Type I with a Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Uyduran Unal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type I is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the deficiency of glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase. The incidence of the disease is 1/100.000. Glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase gene is located on locus 19p13.2. More than 200 mutations have been described for this gene. Most common mutation in the population is C1240T. Clinical symptoms included neurological regression complications such as loss of sucking and swallowing reflexes choreoathetosis, seizures, rigidity and opisthotonos. In treatment high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet and carnitine is given. We would like to report this interesting case in order to present a new mutation for glutaric aciduria type I. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 809-812

  14. Meticilin-rezistentni Staphylococcus aureus kod krava s mastitisom, prisutnost mecA gena i gena za virulenciju

    OpenAIRE

    Jaki Tkalec, Vesna; Majnarić, Darko; Jurmanović, Jadranka; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Željko; Zadravec, Manuela; Šeol Martinec, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Fiziološke osobine 47 sojeva bakterije Staphylococcus aureus istražene su određivanjem uzgojnih osobina, te s pomoću ID32 STAPH sustava. Osjetljivost na antimikrobne lijekove određena je disk difuzijskim postupkom. Geni nuc, coa, hla, hlb, hld, hlg, hlg-2, tst, eta, etb, lukF-PV i lukS-PV i mecA gen dokazani su lančanom reakcijom s polimerazom, a određen je i spa tip. Svi pretraženi sojevi imali su gen nuc, coa, hla i hld. Kod deset sojeva (21,3 %) dokazan je gen tst. Gen hlg imala su 37 soja...

  15. Forecasting Monthly Electricity Demands: An Application of Neural Networks Trained by Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fung Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in capacity planning, scheduling, and the operation of power systems. Reliable and accurate prediction of electricity demands is therefore vital. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs trained by different heuristic algorithms, including Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA, are utilized to estimate monthly electricity demands. The empirical data used in this study are the historical data affecting electricity demand, including rainy time, temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc. The proposed models are applied to Hanoi, Vietnam. Based on the performance indices calculated, the constructed models show high forecasting performances. The obtained results also compare with those of several well-known methods. Our study indicates that the ANN-COA model outperforms the others and provides more accurate forecasting than traditional methods.

  16. A Metaheuristic Algorithm for Job Scheduling in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Sajedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available These days the number of issues that we can not do on time is increasing. In the mean time, scientists are trying to make questions simpler and using computers. Still, more problems that are complicated need more complex calculations by using highly advanced technology. Grid computing integrates distributed resources to solve complex scientific, industrial, and commercial problems. In order to achieve this goal, an efficient scheduling system as a vital part of the grid is required. In this paper, we introduce CUckoo-Genetic Algorithm (CUGA, which inspired from cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA with genetic algorithm (GA for job scheduling in grids. CUGA can be applied to minimize the completion time of machines, and it could avoid trapping in a local minimum effectively. The results illustrate that the proposed algorithm, in comparison with GA, COA, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is more efficient and provides higher performance.

  17. The biosynthetic pathway of curcuminoid in turmeric (Curcuma longa) as revealed by 13C-labeled precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke; Sawada, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Seto, Haruo

    2008-07-01

    In order to investigate the biosynthesis of curcuminoid in rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa), we established an in vitro culture system of turmeric plants for feeding (13)C-labeled precursors. Analyses of labeled desmethoxycurcumin (DMC), an unsymmetrical curcuminoid, by (13)C-NMR, revealed that one molecule of acetic acid or malonic acid and two molecules of phenylalanine or phenylpropanoids, but not tyrosine, were incorporated into DMC. The incorporation efficiencies of the same precursors into DMC and curcumin were similar, and were in the order malonic acid > acetic acid, and cinnamic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid. These results suggest the possibility that the pathway to curcuminoids utilized two cinnamoyl CoAs and one malonyl CoA, and that hydroxy- and methoxy-functional groups on the aromatic rings were introduced after the formation of the curcuminoid skeleton.

  18. The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with DistinctSubcellular Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lydikis, Athanasios; Stevens,Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Wenner, Brett R.; Bain, James R.; Newgard,Christopher B.; Rock, Charles O.; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2007-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency. (c) 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Cooperative Optimization Algorithm Inspired by Chaos–Order Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzhen Ge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexity of optimization problems in distributed systems (DSs has motivated computer scientists to strive for efficient approaches. This paper presents a novel cooperative algorithm inspired by chaos–order transition in a chaotic ant swarm (CAS. This work analyzes the basic dynamic characteristics of a DS in light of a networked multiagent system at microlevel and models a mapping from state set to self-organization mechanism set under the guide of system theory at macrolevel. A collaborative optimization algorithm (COA in DS based on the chaos–order transition of CAS is then devised. To verify the validity of the proposed model and algorithm, we solve a locality-based task allocation in a networked multiagent system that uses COA. Simulations show that our algorithm is feasible and effective compared with previous task allocation approaches, thereby illustrating that our design ideas are correct.

  20. False aneurysm on distal part of coarctation of the aorta in a parous Turner syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Keiji; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Takeshita, Masashi; Tsuruta, Goro

    2013-09-01

    False aneurysm associated with untreated coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is an uncommon vascular complication. We present a 41-year-old woman with mosaic Turner syndrome who had CoA complicated with a small false aneurysm on descending aorta just distal to the coarctation. The patient had not been diagnosed with Turner syndrome despite several physical characteristics of the syndrome because she had histories of natural childbirth. The false aneurysm was resected with the coarctation through a thoracotomy and proximal aorta was directly anastomosed to distal aorta. Endovascular therapy has become preferred method in recent years in treatment for coarctation of the aorta. However, careful consideration should be given to the irregularities on the aorta with the coarctation for diagnosis of false aneurysm.

