WorldWideScience

Sample records for acetate oral suspension

  1. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  2. Food effect on the bioavailability of two distinct formulations of megestrol acetate oral suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Deschamps

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Deschamps1, Naomi Musaji2, John A Gillespie21SFBC Anapharm, Montreal, Canada; 2Strativa Pharmaceuticals, a division of Par Pharmaceutical, Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USAObjective: Megestrol acetate oral suspension (MAOS is an appetite stimulant indicated for cachexia in patients with AIDS. It is available in its original formulation, Megace® (MAOS, and as a nanocrystal dispersion, Megace® ES (MA-ES. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations under fed and fasting conditions.Methods: An open-label, crossover trial was conducted in 24 healthy males randomized to MA-ES 625 mg/5 mL given with a high-calorie, high-fat meal, or after an overnight fast. Blood samples were drawn at multiple time points and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Two separate, open-label reference studies evaluated MAOS 800 mg/20 mL in 40 fed or 40 fasting healthy male volunteers.Results: In fasting MA-ES subjects, the average maximum concentration (Cmax was 30% less than the fed Cmax value. For MAOS, fasting Cmax was 86% less than fed Cmax. In fasting subjects, the area under the curve was 12,095 ng⋅h/mL for MA-ES, and 8,942 ng⋅h/mL for MAOS. In fed subjects, the absorption of the two formulations was comparable.Conclusion: Bioavailability and absorption are greater for MA-ES than MAOS in fasting subjects. MA-ES may be a preferred formulation of megestrol acetate when managing cachectic patients whose caloric intake is reduced.Keywords: megestrol acetate, bioavailability, cachexia, nanocrystal technology, appetite stimulant

  3. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  4. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma levels after a single oral administration of two drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, F; Strocchi, E; Longhi, A; Comparsi, R; Camaggi, C M

    1986-08-01

    A comparison has been made between the absorption of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous suspension preparation and in syrup form. Plasma drug profiles were measured after a single administration of the two formulations in 17 advanced cancer patients. On average the standard form (aqueous suspension) gave peak levels which were lower than the syrup mixture. However, the wide intersubject spread in MPA plasma levels observed in both groups did not allow any statistical significance to be assigned to this difference. PMID:2945648

  5. Bleeding patterns of women using Lunelle monthly contraceptive injections (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) compared with those of women using Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) or other oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, R J; Wajszczuk, C J; Kaunitz, A M

    2000-12-01

    Persistent and/or unpredictable bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive methods. An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of the new, highly efficacious monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) (MPA/E(2)C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of the frequently used norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). This report directly compares the bleeding patterns of women on MPA/E(2)C to those of women on NET/EE and untreated women. Overall, breakthrough bleeding occurred less frequently in women using MPA/E(2)C than in women using NET/EE (p < or =0.01). However, more women using MPA/E(2)C experienced amenorrhea/missed periods than those on NET/EE (p < or =0.01). In addition, the percentage of women experiencing breakthrough bleeding or amenorrhea while using other oral contraceptives is compared to that of women using MPA/E(2)C. A rapidly reversible method, MPA/E(2)C, combines the high contraceptive efficacy of surgical sterilization with the convenience of monthly administration. These data suggest that, for a large proportion of women, MPA/E(2)C offers predictability in bleeding patterns comparable to or greater than that experienced by ovulatory untreated women or those using combination oral contraceptives. PMID:11239615

  6. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen Alicja; Vogel Ulla; Gao Xueyun; Larsen Agnete; Qvortrup Klaus; Hadrup Niels; Loeschner Katrin; Lam Henrik; Larsen Erik H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer ...

  7. Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Lunelle Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunitz, A M; Garceau, R J; Cromie, M A

    1999-10-01

    An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). At study enrollment, women chose either the injections or the oral contraceptive. A higher proportion of women in the NET/EE group (65.1%) than in the MPA/E2C group (48.7%) had used hormonal contraception during the month before the study (p < 0.01). Overall, 55.5% (434/782) of MPA/E2C users and 67.6% (217/321) of NET/EE users completed the 60-week trial. One-year contraceptive efficacy (13 cycles of 28 days) for MPA/E2C and NET/EE was based on 8008 and 3434 woman-cycles of use, respectively. During the first year, one pregnancy occurred in an NET/EE user for a life table rate of 0.3; no pregnancies occurred in users of MPA/E2C. One additional pregnancy in the NET/EE group occurred during the 15th treatment cycle. After the first treatment cycle, women in both groups experienced regular menses, with an average cycle length of 28 days in MPA/E2C users and 27 days in NET/EE users. Although MPA/E2C users were more likely to experience bleeding irregularities, only 2.5% (19/775) cited metrorrhagia as a reason for discontinuing treatment. The adverse events reported in both treatment groups are consistent with those expected with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives. Overall, the results of this first Phase III US clinical trial of MPA/E2C confirm this method's high contraceptive efficacy and safety, as shown in previous studies by the World Health Organization. These results suggest that a monthly combination injectable would represent a welcome new contraceptive option for women in the US. PMID:10640164

  8. Comparative effects of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles. Investigators from the Lunelle Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, M A; Maile, M H; Wajszczuk, C P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a 60-week, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a monthly contraceptive injection containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 25 mg and estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) 5 mg (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum(R) 7/7/7), a longitudinal examination of lipid profiles was conducted. Lipid parameters were assessed at screening and at weeks 20, 40, and 60 (or the final visit) in 114 women using MPA/E(2)C and 93 using NET/EE (lipid analysis population). Extra blood samples were obtained at weeks 21, 22, and 23 in 61 MPA/E(2)C users and 51 NET/EE users (index-cycle analysis population) to investigate lipid changes during one cycle of use. In the index-cycle population, median changes from screening to week 60 showed a decrease in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo A-II in both groups. MPA/E(2)C users had a decrease in total cholesterol (C), total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with maintenance of the total C/HDL-C ratio. NET/EE users showed an increase in total C and LDL-C, with no change in HDL-C or the total C/HDL-C ratio. Within the index cycle (weeks 20 to 23), median changes in lipid values in both MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE users were generally greatest during the first week after the injection or the start of the pill pack. The results of this first longitudinal examination of serum lipids in US women using MPA/E(2)C confirm earlier findings in women in other countries. However, a direct comparison of the effects of MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE on lipid profiles was not possible in this study because of its design and because of the baseline and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences between the two contraceptive groups. The results of this analysis showed that, although overall lipid values decreased, including a significant decrease in HDL

  9. Nanomemulsion of megestrol acetate for improved oral bioavailability and reduced food effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixian; Song, Chung Kil; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Lim, Hyosang; Shen, Qingbo; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2015-10-01

    Megestrol acetate (MGA) belongs to the BCS class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability, and its oral absorption in conventional dosage form MGA microcrystal suspension (MGA MS) is very limited and greatly affected by food. In this study, MGA nanoemulsion (MGA NE) was formulated based on solubility, phase-diagram and release studies. Then oral bioavailability of MGA NE and MGA MS was evaluated. A randomized two-way crossover trial was conducted on six male dogs under fed and fasting conditions. Blood concentrations of MGA were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. MGA NE yielded 5.00-fold higher oral bioavailability in fasting conditions and displayed more stable absorption profiles after food intake compared with MGA MS. PMID:25893430

  10. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  11. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

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    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  12. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of Ag......Background: The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food...... and food contact materials. Results: AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of pharmaceutically equivalent parenteral depot suspension of methyl prednisolone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam MD.A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pharmaceutically equivalent injectable aqueous suspension for parenteral depot of methyl prednisolone acetate. Various aqueous suspensions were prepared by rapid stirring and colloid milling method. The prepared aqueous suspensions were subjected to particle size determination, sedimentation study, in vitro release studies (pH dependent dissolution study, and stability studies. The optimized formulation consisted of 4% w/w of methyl prednisolone acetate, 2.91% w/w of PEG-3350, 0.19% w/v of injection grade Tween-80, 0.68% w/w of monobasic sodium phosphate, 0.15% w/w of di-basic sodium phosphate, 0.91% w/v of benzyl alcohol, 0.32% w/w sodium meta bisulphate. The f 2 value was calculated for innovator (DepoMedrol ® , Batch No. MPH-0254 and optimized formulation at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers. The f 2 values of 62.94 and 54.37 were obtained at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers respectively. The particle size ranged 23-27 µm at D value of 0.9 for both test and innovator product.

  14. Usefulness of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in the management of cancer-related cachexia-anorexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Gebbia, V; Borsellino, N; Valenza, R; Cannata, G; Tirrito, M; Verderame, F; Armata, M; Valerio, M; Gebbia, N

    1996-05-01

    A study on the activity and tolerability of high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of ACS in neoplastic patients was carried out in a series of 103 patients with advanced cancer beyond cure with standard chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic treatments. The treatment plan was: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) 1,000 mg/day as liquid suspension orally at a single dose, for at least one month. If there was no improvement in body weight, SSA, performance status therapy was interrupted. An increase in body weight greater than or equal to 5%, in SSA score greater than or equal to 2 points, in performance status and then in quality of life were recorded as positive MAP-related events. Therapy-related toxicity was evaluated according to the WHO criteria. A mean body weight increased from 63 kg recorded before therapy to 67 kg recorded after 30 days of MAP. This difference was statistically significant (pacetate in the management of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with advanced cancer resistant to systemic chemotherapy. PMID:21594399

  15. Effect of injection volume on the bioavailability of sterile medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C E; Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-01-01

    The influence of injection volume on the absorption and bioavailability of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was studied. A single i.m. injection of MPA 400 mg was administered to 24 healthy men; 12 of the subjects received 4 ml of a 100 mg/ml suspension of the drug, and the other 12 subjects were given 1 ml of a 400 mg/ml suspension. Blood samples for MPA determinations were collected periodically during a 202-day period after drug administration. Mean steady-state serum concentrations of MPA were simulated from single-dose data to reflect those achieved after standard dosage regimens. Values for area under the serum concentration-time curve and time required to reach peak serum concentrations were compared between subjects receiving different injection volumes of MPA. Mean peak serum concentration were significantly higher and occurred significantly sooner in subjects receiving the 4-ml injection of MPA than in those given the 1-ml injection. No significant differences in areas under the serum concentration-time curve were noted in subjects receiving different injection volumes. The rate but not the extent of absorption of injectable MPA suspension is enhanced by increasing the injection volume of equivalent doses from 1 ml to 4 ml. PMID:6226473

  16. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD-ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. PMID:26478377

  17. 75 FR 26646 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 520 is amended as follows: PART 520--ORAL... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs... of an oral suspension containing orbifloxacin for the treatment of various bacterial infections...

  18. Effects of percutaneous estradiol–oral progesterone versus oral conjugated equine estrogens–medroxyprogesterone acetate on breast cell proliferation and bcl-2 protein in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Murkes, Daniel; Conner, P; Leifland, K; Tani, E; BELIARD, Aude; Lundström, E; Söderkvist, G

    2011-01-01

    In a prospective, randomized clinical study 77 women were assigned randomly to receive sequential hormone therapy with either conventional oral conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg) with the addition on 14 of the 28 days of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg) or natural E(2) gel (1.5 mg) with oral micronized P (200 mg) on 14 of the 28 days of each cycle. Because oral conjugated equine estrogens-medroxyprogesterone acetate induced a highly significant increase in breast cell proliferation...

  19. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Methods Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Results Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed

  20. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5% compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe ZT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax® is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte® and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators.Methods: Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity.Results: Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD] percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92% over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively, with mean concentrations for both falling significantly

  1. Patient acceptability and satisfaction with Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, L P; Oleen-Burkey, M; Willke, R J

    1999-10-01

    The results from a User Satisfaction Questionnaire, Treatment Assessment Questionnaire, and Global Well-Being Schedule questionnaire administered to women participating in an open-labeled, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a triphasic norethindrone (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg)/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7) are reviewed. Approximately 85% of all 1103 women enrolled in the comparative trial completed their initial and final questionnaires. To better assess the comparison of a new and extant method of contraception, outcome data were divided among MPA/E2C users and new and previous oral contraceptive (OC) users. Despite the inherent inequalities in comparing an injectable to an oral method of contraception, few treatment assessment and satisfaction outcomes were significantly different when comparing MPA/E2C users to new OC (NET/EE) users. More women in the MPA/E2C study group reported discomfort with their method than women in either NET/EE study group; however, only 19.4% of MPA/E2C users rated the administration of their contraceptive to be moderately uncomfortable or worse, compared to 11.7% of new NET/EE users and 13.4% of previous OC users. Among MPA/E2C users, 86.3% reported no interference with social activities compared with 90.4% of new NET/EE users. MPA/E2C and new NET/EE users were also similar in their responses recommending their respective contraceptive method to friends, with > 90% of both groups stating that they had a very favorable experience and would definitely recommend their method to a friend. In general, MPA/E2C was well accepted by women in the study group. Their attitudes and perceptions are similar to those of women who were starting OCs for the first time. These data support the premise that MPA/E2C may

  2. 21 CFR 520.2158c - Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dihydrochloride per 100 pounds of body weight per day. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial scours in calves. (3) Limitations. Administer orally once a day for 5 days; withdraw 3 days before slaughter. ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  3. Oral high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment: cortisol/MPA serum profiles in relation to breast cancer regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, M; Grill, H J; Knapstein, P; Wiegand, U; Pollow, K

    1985-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a potent synthetic progestin, has been widely used in the hormonal treatment of advanced breast cancer, but presently with varying dose schedules. The availability of a sensitive RIA-method for determination of serum MPA has stimulated the research on MPA serum levels in patients after repeated MPA administration. The aim of this study was to assay blood level profiles of MPA as well as of cortisol during repeated high-dose orally administered MPA. 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in this study. 12 patients died already within the first 4 weeks of MPA treatment due to multiple metastases. The dosage regimen based on the daily oral administration of 1,000 mg MPA suspension. During MPA treatment, a decrease of cortisol serum levels was observed in nearly all patients. Within the observation time of 8 months out of 22 evaluable cases 18.2% responded to the therapy (complete and partial response). No change was observed in 36.4% and progression in 45.5% of the patients. Within the remission (complete and partial) group, a good correlation between constant MPA serum levels above 150 ng/ml and remission was observed. But in the groups with no change and progression no such correlation could be observed. PMID:4000617

  4. Novel montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Shik; Kwon, Taek Kwan; Park, Jung Hee; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Jae-Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To develop a montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats, several montelukast sodium-loaded suspensions were prepared with a suspending agent, stabilizers and anti-aggregation agents, and their stabilities were investigated by visually observing the sedimentation phenomenon and determining the concentration of the degradation product. Moreover, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies of the optimized formulation were examined in rats compared to commercial montelukast sodium-loaded granules. Avicel RC-591 (Avicel), a suspending agent, prevented the sedimentation of these suspensions at >2.496 (w/v) per cent composition. Amongst the stabilizers tested, fumaric acid provided the lowest concentration of montelukast sulphoxide (a degradation product) in these suspensions at 40 °C, demonstrating its excellent stabilizing activity. Furthermore, as an anti-aggregation agent, glycerin gave lower amounts of degradation product than those with poloxamer 407 and Tween 80. In particular, montelukast-loaded oral suspension, an aqueous suspension containing montelukast sodium/Avicel/fumaric acid/glycerin at a concentration of 312/2496/15.6/62.4 (mg/100 ml), and the commercial granules exhibited similar dissolution profiles in 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics in rats provided by this suspension was comparable to that of the commercial granules, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. In addition, it was physically and chemically stable at 40 °C for at least 6 months. Thus, this montelukast sodium-loaded oral suspension, with bioequivalence to the commercial granules and excellent stability, could be a prospective dosage form for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Novel montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Shik; Kwon, Taek Kwan; Park, Jung Hee; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Jae-Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To develop a montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats, several montelukast sodium-loaded suspensions were prepared with a suspending agent, stabilizers and anti-aggregation agents, and their stabilities were investigated by visually observing the sedimentation phenomenon and determining the concentration of the degradation product. Moreover, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies of the optimized formulation were examined in rats compared to commercial montelukast sodium-loaded granules. Avicel RC-591 (Avicel), a suspending agent, prevented the sedimentation of these suspensions at >2.496 (w/v) per cent composition. Amongst the stabilizers tested, fumaric acid provided the lowest concentration of montelukast sulphoxide (a degradation product) in these suspensions at 40 °C, demonstrating its excellent stabilizing activity. Furthermore, as an anti-aggregation agent, glycerin gave lower amounts of degradation product than those with poloxamer 407 and Tween 80. In particular, montelukast-loaded oral suspension, an aqueous suspension containing montelukast sodium/Avicel/fumaric acid/glycerin at a concentration of 312/2496/15.6/62.4 (mg/100 ml), and the commercial granules exhibited similar dissolution profiles in 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics in rats provided by this suspension was comparable to that of the commercial granules, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. In addition, it was physically and chemically stable at 40 °C for at least 6 months. Thus, this montelukast sodium-loaded oral suspension, with bioequivalence to the commercial granules and excellent stability, could be a prospective dosage form for the treatment of asthma. PMID:26983932

  6. Effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the stability of cisapride in oral suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisapride (CIS is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. It has been associated with rare, but serious cardiac side effects.However, it does not affect psychomotor functions or induce central depressant adverse effects. As liquid formulations arerequired in a number of cases, an oral suspension of CIS was developed from CIS tablets. The objective of this study was toinvestigate the effect of hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin (HP--CD on the stability of CIS in oral suspension with an ultimateaim to formulate a more stable CIS oral suspension. Six batches of CIS oral suspensions, namely, 0 (control, 0.3, 1.6, and 3%HP--CD containing formulations were prepared. They were stored at 5°C and 30°C. The amounts of CIS in the suspensionswere determined by a validated stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method. The stability was assessed based on the 90%remaining. The changes in the amounts of CIS over time were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA. At 5°C, HP--CD had no significant effect on the stability of CIS. CIS in all four formulations was stable for at least 12.5 months. At 30°C,HP--CD affected the stability of CIS. CIS was most stable in 0.3% HP--CD containing formulation with the observed t90 ofapproximately 11 months as compared to 7 months in control formulation.

  7. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Treat animals for 48 hours after all symptoms have subsided but not beyond 5 days. Do not slaughter during treatment or for 15 days after latest treatment. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on... orally, twice a day using a dosing pump. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of baby pigs under 10...

  8. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

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    Mortensen Alicja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and silver acetate (AgAc to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of AgNPs. Besides the intestinal system, the largest silver concentrations were detected in the liver and kidneys. Silver was also found in the lungs and brain. Autometallographic (AMG staining revealed a similar cellular localization of silver in ileum, liver, and kidney tissue in rats exposed to AgNPs or AgAc. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nanosized granules were detected in the ileum of animals exposed to AgNPs or AgAc and were mainly located in the basal lamina of the ileal epithelium and in lysosomes of macrophages within the lamina propria. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy it was shown that the granules in lysosomes consisted of silver, selenium, and sulfur for both AgNP and AgAc exposed rats. The diameter of the deposited granules was in the same size range as that of the administered AgNPs. No silver granules were detected by TEM in the liver. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that the organ distribution of silver was similar when AgNPs or AgAc were administered orally to rats. The presence of silver

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

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    Shaikh Sana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug. When suspension is swallowed bitter taste may not be felt because ion exchange resin complex does not release drug at salivary pH. When it comes in contact with acidic environment of stomach, the complex will be broken down releasing the drug which may then absorbed. Batch method was used for formation of drug resin complex. Various ion exchange resins such as Ionex QM 1011, Ionex WC 23 and Kyron T- 114 were tried to obtained taste masked drug resin complex (DRC. Optimization of drug loading was carried out. With Ionex QM 1011, the drug-resin proportion of 1:6 achieved equilibrium in 6 hours. 96% w/w of drug loading was possible by this method. Complex formation was confirmed by DSC and IR studies. Oral taste masked suspension was prepared using xanthum gum and tween 80 and was evaluated with respect to parameters such as Colour, pH, Viscosity, Sedimentation volume, Redispersibility, Assay, drug release. Taste masking was evaluated with the help of panel of human volunteers and Rat Behavioral Avoidance Taste Model. Taste masked suspension showed easy redispersibility and more than 99.6 % of the drug release within 45 minutes at pH 1.2. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and formulation of suspension with taste masked drug especially for pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, and non cooperative patients.

