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Sample records for acetate allyl alcohol

  1. Compound list: allyl alcohol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available allyl alcohol AA 00010 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/allyl_alcohol....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/allyl_alcohol...dbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp:/.../ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney....Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/allyl_alcohol.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  2. N-Allylation of amines with allyl acetates using chitosan-immobilized palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple procedure for N-Allylation of allyl Acetates has been developed using a biodegradable and easily recyclable heterogeneous chitosan-supported palladium catalyst. The general methodology, applicable to wide range of substrates, has sustainable features that include a ligan...

  3. Kinetic Resolution of Racemic and Branched Monosubstituted Allylic Acetates by a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Regioselective Allylic Etherification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozawa, Toru; Terasaki, Shou; Mizuno, Shota; Kawatsura, Motoi

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrated the kinetic resolution of racemic and branched monosubstituted allylic acetates by a ruthenium-catalyzed regioselective allylic etherification. The reaction was effectively catalyzed by the chiral ruthenium catalyst, which was generated by [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and (S,S)-iPr-pybox and a catalytic amount of TFA, and both the allylic etherification product and recovered allylic acetate were obtained as an enantiomerically enriched form with up to a 103 s value. PMID:27276556

  4. Cp*Co(III)-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Allylation of 6-Arylpurines and Aromatic Amides Using Allyl Alcohols in Fluorinated Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunno, Youka; Murakami, Nanami; Suzuki, Yudai; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    Cp*Co(III)-catalyzed C-H allylation of various aromatic C-H bonds using allyl alcohols as allylating reagents is described. Improved reaction conditions using fluorinated alcohol solvents afforded efficient directed C-H allylation of 6-arylpurines, benzamides, and a synthetically useful Weinreb amide with good functional group compatibility.

  5. Temperature-controlled redox-neutral ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed regioselective allylation of benzamides with allylic acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2016-08-10

    Substituted aromatic amides reacted efficiently with allylic acetates in the presence of a cationic ruthenium complex in ClCH2CH2Cl at room temperature providing ortho allylated benzamides in a highly regioselective manner without any oxidant and base. The whole catalytic reaction occurred in a Ru(ii) oxidation state and thus the oxidation step is avoided. By tuning the reaction temperature, ortho allyl and vinyl benzamides were prepared exclusively. Later, ortho allyl and vinylated benzamides were converted into biologically useful six- and five-membered benzolactones in the presence of HCl. PMID:27456467

  6. Cationic ruthenium-cyclopentadienyl-diphosphine complexes as catalysts for the allylation of phenols with allyl alcohol: relation between structure and catalytic performance in O- vs. C-allylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, J.A.; Lutz, M.; von Chrzanowski, L.S.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.; Drent, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new catalytic method has been investigated to obtain either O- or C-allylated phenolic products using allyl alcohol or diallyl ether as the allyl donor. With the use of new cationic ruthenium(II) complexes as catalyst, both reactions can be performed with good selectivity. Active cationic Ru(II) c

  7. Hydroxymethylation beyond Carbonylation: Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Formaldehyde with Allylic Acetates via Enantiotopic π-Facial Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Victoria J; Krische, Michael J

    2016-03-23

    Chiral iridium complexes modified by SEGPHOS catalyze the 2-propanol-mediated reductive coupling of branched allylic acetates 1a-1o with formaldehyde to form primary homoallylic alcohols 2a-2o with excellent control of regio- and enantioselectivity. These processes, which rely on enantiotopic π-facial discrimination of σ-allyliridium intermediates, represent the first examples of enantioselective formaldehyde C-C coupling beyond aldol addition. PMID:26958737

  8. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  9. Memory effects in palladium-catalyzed allylic Alkylations of 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensen, Nina; Fristrup, Peter; Tanner, David Ackland;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the enantiospecificity of the allylic alkylation of enantioenriched 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate with the enolate ion of dimethyl malonate catalyzed by unsymmetrical palladium catalysts. The precatalysts employed were (eta(3)-allyl)PdLCl, where L...

  10. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  11. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  12. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  13. Gold(I)-Assisted α-Allylation of Enals and Enones with Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastandrea, Marco Michele; Mellonie, Niall; Giacinto, Pietro; Collado, Alba; Nolan, Steven P; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Bottoni, Andrea; Bandini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The intermolecular α-allylation of enals and enones occurs by the condensation of variously substituted allenamides with allylic alcohols. Cooperative catalysis by [Au(ItBu)NTf2] and AgNTf2 enables the synthesis of a range of densely functionalized α-allylated enals, enones, and acyl silanes in good yield under mild reaction conditions. DFT calculations support the role of an α-gold(I) enal/enone as the active nucleophilic species.