  1. Modern management of adult coarctation: transcatheter and surgical options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heiko; Uebing, Anselm; Shore, Darryl F

    2016-08-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA), a juxtaductal obstructive lesion in the descending aorta and commonly associated with hypoplasia of the aortic arch occurs in 5-8% of patients with congenital heart disease. Since the initial surgical corrections in the 1950, surgical and transcatheter options have constantly evolved. Nowadays, transcatheter options are widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice in adults presenting with native or recurrent CoA. Surgical techniques are mainly reserved for patients with complex aortic arch anatomy such as extended arch hypoplasia or stenosis or para-CoA aneurysm formation. Extended aneurysms can be covered by conformable stents but stent implantation may require preparative vascular surgery. Complex re-CoA my best be treated by an ascending to descending bypass conduit. The following review aims to describe current endovascular and surgical practice pointing out modern developments and their limitations.

  2. Effects of rapeseed oil on fatty acid oxidation and lipid levels in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, M G; Cighetti, G; Spagnuolo, C; Galli, C

    1976-09-01

    The comparative rates of oxidation of erucic and oleic acids and of their CoA esters were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rats fed a standard diet or semisynthetic diets containing 25% of the calories as either rapeseed oil (46.6% erucic and 10.4% eicosenoic acid) or olive oil, for a period of 5 months. The long exposure to the diet containing 25% rapeseed oil did not alter the oxidative activity of mitochondria and did not induce morphological changes in the heart. It is confirmed that erucic acid is oxidized in mitochondria at lower rates than other long chain fatty acids and that its activation as CoA derivative may be one of the rate limiting steps of the overall oxidationprocess. Total lipids and triglycerides do not significantly change in the heart whereas they increase in the liver of rats fed the diet containing rapeseed oil.

  3. Analise funcional das traduccións en linguas en proceso de normalización: o caso da traducción do comic en galego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinner, Carsten

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case of the Galician language, the translation of comics is quite important, because it contributes to the normalization of use of the Galician language and allows young readers to become familiar with the norm. The article focusses on an analysis of the Galician translation with the French original and a Spanish version of the text.

    [gl] A traducción de comics, no caso do galego xoga un papel moi importante xa que o seu obxectivo é sobre todo normalizar o uso da lingua galega ñas xeracións novas e familiariza-la xuventude coa norma. A contribución pretende unha análise ben polo miúdo dunha traducción galega de Asterix comparándoa co orixinal francés e coa traducción española.

  4. Angular distribution, kinetic energy distributions, and excitation functions of fast metastable oxygen fragments following electron impact of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misakian, M.; Mumma, M. J.; Faris, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Dissociative excitation of CO2 by electron impact was studied using the methods of translational spectroscopy and angular distribution analysis. Earlier time of flight studies revealed two overlapping spectra, the slower of which was attributed to metastable CO(a3 pi) fragments. The fast peak is the focus of this study. Threshold energy, angular distribution, and improve time of flight measurements indicate that the fast peak actually consists of five overlapping features. The slowest of the five features is found to consist of metastable 0(5S) produced by predissociation of a sigma u + state of CO2 into 0(5S) + CO(a3 pi). Oxygen Rydberg fragments originating directly from a different sigma u + state are believed to make up the next fastest feature. Mechanisms for producing the three remaining features are discussed.

  5. Co(II)-detection does not follow Kco(II) gradient : channelling in Co(II)-sensing.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, C J; Pernil, R.; Dainty, S.J.; Chakrabarti, B; Henry, C. E.; Money, V.A.; Foster, A.W.; N. J. Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The MerR-like transcriptional activator CoaR detects surplus Co(II) to regulate Co(II) efflux in a cyanobacterium. This organism also has cytosolic metal-sensors from three further families represented by Zn(II)-sensors ZiaR and Zur plus Ni(II)-sensor InrS. Here we discover by competition with Fura-2 that CoaR has KCo(II) weaker than 7 × 10−8 M, which is weaker than ZiaR, Zur and InrS (KCo(II) = 6.94 ± 1.3 × 10−10 M; 4.56 ± 0.16 × 10−10 M; and 7.69 ± 1.1 × 10−9 M respectively). KCo(II) for Co...

  6. Kinetic mechanism and order of substrate binding for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew W; Fawcett, Tony; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-03-13

    sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT, EC 2.3.1.15), a component of glycerolipid biosynthesis, is an important enzyme in chilling sensitivity in plants. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from squash (Cucurbita moschata), without bound substrate, has been determined [Turnbull et al. (2001) Acta Crystallogr. D 57, 451-453; Turnbull et al. (2001) Structure 9, 347-353]. Here we report the kinetic mechanism of plastidial G3PAT from squash and the order of substrate binding using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates. The reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary complex with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol-3-phosphate. We have also determined that the reaction will proceed with C(4:0)-CoA, C(6:0)-CoA and C(12:0)-ACP substrates, allowing a wider choice of acyl groups for future co-crystallisation studies.