  10. Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, Stefano

    2000-06-01

    Special suspension systems are used in gravitational wave detectors to reduce the transmission of seismic vibrations to test masses by many orders of magnitude. In ground-based interferometric antennas, this allows to detect gravitational signals even below a few tens of Hz, where seismic vibrations are very strong. The state of the art on this topic is presented. .

  11. Antifertility Effects of Orally Administration of Low Dose Gossypol Acetic Acid Combined with Methyltestosterone Plus Ethinyl Estradiol on Male Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and optimal regimen of orally administration of low close gossypol acetic acid (GA) combined with methyltestosterone (MT) plus ethinyl estradiol (EE) for contraception in males.Methods Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into four groups, 20 in each group. Animals in group A or B were administered daily with 1% methyl cellulose or GA (12 mg/kg) suspended in 1% methyl cellulose, respectively. Rats in group C or D took firstly GA 12 mg/kg+MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg or MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg, in a suspension with 1% methyl cellulose, via gastric intubation. After the infertilities were initiated(6 weeks for group C, 8 weeks for group D), GA was served alone while MT+EE were withdrawn in rats of groups C and D. The treatment was ceased after 18 weeks and some males from group C were permitted to recover. Fertility testing, 10 males per group, was served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Examinations of histology and biochemistry in treated rats were used to examine the morphologic influences on sperm, testis, epididymides and viscera, and biochemical changes in blood. The growth and development of F1 generation of the rats would also be tested in a series of behavioral tests.Results Ten rats from group C were infertile at week 6 after treatment, and the fulfilled infertility was maintained with low-close GA (12 mg/kg) only daily. Six weeks after cessation of treatment, all of treated males recovered their fertility. However, 8 of 10 rats from group D were in sterility at 6th week of treatment and all at 8th week of treatment, but the infertility could not be kept with the similar dose GA alone later on. Moreover, no adverse effects were found in our present experiments.Conclusion Administration of oral low dose GA combined with MT and EE as loading dose could successfully induce infertility in short term, whereafter the efficacy could completely be maintained by similar low dose of GA

  12. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  13. Extemporaneous Compounding of Oral Acitretin Suspension for Pediatric Patient with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is rare in children, but it can occur and affect an extensive body surface area of a child. Treatment regimens can include medications that are not available in pediatric dosage form. Acitretin is considered one of the treatment options for acute generalized pustular psoriasis in children, but, in Singapore, it is only available as Neotigason capsules. Extemporaneous compounding of the powder content in the capsules was developed for formulating the oral acitretin suspension with a standardized formulation table and compounding process at National Skin Centre. An appropriate beyond-use date of the extemporaneous preparation was assigned after reviewing the photostability data of acitretin, compatibility of the active ingredient and excipients, and United States Pharmacopeia guidelines. It is deemed appropriate to assign a beyond-use date of 14 days when the extemporaneous preparation is stored in amber glass bottles at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C. PMID:27125051

  14. Extemporaneous Compounding of Oral Acitretin Suspension for Pediatric Patient with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is rare in children, but it can occur and affect an extensive body surface area of a child. Treatment regimens can include medications that are not available in pediatric dosage form. Acitretin is considered one of the treatment options for acute generalized pustular psoriasis in children, but, in Singapore, it is only available as Neotigason capsules. Extemporaneous compounding of the powder content in the capsules was developed for formulating the oral acitretin suspension with a standardized formulation table and compounding process at National Skin Centre. An appropriate beyond-use date of the extemporaneous preparation was assigned after reviewing the photostability data of acitretin, compatibility of the active ingredient and excipients, and United States Pharmacopeia guidelines. It is deemed appropriate to assign a beyond-use date of 14 days when the extemporaneous preparation is stored in amber glass bottles at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C.

  15. Development and validation of a direct, non-destructive quantitative method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension using FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Vergote, G J; Baeyens, W R G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Verpoort, F

    2004-12-01

    A simple linear regression method was developed and statistically validated for the direct and non-destructive quantitative analysis--without sample preparation--of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous pharmaceutical suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The linear regression was modelled by plotting the highest peak intensity of the vector normalized spectral band between 1630 and 1590 cm-1 against different MPA standard suspension concentrations. At this band, no spectral interferences from additives in the suspension are observed. The validated model was used for the quantification of a commercial suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) of the commercialized preparations. The same standards and samples were used, respectively, for the development and validation of a simple linear regression model and for the quantitative determination by means of HPLC-with sample preparation-as described for the related substances of MPA in the Ph. Eur. IV. The quantification results obtained by the FT-Raman method corresponded with the claimed label concentration (150.01+/-0.96 mg/ml (n=6)). Applying the HPLC method, however, a systematic error was observed (157.77+/-0.94 mg/ml (n=6)). The direct FT-Raman method hence appears the most reliable for the quantification of the MPA component in suspension, compared to the HPLC method that requires sample preparation. The latter method provides a systematic error because the exact volume or density of a suspension sample is unknown. A precise isolation of fixed volumes from a suspension is rather unfeasible because of the continuous sagging of the suspended particles and their sticking to the used materials in the isolation process. PMID:15567288

  16. Retrospective Comparison of Posaconazole Levels in Patients Taking the Delayed-Release Tablet versus the Oral Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durani, Urshila; Tosh, Pritish K; Barreto, Jason N; Estes, Lynn L; Jannetto, Paul J; Tande, Aaron J

    2015-08-01

    While posaconazole prophylaxis decreases the risk of invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole, low bioavailability of the oral-suspension formulation limits its efficacy. A new delayed-release tablet formulation demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers. However, serum levels for the two formulations have not been compared in clinical practice. This study compared achievement of therapeutic posaconazole levels in patients taking the delayed-release tablet to those taking the oral suspension. This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients initiated on posaconazole between 2012 and 2014 and had at least one serum posaconazole level measured. The primary measure was the proportion of patients achieving an initial therapeutic level (>700 ng/ml). An initial therapeutic posaconazole level was seen in 29 of 32 (91%) patients receiving tablets and 37 of 61 (61%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.003). Among patients with a steady-state level measured 5 to 14 days after initiation, a therapeutic level was observed in 18 of 20 (90%) patients receiving tablets and 25 of 43 (58%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.01). In these patients, the median posaconazole level of the tablet cohort (1655 ng/ml) was twice that of the suspension cohort (798 ng/ml) (P = 0.004). In this cohort study, the improved bioavailability of delayed-release posaconazole tablets translates into a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic serum levels than in the cohort receiving the oral suspension. The results of this study strongly support the use of delayed-release tablets over suspension in patients at risk for invasive fungal infection.

  17. Development of megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles for enhanced oral delivery by using a supercritical antisolvent process

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    Ha ES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 In-hwan Baek,3 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Hyung Ryong Moon,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2Dong-A ST Co Ltd, Yongin, 3College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: In the present study, solid dispersion nanoparticles with a hydrophilic polymer and surfactant were developed using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS process to improve the dissolution and oral absorption of megestrol acetate. The physicochemical properties of the megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and a particle-size analyzer. The dissolution and oral bioavailability of the nanoparticles were also evaluated in rats. The mean particle size of all solid dispersion nanoparticles that were prepared was <500 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that megestrol acetate was present in an amorphous or molecular dispersion state within the solid dispersion nanoparticles. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles significantly increased the maximum dissolution when compared with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 solid dispersion nanoparticles. The extent and rate of dissolution of megestrol acetate increased after the addition of a surfactant into the HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles. The most effective surfactant was Ryoto sugar ester L1695, followed by d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In this study, the solid dispersion nanoparticles with a drug:HPMC:Ryoto sugar ester L1695 ratio of 1:2:1 showed >95% rapid dissolution within 30 minutes, in addition to good oral bioavailability, with approximately 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher area under the curve (0–24 hours and maximum concentration, respectively, than raw megestrol acetate powder. These results suggest that the preparation of megestrol

  18. Expanding the application of the tablet processing workstation to support the sample preparation of oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex Manuel; Nickerson, Beverly; Xue, Gang; Warzeka, John; Norris, Ken

    2011-06-01

    Sample preparation is the most time-consuming part of the analytical method for powder for oral suspension (POS) assay, purity, and preservative analysis, as this involves multiple dilution and filtration steps. The Tablet Processing Workstation (TPW) was used to automate the sample preparation of a POS formulation. Although the TPW is typically used to automate the preparation of solid oral dosage forms and powders, it contains all of the necessary components to perform POS sample preparation. The TPW exhibited acceptable repeatability in testing 3 lots using 10 replicate preparations per lot. Acceptable linearity of the drug and preservative in the presence of excipients was demonstrated over the range corresponding to 50-150% of intent. Accuracy showed suitable recoveries for all points evaluated. TPW results were shown to correlate to results obtained with the manual method. The TPW method was used to prepare samples in support of manufacturing scale-up efforts. With the efficiencies gained using the TPW, it was possible to analyze a large number of samples generated during process development activities for the POS formulation with minimal human intervention. The extensive data enabled trending of the manufacturing development runs and helped to identify optimization strategies for the process.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of orbifloxacin oral suspension in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Megan K; Wittenburg, Luke A; Bui, Christine T; Jarosz, Kira A; Gustafson, Daniel L; Johnston, Matthew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 2 doses of orbifloxacin in rabbits. ANIMALS 6 healthy purpose-bred adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Each of 3 rabbits received orbifloxacin at either 10 or 20 mg/kg, PO. Then, after a 1-week washout period, they received the same dose IV. Blood samples were collected from each rabbit at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma orbifloxacin concentration was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis for data obtained following PO administration and noncompartmental and compartmental analyses for data obtained following IV administration. RESULTS Following oral administration, the mean ± SD peak plasma orbifloxacin concentration was 1.66 ± 0.51 μg/mL for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 3.00 ± 0.97 μg/mL for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose and was attained at 2 hours after drug administration. The mean ± SD half-life of orbifloxacin in plasma was 7.3 ± 1.1 hours for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 8.6 ± 0.55 hours for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose. Mean bioavailability was 52.5% for rabbits administered the 10 mg/kg dose and 46.5% for rabbits administered the 20 mg/kg dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided pharmacokinetic properties for 2 doses (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) of orbifloxacin oral suspension in rabbits. Further studies are necessary to determine the protein-binding activity of orbifloxacin in rabbits before dosages for the treatment of common pathogens in this species are recommended. PMID:26512539

  20. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  1. Comparative studies on the dissolution profiles of oral ibuprofen suspension and commercial tablets using biopharmaceutical classification system criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Rivera-Leyva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest.

  2. Development and validation of a microbial counting method for mebendazole oral suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Araújo de Assis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole is an important medicine used to treat helminth infections. These infections affect more than two billion people worldwide. The LAFEPE® (Recife-PE, Brazil produces the drug mebendazole oral suspension that contains the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben in its formulation. Drugs that have antimicrobial properties due to preservatives must undergo neutralization of these compounds to allow microbial count testing according to recommendations by the official compendia. In order to obtain a validated method for microbial counting and to ensure its safety and reliability within the pharmaceutical industry, validation of preservative neutralization and of the method for microbial counting was performed according to the USP 30 and PDA Technical Report No. 33. The method used ATCC Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms, yeasts, most and culture media Tryptic Soy Agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The neutralizers were polysorbate 80 and lecithin. Recovery levels of over 70% of the microorganisms used in the test indicated the neutralization of antimicrobial activity and proved the absence of toxicity of neutralizers. The microbial counting method validated proved accurate, precise, robust and linear and can be safely used in routine operations.O mebendazol é um importante medicamento utilizado no tratamento de infecções por helmintos. Essas infecções afetam mais de dois bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O LAFEPE (Recife-PE, Brasil produz o medicamento mebendazol suspensão oral, que possui em sua formulação os conservantes metilparabeno e propilparabeno. Em medicamentos que possuem propriedades antimicrobianas em decorrência dos conservantes faz-se necessária a neutralização da ação desses compostos para a realização do teste de contagem microbiana segundo preconizado pelos compêndios oficiais. A fim de obter um método de contagem microbiana validado e que garanta sua segurança e reprodutibilidade

  3. Bioavailability of a new oral formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with the standard formulation: a single dose randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, M; Brunsgaard, N; Jakobsen, P; Edwards, D M; Strolin-Benedetti, M

    1993-08-01

    Twenty-six female patients with breast cancer participated in an open, randomized, cross-over study comparing single dose bioavailability of a recently developed oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) formulation (200 mg sachet where MPA is loaded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked polymer, MPA/PVP) with the standard formulation (500 mg tablet). Blood tests were performed under standardized conditions for 120 h in all patients and MPA plasma concentrations determined by means of HPLC. Dose-normalized AUC(0-tz), AUC (0-infinity) and Cmax were all significantly higher for the MPA/PVP formulation than for the standard formulation. The relative bioavailability of the MPA/PVP formulation was on average three times superior to that of the standard formulation. This new MPA formulation might have important clinical implications for the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer. PMID:8400345

  4. A Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing Eslicarbazepine Acetate Administered Orally as a Crushed or Intact Tablet in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Schutz, Ralph; Blum, David; Cheng, Hailong

    2016-07-01

    The relative bioequivalence of crushed versus intact eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) tablets (800 mg) administered orally in healthy adults was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study with a 5-day washout between treatments. Sample blood levels of eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine were determined; pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for eslicarbazepine. Bioequivalence was established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean treatment ratios of eslicarbazepine AUC(0-∞) and Cmax were within the prespecified 80%-125% range. Twenty-seven subjects in the intent-to-treat population (n = 28) completed both treatment periods. Eslicarbazepine exposure measures were similar for crushed versus intact ESL tablets: average Cmax , 11 700 versus 11 500 ng/mL; AUC(0-∞) , 225 000 versus 234 000 ng·h/mL; AUC(0-last) , 222 000 versus 231 000 ng·h/mL, respectively. Geometric least squares mean ratios (90%CIs) comparing eslicarbazepine exposure measures were within the 80%-125% range (Cmax , 102.63% [97.07%-108.51%]; AUC(0-∞) , 96.72% [94.36%-99.13%]; AUC0-last , 96.69% [94.24%-99.21%]). In conclusion, ESL administered orally as a crushed tablet sprinkled on applesauce, or intact were bioequivalent in healthy subjects. Eslicarbazepine bioavailability was not significantly altered by crushing, indicating that ESL tablets can be administered intact or crushed. PMID:27249205

  5. Abiraterone acetate: oral androgen biosynthesis inhibitor for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg JE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yasser Rehman1, Jonathan E Rosenberg21Division of Hospital Medicine, UMass Memorial Healthcare, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the US and Europe. The treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer has been androgen deprivation. Medical castration leads to decreased production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone by the testes, but adrenal glands and even prostate cancer tissue continue to produce androgens, which eventually leads to continued prostate cancer growth despite castrate level of androgens. This stage is known as castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, which continues to be a challenge to treat. Addition of androgen antagonists to hormonal deprivation has been successful in lowering the prostate-specific antigen levels further, but has not actually translated into life-prolonging options. The results of several contemporary studies have continued to demonstrate activation of the androgen receptor as being the key factor in the continued growth of prostate cancer. Blockade of androgen production by nongonadal sources has led to clinical benefit in this setting. One such agent is abiraterone acetate, which significantly reduces androgen production by blocking the enzyme, cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17. This has provided physicians with another treatment option for patients with CRPC. The landscape for prostate cancer treatment has changed with the approval of cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T and abiraterone. Here we provide an overview of abiraterone acetate, its mechanism of action, and its potential place for therapy in CRPC.Keywords: CRPC, abiraterone, CYP17, inhibitors, androgens, castration resistant prostate cancer

  6. Simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparabenin oral suspensions has been developed and validated. Baseline separation was achieved on a C18 column at room temperature(25°C by gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of solvent A: 10% v/v acetonitrile in 0.13% w/v sodium-1-pentanesulfonate pH 8 and solvent B: acetonitrile. The gradient program was as follows: 0-5 min: 20 to 56% solvent B; 5-7min: 56 to 85% solvent B; 7-10 min: 85% solvent B. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min. The injection volume was20 L. Detection and peak purity assessments were performed by photo-diode array detector set at 275 nm with scan modein the range of 190-400 nm. The method was selective, accurate and precise. It provided chromatograms with good peak shapeand acceptable resolutions of greater than 4.4 for all analytes including the degradation products formed in oral suspensionsin about 8.5 min. All analyte peaks were pure. The accuracy of all analytes was in the range of 99.20-100.6%. The within-runand between-run relative standard deviations were less than 1.50%. The calibration curves for cisapride, methylparaben, andpropylparaben were linear over the concentration range of 10.0-75.0 g/mL, 8.0-100.0 g/mL, and 0.8-10.0 g/mL, respectivelywith r2 greater than 0.999. This developed method was successfully applied to the stability study of cisapride, methylparabenand propylparaben in oral suspension formulations.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of arbidol hydrochloride

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    Ling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to cover the bitter taste of arbidol hydrochloride (ARB and develop dry suspension with combination of solid dispersion and flavors. Taste masking was successfully done by solid dispersion using octadecanol as the carrier by fusion method. Suspending agents, carriers and other excipients were selected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, DSC analysis indicated that ARB was amorphous in the solid dispersion, FTIR spectroscopy showed no interaction between drug and carrier. Taste masking was evaluated on six volunteers with a score of 4.9. The results demonstrated successful taste masking. Water was used to study the in vitro dissolution performance of the three formulations of commercial tablet, capsule and self-made suspension. The self-made suspension showed a lower and slower release, the insoluble carrier octadecanol blocked the drug dissolving from the solid dispersion. It was indicated from the primary stability study, the self-made suspensions were sensitive to high temperature, high humidity and strong light conditions, they should be stored in sealed containers away from heat, light and humidity.

  8. Indole-3-acetic acid-induced oxidative burst and an increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in rice suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T H; Umemura, Kenji; Kawano, Tomonori

    2016-08-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major natural auxin involved in the regulation of a variety of growth and developmental processes such as division, elongation, and polarity determination in growing plant cells. It has been shown that dividing and/or elongating plant cells accompanies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a number of reports have suggested that hormonal actions can be mediated by ROS through ROS-mediated opening of ion channels. Here, we surveyed the link between the action of IAA, oxidative burst, and calcium channel activation in a transgenic cells of rice expressing aequorin in the cytosol. Application of IAA to the cells induced a rapid and transient generation of superoxide which was followed by a transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c). The IAA-induced [Ca(2+)]c elevation was inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockers and a Ca(2+) chelator. Furthermore, ROS scavengers effectively blocked the action of IAA on [Ca(2+)]c elevation. PMID:27149194

  9. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol hormonal oral contraceptive and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino; Berretta, Massimiliano; Di Francia, Raffaele; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Napoli, Marilena; Facchini, Gaetano; Fiorica, Francesco; Mileto, Mario; Schindler, Adolf E

    2014-08-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) contain estrogen and progestin, which can stimulate estrogen-sensitive and/or progesterone-sensitive breast cancer growth. Until recently, ethinylestradiol had been almost the only estrogen used for decades, and its dose has been greatly reduced over time. The first generations of birth control pills contained approximately five times more estrogen and four times more progestin than the latest contraceptives. Newer CHCs also contain steroids that more closely mimic the physiological estradiol (E2) and progesterone effects. The newer CHC formulations are thus expected to have less influence on the breast, although it is very difficult to demonstrate any difference among the recent available preparations in human studies. Recently, nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a neutral, nonandrogenic, progesterone-like profile progestin, has become available in combination with the 'natural' estrogen, E2. According to the literature, NOMAC/E2 is expected to have either a lesser stimulating effect or a neutral effect on estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. We performed an analysis of the available studies and a bibliographical review. The endocrine and metabolic effects of NOMAC/E2 formulation might lead to a lesser breast tissue stimulation. The data reported, confirmed through clinical studies, should be considered when choosing a hormonal contraceptive, especially when breast stimulation is a concern.