  14. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  15. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-07-15

    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  16. Molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of allyl alcohol (acrolein) in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Upendarrao; Bandi, Goutham; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2015-06-15

    Allyl alcohol (AA) is one of the environmental pollutants used as a herbicide and industrial chemical. AA undergoes enzymatic oxidation in vivo to form Acrolein (Acr), a highly reactive and ubiquitous environmental toxicant. The exposure to AA/Acr has detrimental effects on cells and is highly fatal. In corroboration to the current literature describing AA/Acr toxicity, this study aimed to investigate the molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of AA/Acr using budding yeast as a eukaryotic model organism. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with a sublethal dose of AA (0.4 mM) showed differential regulation of approximately 30% of the yeast genome. Functional enrichment analysis of the AA transcriptome revealed that genes belong to diverse cellular processes including the cell cycle, DNA damage repair, metal homeostasis, stress response genes, ribosomal biogenesis, metabolism, meiosis, ubiquitination, cell morphogenesis, and transport. Moreover, we have identified novel molecular targets of AA/Acr through genetic screening, which belongs to oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, iron homeostasis, and cell wall integrity. This study also demonstrated the epigenetic basis of AA/Acr toxicity mediated through histone tails and chromatin modifiers. Interestingly, our study disclosed the use of pyrazole and ethanol as probable antidotes for AA intoxication. For the first time, this study also demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of AA/Acr using the yeast gametogenesis (spermatogenesis) model. Altogether, this study unravels the molecular mechanisms of AA/Acr cytotoxicity and facilitates the prediction of biomarkers for toxicity assessment and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25919230

  17. How phenyl makes a difference: mechanistic insights into the ruthenium( ii )-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone

    2013-10-16

    [RuCl(η5-3-phenylindenyl)(PPh3)2] (1) has been shown to be a highly active catalyst for the isomerisation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding ketones. A variety of substrates undergo the transformation, typically with 0.25-0.5 mol% of catalyst at room temperature, outperforming commonly-used complexes such as [RuCl(Cp)(PPh3) 2] and [RuCl(η5-indenyl)(PPh3) 2]. Mechanistic experiments and density functional theory have been employed to investigate the mechanism and understand the effect of catalyst structure on reactivity. These investigations suggest a oxo-π-allyl mechanism is in operation, avoiding intermediate ruthenium hydride complexes and leading to a characteristic 1,3-deuterium shift. Important mechanistic insights from DFT and experiments also allowed for the design of a protocol that expands the scope of the transformation to include primary allylic alcohols. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Polystyrene-supported Selenides and Selenoxide:Versatile Routes to Synthesize Allylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; You Chu ZHANG; Xian HUANG

    2003-01-01

    Several polystyrene-supported selenides and selenoxide have been prepared firstly. These novel reagents were treated with LDA to produce selenium stabilized carbanions, which reacted with aldehydes and alkyl halides, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination and [2,3] sigmatropic rearrangement respectively to give Z-allylic alcohols stereoselectively.

  19. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  20. The Wacker oxidation of allyl alcohol along cyclic-intermediate routes: An ab initio molecular dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Nair, Nisanth N.

    2016-09-01

    The absence of isotope scrambling observed by Henry and coworkers in the Wacker oxidation of deuterated allylic alcohol was used by them as support for the inner-sphere mechanism hydroxypalladation mechanism. One of the assumptions used to interpret their experimental data was that allyl alcohol oxidation takes place through non-cyclic intermediate routes as in the case of ethene. Here we verify this assumption through ab initio metadynamics simulations of the Wacker oxidation of allyl alcohol in explicit solvent. Importance of our results in interpreting the isotope scrambling experiments is discussed.

  1. Highly Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Allylic Alcohols with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Yuki; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Various allylic alcohols were carboxylated in the presence of a catalytic amount of PdCl2 and PPh3 using ZnEt2 as a stoichiometric transmetalation agent under a CO2 atmosphere (1 atm). This carboxylation proceeded in a highly regioselective manner to afford branched carboxylic acids predominantly. The β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acid thus obtained was successfully converted into an optically active γ-butyrolactone, a known intermediate of (R)-baclofen.