  7. Robust state feedback controller design of STATCOM using chaotic optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new design technique for the design of robust state feedback controller for static synchronous compensator (STATCOM using Chaotic Optimization Algorithm (COA is presented. The design is formulated as an optimization problem which is solved by the COA. Since chaotic planning enjoys reliability, ergodicity and stochastic feature, the proposed technique presents chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The simulation results reveal that the proposed controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhances greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions shows that the phase based controller is superior compare to the magnitude based controller.

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHG452 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -CoA synthetase (fcsA) mRNA, complete cds. 82 3e-30 2 BQ875501 |BQ875501.1 QGI8E20.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas...70927.1 QGI10G21.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuca sativa cDNA clone QGI10G21, mRNA sequence. 62 3e-12

  9. Strategic War Game - Arctic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    aérienne, le gouvernement du Canada et l’adversaire. Chaque joueur adopte des plans d’action possibles, on choisit une méthode de pointage, et le jeu...increased interception. Whereas both COAs achieve the desired result (the Adversary respecting Canadian sovereignty), the costs associated with...increased surveillance (both in terms of level of effort and monetary costs) are limited when compared to those associated with increased interception

  10. AMACR is associated with advanced pathologic risk factors in sporadic colorectal adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sotiris; Lakis; Theodora; Papamitsou; Constantina; Pana

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze α-methylacyl CoA racemase (AMACR) expression in relation to various dysplasia phenotypes and clinicopathological parameters of sporadic colorectal adenomas.METHODS: Fifty-f ive cases of sporadic colorectal adenomas were categorized according to the Vienna classif ication for Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.These corresponded to a total of 98 different intra-lesion microscopic f ields that were further independently assigned a histological grade based on the old nomenclature (mild,moderate,severe ...

  11. Effect of alternative fuel properties on NOx reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Tokheim, Lars-André; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2002-01-01

    Today we see a substantial increase in the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry. The prospect of reduction in fuel costs and the environmental benefits of waste to energy conversion are the driving forces. For several years Norcem have steadily increased their use of alternative fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), liquid hazardous waste (LHW), solid hazardous waste (SHW), animal meal (AM) and waste oil (WO). Alternative fuels behave differently compared to e.g. coa...

  12. Adding Extra Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and Africa finding new ways to drive all aspects of mutual development A total of 210 orphans in the three states around Abuja,capital of Nigeria,went to a summer camp to celebrate the country’s Children’s Day on May 27.Huawei Technologies Co.,a leading global information and communications technology solutions provider from China,sponsored the event.

  13. Coastal vegetation: Patterns in a tourist region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Desai, K.; Rodrigues, R.

    Joseph, Maheswari Nair, V.N. Sankaranarayanan, V. Kesavadas and P. Sheeba Kational Institute of Oceanography Regional Centre P.O. Box. 1616 Cochin-682 014. India ,ttlllllll:. ~ . • • ~::........:: =-. ~.-.. ¥Pc#" ABSTRAcr _ BALACHAN"DRAN. KK.; JOSEPH, T....; NAIR, !\\t.; SAI\\'KARA.'-:AR<\\YANAl'\\, V.N.: KESAVADAS, V., and SHEER'\\'. P., 2003. Geochemistry ofsurlicial sediments along the cenlral southwest coast of India-seasonal changes inre~'ionai distribution. Journal of Coa .•tal Uesearch. 19...

  14. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2672 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2672 ref|NP_000121.2| coagulation factor V precursor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB59401.1| coagulation... factor V gb|AAQ55063.1| coagulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW90849.1| coa...gulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] NP_000121.2 2e-07 33% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0519 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0519 ref|NP_000121.2| coagulation factor V precursor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB59401.1| coagulation... factor V gb|AAQ55063.1| coagulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW90849.1| coa...gulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] NP_000121.2 9e-11 33% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-27-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-27-0127 ref|NP_000121.2| coagulation factor V precursor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB59401.1| coagulation... factor V gb|AAQ55063.1| coagulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW90849.1| coa...gulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor) [Homo sapiens] NP_000121.2 1e-05 29% ...

  18. Spatial Variations in Salinity Stress Across a Coastal Landscape Using Vegetation Indices Derived from Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    stress across a coas Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2009 . Published in Plant Ecology , Vol. Ed. 0 202, (0) (2009), (, (0). DoD Components reserve a...demonstrated that spatial and seasonal J. C. Naumann (&) D. R. Young Department of Biology , Virginia Commonwealth University, 23284 Richmond, VA, USA e...halophytic seagrass . However, Iva frutescens generally only occurs at elevations where the roots are not subject to prolonged water table flooding

  19. O cinema na galiza: un cinema ianqui?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto García, José

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este traballo pretende averiguar se os cines españois cumpren coa cota de cine europeo que esixe a lei 15/ 2001 de 9 de xullo, de Fomento e Promoción da Cinematografía e o Sector Audiovisual, cuxo obxectivo fundamental é o de asegurar as condicións favorables para a produción e o aumento da creatividade

  20. Structure of YciA from Haemophilus influenzae (HI0827), a Hexameric Broad Specificity Acyl-Coenzyme A Thioesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Mark A.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Song, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat (UNM); (IIT); (UMBI)