  10. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

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    Andre AD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz™ using the Versacloz oral suspension kit and instructions for use (IFU.Materials and methods: This was a prospective, open-label, simulated-use validation study of 61 people with schizophrenia who were stabilized on clozapine or were clozapine-naive and stabilized on another antipsychotic treatment. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: untrained (n=46 and trained (n=15. Participants were asked to select the proper syringe and prepare two test doses of 1, 3.5, or 5 mL, as randomly assigned. Participants in the untrained group did not receive any training on using the kit, but had access to kit materials, including packaging and the IFU; both test dose preparations were unaided. Participants in the trained group received brief training from the moderator, and then prepared one test dose during training and one unaided test dose during the study period. Prepared placebo doses were not ingested. Performance and behavior were assessed in 14 critical tasks identified in the user failure mode and effects analysis. Test dose failures or dose errors (threshold ±0.1 mL were assessed. Subjective participant assessments of usability were captured in interviews and IFU comprehension was probed.Results: A total of 107 test doses were prepared: 92 and 15 by the untrained and trained groups, respectively. Overall success for unassisted dose preparation was 87.9%; all test failures (failure to shake the bottle or failure to obtain the correct test dose occurred in the untrained group. All participants selected the correct syringe for their assigned dose.Conclusion: This study shows that the Versacloz oral suspension kit and IFU can be correctly, safely, and effectively used to prepare doses by people with schizophrenia, with few instances of

  11. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): effects of body weight and injection sites on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, M H; Cromie, M A; Hopkins, N K; Tong, D M

    1999-10-01

    A new contraceptive option, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C, Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection), will soon be available for women in the US. This article reports the results of a US trial that assessed the effects of body weight and injection site on the pharmacokinetics of MPA, the progestin mediating contraceptive efficacy. This assessment was part of a nonrandomized, open-label, multicenter US study in healthy women receiving a monthly injection of MPA/E2C for 60 weeks. A total of 77 women (aged 18-47 years) at four centers participated in the pharmacokinetics assessment during the sixth or the seventh injection. For determination of serum MPA concentration-time profiles, blood samples were collected before the sixth and seventh injections (day 0) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the sixth and seventh monthly administrations. For effects of injection site, MPA pharmacokinetics were compared at injection sites of the arm, hip, and leg. The pharmacokinetics of MPA, determined at the sixth and seventh injection, were not significantly affected by injection sites. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-28), however, was different between the arm and the leg injection sites; the difference was 38, n = 6). There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of MPA among the three BMI categories. The only significant difference (p = 0.0387) was the AUC0-28 between BMI 18-28 and BMI 29-38. Because of the small sample size in the highly obese group, a reanalysis was performed by pooling subjects of the obese and highly obese groups. Results of the pooled statistical analysis remained the same. In summary, these results suggest that minor differences observed in the MPA pharmacokinetics--whether due to injection site or body weight or both--have no impact on the contraceptive efficacy of MPA/E2C, as trough concentrations (Cmin) are well above the threshold levels required to suppress ovulation. No dose adjustment

  12. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  13. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable. PMID:27209697

  14. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): a contraceptive method for women in the US and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunitz, A M; Mishell, D R

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents data from the first large US clinical trial of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection, which is a combination of 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C). The lead article reports that there was no occurrence of unintended pregnancies and no contraceptive discontinuation among more than 700 women using the MPA/E2C in a 60-week clinical trial. Most women experienced regular monthly cycles the same as those women using the nonhormonal method. The second article reports the results of a separate trial that studied return ovulation after three monthly injections of MPA/E2C in surgically sterile women. Serum progesterone determinations found that return of ovulation was documented as early as 63 days after the third (final) intramuscular injection of MPA/E2C. Two articles in this issue assess the pharmacokinetics of MPA/E2C injections. Findings indicate that MPA/E2C represents a contraceptive option that combines the advantages of oral contraceptives with the convenience and effectiveness of monthly administration. Accordingly, a US Food and Drug Administration approval should play an important role in helping women achieve effective birth control in the US and worldwide. PMID:10640163

  15. Suspension of the tongue to the digastric tendon following resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer prevents postoperative tongue fall and avoids the need for tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of the anterior arch of the mandible leads to tongue fall and postoperative stridor because of the detachment of tongue musculature from the mandible. In this article, a simple method of tongue suspension is described which would prevent such complications and the need for tracheostomy. Settings and Design: This study was carried out on patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection at a tertiary centre. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 32 patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection. Following an appropriate resection of the oral cancer (including the anterior mandibular arch and neck dissection, a silk suture is used to loop the tongue musculature on either side to the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle. Result: This technique of tongue suspension was used in 32 patients who required resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer. Prophylactic tracheostomy was not performed. One patient developed stridor at extubation and required temporary tracheostomy. All other patients could be successfully extubated within 12 h of surgery and none experienced postoperative stridor or sleep apnea. One other patient required temporary tracheostomy for pulmonary toilet as he developed aspiration pneumonitis related to nasogastric feed. Conclusion: This simple method of tongue suspension to the digastric tendon prevents postoperative tongue fall and obviates the need for tracheostomy in most instances.

  16. Effects of oral glatiramer acetate on clinical and MRI-monitored disease activity in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippi, M.; Wolinsky, J.S.; Comi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parenterally administered glatiramer acetate reduces the frequency of relapses and the formation of active brain lesions seen with MRI in multiple sclerosis. This study assessed whether two doses of glatiramer acetate given orally could improve clinical and MRI measures of inflammation a

  17. Low-dose sultamicillin oral suspension in the treatment of mild to moderate paediatric infections in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raillard, P; Kose, G; Ozkan, H; Hasanoglu, A; Firat, S; Feiner, C

    1992-01-01

    A total of 101 children (47 males, 54 females; age range, 3 months-16 years) with mild to moderate upper or lower respiratory tract infections, or skin and soft tissue infections entered a clinical study conducted at two centres in Izmir, Turkey. The children received a mean daily dose of 25 mg/kg sultamicillin oral suspension administered as two equal doses approximately 12 h apart. In total, 100 children met all requirements for evaluability and were included in the clinical efficacy assessment, and 49 children were evaluated for bacteriological efficacy. Clinical cure was reported by the investigators in 93 patients, improvement in six and failure in only one. The bacteriological eradication rate of isolated pathogens was 100%. Of the 101 patients evaluated for drug safety, four experienced adverse drug-related or possibly drug-related reactions. All side-effects were gastro-intestinal and diarrhoea was reported in three patients. No discontinuation of therapy was reported, nor were any significant laboratory abnormalities recorded. PMID:1451925

  18. Ninety-Day Oral Toxicity Assessment of an Alternative Biopolymer for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems Obtained from Cassava Starch Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rossi Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large consumption of biodegradable films from cassava starch acetate (FCSA as ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products requires the assessment of the possible toxicity of these products. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of biodegradable film from cassava starch acetate after oral exposure of Wistar rats for 90 days. The amount of food consumed and the body weight were weekly monitored. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the assessment of serum parameters and renal function. Histopathological analyses in target organs were also performed. No evidence of clinical toxicity in hematological, biochemical, or renal parameters in the FCSA-treated animals was found. In addition, relative organ weight and histopathological evaluations did not differ between groups treated with FCSA and control. Data obtained suggest that the subchronic exposure to FCSA does not cause obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats, indicating possible safety of this biofilm.

  19. The comparison of extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous pantoprazole on the gastric pH of critically ill-patients

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    Yasamin Dabiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress-related mucosal disease occurs in many critically ill-patients within 24 h of admission. Proton pump inhibitor therapy has been documented to produce more potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion than histamine 2 receptor antagonists. This study aimed to compare extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous (IV pantoprazole on the gastric pH in intensive care unit patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized single-blind-study. Patients of ≥ 16 years of age with a nasogastric tube, who required mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 h, were eligible for inclusion. The excluded patients were those with active gastrointestinal bleeding, known allergy to omeprazole and pantoprazole and those intolerant to the nasogastric tube. Fifty-six patients were randomized to treatment with omeprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day, pantoprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day and IV pantoprazole (40 mg every day for up to 14 days. Gastric aspirates were sampled before and 1-2.5 h after the drug administration for the pH measurement using an external pH meter. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0. Results: In this study, 56 critically ill-patients (39 male, 17 female, mean age: 61.5 ± 15.65 years were followed for the control of the gastric pH. On each of the 14 trial days the mean of the gastric pH alteration was significantly higher in omeprazole and pantoprazole suspension-treated patients than in IV pantoprazole-treated patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Omeprazole and pantoprazole oral suspension are more effective than IV pantoprazole in increasing the gastric pH.

  20. Stability of refrigerated miglustat after preparation in InOrpha® flavored suspending excipient for compounding of oral solutions and suspensions

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    Riahi S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sofyen Riahi, Michael Ambühl, Jürgen Stichler, Dirk Bandilla Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland Background: Miglustat (Zavesca® is an oral treatment for type 1 Gaucher disease and Niemann–Pick disease type C. Patients with Niemann–Pick disease type C often have difficulties swallowing, and miglustat has an unpleasant taste. The stability of miglustat at 2°C–8°C prepared in InOrpha® suspending vehicle, a liquid taste-masking agent, was assessed.Methods: The contents of Zavesca® 100 mg capsules (a powder blend comprising miglustat and several excipients were transferred into InOrpha®. Although miglustat was soluble in InOrpha® at all concentrations tested, some of the excipients were not. An InOrpha® suspension containing 20 mg/mL miglustat was investigated initially. Subsequently, a pH-adjusted suspension of 20 mg/mL, and non-adjusted 10 and 5 mg/mL suspensions were evaluated. All suspensions were stored under refrigerated conditions. Physicochemical and microbiological challenge testing was performed at 0 hours and after 14 and 28 days. Degradation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, appearance was assessed visually, and pH was recorded. Suspensions were inoculated with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold, and growth evaluated using membrane filtration.Results: Miglustat 20 mg/mL suspension changed from yellow (0 hours to brown (days 14 and 28; pH remained stable at 7.4–7.6. Pure InOrpha® (pH 4.6 remained yellow throughout the study. Pure InOrpha® adjusted to pH 7.5 displayed a brownish discoloration after 9 days. Miglustat 5 and 20 mg/mL suspensions, adjusted to pH 6.5 and 4.4, respectively, remained yellow at days 14 and 28. Miglustat 10 mg/mL suspension (pH 7.3 changed from yellow to brown on day 9. No degradates were detected for any of the concentrations tested. There was no proliferation of microorganisms over the study period; in all cases the level of contamination was

  1. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0 mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0 mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0 mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0 mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0 mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0 mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8 °C) and controlled room temperature (20-25 °C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes.

  2. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rother M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are

  3. A study of the effect of certain formulation variables on the mucoadhesive properties of per oral sucralfate suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrozsi, Douglas Joseph

    1999-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on the ability of a suspension of the material sucralfate to be triggered to gel by components of the gastrointestinal fluid and in so doing, act as an in situ gelling mucoadhesive liquid. The particle size and type of sucralfate raw material, suspension pH, ionic strength, and presence of the humectant suspension aid glycerin were studied. Sucralfate materials were prepared in sizes ranging from under 50 nanometers up to 60 microns. Included were conventional powders, and a gel form prepared by controlled precipitation from acid solution. Sucralfate zero point of charge was determined by titration to be pH 4.8--4.9 for powder, and 5--5.3 for gel. The gel was found to exist as aggregates of a relatively uniform, spherical, nanoparticulate colloidal sol with particle size in the range of 50 to 400 nanometers. The aggregates could be disrupted by high pressure homogenization so that individual colloidal particles could be detected in water dispersion. Rheologic and mucoadhesion evaluations of suspensions were conducted. Models were established for in vitro mucoadhesion by rheologic synergism with mucin, and for mucosal coating and retention on rat esophagus ex vivo. Experiments with marketed sucralfate suspensions indicated that rheologic synergism with gastric mucin correlated with ex vivo mucoretention and agreed directionally with published human mucoretention. Aqueous suspension viscosity was found to be increased by KCl, by increasing sucralfate concentration, and for the gel by adjusting pH near the zero point of charge. Viscosity also increased with decreasing sucralfate particle size but rheologic synergism did not correlate with particle size. Glycerin increased rheologic synergism with mucin. Suspension viscosity and rheologic synergism were much greater under all conditions for sucralfate gel suspensions than for sucralfate powder suspensions. Disruption of gel

  4. Effect of pH on acid production from sorbitol in washed cell suspensions of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfas, S; Maki, Y; Birkhed, D; Edwardsson, S

    1990-01-01

    The acid production from sorbitol and glucose was studied under anaerobic conditions in resting cell suspensions of bacteria from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora, belonging to the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The acid production activity of the bacterial cells was followed by titration with alkali, at environmental pH 7.0, 6.0 and 5.0 after addition of carbohydrate solution. The metabolic end products formed in the suspensions were analyzed thereafter by isotachophoretic and enzymatic methods. The results showed that sorbitol was fermented at a slower rate than glucose. Lowering the environmental pH decreased the acid production activity from the two carbohydrates. Compared with glucose, the catabolism of sorbitol was affected to greater extent by the pH conditions. The total amount of acids formed from sorbitol was considerably less than from glucose. Lactic acid, which was the major end product in glucose-challenged suspensions, was produced only in low concentrations from sorbitol by all strains tested. The ratio strong (formic + lactic)/weak acids was moreover lower for sorbitol than for glucose. The present results further illustrate some of the mechanisms behind the low cariogenic potential of this sugar substitute.

  5. Stability of Atenolol, Clonazepam, Dexamethasone, Diclofenac Sodium, Diltiazem, Enalapril Maleate, Ketoprofen, Lamotrigine, Penicillamine-D, and Thiamine in SyrSpend SF PH4 Oral Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Loures, Sharlene; Lima, Luis Claudio; Ferreira, Anderson O; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients compounded in oral suspensions using SyrSpend SF PH4 (atenolol 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL, clonazepam 0.2 mg/mL, dexamethasone 1.0 mg/mL, diclofenac sodium 5.0 mg/mL, diltiazem 12.0 mg/mL, enalapril maleate 1.0 mg/mL, ketoprofen 20.0 mg/mL, lamotrigine 1.0 mg/mL, penicillamine-D 50.0 mg/mL, thiamine 100 mg/m) and stored both at controlled refrigerated (2°C to 8°C) and room temperature (20°C to 25°C). Stability was assessed by means of measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. The quantification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients was performed by a stability-indicating, high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The beyond-use date of the products was found to be at least 90 days for all suspensions (except atenolol 1 mg/mL, which was stable up to 60 days), both for controlled refrigerated temperature and room temperature. This confirms that SyrSpend SF PH4 is a stable suspending vehicle for compounding with a broad range of different active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:27323429

  6. Raman spectroscopic method for the determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension: validation of quantifying abilities, uncertainty assessment and comparison with the high performance liquid chromatography reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Baeyens, W R G; Vermeire, A; Broes, D; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2007-04-25

    An alternative fast and non-destructive validated Raman spectroscopic analytical procedure, requiring no sample preparation, was compared with the industrially applied HPLC reference method (Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium) for the quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in DepoProvera suspensions (150 mg mL(-1), Pfizer). The Raman calibration model was developed by plotting the peak intensity of the baseline-corrected and normalized spectral band (corrected by external standard measurements) between 1595 and 1620 cm(-1) against known MPA concentrations in standards. At this band, no spectral interferences from the suspension medium are observed. The most suitable model for the calibration data (straight line or higher order polynomial) was determined by evaluating the fit and predictive properties of the models. In a second step, the developed Raman spectroscopic analytical method was validated by calculating the accuracy profile on the basis of the analysis results of validation samples. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined. Finally, as the aim of the alternative method is to replace the destructive, time-consuming HPLC method, requiring sample preparation, it needs to be demonstrated that the new Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method. Therefore, the performance (precision and bias) of both methods was compared. A second order polynomial calibration curve through the calibration data supplies the best predictive properties and gives an acceptable fit. From the accuracy profile, it was concluded that at the target concentration (150 mg mL(-1)), 95 out 100 future routine measurements will be included within the acceptance limits (5%). Comparison of the alternative method with the reference method at the target concentration indicates that the Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method for precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and bias

  7. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): assessment of return of ovulation after three monthly injections in surgically sterile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, M H; Ryan, K K

    1999-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) on ovarian function were assessed through changes in serum progesterone concentrations. The data described here were obtained simultaneously with pharmacokinetic data presented in another article in this issue. Sixteen surgically sterile women with regular menstrual cycles were studied for one control cycle, three consecutive treatment months, and 3-5 months of follow-up. Suppression, followed by resumption of ovulation (the dynamic end point), was assessed by serum progesterone levels. Return of ovulation was presumptive based on progesterone concentrations > or = 4.7 ng/mL, as ultrasound was not used to determine the follicular/ovulatory status of these subjects. Luteal-like serum progesterone peaks were observed in all 16 women before drug administration, confirming the presence of ovulatory cycles. After the third monthly injection of MPA/E2C, progesterone concentrations were measured until demonstration of ovulation. Two women discontinued and three were lost to follow-up before this objective was achieved. Serum progesterone levels and, consequently, ovulation were suppressed beyond the entire dosing interval, indicated by the absence of any luteal-like progesterone peaks (serum progesterone concentrations did not exceed 1 ng/mL). The first normal ovulatory cycle, based on progesterone concentrations > or = 4.7 ng/mL, was observed in 11 women between days 63 and 112 after the third injection. Select medroxyprogesterone acetate parameters (i.e., area under the curve and minimum concentration) were correlated with return of ovulation. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.757 and 0.492 for area under the curve and minimum concentration, respectively, indicating that return of ovulation is dependent, in part, on area under the curve and on the magnitude of the serum MPA trough level. In general, the higher the

  8. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  9. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  10. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu-Yi Wang; Yong Song; Wei Huang; Li Xiao; Qiu-Shi Wang; Gui-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS...