  2. Iron(III) chloride catalyzed glycosylation of peracylated sugars with allyl/alkynyl alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; Silva, Rodrigo Cesar da; Monteiro, Julia L.; Correa, Arlene G.; Paixao, Marcio W., E-mail: mwpaixao@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    In this work, the use of ferric chloride as an efficient catalyst in glycosylation reactions of sugars in the presence of allyl and alkynyl alcohols is described. The corresponding glycosides were obtained with moderate to good yields. This new procedure presented greater selectivity when compared to classic methods found in the literature. Principal features of this simple method include non-hazardous reaction conditions, low-catalyst loading, good yields and high anomeric selectivity (author)

  3. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  4. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  5. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation

  6. Enhanced performance of the catalytic conversion of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid using bimetallic gold catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletta, Ermelinda; Della Pina, Cristina; Rossi, Michele; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2011-01-01

    One of the strategic building blocks in organic synthesis is 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which is particularly important for the manufacture of high performance polymers. However, to date, despite many attempts using both biological and chemical routes, no large scale effective process for manufacturing 3-hydroxypropionic acid has been developed. One potentially useful starting point is from allyl alcohol, as this can be obtained in principle from the dehydration of glycerol, thereby presenting a bio-renewable green pathway to this important building block. The catalytic transformation of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid presents interesting challenges in catalyst design, particularly with respect to the control of selectivity among the products that can be expected, as acrylic acid, acrolein and glyceric acid can also be formed. In this paper, we present a novel eco-sustainable catalytic pathway leading to 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which highlights the outstanding potential of gold-based and bimetallic catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of allyl alcohol. PMID:22455056

  7. From a Sequential to a Concurrent Reaction in Aqueous Medium: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Allylic Alcohol Isomerization and Asymmetric Bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Liardo, Elisa; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2016-07-18

    The ruthenium-catalyzed redox isomerization of allylic alcohols was successfully coupled with the enantioselective enzymatic ketone reduction (mediated by KREDs) in a concurrent process in aqueous medium. The overall transformation, formally the asymmetric reduction of allylic alcohols, took place with excellent conversions and enantioselectivities, under mild reaction conditions, employing commercially and readily available catalytic systems, and without external coenzymes or cofactors. Optimization resulted in a multistep approach and a genuine cascade reaction where the metal catalyst and biocatalyst coexist from the beginning. PMID:27258838

  8. UV RADIATION INDUCED GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ALLYL ACETATE ONTO POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET) FILMS FOR FUEL CELL MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostak Ahmed; Mubarak A. Khan; Nazia Rahman; M. Anwar H. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-induced graft copolymerization of allyl acetate (AA) monomer onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and the subsequent sulfonation on the monomer units in the grafting chain using chlorosulfonic acid (C1SO3H) were carried out to prepare proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel cells.A maximum grafting value of 12.8% was found for 35 vol% allyl acetate after 3 h radiation time.Optimum concentration of ClSO3H was selected for the sulfonation reaction to be 0.05 mol/L based on the degree of sulfonation and the tensile strength studies of the membrane.The degree of sulfonation increased as the sulfonation reaction temperature and sulfonation time were increasing.The radiation grafting and the sulfonation have been confirmed by titrimetric and gravimetric analyses as well as FTIR spectroscopy.The maximum ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 0.04125 mmol g-1 was found at 12.1% degree of sulfonation and the maximum proton conductivity was found to be 0.035 S cm-1 at 30℃ and a relative humidity of 60%.The various physical and chemical properties of the PEMs such as water uptake,mechanical strength,thermal durability and oxidative stability were also studied.To investigate the suitability of the prepared membrane for fuel cell applications,its properties were compared with those of Nation 117.

  9. Nickel-catalyzed enantioselective hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols:An efficient access to homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols catalyzed by nickel complexes of chiral spiro phosphoramidite ligands was developed.A series of homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center were produced in high yields(up to 97%) and high enantioselectivities(up to 95% ee).The reaction provides an efficient method for preparing bifunctional compounds with a chiral quaternary carbon center.

  10. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  11. CuCl-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols to Aldehydes or Ketones with 1 : 1 Combination of Phenanthroline and Bipyridine as the Ligandst%CuCl-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols to Aldehydes or Ketones with 1 : 1 Combination of Phenanthroline and Bipyridine as the Ligandst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 麻生明

    2012-01-01

    We developed a modified protocol for the oxidation of 2,3-allenyl alcohols using CuCI with l : 1 combination of phenanthroline and bipyridine as the catalyst. To further investigate the applicability of this system, other types of alcohols such as allylic and propargylic alcohols have been tested: we found that both allylic and propargylic alcohols may be oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones using molecular oxygen in air as the oxidant with moderate to excellent yields.