    2008-04-02

    The crystal structure of HI0827 from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20, initially annotated 'hypothetical protein' in sequence databases, exhibits an acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 'hot dog' fold with a trimer of dimers oligomeric association, a novel assembly for this enzyme family. In studies described in the preceding paper [Zhuang, Z., Song, F., Zhao, H., Li, L., Cao, J., Eisenstein, E., Herzberg, O., and Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2789-2796], HI0827 is shown to be an acyl-CoA thioesterase that acts on a wide range of acyl-CoA compounds. Two substrate binding sites are located across the dimer interface. The binding sites are occupied by two CoA molecules, one with full occupancy and the second only partially occupied. The CoA molecules, acquired from HI0827-expressing Escherichia coli cells, remained tightly bound to the enzyme through the protein purification steps. The difference in CoA occupancies indicates a different substrate affinity for each of the binding sites, which in turn implies that the enzyme might be subject to allosteric regulation. Mutagenesis studies have shown that the replacement of the putative catalytic carboxylate Asp44 with an alanine residue abolishes activity. The impact of this mutation is seen in the crystal structure of D44A HI0827. Whereas the overall fold and assembly of the mutant protein are the same as those of the wild-type enzyme, the CoA ligands are absent. The dimer interface is perturbed, and the channel that accommodates the thioester acyl chain is more open and wider than that observed in the wild-type enzyme. A model of intact substrate bound to wild-type HI0827 provides a structural rationale for the broad substrate range.

  1. Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Lijie Zhang1, Yupeng Chen2, Jose Rodriguez3, Hicham Fenniri3, Thomas J Webster11Division of Engineering, 2Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Natural bone consists of hard nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in a nanostructured protein-based soft hydrogel template (ie, mostly collagen). For this reason, nanostructured HA has been an intriguing coa...

  2. Les relations entre le droit de l'urbanisme et le droit de l'environnement sur le littoral méditerranéen

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Formerly a wild abandoned land, the Mediterranean coast is today a rarefied and saturated space. It is thus prey to various confrontations when laws with different aspirations intervene jointly on this cramped territory, such as planning law and environmental law. Indeed, on the Mediterranean coastal areas their purposes of general interest are distanced from each other because if the former works to develop and transform urban land, the latter is dedicated to preserving or restoring the coas...

  3. Fatty acyl-CoA esters inhibit glucose-6-phosphatase in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulceri, R; Gamberucci, A; Scott, H M; Giunti, R; Burchell, A; Benedetti, A

    1995-01-01

    In native rat liver microsomes glucose 6-phosphatase activity is dependent not only on the activity of the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme (which is lumenal) but also on the transport of glucose-6-phosphate, phosphate and glucose through the respective translocases T1, T2 and T3. By using enzymic assay techniques, palmitoyl-CoA or CoA was found to inhibit glucose-6-phosphatase activity in intact microsomes. The effect of CoA required ATP and fatty acids to form fatty acyl esters. Increasing concentrations (2-50 microM) of CoA (plus ATP and 20 microM added palmitic acid) or of palmitoyl-CoA progressively decreased glucose-6-phosphatase activity to 50% of the control value. The inhibition lowered the Vmax without significantly changing the Km. A non-hydrolysable analogue of palmitoyl-CoA also inhibited, demonstrating that binding of palmitoyl-CoA rather than hydrolysis produces the inhibition. Light-scattering measurements of osmotically induced changes in the size of rat liver microsomal vesicles pre-equilibrated in a low-osmolality buffer demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA alone or CoA plus ATP and palmitic acid altered the microsomal permeability to glucose 6-phosphate, but not to glucose or phosphate, indicating that T1 is the site of palmitoyl-CoA binding and inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase activity in native microsomes. The type of inhibition found suggests that liver microsomes may comprise vesicles heterogeneous with respect to glucose-6-phosphate translocase(s), i.e. sensitive or insensitive to fatty acid ester inhibition. PMID:7733874

  4. Downscaling atmospheric patterns to multi-site precipitation amounts in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Christensen, O.B.; Rasmussen, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    depend on current atmospheric information. The gridded atmospheric fields are summarized through the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. SVD is applied to geopotential height and relative humidity at several pressure levels, to identify their principal spatial patterns co......A non-homogeneous hidden Markov model (NHMM) is applied for downscaling atmospheric synoptic patterns to winter multi-site daily precipitation amounts. The implemented NHMM assumes precipitation to be conditional on a hidden weather state that follows a Markov chain, whose transition probabilities...

  5. Coagglutination test for detecting V. Cholerae serotype O1%协同凝集试验检测O1群霍乱弧菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆鹏; 袁应华; 刘忠明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple and rapid method for detecting V. cholerae O1. Methods Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was coated with anti-V. cholerae O1 monoclonal antibodies and a coagglutination test(COA) detecting V. cholerae O1 in 6-h fecal enrichment cultures was tested. Results The detect limit of COA was 4×106 CFU/ml, and detect time was 5 min. When 92 samples were tested, the diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the test, compared with standard culture methods, were 100%、95.5%、97.8%,respectively. Conclusion The COA is simple and less time-consuming, and can be used as a new method for rapid detection of V. Cholerae.%目的建立一种快速简便的O1群霍乱弧菌检测方法。方法将抗O1群霍乱弧菌多价单克隆抗体包被到金黄色葡萄球菌Cowan I株上制成SPA菌体试剂,建立起协同凝集试验(COA),检测粪便标本6 h培养物中的霍乱弧菌。结果 COA检测的敏感性为4×106 CFU/ml,检测过程为5 min。92份临床标本的测定结果与培养法相比较,COA的特异性、敏感性、诊断符合率分别是100%、95.5%、97.8%。结论 COA简便、快速,可作为一种新的霍乱弧菌快速诊断方法。

  6. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Robinson

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coas...