  11. Reductions in milk Δ9-desaturation ratios to oral dosing of cobalt-acetate are accompanied by the downregulation of SCD1 in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Frutos, P

    2015-03-01

    Oral administration of cobalt has been proven to alter milk fatty acid (FA) composition consistent with an inhibition of mammary stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity in ruminants, but the mechanisms explaining its mode of action remain uncertain. In this study, Co (as Co-acetate) was dosed to lactating ewes with the aims of examining mammary gene expression during Co-induced changes in milk FA composition, and estimating the endogenous synthesis of SCD products in milk of sheep fed an 18:3n-3-enriched diet. Twelve Assaf ewes fed a diet supplemented with 2% linseed oil were allocated to 2 experimental groups and received an oral drench supplying either 0 (control) or 9 mg of Co/kg of body weight per day. Treatments were administered in 3 equal doses at 8-h intervals for 6 d. No effects of Co administration on animal performance were observed. The changes in milk FA (namely, reductions in most cis-9-containing FA) were consistent with an inhibition of SCD in the absence of detectable effects on the relative importance of mammary de novo synthesis and FA uptake. The high proportion of endogenous cis-9 trans-11 18:2 observed in this study (89%) would agree with a greater supply of trans-11 18:1 of ruminal origin in ewes fed linseed oil, compared with previous estimates in sheep fed a diet without lipid supplementation. Differences between studies could also be related to diet-induced changes in SCD activity. Altogether, both mechanisms would support that basal diet composition is a major determinant of the relative contribution of Δ9-desaturation to milk FA profile. Similarly, the consumption of a diet rich in 18:3n-3 might also explain the low proportion of milk cis-9 18:1 estimated to derive from Δ9-desaturation (29%). The administration of Co to ewes fed linseed oil allowed to discriminate minor 18:3 isomers in milk, such as cis-9 trans-12 cis-15 18:3, as SCD products. Finally, Co dosing lowered the mRNA abundance of SCD1 in the mammary secretory tissue

  12. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): steady-state pharmacokinetics of MPA and E2 in surgically sterile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, M H; Ryan, K K; Hopkins, N K

    1999-10-01

    The steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol (E2, released from E2C by esterase enzymes) were characterized after administration to surgically sterile women. This report describes the pharmacokinetics of this multiple-dose and open-labeled study (pharmacodynamics are reported in a subsequent article in this issue). Women with regular menstrual cycles were studied for one control cycle, 3 consecutive treatment months, and 3-5 months of follow-up. Blood samples were drawn before each monthly dose and at specified time points after the third monthly injection. A total of 16 women were enrolled, 14 of whom completed the study. These 14 women (13 white, one black) ranged in age from 28 to 43.4 years, in body weight from 47.6 to 68.9 kg, and in height from 150 to 175 cm. Mean serum MPA concentrations peaked in the first week after administration of MPA/E2C (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection). The mean MPA Cmax and AUC0-t(last) were 1.25 ng/mL and 32.13 ng.day/mL, respectively. Serum MPA concentrations declined with a mean terminal half-life of 14.7 days, indicating that absorption from the injection site is prolonged after administration of MPA/E2C. The time for MPA concentrations to fall below the lower limit of quantitation (i.e., < 10 pg/mL) after the third injection ranged from 63 to 84 days. The average MPA trough (Cmin' day 28) concentrations for the three consecutive monthly injections ranged from 0.44 to 0.47 pg/mL, indicating that steady-state conditions were achieved after the first injection. The MPA Cmin values were well above threshold levels required to suppress ovulation throughout the injection interval. Absorption of E2 from the injection site was also prolonged after injection of MPA/E2C. Mean concentrations of E2 peaked at approximately 2 days after the third injection, and the average Cmax was 247 pg/mL. Serum E2 levels declined with a terminal half-life of approximately 8 days; E2

  13. Bioavailability of prednisolone in rabbits: Comparison of a highviscosity gel and an aqueous suspension - single- and repeated applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sven; Rask-Pedersen, Eva; Prause, J.U.

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium......Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium...

  14. Taste-masking effect of physical and organoleptic methods on peppermint-scented orally disintegrating tablet of famotidine based on suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Takeshi; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are useful for improving benefits for patients of various ages. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor in the compliance of patients who take ODTs. We evaluated the taste acceptability effects of various taste-masking methods on bitter famotidine ODTs as a clinical pharmacological study. The following methods were tested to compare taste-masking effects: physical masking by spray-coating famotidine with ethyl cellulose versus organoleptic masking with added sweetener and flavor. The ODT samples were prepared as single or combinations of each taste-masking method using a novel suspension spray-coating method including a placebo. A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study and asked to score their bitterness, sweetness and total palate impressions by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS scores were significantly improved by the physical and organoleptic methods as compared to without taste-masked ODTs. Furthermore, the combination of both taste-masking methods was most effective for improving palatability and VAS scores were similar to those of placebo ODTs. The results of this study suggest that different taste-masking mechanisms function cooperatively.

  15. Comparison effect of acupoint injection by mixture of methyl prednisolone acetate and lidocain with oral medication in acute low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Hadianfard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 December, 2009 ; Accepted 10 August, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Acupuncture is a treatment useful in reducing and eliminating pain. This study was undertaken to present a simple and fast method of treatment in acute radicular low back pain by injection of acupoints.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with acute low back pain with positive Straight Leg Raising (SLR test were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. Physical examination in the pilot study showed that patients have five tender acupoints including BL-57, BL-40, BL-36 or 37, BL-23 and GB-30. The subjects in the first group were injected in at least 3 acupoints of these 5 points. Injection was done only once by mixing 2cc of lidocaine 2% and 1ml of methylprednisolone acetate (40 mg. The subjects of the second group took medication such as piroxicam 20 mg orally, methocarbamol 1500 mg and diazepam 10 mg daily for one week. Dependent variables were measured including; pain intensity was measured by Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, balance and weight bearing ability was measured by Standard Hopping Scale (SHS, sciatic nerve stretch was measured by SLR, patients’ function was measured by Back Pain Functional Scale (BPFS questioner.Results: Both groups were equal statistically before starting treatment, but there was a significant difference between them in variables BPFS and SHS 10 days after treatment. The mean of decreased pain intensity in NPRS and SLR were equal but effective in both group on the 10th day. Conclusion: It seems that effect of injection with acupuncture points in acute low back pain not only is as good as medical treatment but it is also better than that. In this treatment, there was no report of secondary complication to treatment. So, in patients with acute radicular LBP, injection of tender acupoints is an effective, safe, economical, and time saving method of treatment. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009

  16. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxibendazole suspension. 520.1640 Section 520.1640... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1640 Oxibendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 10 percent oxibendazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000069 in §...

  19. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. PMID:25592324

  20. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  1. 21 CFR 520.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 520.1289 Section 520.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1289 Lufenuron suspension....

  2. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  3. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rother M; Rother I

    2011-01-01

    Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-contr...

  4. Clostebol acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maccaroni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H29ClO3 [systematic name (8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S-4-chloro-3-oxoandrost-4-en-17β-yl acetate], is a 4-chloro derivative of testosterone, used as an anabolic androgenic agent or applied topically in ophthalmological and dermatological treatments. The absolute configurations at positions 8, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17 were established by refinement of the Flack parameter as R, S, R, S, S, and S, respectively. Rings B and C of the steroid ring system adopt chair conformations, ring A has a half-chair conformation, while ring D is in a C13 envelope conformation. Ring B and C, and C and D are trans fused. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a weak C—H...O interaction.

  5. 21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Febantel suspension. 520.903b Section 520.903b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903b Febantel suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 9.3 percent (2.75 grams per ounce) febantel. (b) Sponsor. See 000859...

  6. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole....

  7. Evaluation of the effects of oral water and low-density barium sulphate suspension on bowel appearance on FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Michael A.; Setty, Bindu N.; Kalra, Mannudeep; Holalkere, Nagaraj Setty; Mueller, Peter R.; Sahani, Dushyant V. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Cronin, Carmel G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Fischman, Alan J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess which of five bowel preparation regimes offers superior bowel distension and to assess if these regimes adversely affect FDG activity on PET/CT imaging. The study conformed to HIPAA regulations. Ninety patients were divided into five groups of 18 who received no oral contrast agent (group A); 900 ml of water orally (group B); or 900, 1,350, or 1,800 ml of LDB (groups C, D, E, respectively). PET/CT examinations were assessed quantitatively (bowel diameter, SUV) and qualitatively (visual assessment grading scale) for bowel distension and FDG activity by two blinded readers. ANOVA was utilized to determine if a statistically significant difference (SSD) existed between the groups in terms of distension and FDG uptake. Qualitatively superior bowel distension was observed in group C (LDB) compared to B (water) and greater distension was noted with increased volumes of LDB in C, D, and E. Quantitatively there was an SSD in mean distension between groups C and B (P < 0.001 except duodenum). Qualitatively and quantitatively there was no significant difference in bowel FDG uptake among the groups (P > 0.05). LDB as an oral contrast agent provides superior bowel distension over water and does not induce increased FDG bowel activity. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the effects of oral water and low-density barium sulphate suspension on bowel appearance on FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess which of five bowel preparation regimes offers superior bowel distension and to assess if these regimes adversely affect FDG activity on PET/CT imaging. The study conformed to HIPAA regulations. Ninety patients were divided into five groups of 18 who received no oral contrast agent (group A); 900 ml of water orally (group B); or 900, 1,350, or 1,800 ml of LDB (groups C, D, E, respectively). PET/CT examinations were assessed quantitatively (bowel diameter, SUV) and qualitatively (visual assessment grading scale) for bowel distension and FDG activity by two blinded readers. ANOVA was utilized to determine if a statistically significant difference (SSD) existed between the groups in terms of distension and FDG uptake. Qualitatively superior bowel distension was observed in group C (LDB) compared to B (water) and greater distension was noted with increased volumes of LDB in C, D, and E. Quantitatively there was an SSD in mean distension between groups C and B (P 0.05). LDB as an oral contrast agent provides superior bowel distension over water and does not induce increased FDG bowel activity. (orig.)

  9. Novel nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate has improved bioavailability compared with the conventional micronized formulation in the fasting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kyungho Jang, Seonghae Yoon, Sung-Eun Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Seo Hyun Yoon, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Howard LeeDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Megestrol acetate is an effective treatment for improving appetite and increasing body weight in patients with cancer-associated anorexia. However, Megace® oral suspension (OS, a micronized formulation of megestrol acetate, has low bioavailability in the fasting state. To overcome this limitation, a nanocrystal formulation has been developed. This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the nanocrystal formulation and to compare them with those of Megace® OS in the fed and fasting states.Methods: A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study was performed in three parts in 93 healthy subjects. A single 625 mg/5 mL oral dose of a nanocrystal formulation was administered in the fasting and fed states (part I. In parts II and III, a single 625 mg/5 mL oral dose of the nanocrystal formulation or Megace® OS 800 mg/20 mL was given in the fed and fasting states, respectively. Blood samples were collected for up to 120 hours post dose for pharmacokinetic analysis. Tolerability was evaluated throughout the entire study period.Results: The nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate was rapidly absorbed in both the fed and fasting states. In the fed state, systemic exposure was comparable between the nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate and Megace® OS. In the fasting state, however, the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration of megestrol acetate was 6.7-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, for the nanocrystal formulation than for Megace® OS. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Systemic exposure to megestrol

  10. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  11. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Yi; Song, Yong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Feng, Gui-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs, and CPA-containing COCs. Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months, combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise). Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared. Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed. Analysis of covariance was used to control for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 68 patients have completed the study. The combination regimen of COCs, metformin, and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI, acne, and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P PCOS and metabolic disorders compared with CPA-containing COCs. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-11001143; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=8395. PMID:27064030

  12. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  13. Simple, precise and accurate HPLC method of analysis for nevirapine suspension from human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Halde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV method was developed and validated from human plasma. Nevirapine and internal standard (IS zidovudine were extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction process using methyl tert-butyl ether. The samples were analysed using Inertsil ODS 3, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ column using a mobile phase consists of 50 mM sodium acetate buffer solution (pH-4.00±0.05: acetonitrile (73:27 v/v. The method was validated over a concentration range of 50.00 ng/ml to 3998.96 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to bioequivalence study of 10 ml single dose nevirapine oral suspension 50 mg/5 ml in healthy male volunteers.

  14. Quantitative analysis and purity evaluation of medroxyprogesterone acetate by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina, G; Valvo, L; Alimenti, R

    1985-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of medroxyprogesterone acetate and for the detection and determination of related steroids present as impurities in the drug. The method was compared with the normal-phase technique of the USP XX and was also applied to the analysis of tablets and injectable suspensions. PMID:16867645

  15. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbashri Bank; Arjun Ghosh; Suman Bhattacharya; Smarajit Maiti; Gausal A. Khan; Sinha, Asru K.

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding o...

  16. Comparison of Drospirenone-with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Yi Wang; Yong Song; Wei Huang; Li Xiao; Qiu-Shi Wang; Gui-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background:While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing.This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs,combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders.Methods:Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial.Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs,and CPA-containing COCs.Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months,combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise).Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared.Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests.The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed.Analysis of covariance was used to control for age,body mass index (BMI),and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups.Results:A total of 68 patients have completed the study.The combination regimen of COCs,metformin,and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI,acne,and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05).Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs.80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg,P < 0.01),and after 6 months of treatment,only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [-6.00,13.00] mmHg vs.-3.50 [-13.00,9.00] mmHg,P =0.009).Fasting glucose,fasting insulin,and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly in the DRP group (5.40 ± 0.41 mmol

  17. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  18. 21 CFR 522.1410 - Sterile methylprednisolone acetate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thrombophlebitis, hypertension, or congestive heart failure necessitates carefully controlled use of...) Intramuscular. Dosage may be repeated when necessary, as follows: dogs—2 to 40 milligrams (up to 120 milligrams in extremely large breeds or dogs with severe involvement); cats—10 to 20 milligrams;...

  19. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) procedure; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension ... bladder. There are two ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery ...

  20. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  1. Effect comparsion between oral administration medroxyprogesterone ac-etate tablets and application of intrauterine device in the preventing re-currence of endometrial polyps%口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片与宫内放置节育器预防术后子宫内膜息肉复发的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艳玲; 黄树峰; 孟军; 陈玉阁

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较宫腔镜电切术后口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片与宫内放置节育器预防子宫内膜息肉复发的临床效果。方法选取本院2010年8月~2013年6月的113例子宫内膜息肉患者作为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为宫腔镜电切术后口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片组(57例)和宫内放置节育器组(56例)。比较两组的术前、术后子宫内膜厚度及息肉复发率。结果宫内放置节育器组术后半年、1年和1.5年的子宫内膜厚度显著薄于术前及醋酸甲羟孕酮片组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。宫内放置节育器组的复发率显著低于口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论宫腔镜子宫内膜息肉电切术后宫内放置节育器可有效预防子宫内膜息肉复发。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets after hysteroscopy electrosurgical and application of intrauterine device after hysteroscopy electrosurgical in the preventing recurrence of endometrial polyps. Methods 113 endometrial polyps (EP) patients from August 2010 to June 2013 in our hospital were selected and divided into the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets after hysteroscopy electrosurgical group (n=57) and the application of intrauterine device group (n=56) according to random number table method.Endometrial thickness before and after surgery,and recurrence rate of polyp between in two groups was com-pared. Results Endometrial thickness in the application of intrauterine device group at the time of half a year,one year and 1.5 years was slighter than that before surgery and the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets group,with significant difference (P<0.05).Recurrence rate of polyp in the application of intrauterine device group was lower than that in the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Con-clusion Application

  2. Characterizing dense suspensions: two case studies from the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Khawaja, Nazia; Kazakevich, Irina; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Heslinga, Michael; Dalton, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Liquid suspensions of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient powders are present as pharmaceutical dosage forms in the form of oral suspensions and injectables. We present two case studies, both dense (~ 30-40%) suspensions, in which the physical characterization of the product, specifically, particle size & shape and rheology were key to understanding the key product attributes as pertaining to the manufacturing process and to patient administration. For the one case study, an oral suspension, identifying variations in particle morphology during the wet milling of the product was key to the product understanding necessary to modify the milling process. Rheological measurements were applied as well. For the second case study, an injectable, results from different particle size measurement techniques and rheological measurements indicated the possibility of flocculation in a formulation. Additionally, measurements were obtained to assess the ``injectability'' of the product via rheometer and texture analyzer measurements and Poiseuille flow modeling. As a result, the relevant shear rate regime for this drug product administration was identified.

  3. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the quality of life of the oncologic patient: a multicentric cooperative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, B; Garosi, V L; Intini, C

    1997-06-01

    Anorexia and cachexia, major problems in patients with cancer, lead to decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Successful treatment of these conditions has a positive effect on patients' quality of life. Among the pharmacologic treatments, partial effects have been observed following administration of corticosteroids, anabolizing drugs and synthetic progestogens such as megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MPA is able to influence the quality of life of neoplastic patients undergoing different chemotherapeutic regimens and/or radiotherapy for different tumor types. A series of 279 cancer patients undergoing either chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment for different tumor types was randomly allocated to receive either MPA or no treatment. We explored the effect of MPA oral suspension at the daily dose of 1000 mg for 12 weeks (group A) or no treatment (group B). Our data show an increase of body weight in group A patients and improvement in performance status. The outcome of the present study strongly demonstrates that therapy with MPA plays a fundamental role in ameliorating the complex symptomatology of cancer patients in intermediate or advanced stage of the disease undergoing casual treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PMID:9215608

  4. Evaluation of Three Amorphous Drug Delivery Technologies to Improve the Oral Absorption of Flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialpando, Monica; Smulders, Stefanie; Bone, Scott; Jager, Casey; Vodak, David; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Verheyen, Loes; Backx, Katrien; Boeykens, Peter; Brewster, Marcus E; Ceulemans, Jens; Novoa de Armas, Hector; Van Geel, Katrien; Kesselaers, Emma; Hillewaert, Vera; Lachau-Durand, Sophie; Meurs, Greet; Psathas, Petros; Van Hove, Ben; Verreck, Geert; Voets, Marieke; Weuts, Ilse; Mackie, Claire

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates 3 amorphous technologies to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of flubendazole (FLU). The selected approaches are (1) a standard spray-dried dispersion with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) E5 or polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate 64, both with Vitamin E d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate; (2) a modified process spray-dried dispersion (MPSDD) with either HPMC E3 or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-M); and (3) confining FLU in ordered mesoporous silica (OMS). The physicochemical stability and in vitro release of optimized formulations were evaluated following 2 weeks of open conditions at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. All formulations remained amorphous at 25°C/60% RH. Only the MPSDD formulation containing HPMCAS-M and 3/7 (wt./wt.) FLU/OMS did not crystallize following 40°C/75% RH exposure. The OMS and MPSDD formulations contained the lowest and highest amount of hydrolyzed degradant, respectively. All formulations were dosed to rats at 20 mg/kg in suspension. One FLU/OMS formulation was also dosed as a capsule blend. Plasma concentration profiles were determined following a single dose. In vivo findings show that the OMS capsule and suspension resulted in the overall highest area under the curve and Cmax values, respectively. These results cross-evaluate various amorphous formulations and provide a link to enhanced biopharmaceutical performance. PMID:27113473

  5. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  6. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  7. Research on School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the nation report increases in the use of punitive disciplinary methods (e.g., suspension). The need for these disciplinary practices to address serious student misconduct is undisputed. What research has questioned is why some students seem to be suspended more often than others, what effects suspension has on students, and whether…

  8. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  9. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate....

  10. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    -negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  11. A radioimmunoassay for serum medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimanker, K; Saxena, B N; Fotherby, K

    1978-04-01

    When injected intramuscularly in a dose of 150 mg, Depo Provera, a microcrystalline suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), will provide a contraceptive effect for at least 3 months. This paper describes a sensitive radioimmunoassay for MPA which has been used in the author's laboratory for the past 2 years. MPA was converted to MPA-3-CMO and the oxime was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the mixed anahydride method. 4 rabbits were immunized with the antiserum. A high titre of MPA antibodies was detected 6 months after immunization. Serum from the rabbit with the highest titre of antibodies to MPA was subjected to radioimmunoassay. 7 days after the intramuscular injection of 150 mg Depo-Provera, serum levels of MPA were found in the range of 1750 to 9000 pg/ml. By 75 days, the levels had decreased to 680-2600 pg/ml. The method was found to have adequate accuracy, precision and sensitivity. PMID:661315

  12. 36 CFR 223.237 - Request for delay, suspension, modification, or termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., suspension, or termination shall be issued in writing, except when exigent circumstances warrant oral communication, in which case a written communication shall follow promptly. ... conditions. Any such request must be submitted in writing and include a detailed explanation of all...

  13. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  14. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  15. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENEIMINE ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE MICROBEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanli Xu; Lina Xu; Shunlong Pan; Guangzhi Song

    2004-01-01

    The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) concentration on the properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions is studied with or without the addition of an electrolyte (barium acetate). Measurements of the apparent viscosity and the stability of TiO2 suspensions showed that PEI is an effective dispersant for TiO2 particles in suspension in the absence of an electrolyte, not only reducing the viscosity of the suspension but also increasing its stability. In the presence of an electrolyte, however, small quantities of polyethyleneimine could neither disperse the TiO2 particles nor decrease the viscosity of the TiO2 suspensions; only PEI concentrations beyond saturation adsorption could perceptively improve the stability of TiO2 suspensions.

  16. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such fatalities often are referred to as "harnessinduced pathology" or "suspension trauma." Signs & symptoms that may be ... move legs Hypothermia Pain Shock Injuries during fall Cardiovascular disease Fatigue Respiratory disease Dehydration Blood loss References: ...

  17. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  18. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cambendazole suspension. 520.300a Section 520.300a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.300a Cambendazole...