  12. Fluorinated alcohols as promoters for the metal-free direct substitution reaction of allylic alcohols with nitrogenated, silylated, and carbon nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera, Carmen

    2012-09-01

    The direct allylic substitution reaction using allylic alcohols in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) as reaction media is described. The developed procedure is simple, works under mild conditions (rt, 50 and 70 °C), and proves to be very general, since different nitrogenated nucleophiles and carbon nucleophiles can be used achieving high yields, especially when HFIP is employed as solvent and aromatic allylic alcohols are the substrates. Thus, sulfonamides, carbamates, carboxamides, and amines can be successfully employed as nitrogen-based nucleophiles. Likewise, silylated nucleophiles such as trimethylsilylazide, allyltrimethylsilane, trimethylsilane, and trimethylsilylphenylacetylene give the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields. Good results for the Friedel-Crafts adducts are also achieved with aromatic compounds (phenol, anisole, indole, and anilines) as nucleophiles. Particularly interesting are the results obtained with electron-rich anilines, which can behave as nitrogenated or carbon nucleophiles depending on their electronic properties and the solvent employed. In addition, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds (acetylacetone and Meldrum's acid) are also successfully employed as soft carbon nucleophiles. Studies for mechanism elucidation are also reported, pointing toward the existence of carbocationic intermediates and two working reaction pathways for the obtention of the allylic substitution product.

  13. Formation of gold clusters on La-Ni mixed oxides and its catalytic performance for isomerization of allylic alcohols to saturated aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au/NiO catalyzed the isomerization of allylic alcohols to afford saturated aldehydes. La-Ni mixed oxide could stabilize Au(III) and afford gold clusters smaller than 1 nm by H2 reduction. The resulting Au clusters on La-Ni-O exhibited superior catalytic performance to Au/NiO for the isomerization of internal allylic alcohol, 2-octen-1-ol to octanal. (author)

  14. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    OpenAIRE

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia; Dalva Cristina Baptista do Lago; Fernando Lucas Gonçalves Silva; Eliane D'Elia; Aderval Severino Luna; Lilian Ferreira de Senna

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives) on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considere...

  15. Proton conductive membranes based on poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol semi-IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Moro Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of fuel cell materials, particularly polymer membranes, for PEMFC has driven the development of methods and alternatives to achieve systems with more adequate properties to this application. The sulfonation of poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol (PSAA, using sulfonating agent:styrene ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, was previously performed to obtain proton conductive polymer membranes. Most of those membranes exhibited solubility in water with increasing temperature and showed conductivity of approximately 10-5 S cm-1. In order to optimize the PSAA properties, especially decreasing its solubility, semi-IPN (SIPN membranes are proposed in the present study. These membranes were obtained from the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, curing reactions in presence of DDS (4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone and PSAA. Different DGEBA/PSAA weight ratios were employed, varying the PSAA concentration between 9 and 50% and keeping the mass ratio of DGEBA:DDS as 1:1. The samples were characterized by FTIR and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Unperturbed bands of PSAA were observed in the FTIR spectra of membranes, suggesting that chemical integrity of the polymer is maintained during the synthesis. In particular, bands involving C-C stretching (1450 cm-1, C=C (aromatic, ~ 3030 cm-1 and C-H (2818 and 2928 cm-1 were observed, unchanged after the synthesis. The disappearance or reduction of the intensity of the band at 916 cm-1, attributed to the DGEBA epoxy ring, is evidenced for all samples, indicating the epoxy ring opening and the DGEBA crosslinking. Conductivity of H3PO4 doped membranes increases with temperature, reaching 10-4 S cm-1.

  16. Catalytic Esterification of Methyl Alcohol with Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Esterification of methyl alcohol with acetic acid catalysed by Amberlyst-15 (cation-exchange resin) was carried out in a batch reactor in the temperature ranging between 318-338 K, at atmospheric pressure. The reaction rate increased with increase in catalyst concentration and reaction temperature, but decreased with an increase in water concentration. Stirrer speed had virtually no effect on the rate under the experimental conditions. The rate data were correlated with a second-order kinetic model based on homogeneous reaction. The apparent activation energy was found to be 22.9kJ.mo1-1 for the formation of methyl acetate. The methyl acetate production was carried out aa batch and continuous in a packed bed restive distillation column with high purity methyl acetate produced.

  17. The utilization of the mesoporous Ti-SBA-15 catalyst in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol to glycidol and diglycidyl ether in the water medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the studies on the optimization the process of allyl alcohol epoxidation over the Ti-SBA-15 catalyst. The optimization was carried out in an aqueous medium, wherein water was introduced into the reaction medium with an oxidizing agent (30 wt% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and it was formed in the reaction medium during the processes. The main investigated technological parameters were: the temperature, the molar ratio of allyl alcohol/hydrogen peroxide, the catalyst content and the reaction time. The main functions the process were: the selectivity of transformation to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the selectivity of transformation to diglycidyl ether in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversion of allyl alcohol and the selectivity of transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed. The analysis of the layer drawings showed that in water solution it is best to conduct allyl alcohol epoxidation in direction of glycidol (selectivity of glycidol 54 mol% at: the temperature of 10–17°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.5–1.9, the catalyst content 2.9–4.0 wt%, the reaction time 2.7–3.0 h and in direction of diglycidyl ether (selectivity of diglycidyl ether 16 mol% at: the temperature of 18–33°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.9–1.65, the catalyst content 2.0–3.4 wt%, the reaction time 1.7–2.6 h. The presented method allows to obtain two very valuable intermediates for the organic industry.