  7. Assessment of Survivability against Laser Threats. The ASALT-I Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    uostituting the matrices given in Figu:e 2-2, Cosm SiP -sn* [ 08 16 0 Co~sin 7) coaI -sin n cos& 0 0in co[1 (27 0 0 1 -sine 0 cose] 0 sini coo T coscose...Coordinate System Ojz - standard deviation due to jitter of the beam in the direction of the Z-axis of the Encounter Coordinate System Gay - standard

  8. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limonología (CIMAR), 2009 Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin America, too.In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coas...

  9. Modeling Dynamic Tactical Behaviors in Combatxxi using Hierarchical Task Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Simulation Office AI artificial intelligence BFTB Battles from the Bulge BT behavior tree CE command element CNA Center for Naval Analysis COA course of...an RTS game released in 2006 and set during the World War II (WWII) Greek Campaign. Battles from the Bulge (BFTB) was released in 2010 and “covers the...www.plannedassault.com/faqs [33] D. O’Connor. (2011, May.). Strategic War Game AI in Battles from the Bulge . AiGameDev. [Online]. Available: http

  10. A Random Word Generator for Pronounceable Passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    drietoi drie-toi cywroft cy-wroft dieyedi die-ye-di drite drite dabowt da-bowt diffos dif-fos drobveje drob- veje dacoafa da-coa-fa digba dig-ba...vacquic vadfuo vadwyhey vadyjo vafjitdu ud-we-ry-ho u-dyg-ne-di uf-duj-mod uf-jea-ki uf-kod-bot uf-wa-ta u-gaz-sca ug-nea ug- veje u-je

  11. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    WA 98105 phone: (206) 685-2609 fax: (206) 543-6785 email: jessup@apl.washington.edu Robert A. Holman Merrick Haller, Alexander Kuropov, Tuba...Ozkan-Haller Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 phone: (541) 737-2914 fax: (541) 737-2064 email: holman @coas.oregonstate.edu Steve...Infrared Remote Sensing and Lidar– UW: Chickadel and Jessup B. Electro-Optical Remote Sensing – OSU: Holman C. Microwave Remote Sensing – UW

  12. Coulometric bioelectrocatalytic reactions based on NAD-dependent dehydrogenases in tricarboxylic acid cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsujimura, Seiya [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kano, Kenji [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: kkano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-30

    This paper describes the characterization of mediated electro-enzymatic electrolysis systems based on NAD-dependent dehydrogenase reactions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. A micro-bulk electrolysis system with a carbon felt anode immersed in an electrolysis solution with a value of about 10 {mu}L was constructed for coulometric analysis of the substrate oxidation. Diaphorase (DI) was used to couple the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase reaction with the anode reaction of a suitable redox mediator. We focused on three types of NAD-dependant dehydrogenases reactions in this research: (1) isocitrate oxidation, in which the standard Gibbs energy change ({delta}G{sup o}') is negative; (2) {alpha}-ketoglutarate oxidation, which involves an electrochemically active coenzyme A (CoA); and (3) malate oxidation, which is thermodynamically unfavorable because of a large positive {delta}G{sup o}' value. The complete electrolysis of isocitrate was easily achieved, supporting the effective re-oxidation of NADH in the diaphorase-catalyzed electrochemical reaction. CoA was unfavorably oxidized at the electrodes in the presence of some mediators. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CoA was suppressed and the quantitative electrochemical oxidation of {alpha}-ketoglutarate was achieved by selecting a suitable mediator with negligibly slow electron transfer kinetics with CoA. The uphill malate oxidation was susceptible to product inhibition in the bioelectrochemical system, although NADH generated in the malate dehydrogenase reaction was immediately oxidized in the electrochemical system. The inhibition was successfully suppressed by linking citrate synthase to quench oxaloacetate and to make the total {delta}G{sup o}' value negative.

  13. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    focus are all within a narrow cone, are emerging. A ne, journal , .- typically 000, much less than is found .7. (Pergainon Press, Oxford, lng- in... Prosthodontics Depart- that the first professional organiza- ment at the university’s Iental School tion in this field, the Society for in Malmo, is...that bind blood-thinning anti-coa ’ulants ations will include the advances made to their surfaces, has also studied in the university laboratories and

  14. A new image-based process for quantifying hemodynamic contributions to long-term morbidity in a rabbit model of aortic coarctation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David C.; Dholakia, Ronak J.; Larsen, Paul M.; Menon, Arjun; LaDisa, John F., Jr.