  19. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  20. Complementary analysis techniques applied on optimizing suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Negra, Michela; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Klemensø, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Three different polymers with different functional groups and similar molecular weight were tested as dispersing agents for suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia in ethanol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene imine, polyvinyl butyral/acetal. The stability of the system was assessed considering...... excellent performance of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene imine as dispersing agents. The stability and dispersing power were finally utilized for preparing concentrated suspensions for tape casting and subsequently to sinter the tapes into dense ceramic pieces....

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  2. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  3. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  4. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, F; Camaggi, C M; Strocchi, E; Comparsi, R

    1987-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) plasma pharmacokinetics was followed up in a total of 30 New Zealand rabbits after i.v. administration (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of either an aqueous suspension or a homogeneous solution of the drug in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). A well-defined triphasic decay of MAP plasma levels was noticeable in the animals treated with DMSO solutions. A delayed concentration peak was often present when aqueous suspensions were used, so if is not feasible to fit the experiment with simple polyexponential equations. Model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis (statistical moment theory) revealed a significant dependence of plasma clearance and mean residence time on the dose administered in both conditions. PMID:2954713

  6. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to o

  7. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  8. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; Sun, Guangyoung; Chon, ChonHee; Tucker, Randy; Preuss, Jason; Li, Ming; Minihan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  9. Alternatives to Student Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, David

    2012-01-01

    Seven years ago, James A. Garfield High School in East Los Angeles set a school record with 613 student suspensions, out of a total enrollment of 5,000 students. The school, made famous by the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver", was no stranger to the high rates of student discipline all too common within the Los Angeles Unified School District.…

  10. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  11. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  12. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2006-01-01

    arteries. Methods: Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were treated orally with either E-2 (4 mg/day), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day), norethindrone acetate (NETA) (2 mg/day), E-2 + MPA, E-2 + NETA, or placebo for 16 weeks (n = 10 in each group). Coronary arteries were used for m...

  13. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  14. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. PMID:24972948

  15. Protocols to study the physiology of oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline; Koo, Hyun; Marquis, Robert E; Burne, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors several hundred different bacterial species that colonize both hard (teeth) and soft tissues, forming complex populations known as microbial biofilms. It is widely accepted that the phenotypic characteristics of bacteria grown in biofilms are substantially different from those grown in suspensions. Because biofilms are the natural habitat for the great majority of oral bacteria, including those contributing to oral diseases, a better understanding of the physiology of adherent populations is clearly needed to control oral microbes in health and disease. In this chapter, we use oral streptococci as examples for studying the physiology of oral biofilms.

  16. Mixing in sheared suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzy, Mathieu; Abid, Nora Cherifa; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Metzger, Bloen

    2015-11-01

    Mixing occurs spontaneously in sheared suspensions, even at low Reynolds number. Under flow, successive collisions between particles deviate the laminar streamlines, and thus induce disturbances in the fluid phase, which produce very efficient mixing. We measure fluid velocity fields by performing high spatial resolution PIV experiments within a sheared suspension, and we numerically advect isolated scalar filaments in the flow using Diffusive Strip Method. Stretching law parameters are measured from the elongation of the filaments, and are used to fully characterize the process. The deformation statistics are found to be well modeled by a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise, which can be coupled with diffusion to infer the probability density function of the concentration in the medium.

  17. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  18. Transdermal or Oral Telapristone Acetate in Treating Patients Undergoing Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  20. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  1. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by...

  2. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  3. Oral Insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

  4. Effective Viscosity of Microswimmer Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaï, Salima; Jibuti, Levan; Peyla, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The measurement of a quantitative and macroscopic parameter to estimate the global motility of a large population of swimming biological cells is a challenge. Experiments on the rheology of active suspensions have been performed. Effective viscosity of sheared suspensions of live unicellular motile microalgae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii) is far greater than for suspensions containing the same volume fraction of dead cells. In addition, suspensions show shear thinning behavior. We relate these macroscopic measurements to the orientation of individual swimming cells under flow and discuss our results in the light of several existing models.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  7. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  8. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Mexazolam Using Ethylene-vinyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Weon Cho, Cheong; Chul Shin, Sang

    2012-01-01

    Repeated oral administration of mexazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, may cause adverse effects such as gastric disturbance, drowsiness, and ataxia due to transiently high blood levels. Transdermal administration would avoid the systemic side effects and gastric disorders after oral administration. We have developed a matrix using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), a heat-processible and flexible material, for transdermal delivery of mexazolam. Drug solubility was highest at 40% PEG-400 volume fractio...

  9. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  10. PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL GABAPENTIN IN THE GREAT HORNED OWL (BUBO VIRGINIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaw, Taylor J; Zaffarano, Bianca A; Gall, Andrew; Olds, June E; Wulf, Larry; Papastavros, Efthimia; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-09-01

    Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17±0.83 μg/ml, 51.43±5.66 min, and 264.60±69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls. PMID:26352959

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE: Electroconductive magnetorheological suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Ioan

    2006-12-01

    A magnetorheological suspension (MRS) is obtained by thermal decomposition of Fe2(CO)9 in mineral oil with stearic acid. For well-chosen values of the intensity of the magnetic field, the suspension becomes electroconductive. By addition of styrene acrylate copolymer iron oxide, MRSs are obtained with prescribed domains of electrical conductivity. The experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishell, D R

    1996-05-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an aqueous suspension of 17-acetoxy 6-methyl progestin administered by intramuscular injection for long-term contraception. This highly effective injectable formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has a prolonged duration of action since the progestin is released slowly from the muscle. MPA is detected in the serum within 30 minutes after an injection of 150 mg. Serum concentrations vary between individual women but generally plateau at about 1.0 ng/mL for about three months, after which there is a gradual decline. In some women, MPA can be detected in the serum for as long as nine months after a single injection of 150 mg. The circulating MPA initially inhibits the midcycle leutinizing hormone (LH) peak, but LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels remain in the range of those for the luteal phase of a pretreatment control cycle. Since ovulation is inhibited, serum progesterone levels remain low (< 0.4 ng/mL) for several months following an injection of DMPA. When MPA levels fall below 0.1 ng/mL, ovulation resumes. Thus, return to fertility is delayed for several months if a woman wishes to conceive after receiving one or more injections of DMPA. Following an injection of DMPA, serum estradiol levels initially are in the early to midfollicular phase range (mean approximately 50 pg/nL). Serum estradiol levels begin to rise about four months after a single injection when MPA levels fall below 0.5 ng/mL. For women who have used DMPA for several years, serum estradiol levels range between 10 and 92 pg/mL, with mean levels of about 40 pg/mL. Despite these low levels of estradiol, hot flushes are a rare event, and the vaginal epithelium remains moist and well rugated. Women using DMPA for several years do not observe a change in breast size. DMPA causes the endometrium to become atrophic, with small, straight endometrial glands and decidualized stroma. The cervical mucus remains thick and viscid. DMPA is a

  13. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  14. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  15. Depot-leuprolide acetate for treatment of paraphilias: a report of twelve cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R B; Kaplan, M S

    2001-08-01

    A new class of antiandrogen medications, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, offers promise in the treatment of the paraphilias, with substantially less side effects than medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyproterone acetate. This paper reports the results of treatment using a depot suspension of leuprolide acetate on 12 patients with paraphilic disorders or with sexual disorders not otherwise specified to suppress or help these individuals control their deviant sexual behavior or impulses. The method involved uncontrolled observations of individuals treated with depot-leuprolide acetate for various lengths of time, from 6 months to 5 years, with the follow-up intervals ranging from 6 months to 6 years. Leuprolide acetate resulted in a significant suppression of deviant sexual interests and behavior as measured by self-report and was well tolerated. However, the three patients who were on long-term therapy developed bone demineralization, suggesting that this is a significant side effect of prolonged therapy. Leuprolide acetate shows promise as a treatment for the paraphilias. PMID:11446201

  16. Combination effect of pH and acetate on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMSAIYUD Angsana; SONGKASIRI Warinthom; NOPHARATANA Annop; CHAIPRASERT Pawinee

    2009-01-01

    The productivity and efficiency of cellulase are significant in cellulose hydrolysis. With the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), the pH value in anaerobic digestion system is reduced. Therefore, this study will find out how the pH and the amount of acetate influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The effects of pH and acetate on cellulase produced from Bacillus coagulans were studied at various pH 5-8, and acetate concentrations (0-60 mmol/L). A batch kinetic model for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was constructed from experimental data and performed. The base hypothesis was as follows: the rates of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis rely on pH and acetate concentration. The results showed that the suitable pH range for cellulase production and cellulose hydrolysis (represents efficiency of cellulase) was 2.6-7.5, and 5.3-8.3, respectively. Moreover, acetate in the culture medium had an effect on cellulase production (K1= 49.50 mmol/L, n=1.7) less than cellulose hydrolysis (K1=37.85 mmol/L, n=2.0). The results indicated that both the pH of suspension and acidogenic products influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in an anaerobic environment. To enhance the cellulose hydrolysis rate, the accumulated acetate concentration should be lower than 25 mmol/L, and pH should be maintained at 7.

  17. A stability-indicating HPLC method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in bulk drug and injection formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burana-Osot, Jankana; Ungboriboonpisal, Sooksri; Sriphong, Lawan

    2006-03-18

    A stability-indicating HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bulk drug and injectable suspension. An isocratic RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hichrom C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d., 5 microm) utilizing a mobile phase of methanol 0.020 M acetate buffer pH 5 (65:35, v/v) and a photodiode array detector at 245 nm. The stress testing of MPA was carried out under acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, and oxidation conditions. MPA was well resolved from its degradation products, a main related substance (megestrol acetate) and two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben) with the resolution >or=2. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of MPA in bulk drug and injections as well as the stability-indicating studies. PMID:16242876

  18. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  19. Oral cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  20. Efficacy of natural antimicrobials in toothpaste formulations against oral biofilms in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, M.J.; Busscher, H.J.; Jager, D.; Slomp, A.M.; Abbas, F.; Mei, H.C. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacies of two toothpaste formulations containing natural antimicrobials (herbal extracts and chitosan) against oral biofilms of different composition and maturational status. Methods: Bacteria from a buffer suspension or fresh saliva were adhered for 2 h

  1. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is...

  3. Effects of fufang yimucao oral liquid on acute ache model mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjie Wang; Mingsan Miao; Yulin Zhang; Jingjing Shi; Yalei Yang; Huili Liu

    2007-01-01

    perfused with the same volume yimucao oral liquid and saline, respectively, once a day for 3 successive days. Half an hour and one hour after administration for the last tune, the range of pain was tested in hot plate and the increasing numerical value was counted.②Another 60 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. The grouping ways, numbers of animal and administration were as the same as those mentioned above. Forty minutes after administration for the last time, mice were given the celiac injecting with the fresh acetic acid, then observed and registered the delitescence of turned body and the times of turning in 10 minutes.③The rest of 60 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 in each group. The five groups were divided as the same as mentioned above, and the last group was the blank control group. Mice in the 5 former groups were given synestrin tablets CMC suspension with the dose of 2 mg/kg, 0.1 g/L and 0.2 mL/10 g once a day for 12 successive days. Ten days later, mice were administrated as the same ways and dosage mentioned above. Mice in blank control group were perfused with the same volume of saline. Two days after modeling and 40 minutes after administration, mice were injected with oxytocin to observe the latent period and the frequency of twisting reaction in 10 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect of fufang yimucao oral liquid on mice pain model induced by hot board method, twisting body response induced by acetic acid and mice dysmenorrhea model. RESULTS:①Effect of fufang yimucao oral liquid on mice pain model induced by hot board: Thirty minutes after administration, the pain threshold of yimucao oral liquid group and high-, middle- and low-dose fufang yimucao oral liquid groups were respectively (25.42 + 2.10), (22.40 + 3.42), (25.24 + 2.51) and (19.80 + 2.00) s, which were markedly higher than saline group [(17.98 + 1.68) s, P<0.05 - 0.01]. Sixty minutes after administration, the pain threshold of yimucao oral liquid group and high

  4. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deslorelin acetate. 522.533 Section 522.533 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Deslorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each implant contains 2.1 milligrams deslorelin acetate. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  9. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  10. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  11. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension...

  12. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  14. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  15. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015...) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  16. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  17. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension...

  18. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  19. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  20. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  1. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or... out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall not be missing or damaged....

  2. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  3. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  4. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  5. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  6. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  7. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. The drug is used in dogs where systemic antibacterial action against sensitive organisms is... blood dyscrasia, nor in those with a history of sulfonamide sensitivity. Federal law restricts this...

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  10. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  11. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  12. A novel method of producing a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Leena I; Rantanen, Jukka T; von Bonsdorff, Anna K;

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of producing a microcrystalline oral suspension containing beta-sitosterol in oil for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. beta-Sitosterol pseudopolymorphs with different water contents were crystallized from acetone and acetone-water solutions. Structural...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  15. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  16. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z. Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  17. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit cri...

  18. Improved oral absorption of dutasteride via Soluplus®-based supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yeom, Dong Woo; Song, Ye Seul; Cho, Ha Ra; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-01-15

    A novel supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) was formulated to improve the oral absorption of dutasteride (DTS), a 5α-reductase inhibitor that is poorly water-soluble. A supersaturable system was prepared by employing Soluplus(®) (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) as a precipitation inhibitor with a conventional SEDDS vehicle consisted of Capryol™ 90, Cremophor(®) EL and Transcutol(®) HP (DTS:SEDDS vehicle:Soluplus(®)=1.0:67.6:10.0 w/v/w). In an in vitro dissolution test in a non-sink condition, the drug dissolution rate from SEDDS was rapidly increased to 72% for an initial period of 5min, but underwent rapid drug precipitation within 2h, decreasing the amount of drug dissolved to one-seventh of its original amount. On the other hand, S-SEDDS resulted in a slower crystallization of DTS by virtue of a precipitation inhibitor, maintaining a 3 times greater dissolution rate after 2h compared to SEDDS. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the S-SEDDS formulation exhibited 3.9-fold greater area-under-curve value than that of the drug suspension and 1.3-fold greater than that of SEDDS. The maximum plasma concentration of S-SEDDS was 5.6- and 2.0-fold higher compared to drug suspension and SEDDS, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the novel supersaturable system may be a promising tool for improving the physicochemical property and oral absorption of the 5α-reductase inhibitor. PMID:25437113

  19. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  20. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Balamurugan R; Augustian P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment.Results: H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study.Conclusions:The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  1. PREFACE: Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2010-08-01

    The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) was organized between 25-29 August 2008 at the Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. The conference's scientific program focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of fluids which can be controlled by external electric or magnetic fields. Within this framework electrorheological fluids, magnetorheological suspensions, ferrofluids and—for the first time—magnetorheological elastomers, which have attracted great interest in recent years, formed the class of materials discussed during the conference. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries and 85 oral presentations in non-parallel sessions, including 8 plenary talks and 81 posters, it has been the largest ERMR meeting held during the last decade. This growth is at least partly driven by the synthesis of improved fluids and elastomers, which open new possibilities for applications as well as in basic research characterizing the flow and properties of such materials under the influence of external magnetic and electric fields. The general proceedings of ERMR08 include 116 peer-reviewed papers covering all conference topics. They were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series volume 149 in 2009. The present special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains six selected papers dealing with basic research problems which will be of general interest to the condensed matter community. We hope that this selection will provide an insight into the fascination of soft matter controlled by external fields.

  2. Evaluation of melengestrol acetate and equine chorionic gonadotropin for out-of-season breeding in sheep on Prince Edward Island.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a recommended protocol of oral melengestrol acetate (MGA) to intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), for out-of-season breeding of sheep on Prince Edward Island. One hundred and twenty ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 groups in a factorial design and were treated with either an intravaginal MPA sponge or oral MGA. Ewes received either an intramuscular injection of eCG or a saline ...

  3. Xanthan biopolymers: A review of methods for the determination of concentration and for the measurement of acetate and pyruvate content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Kevin C.; Nasr-El-Din, Hisham A. (Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1993-07-26

    Xanthan gum is used extensively for enhanced oil recovery as a mobility control agent, in drilling operations to increase the suspension capacity of the drilling mud, and in gels to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency. Flow properties, injectivity, and adsorption characteristics depend on acetate and pyruvate content of xanthan. This review discusses various methods and techniques available for measuring the concentration of xanthan and its pyruvate and acetate content in laboratory and field samples. It includes a description of the principles of each method, advantages, limitations, interferences, and other information necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  4. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  5. Improved All-Terrain Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Redesigned suspension system for all-terrain vehicle exhibits enhanced ability to negotiate sand and rocks. Improved six-wheel suspension system includes only two links on each side. Bogie tends to pull rear wheels with it as it climbs. Designed for rover vehicle for exploration of Mars, also has potential application in off-road vehicles, military scout vehicles, robotic emergency vehicles, and toys. Predecessors of suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354), "Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System" (NPO-17407), and "High-Clearance Six-Wheel Suspension" (NPO-17821).

  6. Economic Evaluation of Norethisterone Acetate/Ethinylestradiol (FemHRT(R)) for Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Coyle; Ann Cranney; Peter Tugwell

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of a continuous combined oral preparation of norethisterone (norethindrone) acetate and ethinylestradiol (NA/EE) [FemHRT(R)] as both a first-line and second-line therapy for menopausal women. Perspective: Third-party payer. Methods: The cost effectiveness of NA/EE was assessed as both a first- and second-line therapy in comparison with conjugated equine oestrogen 0.625mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5mg (CEE/M...

  7. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  9. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  10. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  11. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  12. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  13. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in compare to medroxyprogesterone acetate as a therapy for endometrial hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Behnamfar; Attaollah Ghahiri; Marzieh Tavakoli

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison of insertion of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system versus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial hyperplasia in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 women with the initial histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia in two groups received LNG or medroxyprogesterone (10 mg/d orally) for 12 days a month for 3 months). Endometrial biopsy was obtained for all patients ...

  14. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  15. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension. PMID:17942253

  16. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Measured solubility data of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate. • Calculated Henry’s constant and thermodynamic properties of selected systems. • Concluded that selected absorbents have potential research value for CO2 capture. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, and 3-methoxybutyl acetate were measured by isothermal synthesis method under pressures up to 1.2 MPa and at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Henry’s constant was calculated based on experimental data regression. The solubilities of CO2 were found to increase with decreased temperature and increased the methyl group to the molecular structure of the absorbent. Henry’s constant and volumetric solubility of selected absorbents at T = 298.15 K were compared with those of commercial absorbents and common solvents. 3-Methoxybutyl acetate showed the best performance by mole fraction, and 2-methoxyethyl acetate behaved the best by volumetric fraction. Based on Henry’s constant, thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy of solution, enthalpy of solution, and absorption entropy of solution were determined. These properties are very essential for designing an absorption process

  17. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.

    1983-06-03

    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  18. Effective temperature for sheared suspensions: A route towards closures for migration in bidisperse suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, H.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    By extending the concept of an effective temperature, earlier introduced for sheared monodisperse suspensions, we propose a continuum theory for sheared bidisperse suspensions. We show the theory for sheared suspensions can be constructed from the theory for Brownian suspensions by replacing the tem

  19. Modeling of curvilinear suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Boulay, Fabienne

    1996-11-01

    The curvilinear parallel-plate and cone-and-plate rheometric flows of monodisperse noncolloidal suspensions have been modeled. Although nonuniform in shear rate, dotγ, the parallel-plate flow has been shown experimentally(A. W. Chow, S. W. Sinton, J. H. Iwayima & T. S. Stephens 1994 Phys. Fluids) 6, 2561. not to exhibit particle migration, contrary to predictions of prior suspension-flow modeling. Predictions of nonuniform particle volume fraction, φ, by the suspension-balance model(P. R. Nott & J. F. Brady 1994 J. Fluid Mech.) 275, 157. for parallel-plate and cone-and-plate flow without normal stress differences are presented. The ``nonmigration'' in parallel-plate flow may be attributed to bulk suspension normal stress differences: assuming the bulk stress has the form Σ ~ η dotγ Q(φ) with η the fluid viscosity, nonmigration is predicted for parallel-plate flow provided that Q_33 = (1/2) Q_11 at the bulk φ of interest, with 1 the flow direction and 3 the vorticity direction. Extending the model to include normal stress differences satisfying this requirement, a range of migration behavior is predicted for the cone-and-plate flow depending upon the ratio Q_11/Q_22.