  18. Chemoselective and stereoselective lithium carbenoid mediated cyclopropanation of acyclic allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Peña, M J; Flores-Giubi, M E; Botubol-Ares, J M; Harwood, L M; Collado, I G; Macías-Sánchez, A J; Hernández-Galán, R

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of geraniol with different lithium carbenoids generated from n-BuLi and the corresponding dihaloalkane has been evaluated. The reaction occurs in a chemo and stereoselective manner, which is consistent with a directing effect from the oxygen of the allylic moiety. Furthermore, a set of polyenes containing allylic hydroxyl or ether groups were chemoselectively and stereoselectively converted into the corresponding gem-dimethylcyclopropanes in one single step in moderate to good yields mediated by a lithium carbenoid generated in situ by the reaction of n-BuLi and 2,2-dibromopropane.

  19. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  20. Highly efficient redox isomerization of allylic alcohols at ambient temperature catalyzed by novel ruthenium-cyclopentadienyl complexes--new insight into the mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matute, Belén; Bogár, Krisztián; Edin, Michaela; Kaynak, F Betül; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2005-10-01

    A range of ruthenium cyclopentadienyl (Cp) complexes have been prepared and used for isomerization of allylic alcohols to the corresponding saturated carbonyl compounds. Complexes bearing CO ligands show higher activity than those with PPh3 ligands. The isomerization rate is highly affected by the substituents on the Cp ring. Tetra(phenyl)methyl-substituted catalysts rapidly isomerize allylic alcohols under very mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature) with short reaction times. Substituted allylic alcohols have been isomerized by employing Ru-Cp complexes. A study of the isomerization catalyzed by [Ru(Ph5Cp)(CO)2H] (14) indicates that the isomerization catalyzed by ruthenium hydrides partly follows a different mechanism than that of ruthenium halides activated by KOtBu. Furthermore, the lack of ketone exchange when the isomerization was performed in the presence of an unsaturated ketone (1 equiv), different from that obtained by dehydrogenation of the starting allylic alcohol, supports a mechanism in which the isomerization takes place within the coordination sphere of the ruthenium catalyst. PMID:16028298

  1. A recyclable heavy fluorous tag carrying an allyl alcohol pendant group: design and evaluation toward applications in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuo; Tojino, Mami; Goto, Kohtaro; Dohi, Hirofumi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Mamoru

    2015-04-30

    Toward applications in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry, we converted our previous acid-resistant heavy fluorous tag [(Rf)3C-CH2-OH, 1] to allyl alcohol derivatives [(Rf)3C-CH2-O-(CH2)n-CH=CH-CH2-OH, 3 (n=1) or 4 (n=3)] by means of olefin cross metathesis. They were then subjected to β-glycosylation reactions by using a series of glycosyl donors, including glycosyl bromide and trichloroacetimidates. The terminal OH group in 3 and 4 was found to be β-glycosylated in moderate yield when 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-D-galactosyl trichloroacetimidate was used as the glycosyl donor. Upon a detachment reaction using Pd(PPh3)4, the initial heavy fluorous tag 1 was recovered in high yield (>90%) together with 1-hydroxy sugar, indicating that not only the allyl ether linkage in the glycosides but also the internal di-alkyl ether linkage in 4 be cleaved by the action of the Pd-catalyst enabling long-range olefin transmigration. Potential utility was demonstrated by using the tetra-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactosylated derivative of 3 in a series of deprotection, protection and glycosylation reactions, which were conductible in high yields without using chromatographic purification process. These findings prompt us to propose a general scheme in which the acid-resistant heavy fluorous compound 1 is applied as a recyclable tag in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. PMID:25753904

  2. Allylation of Aromatic Aldehyde under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yu-Mei; JIA,Xue-Feng; WANG,Jin-Xian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Allylation of carbonyl compounds is one of the most interesting processes for the preparation of homoallylic alcohols. Over the past few decades, many reagents have been developed for such reactions[1~3]. In this paper, we first report allylic zinc reagent 1, which can be prepared from zinc dust and allyl bromide conveniently in THF, and reacted with aromatic aldehyde to give homo-allylic alcohols under microwave irradiation.