    2010-03-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is associated with reduced life expectancy despite successful surgical treatment. Interestingly, much of the related long-term morbidity can be explained by abnormal hemodynamics, vascular biomechanics and cardiac function. MRI has played an important role in assessing coarctation severity, but the heterogeneity and small number of patients at each center presents an obstacle for determining causality. This work describes optimized imaging parameters to create computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models revealing changes in hemodynamics and vascular biomechanics from a rabbit model. CoA was induced surgically at 10 weeks using silk or dissolvable ligatures to replicate native and end-to-end treatment cases, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated at 32 weeks using a fastcard SPGR sequence in 6-8 two-chamber short-axis views. Left ventricular (LV) volume, ejection fraction, and mass were quantified and compared to control rabbits. Phase contrast (PC) and angiographic MRI were used to create CFD models. Ascending aortic PCMRI data were mapped to the model inflow and outflow boundary conditions replicated measured pressure (BP) and flow. CFD simulations were performed using a stabilized finite element method to calculate indices including velocity, BP and wall shear stress (WSS). CoA models displayed higher velocity through the coarctation region and decreased velocity elsewhere, leading to decreased WSS above and below the stenosis. Pronounced wall displacement was associated with CoA-induced changes in BP. CoA caused reversible LV hypertrophy. Cardiac function was maintained, but caused a persistent hyperdynamic state. This model may now be used to investigate potential mechanisms of long-term morbidity.

  15. Multislice helical CT angiography in diagnosis of four patients with coactation of aorta%多层螺旋CT血管造影诊断主动脉缩窄4例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 顾雪梅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 先天性主动脉缩窄(coarctation of aorta,COA)在临床上并不罕见,一般分为单纯型和复杂型两大类,其各类尚有亚型[1].西方国家发生率较高.本组为4例婴儿患者,在综合性医院相对少见.

  16. 多层螺旋CT对主动脉弓畸形的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会琼; 李斌; 范太兵

    2010-01-01

    @@ 主动脉弓畸形是一种常见的先天性心血管畸形,其中主动脉缩窄(coarctation of aorta,COA)、主动脉弓离断(interruption of aortic arch,IAA)及主动脉弓分支畸形形成的血管环多于婴幼儿时期被发现[1].

  17. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  18. FORMULATION STRATEGY FOR DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF SIMVASTATIN

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Parmar et al

    2012-01-01

    The present work aim was “Formulation Strategy for Dissolution Enhancement of Simvastatin”. Simvastatin is lipid lowering drug which is known as HMG CoA reductase. The objective of this study was to increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, namely simvastatin, by the formation of solid dispersion and complex and also using the microwave induction technique on these formations. For solid dispersion method dispersion carrier used were poloxamer 407 and gelucire 44/14. The fusion met...

  19. Front Loaded Accurate Requirements Engineering (FLARE): a requirements analysis concept for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Anthony E

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis focuses on ways to apply requirements engineering techniques and methods during the development and evolution of DoD software systems in an effort to reduce changes to system requirements. The major goal of this thesis is to provide a feasible course of action (COA) that reduces changes to requirements caused by the turnover of DoD decision-makers. We demonstrate a distributed requirements engineering environment using comp...

  20. Inclusion of fresh forage in the ration for dairy cows: effects on CLA and trans C18:1 isomers content of milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is the richest natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers. The 9-cis, 11-trans CLA isomer (rumenic acid, RA origins from two pathways: as an intermediate of the rumen biohydrogenation process of linoleic acid or as the product of the activity of mammary Stearoyl Co-A desaturase enzyme (SCD with trans-11, C18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA as the precursor, another intermediate in the biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid.

  1. Ketogenesis prevents diet-induced fatty liver injury and hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, David G.; Ercal, Baris; Huang, Xiaojing; Leid, Jamison M.; d’Avignon, D. André; Graham, Mark J.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Patti, Gary J.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohe...

  2. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale ...

  3. Structural Studies on a Glucosamine/Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Brandon J; Tipton, Peter A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2016-08-16

    Glucosamine/glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase or GlmA catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the primary amino group of glucosamine. The enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum is thought to be involved in cell wall rescue. In addition to glucosamine, GlmA has been shown to function on di- and trisaccharides of glucosamine as well. Here we present a structural and kinetic analysis of the enzyme. For this investigation, eight structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. The overall three-dimensional fold of GlmA places it into the tandem GNAT superfamily. Each subunit of the dimer folds into two distinct domains which exhibit high three-dimensional structural similarity. Whereas both domains bind acetyl CoA, it is the C-terminal domain that is catalytically competent. On the basis of the various structures determined in this investigation, two amino acid residues were targeted for further study: Asp 287 and Tyr 297. Although their positions in the active site suggested that they may play key roles in catalysis by functioning as active site bases and acids, respectively, this was not borne out by characterization of the D287N and Y297F variants. The kinetic properties revealed that both residues were important for substrate binding but had no critical roles as acid/base catalysts. Kinetic analyses also indicated that GlmA follows an ordered mechanism with acetyl CoA binding first followed by glucosamine. The product N-acetylglucosamine is then released prior to CoA. The investigation described herein provides significantly new information on enzymes belonging to the tandem GNAT superfamily.