  20. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.

  1. Dynamics of the colloidal suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; MA Hong-ru

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a survey on our current knowledge of the dynamics of the colloidal suspension,where each particle experiences the friction force with solvent,hydrodynamic interaction,and potential force from surrounding particles and thermodynamic force.It further contains a summary of the basic concepts about microstructures and equilibrium properties,and of analytical and numerical methods,which are relevant for the theoretical description of the suspensions.The description of the dynamics of colloidal particles,based on the generalized Smoluchowski equation,is justified for the time scale accessible in DLS experiments.The combined influence of hard sphere or electrostatic potential and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interaction on the short-time dynamics of monodisperse suspensions is investigated in detail.A thorough study of tracer-diffusion in hard sphere and charge-stabilized suspensions is presented.Mean-square displacements and long-time tracer-diffusion coefficients are calculated with two alternative approximations,i.e.,a mode-coupling scheme and a single relaxation time ansatz.

  2. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate t

  3. Microstructural Characteristics of Y2O3-MgO Composite Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Dense composite Y2O3-MgO coatings have been deposited by suspension plasma spray. Ethanol-based suspensions of powders synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor solutions containing yttrium nitrate (Y[n]) and magnesium nitrate (Mg[n]) or magnesium acetate (Mg[a]) were selected as the feedstock; this gave powders with both phases in each particle, to inhibit phase segregation during solvent evaporation. The influence of powder characteristics on the microstructures of the coatings was investigated. The Y[n]Mg[a] suspension was more stable, with a better dispersion of the component phases than the Y[n]Mg[n] suspension. The coatings deposited using each suspension type exhibited lamellar structures comprising Y2O3 and MgO phases in wavy alternating streaks, with unmelted/semi-melted particles entrapped in the lamellae; this indicates that phase segregation still occurred in the molten state. Eutectic structures were formed in the coating generated using the Y[n]Mg[a] suspension, resulting from improved mixing of the component phases in the suspension powder.

  4. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  5. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  6. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Maruta

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A, which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  7. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension....

  8. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  9. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  10. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 522.1289 Section 522.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Lufenuron suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains...

  12. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  13. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  15. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension....

  16. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a...

  17. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension....

  18. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  19. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a...

  20. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  1. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  2. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  3. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  4. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  5. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension....

  6. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension....

  7. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension....

  8. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension....

  9. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension....

  10. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  11. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis...

  12. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  13. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action...

  14. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  15. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  16. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension....

  17. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  18. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  19. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  20. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS, 31 CFR 903.1-903.2 ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20...

  1. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  2. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  3. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension....

  4. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  5. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension....

  6. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  7. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  8. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  9. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  10. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension....

  11. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  12. Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio-(chemo-)therapy. A randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The value of megestrol acetate in treating tumor anorexia and cachexia of terminal patients is well known. However, the supportive effect of megestrol acetate during intensive radio-(chemo-)therapy was not investigated up to now. Therefore a randomized trial was performed including patients with advanced tumors in the head and neck region. Patients and Methods: From June 1991 to December 1993 a total of 64 patients were admitted to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. During and up to 6 weeks following radiotherapy patients received 160 mg/d megestrol acetate or placebo. The nutritional status (anthropometric and laboratory parameters) and the quality-of-life index according to Padilla et al. were determined prior to therapy, 1, 4, 6 weeks later during radiotherapy and 12, 18 weeks after completion. Results: Sixty-one out of 64 patients were evaluable (control group: n=30; megestrol acetate patients: n=31). One patients refused further participation after randomization. One patient in each arm was excluded due to side effects (impotence, diarrhoea). Further side effects were not observed. In the control group the nutrititional parameters (body weight, triceps skinfold) and the subjective feeling of the patients deteriorated during radiotherapy and did not restore following radiotherapy. By contrast, the patients of the megestrol acetate group were able to stabilize these parameters. This difference was most prominent in the orally nourished patients (weight loss during therapy: Control group: -4.1 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.004); but not in the patients fed by percutaneous endoscopically guided gastrostomy (weight loss control group: -2.4 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.14). Conclusion: In patients on radiochemotherapy megestrol acetate prevents patients from further deterioration of the nutritional status and quality of life. (orig.)

  13. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  14. Characteristics of Students Who Reenroll after Serving a Disciplinary Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Matthew T.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if students who reenroll following a disciplinary suspension had significant common characteristics. Gender, GPA at time of suspension, class status at time of suspension, type of violation(s) that resulted in suspension, number of disciplinary incidents prior to suspension, and length of suspension were…

  15. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  17. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  18. Mucosal genetic immunization through microsphere–based oral carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Rozita; Nograles, Nadine; Hanafi, Aimi; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Abdullah, Syahril

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric carriers in the form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and alginate (ALG) microspheres were used for encapsulation of plasmid DNA for oral mucosal immunization. Access into the intestinal mucosa by pVAX1 eukaryotic expression plasmid vectors carrying gene-coding sequences, either for the cholera enterotoxin B subunit (ctxB) immunostimulatory antigen or the green fluorescent protein (GFP), delivered from both types of microsphere carriers were examined in orally immunized BALB/c m...

  19. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    weight were recorded. In conclusion, these findings indicate toxicity of 9 mg/kg bw/day ionic silver but not of an equimolar Ag- NP dose. This is in accordance with previously reported data showing that oral Ag-acetate, in comparison with an equimolar dose of Ag-NP, resulted in higher silver plasma......Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  20. Copolymerization of polyketones catalyzed by polyacrylonitrile resin-supported palladium acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was synthesized by suspension polymerization using acrylonitrile (ANT) and divinylbenzene (DVB).Effects of a variety of conditions on the polymerization of PAN particle size and stiffness were investigated.Polyketone was prepared by the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO) and styrene (ST) catalyzed by PAN resin-supported palladium acetate.The resin-supported catalyst and the copolymerization product were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).Effects of the components of a catalytic system and reaction time on the catalytic activity were studied.The reusability of the resin-supported catalyst was also investigated.Results indicated that the resin-supported catalyst has excellent catalytic property.The yield of polyketone was 6.2348 g when using 1 g of resin and 22.4 mg of palladium acetate.

  1. Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes, olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

  2. Establishment of suspension cell culture of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.- A threatened anti-diabetic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthic Raju

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A cell suspension culture was established from leaf explants of wild Gymnema sylvestre plants collected from Muniyankudisai,Tamilnadu, India. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 9.0 μM l-1 of 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.1 μM l-1Benzyl adenine produced yellow friable callus with green patches.The cells were subcultured conscientiously twelve times to getconsistent growth of the cells in suspension. From the 10thsubculture onwards callus cells acclimatized to grow in suspensionwith aggregation and reached 168.6 g l-1 fw and 5.16 g l-1 dw of cellbiomass.

  3. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  4. PHASE-II STUDY OF HIGH-DOSE MEGESTROL-ACETATE IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED OVARIAN-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VEENHOF, CHN; VANDERBURG, MEL; NOOY, M; AALDERS, JG; PECORELLI, S; OLIVEIRA, CF; ROTMENSZ, N; VERMORKEN, JB

    1994-01-01

    The EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Cooperative Group conducted a phase II study of high dose oral megestrol acetate: 800 mg/day for 1 month followed by 400 mg/day as maintenance treatment, in heavily pretreated patients with ovarian cancer. Of 72 patients included in this study, 54 were fully evaluable

  5. Open comparative trial of formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with tamoxifen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freue, M; Kjaer, M; Boni, C; Joliver, J; Janicke, F; Willemse, PHB; Coombes, RC; Van Belle, S; Perez-Carrion, R; Zieschang, J; de Palacios, PI; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor formestane (250 mg i.m. given every 2 weeks) with the progestin megestrol acetate (160 mg administered orally once daily), as second-line therapy in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treat

  6. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  7. Successful treatment of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate-related vaginal bleeding improves continuation rates in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin M. Rager; Amy Fowler; Hatim A. Omar

    2006-01-01

    High discontinuation rates for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in adolescents may contribute to the number of unintended pregnancies. Many cite vaginal bleeding as a reason for discontinuing DMPA use. In this study, we attempted to determine if treating DMPA-associated vaginal bleeding with monophasic oral contraceptive pills (OCP) raised continuation rates. A total of 131 patients who reported vaginal bleeding while on DMPA were included in this study and 83 were treated with monoph...

  8. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  9. Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2+·C6HCl2O4−·C4H8O2, the 1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hydroxycyclohexyl and 4-hydroxyphenyl rings is 84.0 (8°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of −171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583 (15: 0.417 (15. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H...(O,O cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H...O interactions occur.

  10. New Biopolymer Nanoparticles Improve the Solubility of Lipophilic Megestrol Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Lachowicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As many substances are poorly soluble in water and thus possess decreased bioavailability, creating orally administered forms of these substances is a challenge. The objective of this study was to determine whether the solubility of megestrol acetate, a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS class II drug, can be improved by using a newly-synthesized surfactant (Rofam 70: a rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate and compare it with two references surfactants (Tween 80, Pluronic F68 at three different pH values. Spectrophotometry was used to compare the solubility profiles in the presence of three tested surfactants at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0. Rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate was found to improve the solubility of the BCS Class II drug and increase its bioavailability; It increased drug solubility more effectively than Pluronic F68. Its cytotoxicity results indicate its possible value as a surfactant in Medicine and Pharmacy.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  12. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Shawn A.; Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Ge, Zhenbin; Shimmin, Robert G.

    2006-04-01

    We describe an optical beam deflection technique for measurements of the thermal diffusivity of fluid mixtures and suspensions of nanoparticles with a precision of better than 1%. Our approach is tested using the thermal conductivity of ethanol-water mixtures; in nearly pure ethanol, the increase in thermal conductivity with water concentration is a factor of 2 larger than predicted by effective medium theory. Solutions of C60-C70 fullerenes in toluene and suspensions of alkanethiolate-protected Au nanoparticles were measured to maximum volume fractions of 0.6% and 0.35 vol %, respectively. We do not observe anomalous enhancements of the thermal conductivity that have been reported in previous studies of nanofluids; the largest increase in thermal conductivity we have observed is 1.3%+/-0.8% for 4 nm diam Au particles suspended in ethanol.

  13. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  14. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  15. Electrorheology for smart automotive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Z.; Winkler, C. B.; Ervin, R. D.; Filisko, F. E.; Venhovens, P. J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the work reported was to demonstrate the suitability of electrorheological (ER) technology for adaptive control of suspension forces on tracked and wheeled vehicles. The mechanical shear strength properties of ER fluids change in response to the application of an electric field. The change is very rapid and fully reversible. This property was used to create an automotive suspension damper whose resistive force is readily controlled by an external electrical signal. The device was applied in a semiactive suspension system for the Army's high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The work reported covers a range of development tasks including definition of the semiactive control algorithm, ER fluid formulation, design and fabrication of an ER damper, design of an electrical control circuit, creation of a quarter-HMMWV test stand for the simulation of ride vibrations, laboratory measurement of the ER-damped performance characteristics over a range of physically simulated operating conditions, and computer simulation of the quarter-HMMWV system. The research demonstrated that an ER damper and appropriate control circuits could out-perform the conventional hydraulic shock absorber, but that various complexities tend to impede broad application of electrorheology in automotive devices.

  16. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  17. Oral / response

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The performance ‘Oral/Response’ joins an artist, Angela Bartram and a theorist, Mary O’Neill in research to analyse the dynamic, but often disjointed relationship between the live experience and its documentation by positioning both elements within the performance. Traditionally, the documentation of performance is a record left to stand for the work after the event that demonstrates an out of time viewpoint, which is a problem for ephemeral practice whose intention is to be ‘live’ and in the...

  18. Effect of Piperazine Dithioctate on the Oral Pharmacokinetics of Glimepiride in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Yu, Keewon; Choi, Kyungmi; Yu, Hyung Eun; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Kiho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between glimepiride (GMP) and piperazine dithioctate (PDT) in rats to support the development of an orally combined product of the two drugs. An LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of GMP and thioctic acid (TA) in rat plasma. The accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, and recovery were all within an acceptable range. The oral plasma exposure of the GMP solution was more than 14-times greater than that of the GMP suspension at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, suggesting a dissolution-limited absorption of the GMP suspension. Oral co-administration of PDT (72 mg/kg) with GMP suspension (0.5 mg/kg) reduced the plasma GMP exposure by approximately 80% without a significant change in t1/2 and tmax. Oral co-administration of PDT with GMP solution had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of GMP. PDT lowered the pH (from ca. 7 to 5.6) and the dissolved GMP concentration in the GMP suspension. It was also shown that GMP was more soluble at pH 7 than at 5.7 in an aqueous solution, and the oral plasma exposure of a GMP suspension at pH 7.0 was substantially higher than that of a suspension at pH 5.7. These results suggest that the pH-dependent solubility of GMP was likely responsible for PDT's effect on the oral absorption of GMP. In conclusion, the current work suggests a possibility of drug-drug interaction between GMP and PDT upon oral co-administration. PMID:26235578

  19. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  20. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Zaura; J.M. ten Cate

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  1. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Style, R. W.; Peppin, S. S. L.

    2010-01-01

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy’s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the ...

  2. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Satoshi; Numakawa, Tetsuya; Kubo, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  3. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Ogata; Tetsuya Numakawa; Takuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  4. Synthesis of Phenyl Acetate from Phenol and Acetic Anhydride over Synthetic TS-1 Containing Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guowen; Shi Chunfeng; Lin Min; Zhu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, phenyl acetate was synthesized from phenol and acetic anhydride over titanium silicalite-1, in which the organic structure-directing agents were immobilized (TS-1-U). The reaction conditions were speciifed at a phenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:1.2, a catalyst dosage of 6 m%, and a reaction temperature of 70℃. A total of 96.5%of phenol was converted to phenyl acetate without producing any byproducts after 2.5 h of reaction. Besides, although the catalyst deactivation is inevitable, TS-1-U could be recycled for at least four times.

  5. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  6. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction.

  7. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A.; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction. PMID:27226415

  8. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a...... sootblowing probe. The influences of feedstock (i.e., straw share in wood), flue gas temperature (600−1050 °C), probe surface temperature (500 and 600 °C), and probe exposure time on deposit shedding have been quantified. Quantification of naturally occurring deposit shedding and deposit shedding during plant...

  9. Study on the impact of lead acetate pollutant on immunotoxicity produced by thiamethoxam pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprita Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The curtailed knowledge about neonicotinoids that it has low affinity for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor for its widespread use assuming that it is much safer than the previous generation insecticides. But literature regarding effect of thiamethoxam (second generation neonicotinoidon immune system is not available. Also, there might be chances of interaction of heavy persistent metals in the water table with these pesticides. So, this study was undertaken with the objective to find immunotoxic alterations of lead acetate after exposure with thiamethoxam in animal model. Materials and Methods: For this albino mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (numbered I to VI each containing 6 mice. Animals of groups I and II were administered 87.1 mg/kg b.w.( body weight and 43.5 mg/kg b.w. respectively of thiamethoxam. Group III animals, lead acetate was administered orally and IV and V mice were administered combination of lead acetate and thiamethoxam at higher and lower dose level for 28 days. The group VI was control group. On 29 th day and humoral and cell mediated immune responses, TLC (Total leukocyte count, DLC (Differential leukocyte count, serum total protein, globulin and albumin, and histopathological studies were conducted. Result: The result obtained clearly indicated that on oral administration of thiamethoxam immunotoxicity was induced in mice in dose related manner. Lead acetate when administered for 28 days showed immunotoxic potential. Thiamethoxam and lead acetate when administered together did not lead to any new altered immunotoxic response but additive toxic effects of both were observed.

  10. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  11. [Oral pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  12. [Oral contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  16. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  17. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... digestive tract can overgrow and lead to an infection. Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal (yeast) ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  19. Controlled release low dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) inhibits the development of mammary tumors induced by dimethyl-benz(a) anthracene in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, F; Li, S; Bélanger, A; Côté, J; Mérand, Y; Lepage, M

    1993-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is well recognized to have beneficial effects for the treatment of advanced breast cancer which are comparable to those achieved with other forms of endocrine therapy. Using mammary tumors induced in the rat by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as a model, we have studied the possibility that low dose MPA could prevent the development of these tumors. Single subcutaneous injection of Depo-Provera (crystalline suspension of MPA) or MPA encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres of 50:50 poly[DL-lactide-co-glycolide] was given 7 days before oral DMBA. While 63% of intact animals developed palpable mammary tumors within 85 days after DMBA administration, tumor incidence decreased to 28% and 23% in animals who had received 30 mg and 100 mg of Depo-Provera, respectively. The same amounts of MPA delivered in microspheres caused a further decrease in tumor incidence to respective values of 7% and 6%. Average tumor area, on the other hand, decreased from 4.89 cm2 in intact rats to about 0.75 (0.57-0.88) cm2 and approximately 0.20 (0.14-0.22) cm2 in the Depo-Provera and microsphere-treated groups, respectively. Using the 50:50 formulation of poly[DL-lactide-co-glycolide] designed to release MPA at a constant rate for a 4-month period, the serum MPA concentration at 3 months was measured at 4.99 +/- 0.43 ng/ml. Such data suggest that administration of a low dose controlled-release formulation of MPA in 50:50 poly[DL-lactide-co-glycolide] microspheres could well be an efficient and well tolerated approach for the prevention of breast cancer in women. PMID:8251650

  20. Photomixing of chlamydomonas rheinhardtii suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Capellazzi Resta, Marina; Abou, Bérengère; Brunet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii is a fast swimming unicellular alga able to bias its swimming direction in gradients of light intensity, an ability know as phototaxis. We have investigated experimentally both the swimming behavior of individual cells and the macroscopic response of shallow suspensions of these micro-organisms in response to a localized light source. At low light intensity, algae exhibit positive phototaxis and accumulate beneath the excitation light. In weakly concentrated thin layers, the balance between phototaxis and cell motility results in steady symmetrical patterns compatible with a purely diffusive model using effective diffusion coefficients extracted from the analysis of individual cell trajectories. However, at higher cell density and layer depth, collective effects induce convective flows around the light source. These flows disturb the cell concentration patterns which spread and may then becomes unstable. Using large passive tracer particles, we have characterized the velocity fields associated with this forced bioconvection and their dependence on the cell density and layer depth. By tuning the light distribution, this mechanism of photo-bioconvection allows a fine control over the local fluid flows, and thus the mixing efficiency, in algal suspensions.

  1. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para a determinação de sulfassalazina em suspensão oral: comparação do método espectrofotométrico e de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayre Aparecida Borges da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfasalazine is a prodrug used in the treatment of the Chron's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Two analytical methods for analysis of sulfasalazine in oral suspension were validated using Spectrophotometric and HPLC. There is not any pharmacopoeic method to assay sulfasalazine in oral suspension. The methods are insurance and fast execution for the quality control. Both, suspension and tablets 500 mg (Azulfin® had been analyzed by methods using UV/VIS and HPLC and the results were satisfactory.

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  3. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  4. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  5. Simultaneous determination of Albendazol and Triclabendazole in Triclazol 22 suspension for veterinary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate the analytical method for simultaneous determination of triclabendazole and al bendazole in triclazol 22 suspension for quality control. For quantitation of the active principle in the final product, the separation was performed through a liquid chromatographic column Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm), with ultraviolet detection range of 298 nm, by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer solution of ph 6.6 (70:30); the quantitation was made against a reference sample by means of the external standard method

  6. In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperiton...

  7. Naringin ameliorates acetic acid induced colitis through modulation of endogenous oxido-nitrosative balance and DNA damage in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Venkatashivam Shiva; Rajmane, Anuchandra Ramchandra; Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit Dattatraya; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days to Wistar rats before induction of colitis by intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The degree of colonic mucosal damage was analyzed by examining mucosal damage, ulcer area, ulcer index and stool consistency. Intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid resulted in significant modulat...