  3. Acetalization of Poly(vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Protein Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dong-yan; FU Chang-fei; GU Li-xia

    2008-01-01

    Acetalizatioin on the blend fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and soybean protein (SP) was studied by using dialdehydes as cross-linking agents. The optimal acetalization conditions were determined by Latin square experiment, where the modified fibers with good mechanical properties can be achieved by treating in 41 g/L dialdehyde solution at 67 ℃ for 9 min. The cross-linking reactions of PVA and SP with dialdehydes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile test and boiling water shrinkage measurements showed that the physical properties of PVA/SP fibers crosslinked by dialdehydes were improved comparing with those formalized fibers.

  4. Improved synthesis of cyclic tertiary allylic alcohols by asymmetric 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Andreas; Zuo, Wei; Siewert, Jürgen; Harms, Klaus; von Zezschwitz, Paultheo

    2013-11-25

    The development of an improved protocol for the enantioselective Rh(I) /binap-catalysed 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to cyclic enones is reported. (31)P NMR analysis of the reaction revealed that the catalyst in its resting state is a chloride-bridged dimer. This insight led to the use of AgBF4 as an additive for in situ activation of the dimeric precatalyst. Thus, the catalyst loading can now be reduced to only 1 mol% with respect to rhodium. Various 5-7-membered cyclic enones can be transformed into tertiary allylic alcohols with excellent levels of enantioselectivity and high yields. The obtained products are versatile synthetic building blocks, shown by a highly enantioselective formal total synthesis of the pheromone (-)-frontalin as well as formation of a bicyclic lactone that has the core structure of the natural flavour component "wine lactone".

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  6. Mesoporous sol-gel WO{sub 3} thin films via poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol) copolymer templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan Zayim, Esra [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 80626 (Turkey); Liu, Ping; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Deb, Satyen K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Turner, John A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a copolymer poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol), [-CH{sub 2}CH(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})-]{sub x}[-CH{sub 2}CH-(CH{sub 2}OH)-]{sub y} has been employed as a novel template in a sol-gel synthesis process to direct the formation of mesoporous tungsten oxide. The copolymer, due to its rigid hydrophobic block of polystyrene, is a more effective surfactant in an alcohol solution than polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide based compounds. The films have been prepared by a spin-coating technique from an ethanol solution of tungsten hexachloride. At room temperature, ultraviolet illumination method has been found to be very suitable for removing the polymer template, leading to the formation of a high-quality mesoporous structure. The electrochromic and optical properties of the mesoporous films are described and compared to standard sol-gel tungsten oxide films. Mesoporous materials exhibit superior high-rate ion-insertion performance when used as electrochromic layers.

  7. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considered the entry variables and the measured properties were the response variables. The confidence level was 95% and the results were shown as response surface diagrams. It was possible to verify that the current density affected the zinc content in the coating, while the coating produced from cysteine-contained bath presented the worse anticorrosive performance. In a general way, it was possible to observe that the studied parameters affected the morphology, grain size, and the electrochemical behavior of these coatings, although only a few response variables were statistically influenced by them.

  8. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considered the entry variables and the measured properties were the response variables. The confidence level was 95% and the results were shown as response surface diagrams. It was possible to verify that the current density affected the zinc content in the coating, while the coating produced from cysteine-contained bath presented the worse anticorrosive performance. In a general way, it was possible to observe that the studied parameters affected the morphology, grain size, and the electrochemical behavior of these coatings, although only a few response variables were statistically influenced by them.

  9. Structure formation of soil dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes on the basis of allyl alcohol and acryl acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankait Asanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some changes of structural composition and surface properties of soil dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes, based on allyl alcohol and acryl acid derivatives, have been studied. The results show, that the changes in the structure of soil dispersions composition are connected with the added concentration and pH value, that depend on mole ratio and nature of functional groups, as well as on the nature of counterions and concomitant electrolytes, changing with the conditions of polymer analogous conversion and neutralization reaction. Experimental data show, that the change in the conformational state and the length of the macromolecule has a significant impact on the structure-forming effect and the amount of polyelectrolyte, needed to achieve the same degree of structure-forming effect of soil dispersions. The causes for the revealed reasons are shown on the basis of the results of the experiment. Along with this, it was found that particular changes of structural composition and surface properties of the soil dispersions depend on the type and concentration of the added polyelectrolyte.