  4. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    In orderto facilitate a comparison of bicyclists. The two-mile distance reflects the same with the earlier projects, the cost figures and format ...Trails Los Cerritos Bicycle Trail Verdugo Wash (Upper End) Bicycle and Equestrian Trails 4 13 A.k, TABLE 4 1. COST ANALYSIS FORMAT AND UNIT COSTS Coa...areaes for west as Pierce College Big Dalton - from Barranca Ave. to Foothill Boulevard, providing &cc@= to South Hills Park in Glendora Coyote Creek

  5. Dissecting the Dragon: Confrontation, Coercion, and Asymmetric Leverage in China’s New Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    president Chen Shui -bian from achieving a political victory by accepting the arms proposal, opposition leaders in Taiwan‘s legislature kept the...in the indigenously produced Dong Feng 21 (DF-21) series of anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBM). Based on the CSS-5 medium-range ballistic missile...Communist Party COA Course of Action CSG Carrier Strike Group CSS Chinese Surface to Surface (Missile) DF-21 Dong Feng 21 (ASBM) DOD Department of

  6. The Influence of Specific Factors Affecting Spall in Explosively Loaded Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-22

    the Defense Nuclear Agency, RDA-TR-3601-002, DNA 3245F, October 1973. 15. Schuster, S.H., and J.S. Macales, "Note on the Airblast Boundary Pressure...2.4B0 Coa .0e .100 .159 .20 .S .63PLOT07OF1M VERSUS TiPOE FORI1 21 J. 25 1.230 .491 3.301 .3se .150 .150 .233 .250 TIME xIpom I SPALL RUN No. 5, 2M

  7. Ti(C,N) and (Ti,Al)N hard wear resistant coatings

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gołombek; J. Mikuła; W. Kwaśny; L.W. Żukowska; L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation the influence of kind of PVD coatings structure (homogenous or gradient) on properties of deposited tool materials: cemented carbides and cermets.Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of the structure, analysis of the mechanical and functional properties: surface roughness, microhardness tests, scratch tests, cutting tests. The Ti(C,N) gradient coating was investigated by XPS method with multifunctional PHI 5700/660 spectrometer. The characteristic of surface region coa...

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Computers, Control Systems and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    such as SEND, TEST), which are studied below. Feedback from the tested object is produced by an assignment operator with the special operation MEASURE...M110~ 110 H 7 i 163 Kj-;iepmB, llaj1AheT[rMnec-- I mix oro|aHwieHHAI l’eHepauisi LP,- Iocne- Coa anle Ta6ni•rm HCnb)Ta-- 4 noBaTe l•bHocT efl .n 1 5 r

  9. A dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon assimilation cycle in the hyperthermophilic Archaeum Ignicoccus hospitalis

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Harald; Gallenberger, Martin; Jahn, Ulrike; Eylert, Eva; Berg, Ivan A.; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Ignicoccus hospitalis is an anaerobic, autotrophic, hyperthermophilic Archaeum that serves as a host for the symbiotic/parasitic Archaeum Nanoarchaeum equitans. It uses a yet unsolved autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway that starts from acetyl-CoA (CoA), which is reductively carboxylated to pyruvate. Pyruvate is converted to phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP), from which glucogenesis as well as oxaloacetate formation branch off. Here, we present the complete metabolic cycle by which the primary CO2 acce...

  10. JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING UNIVERSE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION PROFILE UNDER OPTIC BIBLIOMETRICS AND SOCIAL NETWORK FROM 2005 A 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Henrique César Melo

    2014-01-01

    This article has mapped the profile and the evolution of scientific Journal of Accounting Universe. To this end, we analyzed the publications made this journal from 2005 to 2012. This study is based on bibliometric analysis techniques and social network, using descriptive statistics in 245 articles identified through desk research. The main results were as follows: predominance of articles in partnership; Souza, M. A. e Feliu, R. V, were the authors who have published more; centrality of co-a...

  11. Educational Services Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the Naval Submarine League iffin e ONAVMILPERSCOMNOTE 1540 of 1988 White House Fellows Program 27 July 1967 *OPNAVNOTE 1500 of Broadened Opportunity...responsibility of checking for errors. Then you each person. can spot -check the work for completeness and accuracy. You will be surprised at how much...from which Navy personnel can earncollge cedi. Se fiure -3.Certified Orthodontic Assistant (COA)college credit. See figure 3-3. Certified Systems

  12. Evolving Service Poles in Presence Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    pressure the government of Haiti. 98 94 7 Zaire U.S. Army and Air Force personnel began Operation SUPPORT HOPE in Goma , Zaire in an effort to...takes with Colombia. Tta CoaSt GuarS hefe shioS.^nUnder «■««»«*<» Venezuela, and a oureulr «^ „._ shipboarding agreement with Barbuda, ’A ^SSStl

  13. Implementing Iris in the Railway Control Office Application for Secure Saas in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology plays a vital role in each and every part of the world. In particular ―Cloud‖ computing - a moderately recent term, characterizes the path to develop the advancement in the world of computer science. Further, Cloud provides an affordable environment for its users through different forms of services such as SaaS (Software as a service, PaaS (Platform as a service, and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service. Cloud computing is also an Internet-based computing where a large pool of systems are connected in private or public networks, and provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for application data as well as file storage. Security of Cloud computing is an evolving sub-domain of network security, computer security and information security. In spite of its advantages, Cloud environment has many security flaws such as loss of important data, data leakage and something related to cloning, resource pooling etc. Security of Cloud Computing is an emerging area for study. It includes several security and privacy issues with challenges and solutions for many security issues of cloud computing. The Control Office Application (COA is the latest addition to train operations related IT application of Indian Railways. Along with the Freight Operations Information System (FOIS, COA has led to a complete transformation in train operations and facilitates all information on train operations being computer generated. It is this application that feeds the National Train Enquiry System (NTES which provides passengers with up to date information on train running. COA also provides train operations information to FOIS and ICMS. The objective of the Indian Railways is to further improve the operations by using technological aids that enable quicker data capture and intelligent applications that provide better planning and forecasting tools. To overcome these issues, in Cloud computing, we can use SaaS (software as a service. In this paper, we have proposed