  8. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  9. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  10. 2 CFR 180.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 180.1015 Section 180.1015 Grants... Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  11. 7 CFR 3017.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3017.1015 Section 3017.1015 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1015...

  12. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670...

  13. 29 CFR 98.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 98.1015 Section 98.1015 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1015...

  14. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1508.1015 Section 1508.1015 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  16. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and agency regulations implementing the OMB guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive Orders... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670...

  17. 75 FR 24494 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... CFR, 1986 Comp., 189 51 FR 6370), to establish a governmentwide debarment and suspension system... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001)) because it is not a...; ] ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION 2 CFR Chapter 58 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY:...

  18. 32 CFR 552.77 - Suspension approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension approval. 552.77 Section 552.77 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....77 Suspension approval. The installation commander will personally approve all cases in...

  19. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as...

  20. 22 CFR 208.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 208.1015 Section 208.1015 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  1. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated...

  2. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment...

  3. 21 CFR 1404.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1404.1015 Section 1404.1015 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  4. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The...

  5. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    . Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  6. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  7. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  8. Colloidal behavior of clay in whiteware suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossington, Katherine Rose

    2000-10-01

    This research investigated the colloidal behavior of kaolinitic clay in aqueous suspensions. The foundation of most current clay suspension behavior is based on early studies conducted prior to the application of colloidal concepts in ceramic systems and also when many of the colloidal theories were being developed. Technological advances in colloid science and the application of the theories greatly enhance the interpretation of the clay suspension behavior. Kaolinitic clay is the primary component responsible for the colloidal behavior of in traditional ceramics because the clay accounts for of the total surface area and active charge sites. The impact of cations and anions on colloidal behavior, specifically the dispersion and coagulation, of a whiteware suspension was examined using rheology and electrophoretic mobility measurements. The results indicate the cations are responsible for coagulating the suspension, including sodium, which has been labeled both a dispersant and a coagulant. The anionic species are responsible for dispersing the clay suspension, but zeta potential is an inaccurate measure of suspension stability. The influence of chemistry changes via cation and anion additions observed in suspensions are also detected in plastic bodies. The plasticity measured by the cohesion stress decreases with increasing cation concentration. It is suggested that the magnitude of the cohesion stress directly influences the formability and stress gradients established during drying.

  9. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  10. [Treatment of facial nerve paralysis using static suspension methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Roncević, R; Colić, M; Stojicić, M; Rasulić, L

    2003-01-01

    After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent. PMID:14619718

  11. (-)-Epicatechin Attenuates Degradation of Mouse Oxidative Muscle Following Hindlimb Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Malek, Moh H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS) with and without (-)-epicatechin supplementation to determine whether (-)-epicatechin treatment can attenuate the loss in muscle degradation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. Adult mice were randomized into 3 groups: (a) control (C); (b) HS with vehicle (HS-V); and (c) HS with (-)-epicatechin (HS-(-)-Epi). Animals in the HS-(-)-Epi group received (-)-epicatechin (1.0 mg · kg(-1) of body mass) twice daily through oral gavage. For markers related to muscle degradation, the HS-V group had significantly higher protein expression compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Moreover, protein expression for myosin heavy chain type I was significantly reduced by approximately 45% in the HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. In addition, capillarity contact and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HS-(-)-Epi group compared with the HS-V group. Furthermore, protein expression for thrombospondin-1 was significantly higher in HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Hindlimb suspension also significantly reduced protein expression for mitochondrial signaling compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin supplementation attenuates degradation in oxidative muscles after HS.

  12. [High dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in metastatic breast cancer. Comparative clinical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of different forms of administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, H C; Wander, H E; Nagel, G A; Köbberling, J; Kleeberg, U

    1982-08-01

    In the therapy of metastatic breast cancer MAP was used with different dosages and different forms of administration. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated. MAP plasma concentrations are dose dependent with great interindividual variation. The cortisol suppressive effect is dependent on plasma concentrations with only narrow interindividual variability. The oral administration of the crystal suspension is equivalent to the administration of tablets concerning plasma levels und endocrine effects. The therapy schedule for i.m. application used here leads to lower MAP plasma concentrations and correspondingly to a minor endocrine effect than in oral therapy. Tumor effective and cortisol suppressive plasma concentrations seem to have the same level. PMID:6215599

  13. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    , followed the same trends. Ash transformation was investigated by bulk ash analysis of the fuel, fly, and bottom ash during straw and/or wood suspension firing. Bulk ash analysis of fly ashes showed that the contents of volatile elements (K, Cl, S) were slightly greater than in the fuel ash, while Ca and Si...... remained either in the same proportion or were slightly reduced. It was also found that, with an increase in fuel ash K/Si molar ratio, the concentration of the volatile elements, K, Cl, and, to some extent, S, increased in the fly ash. The bottom ash was dominated by Si and Ca, with almost no S and Cl...... gas temperature (600–1050 °C) on ash deposit formation rate has been investigated. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online deposit probe that allowed nearly continuous measurement of the deposited mass. Two different measures of deposit formation rate are used...

  14. Depo-Provera Versus Norethisterone Acetate in Management of Endometrial Hyperplasia Without Atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdeldayem, Hussein Mohammed; Girbash, Ehab F; Arafa, Essa M; Atwa, Khalid; Abdel-Raouf, Samar M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness and safety of Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) in treatment of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and to compare it with norethisterone acetate (NETA) as an oral progestogen treatment. One hundred forty six women aged 35 to 50 years with abnormal uterine bleeding and diagnosed as having EH were randomized to receive either Depo-Provera, one injection every 3 months for 6 months (2 doses), or oral cyclic NETA, 15 mg daily for 14 days per cycle for 6 months. Primary outcome measure was regression of EH. Secondary outcome variables were side effects of treatment, persistence/progression of EH during follow-up period. After 6 months of treatment, Depo-Provera was more successful in achieving regression of nonatypical EH than NETA (67 [91.8%] of 73 women vs 49 [67.1%] of 73, respectively), and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (relative risk: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.63, P = .048*). Adverse effects were relatively common with moderate differences between the 2 groups. This is the first randomized study comparing Depo-Provera with an oral progestogen as a treatment for EH. Depo-Provera is an effective and safe treatment for EH without atypia. PMID:26718306

  15. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-07-10

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Abiraterone acetate: A novel drug for castration-resistant prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen-deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the management of advanced prostate carcinoma till transition to castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (CRPC. Recently, adrenal and intratumoral synthesis of androgens has been found to be the major cause for CRPC. Abiraterone acetate is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of 17 a hydroxylase and c 17, 20 lyase, which acts by decreasing the de novo production of androgens with no rise in steroids downstream. Multiple randomized trials have shown significant improvement of >50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA and time to PSA progression (TTPP with abiraterone acetate 1000 mg per day in chemotherapy/ketoconazole treated and naive CRPC patients producing reversible and manageable adverse effects due to mineralocorticoid excess. This article reviews the available evidence on efficacy and safety of this drug in CRPC. Searches of Pubmed, Cochrane database, Medscape, Google and clinicaltrial.org were made for terms like CRPC and abiraterone.

  17. Fierce Competition in China's Ethyl Acetate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zichang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ethyl acetate is used extensively in the coatings, inks, pharmaceuticals,adhesives, cosmetics and organic synthesis sectors. With the sustained stable growth of China's national economy, the construction and automobile sectors are developing rapidly and environmental protection laws and regulations are becoming stricter.

  18. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  19. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  20. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  1. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam and its degraded substance (HOPAA after oral and intravenous administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhuan Wan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam and its degraded substance (4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetic acid, HOPAA after oral and intravenous administration in rats were studied using an established UPLC-MS/MS method. Three groups of rats after an overnight fasted received 10 g/kg (n = 6 oxiracetam suspensions orally, and 2 g/kg (n = 6 normal or degraded oxiracetam injections intravenously via a caudal tail vein, respectively. Before the pharmacokinetic experiment, a simple safety evaluation test was conducted on the degraded oxiracetam injections containing 16.16% HOPAA in mice. There was no mortality by a single intravenous dose of 2 g/kg of degraded oxiracetam injections within two weeks, demonstrating that HOPAA was non-toxic in mice. Following intravenous administration of the normal injections, the plasma concentration-time curves of oxiracetam and HOPAA both showed a rapid elimination phase. The values of t1/2 were 3.1 ± 1.5 h for oxiracetam and 0.8 ± 0.2 h for HOPAA, and the mean residence times (MRT were 1.2 ± 0.1 h and 0.8 ± 0.1 h, respectively. Oxiracetam and HOPAA after intravenous administration of the degraded oxiracetam injections presented elimination patterns similar to those observed in the normal injections. Oral pharmacokinetic results showed that the Tmax was less than 1.5 h for the two analytes, and both had a longer t1/2 and MRT than those of intravenous administration. Contents of HOPAA in three groups were calculated based on AUC0–t values of the two analytes. The quantitative change of HOPAA in vivo was also evaluated by comparing the plasma concentrations of HOPAA and oxiracetam at the same time for every group. Additionally, the values of absolute bioavailability of oxiracetam were about 8.0% and 7.4% calculated by the normal or degraded oxiracetam injections, which were far less than the value of 75% reported in literature, indicating the necessity of further study.

  3. Vehicle suspensions with a mechatronic network strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chan, Hsiang-An

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a novel mechatronic network strut to vehicle suspensions and discusses the benefits of system performance. The proposed mechatronic strut consists of a ball-screw inerter and permanent magnet electric machinery, such that the system impedance can be realised through a combination of mechanical and electrical networks. Applying the mechatronic strut to vehicle suspensions, we evaluate the improvement of system performance using passive electrical networks. Furthermore, a prototype mechatronic strut is constructed for properties verification. Finally, nonlinearities of the mechatronic strut are taken into account to modify the suspension design. From the simulation and experimental results, the proposed mechatronic network strut is shown to be effective.

  4. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  5. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ceres; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel ...

  6. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  7. ABSOLUTE BIOAVAILABILITY OF ORAL MELOXICAM IN HEALTHY DOGS

    OpenAIRE

    K. T. Mahmood and M. Ashraf*

    2010-01-01

    Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-Inflammatory drug has been registered in Pakistan as a safe substitute of diclofenacsodium which was banned for veterinary use, due to its relay toxicity associated with the catastrophic decline in vulturepopulation of the Indian subcontinent. In Pakistan, Injection is the only dosage form registered for veterinary purposeswhereas Boehringer Ingelheim are licensed to sell meloxicam liquid oral suspension in UK and USA for use in dogs.The aim of the present stud...

  8. Effect of cimetidine on the absorption of orally administered tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, P; House, F; Inns, P; Morrison, P. J.; Rogers, H. J.; Bradbrook, I D

    1980-01-01

    1 Six healthy female subjects received orally two 250 mg tetracycline tablets either with 400 mg cimetidine or placebo. In a separate experiment six healthy female volunteers received 500 mg tetracycline as a suspension on the fifth day of a 6 day regime of 400 mg cimetidine or placebo, 8 hourly and at bedtime. 500 mg tetracycline as tablets was also given with cimetidine only. 2 Following a single dose of cimetidine the mean peak tetracycline plasma concentration was significantly reduced by...

  9. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  10. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  11. Comparison of Cuminaldehyde Contents from Cell Suspension Cultures and Seeds of [Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KHOSRAVINIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell suspension culture and seed samples of Bunium persicum were extracted by supercritical fluid, hydrodistillation and solvent methods and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. In this study to compare the different methods of extractions, cuminaldehyde was targeted as one of the Black zira essential oil constitute. For callus induction the germinated seeds were cultured as explants on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l kinetin (treatment A as well as 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl aminopurine (treatment B and followed by cells suspension cultures establishment for the first time. The results of cell culture showed that cells from treatment B have a growth rate higher than A. All extracts were dissolved in 1 ml hexane and analyzed by Gas Chromatography. According to the Gas Chromatography analysis, cuminaldehyde was not detected in the supercritical fluid samples, while it was present in hydrodistillation and solvent extract. Cuminaldehyde percentage in cell and seed solvent extracts was 4.65% and 18.61% respectively. Gas Chromatography results also showed that no cuminaldehyde is present in media extracts, means no cuminaldehyde has been secreted into the medium.

  12. An LPV Control Approach for Comfort and Suspension Travel Improvements of Semi-Active Suspension Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Anh Lam; Spelta, Cristiano; Savaresi, Sergio,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc; Delvecchio, Diego

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present a new H¥=LPV control method to improve the trade-off between comfort and suspension travel. Firstly, a semi-active automotive suspension uipped with a nonlinear static semi-active damper is presented. Secondly, the semi-active suspension system is reformulated in the LPV framework which can be handled in a polytopic way. Finally, in numerical analysis, to emphasize the performance of the proposed controller, the end-stop event is introduced....

  13. 45 CFR 1641.13 - Causes for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Causes for suspension. 1641.13 Section 1641.13..., SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.13 Causes for suspension. The debarring... that: (a) A cause for debarment under § 1641.7 may exist; (b) The IPA has been indicted for...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.740 Are suspension proceedings formal? (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 42.1302 - Suspension of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of work. 42... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1302 Suspension of work. A suspension of work under a construction or...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  17. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally o...

  18. Evaluation of bioequivalence of two oral formulations of olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, used for the management of schizophrenia and for the treatment of moderate to severe mania associated with bipolar disorder. The objective of the present randomised, crossover study was to compare the bioavailability of olanzapine 10 mg/5 ml powder for oral suspension with olanzapine 10 mg orally disintegrating tablet. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to crossover, single-dose treatment regimens. Serial blood samples were collected, and plasma concentrations of olanzapine were analysed using the LC-MS/MS technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters and bioequivalence limits were calculated using non-compartmental methods. Average C max following administration of the single 10 mg disintegrating tablet formulation and 10 mg/5 ml suspension were 14.47±4.25 ng/ml and 13.56±3.99 ng/ml respectively. Corresponding median T max were 5.0 h and 6.0 h, respectively. The average AUC 0-t values and AUC 0-inf values were similar following each of the olanzapine preparations. Overall, the 90% Confidence Interval for the intra-individual ratios of the log-transformed C max and AUC values of the two formulations were within the bioequivalence interval of 80-125%. The study has demonstrated the bioequivalence of the 10 mg tablet and the 10 mg/5 ml oral suspension of olanzapine.

  19. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for particles as they travel towards the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate are investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power are studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle are examined. The model used in current study takes high temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, s...

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  1. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  2. Magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of wind tunnel testing are outlined, with attention given to the problems caused by mechanical support systems, such as support interference, dynamic-testing restrictions, and low productivity. The basic principles of magnetic suspension are highlighted, along with the history of magnetic suspension and balance systems. Roll control, size limitations, high angle of attack, reliability, position sensing, and calibration are discussed among the problems and limitations of the existing magnetic suspension and balance systems. Examples of the existing systems are presented, and design studies for future systems are outlined. Problems specific to large-scale magnetic suspension and balance systems, such as high model loads, requirements for high-power electromagnets, high-capacity power supplies, highly sophisticated control systems and position sensors, and high costs are assessed.

  3. Suspension design for GEO 600-an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, N. A.; Cagnoli, G.; Hough, J.; Husman, M. E.; McIntosh, S.; Palmer, D.; Plissi, M. V.; Robertson, D. I.; Rowan, S.; Sneddon, P.; Strain, K. A.; Torrie, C. I.; Ward, H.

    2000-06-01

    The GEO 600 gravitational wave detector (1) is currently under construction at Ruthe, near Hannover in Germany. The design of the suspension system for the main mirrors in the detector has been chosen such that thermal noise due to the internal modes of the mirrors is expected to set the sensitivity limit from 50 Hz to ~200 Hz. Thus the design must be such that the effects of seismic noise and thermal noise from the suspensions are lower than the ``internal'' thermal noise at and above 50 Hz. To achieve this, a triple pendulum suspension incorporating fused silica fibers in the lowest stage forms the major part of the overall suspension and isolation system. In this paper, recent work on developing several aspects of the triple pendulum design is discussed. .

  4. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20% were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  5. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  6. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  7. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Urita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. M ethods : Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results : The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions : From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing. (Urita Y, Watanabe T, Imai T, Yasuyuki Miura Y, Washizawa N, Masaki Sanaka M, Nakajima H, Sugimoto M. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism.

  8. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  9. Robust Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control of a Car Suspension System

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman A. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Different characteristics can be considered in a suspension system design like: ride comfort, body travel, road handling and suspension travel. No suspension system can optimize all these parameters together but a better tradeoff among these parameters can be achieved in active suspension system.Objective of this paper is to establish a robust control technique of the active suspension system for a quarter-car model. The paper describes also the model and controller used in the study and dis...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  12. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  13. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  17. 40 CFR 721.3880 - Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate. 721.3880 Section 721.3880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3880 Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate. (a) Chemical substance and... glycol substituted acetate (PMN P-91-1269) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  19. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  20. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of ...

  1. Auxin requirements of sycamore cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, M M; Hall, J F; Robinson, G M; Elliott, M C

    1983-04-01

    Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cell suspension cultures (strain OS) require 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in their culture medium for normal growth. If the 2,4-D is omitted, rates of cell division are dramatically reduced and cell lysis may occur. Despite this ;auxin requirement,' it has been shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that the cells synthesize indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA). Changes in free 2,4-D and IAA in the cells during a culture passage have been monitored.There is a rapid uptake of 2,4-D by the cells during the lag phase leading to a maximum concentration per cell (125 nanograms per 10(6) cells) on day 2 followed by a decline to 45 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 (middle of linear phase). The initial concentration of IAA (0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells) rises slowly to a peak of 1.4 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 then decreases rapidly to 0.2 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 15 (early declining phase) and 0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 23 (early stationary phase).

  2. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  9. Inertial Effects in Suspension Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. F. Brady; Subramanian, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present work analyses the dynamics of a suspension of heavy particles in shear flow. The magnitude of the particle inertia is given by the Stokes number St = m(gamma/6(pi)a, which is the ratio of the viscous relaxation time of a particle tau(sub p) = m=6pi(eta)a to the flow time gamma(sup -1). Here, m is the mass of the particle, a is its size, eta is the viscosity of the suspending fluid and gamma is the shear rate. The ratio of the Stokes number to the Reynolds number, Re = (rho)f(gamma)a(exp 2)/eta, is the density ratio rho(sub p)/rho(sub f). Of interest is to understand the separate roles of particle (St) and fluid (Re) inertia in the dynamics of suspensions. In this study we focus on heavy particles, rho(sub p)/rho(sub f) much greater than 1, for which the Stokes number is finite, but the Reynolds number is sufficiently small for inertial forces in the fluid to be neglected; thus, the fluid motion is governed by the Stokes equations. On the other hand, the probability density governing the statistics of the suspended particles satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation that accounts for both configuration and momentum coordinates, the latter being essential for finite St. The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained to O(St) via a Chapman-Enskog type-procedure, and the conditional velocity distribution so obtained is used to derive a configuration-space Smoluchowski equation with inertial corrections. The inertial effects are responsible for asymmetry in the relative trajectories of two spheres in shear flow, in contrast to the well known symmetric structure in the absence of inertia. Finite St open trajectories in the plane of shear suffer a downward lateral displacement resulting from the inability of a particle of finite mass to follow the curvature of the zero-Stokes-number pathlines. In addition to the induced asymmetry, the O(St) inertial perturbation dramatically alters the nature of the near-field trajectories. The stable closed orbits (for St

  10. Electrostatic Effects on Droplet Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Fernandez, Arturo; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2002-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the effect of electric fields on the behavior of a suspensions of drops in channels. The effect of the electric field is modeled using the "leaky dielectric" model, coupled with the full Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations are solved using a front-tracking/finite volume technique. The method has been validated by detailed comparison with previous results for the axisymmetric interactions of two drops in Stokes flow. An extensive set of two-dimensional simulations has allowed us to explore the effect of the conductivity and permittivity ratios in some detail. The interaction of two drops is controlled by two effects. The drops are driven together due to the charge distribution on the surface. Since the net charge of the drops is zero, the drops see each other as dipoles. This dielectrophoretic motion always leads to drops attraction. The second effect is fluid motion driven by tangential stresses at the fluid interface. The fluid motion depends on the relative magnitude of the permittivity and conductivity ratios. When the permittivity ratio is higher than the conductivity ratio, the tangential forces induce flow from the poles of the drops to the equator. If the center of two such drops lies on a line parallel to the electric field, the flow drains from the region between the drops and they attract each other. When the ratios are equal, no tangential motion is induced and the drops attract each other by dielectrophoretic motion. When an electric field is applied to many drops suspended in a channel flow, drops first attract each other pair-wise and some drops move to the wall. If the forces are strong (compared to the fluid shear) the drops can form columns or fibers, spanning the channel and blocking the two-dimensional flow. Electronic "fibration" of suspensions has been observed in a number of systems, including dispersion of milk droplets and red blood cells. If the attractive forces are weak

  11. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Wuen Yew Teoh; Kae Shin Sim; Jaime Stella Moses Richardson; Norhanom Abdul Wahab; See Ziau Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarci...