  10. Old yellow enzyme confers resistance of Hansenula polymorpha towards allyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komduur, JA; Leao, AN; Monastyrska, [No Value; Veenhuis, M; Kiel, JAKW; Leão, Adriana N.; Monastyrska, Iryna

    2002-01-01

    In the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha, peroxisomes are formed during growth on methanol as sole carbon and energy source and contain the key enzymes for its metabolism, one of the major enzymes being alcohol oxidase (AO). Upon a shift of these cells to glucose-containing medium, peroxiso

  11. Substrate and stereocontrolled iodocycloetherification of highly functionalized enantiomerically pure allylic alcohols: application to synthesis of cytotoxic 2-epi jaspine B and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundooru, Somireddy; Das, Pintu; Meena, Sanjeev; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Datta, Dipak; Shaw, Arun K

    2015-08-14

    Stereoselectivities of electrophilic additions of molecular iodine to enantiomerically pure highly functionalized allylic alcohols with internal nucleophiles have been investigated. The intramolecular nucleophilic attack on the I2-π complex by an oxygen nucleophile to obtain tri- and tetrasubstituted THFs is highly regio-, stereoselective and substrate controlled. The application of this study has been shown by utilizing one of the THFs 4a as a key intermediate to complete the total synthesis of marine anti-cancer natural product 2-epi jaspine B. PMID:26133669

  12. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  13. Catalyst-Directed Diastereoselective Isomerization of Allylic Alcohols for the Stereoselective Construction of C(20) in Steroid Side Chains: Scope and Topological Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2015-08-26

    The stereoselective construction of C20 in steroidal derivatives by a highly diastereoselective Ir-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols is reported. A key aspect of this strategy is a straightforward access to geometrically pure steroidal enol tosylate and enol triflate intermediates for subsequent high yielding stereoretentive Negishi cross-coupling reactions to allow structural diversity to be introduced. A range of allylic alcohols participates in the diastereoselective isomerization under the optimized reaction conditions. Electron-rich and electron-poor aryl or heteroaryl substituents are particularly well-tolerated, and the stereospecific nature of the reaction provides indifferently access to the natural C20-(R) and unnatural C20-(S) configurations. Alkyl containing substrates are more challenging as they affect regioselectivity of iridium-hydride insertion. A rationale for the high diastereoselectivities observed is proposed for aryl containing precursors. The scope of our method is further highlighted through topological diversification in the side chain and within the polycyclic domain of advanced and complex steroidal architectures. These findings have the potential to greatly simplify access to epimeric structural analogues of important steroid scaffolds for applications in biological, pharmaceutical, and medical sciences.

  14. Synthesis of acetate of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil using immobilized candida antarctica lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase catalyzed production of isoamyl acetate, the flavor and fragrance ester was carried out in n-hexane solvent. Isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil and acetic acid were used as reactants The favorable reaction conditions for maximum (92 %) ester production were amount of enzyme 9 %. acid:alcohol molar ratio 1:2 M, temperature 40 degree C and reaction time 6 hour. Enzyme could be reused six times before loss of activity started. Product was confirmed by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  15. Copper methanesulfonate-acetic acid as a novel catalytic system for tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols and phenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A synergistic catalytic effect between copper methanesulfonate and acetic acid in tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols and phenol at room temperature under solvent free condition has been described. Both alcohols (primary, secondary and tertiary) and phenols reacted with 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran smoothly to afford the corresponding tetrahydropyranyl ethers in good yields.(C) 2007 Min Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  17. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  18. [1,2]-Wittig Rearrangement of THP Acetal Compounds: Facile Synthesis of Aromatic Tertiary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lei Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds have been found to be suitable substrates for the [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement in the absence of an external electrophile, which resulted in the generation of new carbon-carbon bond and the facile synthesis of aromatic tertiary alcohols. More interestingly, an unexpected effect of chlorotrimethylsilane on this [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds was found, in which two different products involving oxidative procedure were obtained due to the competitive [1,4]-Sigmatropic rearrangement versus [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement

  19. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Krische, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes. PMID:26418572

  20. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D; Krische, Michael J

    2015-10-14

    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k, and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k, and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l, and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l, and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l, and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes. PMID:26418572

  1. Transition metal catalysed Grignard-like allylic activation across tetragonal tin(II) oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradipta Sinha; Moloy Banerjee; Abhijit Kundu; Sujit Roy

    2002-08-01

    The reaction of allyl halide and a carbonyl compound under the aegis of tetragonal tin(II) oxide and catalytic 8, 10 metal complexes provides the corresponding homoallylic alcohol, via a novel allyl tin intermediate.

  2. An Efficient and Facile Procedure for Synthesis of Acetates from Alcohols Catalyzed by Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam HAJJAMI; Arash GHORBANI-CHOGHAMARANI; Masoomeh NOROUZI

    2012-01-01

    Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide) is an efficient catalyst for the conversion of various alcohols to their corresponding acetate derivatives with acetic anhydride.This method has some advantages such as mild reaction conditions,good to excellent yields,and ease of work-up.