  14. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus sepsis through the inhibition of its agglutination in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdow, Molly; Kim, Hwan Keun; Dedent, Andrea C; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is a frequent cause of sepsis in humans, a disease associated with high mortality and without specific intervention. When suspended in human or animal plasma, staphylococci are known to agglutinate, however the bacterial factors responsible for agglutination and their possible contribution to disease pathogenesis have not yet been revealed. Using a mouse model for S. aureus sepsis, we report here that staphylococcal agglutination in blood was associated with a lethal outcome of this disease. Three secreted products of staphylococci--coagulase (Coa), von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp) and clumping factor (ClfA)--were required for agglutination. Coa and vWbp activate prothrombin to cleave fibrinogen, whereas ClfA allowed staphylococci to associate with the resulting fibrin cables. All three virulence genes promoted the formation of thromboembolic lesions in heart tissues. S. aureus agglutination could be disrupted and the lethal outcome of sepsis could be prevented by combining dabigatran-etexilate treatment, which blocked Coa and vWbp activity, with antibodies specific for ClfA. Together these results suggest that the combined administration of direct thrombin inhibitors and ClfA-antibodies that block S. aureus agglutination with fibrin may be useful for the prevention of staphylococcal sepsis in humans.

  15. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-05-04

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth.

  16. Structural basis for the binding of succinate to succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Fraser, Marie E

    2016-08-01

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the only step in the citric acid cycle that provides substrate-level phosphorylation. Although the binding sites for the substrates CoA, phosphate, and the nucleotides ADP and ATP or GDP and GTP have been identified, the binding site for succinate has not. To determine this binding site, pig GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase was crystallized in the presence of succinate, magnesium ions and CoA, and the structure of the complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.2 Å resolution. Succinate binds in the carboxy-terminal domain of the β-subunit. The succinate-binding site is near both the active-site histidine residue that is phosphorylated in the reaction and the free thiol of CoA. The carboxy-terminal domain rearranges when succinate binds, burying this active site. However, succinate is not in position for transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphohistidine. Here, it is proposed that when the active-site histidine residue has been phosphorylated by GTP, the phosphohistidine displaces phosphate and triggers the movement of the carboxylate of succinate into position to be phosphorylated. The structure shows why succinyl-CoA synthetase is specific for succinate and does not react appreciably with citrate nor with the other C4-dicarboxylic acids of the citric acid cycle, fumarate and oxaloacetate, but shows some activity with L-malate.

  17. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Sheng, Liping; Zhang, Huanru; Du, Xinping; An, Cong; Xia, Xiaolong; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the nucleus. CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin. PMID:28287502

  18. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  19. FGF1 and FGF19 reverse diabetes by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel J; Lee, Sangwon; Ma, Lie; Zhang, Dongyan; Schlessinger, Joseph; Shulman, Gerald I

    2015-04-28

    Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and FGF19 have been shown to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic rodents, but how this occurs is unknown. Here to investigate the mechanism of action of these growth factors, we perform intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of recombinant FGF1 or FGF19 in an awake rat model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and measure rates of whole-body lipolysis, hepatic acetyl CoA content, pyruvate carboxylase activity and hepatic glucose production. We show that i.c.v. injection of FGF19 or FGF1 leads to a ∼60% reduction in hepatic glucose production, hepatic acetyl CoA content and whole-body lipolysis, which results from decreases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. These effects are abrogated by an intra-arterial infusion of corticosterone. Taken together these studies identify suppression of the HPA axis and ensuing reductions in hepatic acetyl CoA content as a common mechanism responsible for mediating the acute, insulin-independent, glucose-lowering effects of FGF1 and FGF19 in rodents with poorly controlled T1D.

  20. Genetic Characterization of Plasmodium Putative Pantothenate Kinase Genes Reveals Their Essential Role in Malaria Parasite Transmission to the Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Abraham, Amanah; Molina, Emily; Nation, Catherine S.; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Aly, Ahmed S. I.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic machinery for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme A (CoA) from exogenous pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) has long been considered as an excellent target for the development of selective antimicrobials. Earlier studies in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that pantothenate analogs interfere with pantothenate phosphorylation and block asexual blood stage development. Although two eukaryotic-type putative pantothenate kinase genes (PanK1 and PanK2) have been identified in all malaria parasite species, their role in the development of Plasmodium life cycle stages remains unknown. Here we report on the genetic characterization of PanK1 and PanK2 in P. yoelii. We show that P. yoelii parasites lacking either PanK1 or PanK2 undergo normal asexual stages development and sexual stages differentiation, however they are severely deficient in ookinete, oocyst and sporozoite formation inside the mosquito vector. Quantitative transcriptional analyses in wild-type and knockout parasites demonstrate an important role for these genes in the regulation of expression of other CoA biosynthesis genes. Together, our data provide the first genetic evidence for the importance of the early steps of pantothenate utilization in the regulation of CoA biosynthesis and malaria parasite transmission to Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:27644319