  13. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  14. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    P S Satheesh Kumar; Anita Balan; Arun Sankar; Tinky Bose

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

  15. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  16. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  17. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly ... the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as oral ...

  18. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  19. Compound list: desmopressin acetate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available desmopressin acetate DDAVP 00159 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/a...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://...ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/desmopre...ssin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  20. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  1. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

  2. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  3. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  4. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akshaya Srikanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

  5. Percolation in suspensions and de Gennes conjectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Stany; Lemaire, Elisabeth; Peters, François; Lobry, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Dense suspensions display complex flow properties, intermediate between solid and liquid. When sheared, a suspension self-organizes and forms particle clusters that are likely to percolate, possibly leading to significant changes in the overall behavior. Some theoretical conjectures on percolation in suspensions were proposed by de Gennes some 35 years ago. Although still used, they have not received any validations so far. In this Rapid Communication, we use three-dimensional detailed numerical simulations to understand the formation of percolation clusters and assess de Gennes conjectures. We found that sheared noncolloidal suspensions do show percolation clusters occurring at a critical volume fraction in the range 0.3-0.4 depending on the system size. Percolation clusters are roughly linear, extremely transient, and involve a limited number of particles. We have computed critical exponents and found that clusters can be described reasonably well by standard isotropic percolation theory. The only disagreement with de Gennes concerns the role of percolation clusters on rheology which is found to be weak. Our results eventually validate de Gennes conjectures and demonstrate the relevance of percolation concepts in suspension physics.

  6. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  7. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  8. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  9. Mechanical behavior of alumina and alumina-feldspar based ceramics in an acetic acid (4%) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the mechanical properties of alumina-feldspar based ceramics when exposed to an aggressive environment (acetic acid 4%). Alumina ceramics containing different concentrations of feldspar (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, or 40%) were sintered at either 1300, 1600, or 1700 oC. Flaws (of width 0%, 30%, or 50%) were introduced into the specimens using a saw. Half of these ceramic bodies were exposed to acetic acid. Their flexural strength, KIC, and porosity were measured and the fractured samples were evaluated using scanning electronic- and optical microscopy. It was found that in the ceramic bodies sintered at 1600 oC, feldspar content up to 10% improved flexural strength and KIC, and reduced porosities. Generally, it was found that acetic acid had a weakening effect on the flexural strength of samples sintered at 1700 oC but a beneficial effect on KIC of ceramics sintered at 1600 oC. It was concluded that alumina-based ceramics with feldspar content up to 10% and sintered at higher temperatures would perform better in an aggressive environment similar to oral cavity.

  10. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  11. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  12. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zeila P; Bonamin, Flavia; Calvo, Tamara R; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes C; Rozza, Ariane L; Pellizzon, Claudia H; Rocha, Lucia R M; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A

    2011-01-01

    Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME) of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) in increasing of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  13. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% gel against ciclopirox and clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Bruce P; Mitchell, Calvin M

    2008-10-01

    Commercially available topical formulations consisting of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2%, ciclopirox 0.77%, and clotrimazole 1%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.5% were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against cultures of Micrococcus luteus, Propionibacterium acnes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium aquaticum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia furfur, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, or Epidermophyton floccosum. At 1 and 5 minutes following inoculation into suspensions of each product, aliquots were removed, serially diluted, and plated onto appropriate agar to determine the log reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) for each organism. Iodoquinol 1% produced the broadest and greatest antimicrobial activity as measured by a 3-log reduction of CFU, active against all microbes tested following incubation times of 1 or 5 minutes, except M luteus. By contrast, ciclopirox 0.77% and clotrimazole 1% showed activity against P aeruginosa and T rubrum, with ciclopirox also killing M luteus, P acnes, M canis, C albicans, and E floccosum at 5 minutes. Iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% also was the only product that showed effective antibacterial reduction of MRSA at 1 minute. PMID:19055171

  15. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T;

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated....... No overall differences were seen between CEE and E2. CONCLUSIONS: In rabbit cerebral arteries, MPA treatment causes a higher development in arterial tension compared with NETA, indicating that different progestins may display different cerebrovascular effects. However, when accompanied by estrogens...

  16. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  17. Robust Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control of a Car Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Aly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different characteristics can be considered in a suspension system design like: ride comfort, body travel, road handling and suspension travel. No suspension system can optimize all these parameters together but a better tradeoff among these parameters can be achieved in active suspension system.Objective of this paper is to establish a robust control technique of the active suspension system for a quarter-car model. The paper describes also the model and controller used in the study and discusses the vehicle response results obtained from a range of road input simulations. A comparison of robust suspension sliding fuzzy control and passive control is shown using MATLAB simulations.

  18. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  19. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  20. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.;

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....

  1. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was ob...

  2. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  3. A New Damper for Tracked Vehicle Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Fu-sheng; LI Meng; XING Zhi; L(U) Jian-gang

    2005-01-01

    The passive suspension system of tracked vehicle is designed to get its suspension parameters based on a certain common velocity and a certain road surface roughness. Its performance optimization only exists in a certain operating mode without far-ranging adaptability. Holding the damper basic frame form and applying semi-active suspension system based on MR (magnetorheological) damper, the vehicle can keep its optimum efficiency between energy dissipation and vibration reduction in all kinds of operating modes. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the damping performances provided by this MRF(magnetorheological fluids) vane damper are same as those provided by traditional damper, and the new damper has the better controllability and adaptability.

  4. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  5. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  6. Passive vehicle suspensions employing inerters with multiple performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinlong; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Shu, Zhan

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates passive vehicle suspensions with inerters by considering multiple performance requirements including ride comfort, suspension deflection and tyre grip, where suspension deflection performance is novelly considered which is formulated as a part of objective functions and a constraint separately. Six suspension configurations are analyzed and the analytical solutions for each performance measure are derived. The conditions for each configuration to be strictly better than the simpler ones are obtained by presenting the analytical solutions of each configuration based on those of the simpler ones. Then, two stages of comparisons are given to show the performance limitations of suspension deflection for passive suspensions with inerters. In the first stage, it is shown that although the configurations with inerters can improve the mixed performance of ride comfort and tyre grip, the suspension deflection performance is significantly decreased simultaneously. In the second stage, it is shown that for passive suspensions with inerters, suspension deflection is the more basic limitation for both ride comfort and tyre grip performance by doing comparisons among mixed ride comfort and suspension deflection optimization, mixed ride comfort and tyre grip optimization, and mixed suspension deflection and tyre grip optimization. Finally, the problem of mixed ride comfort and tyre grip performance optimization with equal suspension deflection is investigated. The limitations of suspension deflection for each configuration are further highlighted.

  7. Deflocculation of clay suspensions using sodium polyacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, P.

    1984-01-01

    Rheological properties of elutriated kaolin suspensions deflocculated by Na polyacrylate (DAC 3 and DAC 4) were studied and compared to those deflocculated by the conventional Na2CO3 water and glass and imported Dispex N40. The deflocculating effect of Na polyacrylate was comparable to that of Dispex N40. The optimum amounts of Na polyacrylate were determined for suspensions based on 5-type kaolin. The Na polyacrylate can be successfully used for decreasing the water content of ceramic slips for casting and spray drying.

  8. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  9. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, G.; Scopesi, M.; Franco, W.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the reader with a practical design tool.

  10. Turning bacteria suspensions into a "superfluid"

    CERN Document Server

    López, Héctor Matías; Douarche, Carine; Auradou, Harold; Clément, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The rheological response under simple shear of an active suspension of Escherichia coli is determined in a large range of shear rates and concentrations. The effective viscosity and the time scales characterizing the bacterial organization under shear are obtained. In the dilute regime, we bring evidences for a low shear Newtonian plateau characterized by a shear viscosity decreasing with concentration. In the semi-dilute regime, for particularly active bacteria, the suspension display a "super-fluid" like transition where the viscous resistance to shear vanishes, thus showing that macroscopically, the activity of pusher swimmers organized by shear, is able to fully overcome the dissipative effects due to viscous loss.

  11. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  12. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...

  13. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  14. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  15. 44 CFR 17.615 - Grounds for suspension of payments, suspension or termination of grants, or suspension or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to make a good faith effort to provide a drug-free workplace. (c) With respect to a grantee who is an... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.615 Grounds for suspension of payments... writing, that— (a) The grantee has made a false certification under § 17.630; (b) With respect to...

  16. Methylprednisolon acetate in the management of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaci, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Acute renal colic is a common complaint from patients entering the emergency departments. Although, urethral lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are known to be effective, the role of medical-expulsive therapy for the treatment of this disease has not yet been established. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of addition methylprednisolon acetate in the medical-expulsive therapy of distal ureterolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Eighty five (85 consecutive patients with a symptomatic distal urethral stone were included in our study and randomized to one of two home treatment groups. Group A patients (n = 45 received tramadol (50mg bid and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg daily for 21 days, and group B patients (n = 40 were treated with a corticosteroid drug (methylprednisolon acetate 40mg intra-muscular on 0, 7 and 14 days after treatment, in addition to tramadol and hydrochlorothiazide. The treatment duration was 21 days. All patients were re-evaluated after 21days with a clinical examination and KUB.Results: The mean stone size was 5.2mm and 5.8mm in groups A and B respectively (P value>0.05. Both groups had a significant difference in expulsion rate (20(44.4% for group A and 32 (88% for group B; (P value<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of a corticosteroid drug in association with tramadol and hydro-cholorothiazid appeared to induce an increase in the expulsion ra

  17. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  18. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko Imai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. Methods: Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results: The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing.

  19. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  20. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  1. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cuesta, Carla; Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V

    2014-12-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin.

  2. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  3. Flow Electrification in Nonaqueous Colloidal Suspensions, Studied with Video Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolpekin, V.A.; Ende, van den D.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    Flow electrification in nonaqueous suspensions has been scarcely reported in the literature but can significantly affect colloidal stability and (phase) behavior, perhaps even without being recognized. We have observed it in shear flow experiments on concentrated binary suspensions of hydrophobized

  4. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  5. Experimental study on the effect of vitamin C administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in rats exposed to chlorpyriphos and lead acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Waseem Hussain Raja; Fayaz Ahmad Zargar; Naseer Ahmad Baba; Parveez Ahmad Para; Mudasir Sultana; Hina Ashraf Waiz; Nisar Ahmad Nisar

    2013-01-01

    Aim :To evaluate the effects of chlorpyriphos, lead acetate, vitamin C alone, and in combination on the activity of oxidative stress parameters in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats of 150-200g body weight were divided into eight groups of six animals each and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimes for 98 days. Group I served as control receiving only corn oil, group II received th chlorpyriphos @ 5.5 mg/ kg in corn oil, group III received lead acetate @100 ppm in water,...

  6. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  7. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  8. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O' Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

    1989-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

  9. MODAL ANALYSIS OF QUARTER CAR MODEL SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath. K. Allamraju *

    2016-01-01

    Suspension system is very important for comfort driving and travelling of the passengers. Therefore, this study provides a numerical tool for modeling and analyzing of a two degree of freedom quarter car model suspension system. Modal analysis places a vital role in designing the suspension system. In this paper presented the modal analysis of quarter car model suspension system by considering the undamped and damped factors.  The modal and vertical equations of motions describing the su...

  10. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  11. Plasma concentrations of medroxyprogesterone acetate and megesterol acetate during long-term follow-up in patients treated for metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A A; Becher, R; Schmidt, C G

    1988-01-01

    A total of 32 patients with metastatic breast cancer responding with at least disease stabilization to treatment with two commercially available preparations of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or one preparation of megestrol acetate (MA) were followed for their plasma concentrations. The MPA and MA were measured by HPLC. MPA from Upjohn and Farmitalia was given to 12 patients (median age, 61 years; median follow-up, 20 weeks) and 8 patients (54 years, 16 weeks), respectively, on a schedule of 1000 mg daily i.m. for 10 days followed by 200 mg t.i.d.p.o. for the remainder of the treatment course. The peak concentrations (means, 163 vs 97 ng/ml), the time to peak levels (medians, 3 vs 10 weeks), and the areas under the concentration curves from time 0 to 24 weeks (means, 2400 vs 1868 ng/ml X weeks) were significantly different in the respective treatment groups (t-test; significance level, 0.05). MA from Bristol-Myers was administered orally in one daily dose of 160 mg throughout the treatment course in 12 patients (median age, 51 years; median follow-up, 20 weeks). A mean MA peak concentration of 218 ng/ml was reached after a median of 7 days. Plateau plasma levels were higher for MA than MPA. PMID:2965155

  12. Acetate supplementation reduces microglia activation and brain interleukin-1β levels in a rat model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brissette Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have found that acetate supplementation significantly reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a rat model of neuroinflammation induced with lipopolysaccharide. To test if the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate supplementation is specific to a TLR4-mediated injury, we measured markers of neuroglia activation in rats subjected to B. burgdorferi-induced neuroborreliosis that is mediated in large part by a TLR2-type mechanism. Methods In this study, rats were subjected to Lyme neuroborreliosis following an intravenous infusion of B. burgdorferi (B31-MI-16. Acetate supplementation was induced using glyceryl triacetate (6g/kg by oral gavage. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blot analyses were used to measure bacterial invasion into the brain, neuroglial activation, and brain and circulating levels of interleukin 1β. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s post hoc tests or using a Student’s t test assuming unequal variances when appropriate. Results We found that acetate supplementation significantly reduced microglia activation by 2-fold as determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Further, acetate supplementation also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β by 2-fold as compared to controls. On the other hand, the inoculation of rats with B. burgdorferi had no effect on astroglial activation as determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis despite significant increases in circulation levels of antigen toward B. burgdorferi and presence of the bacteria in the central nervous system. Conclusions These results suggest that microglial activation is an essential component to neuroborreliosis and that acetate supplementation may be an effective treatment to reduce injury phenotype and possibly injury progression in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

  13. Fluorinated graphene suspension for inkjet printed technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogatikova, N. A.; Antonova, I. V.; Kurkina, I. I.; Soots, R. A.; Vdovin, V. I.; Timofeev, V. B.; Smagulova, S. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2016-05-01

    The possibility to control the size of the flakes of graphene suspension in the course of their fluorination in an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution was demonstrated. The effect of the suspension composition, the fluorination time, temperature and thermal stress on the fragmentation process was investigated. The corrugation of suspension flakes, which occurs at fluorination due to a difference in the constants of graphene and fluorographene lattices, leads to the appearance of nonuniform mechanical stresses. The fact that the flake size after fragmentation is determined by the size of corrugation allows the assumption that the driving force of fragmentation is this mechanical stress. This assumption is confirmed by the break of the corrugated layers from flakes under thermal stress. Moreover, fluorination treatment at elevated temperatures (˜70 °C) significantly accelerates the fragmentation process. Suspensions of fluorinated graphene with nanometer size flakes are of interest for the development of 2D ink-jet printing technologies and production of thermally and chemically stable dielectric films for nanoelectronics. The printed fluorinated graphene films on silicon and flexible substrates have been demonstrated and the charges in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures have been estimated as the ultra low values of (0.5-2) × 1010 cm-2.

  14. Local transient rheological behavior of concentrated suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Frédéric; Lemaire, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports experiments on the shear transient response of concentrated non-Brownian suspensions. The shear viscosity of the suspensions is measured using a wide-gap Couette rheometer equipped with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) device that allows measuring the velocity field. The suspensions made of PMMA particles (31$\\mu$m in diameter) suspended in a Newtonian index- and density-matched liquid are transparent enough to allow an accurate measurement of the local velocity for particle concentrations as high as 50%. In the wide-gap Couette cell, the shear induced particle migration is evidenced by the measurement of the time evolution of the flow profile. A peculiar radial zone in the gap is identified where the viscosity remains constant. At this special location, the local particle volume fraction is taken to be the mean particle concentration. The local shear transient response of the suspensions when the shear flow is reversed is measured at this point where the particle volume fraction is well ...

  15. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  16. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  17. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have..., 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The tables published under the authority of... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  18. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  19. 75 FR 60 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  20. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  1. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no....; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  2. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132..., 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  3. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670...

  4. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This..., 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  5. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no....; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  6. 36 CFR 1212.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1212.670 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.670...

  7. 76 FR 5284 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  8. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  9. 75 FR 4000 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have federalism....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  10. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This..., 3 CFR, 1978 Comp.; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  11. 78 FR 5736 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no....; p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp.; p. 376. Sec. 64.6 0 2. The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility...

  12. 38 CFR 48.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 48.670...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.670...

  13. 32 CFR 26.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 26.670 Section 26.670 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.670...

  14. Formation of Aqueous Suspensions of Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloidal suspensions of C60, C70 and a derivative of C60, PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) were produced by extended mixing in water. We examined the contribution of background solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength) on the formation kinetics of colloidal suspe...

  15. Fluorinated graphene suspension for inkjet printed technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogatikova, N A; Antonova, I V; Kurkina, I I; Soots, R A; Vdovin, V I; Timofeev, V B; Smagulova, S A; Prinz, V Ya

    2016-05-20

    The possibility to control the size of the flakes of graphene suspension in the course of their fluorination in an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution was demonstrated. The effect of the suspension composition, the fluorination time, temperature and thermal stress on the fragmentation process was investigated. The corrugation of suspension flakes, which occurs at fluorination due to a difference in the constants of graphene and fluorographene lattices, leads to the appearance of nonuniform mechanical stresses. The fact that the flake size after fragmentation is determined by the size of corrugation allows the assumption that the driving force of fragmentation is this mechanical stress. This assumption is confirmed by the break of the corrugated layers from flakes under thermal stress. Moreover, fluorination treatment at elevated temperatures (∼70 °C) significantly accelerates the fragmentation process. Suspensions of fluorinated graphene with nanometer size flakes are of interest for the development of 2D ink-jet printing technologies and production of thermally and chemically stable dielectric films for nanoelectronics. The printed fluorinated graphene films on silicon and flexible substrates have been demonstrated and the charges in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures have been estimated as the ultra low values of (0.5-2) × 10(10) cm(-2). PMID:27044067

  16. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...

  17. Suspension of Water Droplets on Individual Pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, T.; Ferraro, D.; Chiarello, E.;

    2011-01-01

    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies on the suspension of water drops deposited on cylindrical pillars having circular and square cross sections and different wettabilities. In the case of circular pillars, the drop contact line is pinned to the whole edge contour until...

  18. Methane-to-acetic acid synthesis matriculates at Penn State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.

    1994-04-20

    Direct conversion of methane to commercially valuable chemicals remains one of the grails of industrial chemistry. But scientists at Pennsylvania State University (University Park) appear to have made a significant step forward, reporting the direct catalytic conversion of methane into acetic acid under relatively mild conditions. Commercial acetic production involves a three-step process, including steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (syngas) and the carbonylation of methanol of acetic acid.

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental ...

  20. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.