  3. Isomerisation and controlled condensation in an aqueous medium of allyl alcohol catalysed by new water-soluble rhodium complexes with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleński, Piotr; Kirillova, Marina V; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2013-08-14

    New aqua-soluble rhodium(I) [Rh(CO)(PTA)4]Cl (1) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) and rhodium(III) [RhCl2(PTA)4]Cl (2) complexes have been synthesized via the reaction of [{Rh(CO)2(μ-Cl)}2] or RhCl3·3H2O, respectively, with stoichiometric amounts of PTA in ethanol. Compound 1 is also obtained upon reduction of 2 in an H2/CO atmosphere. They have been characterized by IR, (1)H and (31)P{H} NMR spectroscopies, elemental and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. While compound 1 shows distorted square-pyramid geometry (τ5 = 0.09) with a P3C-type basal plane, compound 2 is octahedral with the chloro ligands in the cis position. The hydride rhodium(I) complex [RhH(PTA)4] (3) is formed upon the addition of NaBH4 to an aqueous solution of 1 or 2. Compounds 1-3 (in the case of 2 upon reduction by H2) act as homogeneous catalysts, or catalyst precursors, in the isomerisation and condensation of allyl alcohol at room temperature and in an aqueous medium. The product selectivity is easily controlled by changing the concentration of the base in the reaction mixture, thus resulting in the exclusive formation of either 3-hydroxy-2-methylpentanal (HP) or 2-methyl-2-pentenal (MP) in quantitative yields. PMID:23793921

  4. [Autochthonous yeasts isolated in Tenerife wines and their influence on ethyl acetate and higher alcohol concentrations analyzed by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadores, M P; Díaz, M E; Cardell, E

    1993-12-01

    A taxonomic study of yeasts present on Tenerife wines, (Tacoronte-Acentejo Specific Denomination) has been carried out. Nine species of the genera: Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Hansenula, Pichia and Candida have been isolated. Parallely we analysed volatile compounds of the wines such as ethyl acetate, methanol, isobutanol and amylic alcohols by gas chromatography. Appreciable quantities of ethyl acetate were detected due to the low fermentative power of species such as Candida glabrata and Debaryomyces hansenii. The greatest concentration of amylic alcohols were found in wines containing yeast with high alcohol producing power like Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Synthesis and reactivity of {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes: preparation of (Z)-allyl alcohols, (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes and {alpha}-aryl acetophenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Silva, Thiago B. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Inorganica]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br; Cella, Rodrigo [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2006-09-15

    A new and efficient method was developed to prepare {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes by reaction of diethyl {alpha}-phenylseleno benzylphosphonate with NaH and aldehydes. Selenium-lithium exchange by reaction with n-BuLi yielded the vinyl lithium species, which were captured with several electrophiles, like aldehydes and DMF, affording exclusively (Z)-allyl alcohols, and (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, respectively in good yields. The hydrolysis of the vinyl selenides in presence of TiCl{sub 4} allowed the corresponding {alpha}-aryl acetophenones. (author)

  6. Syntheses of Enantiopure Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols and Acetates by Bioresolution with Lipase B from Candida antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele P. Severino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435®, CALB efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1, (±-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3, (±-octan-2-ol (4, (±-heptan-3-ol (5 and (±-oct-1-en-3-ol (6. The lipase showed excellent enantioselectivities in the transesterifications of racemic aliphatic secondary alcohols producing the enantiopure alcohols (>99% ee and acetates (>99% ee with good yields. Kinetic resolution of rac-alcohols was successfully achieved with CALB lipase using simple conditions, vinyl acetate as acylating agent, and hexane as non-polar solvent.

  7. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. Iso-amyl acetate is synthesized by esterification of acetic acid with iso-amyl alcohol. (Eq.1. Since the equilibrium does not help the formation of the ester, it must be shifted to the right, in favor of the product, by using a surplus of one of the starting materials. Iso-amyl acetate is a kind of flavor reagent with fruit taste. The use of H2SO4 often originates the problems such as corrosion for equipments and pollution for environment.

  8. Magnetic silica supported palladium catalyst: synthesis of allyl aryl ethers in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and benign procedure for the synthesis of aryl allyl ethers has been developed using phenols, allyl acetates and magnetically recyclable silica supported palladium catalyst in water; performance of reaction in air and easy separation of the catalyst using an external mag...

  9. Synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates from allenols through cascade carbonylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-11-21

    Novel synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates via palladium-catalyzed one-pot multi-component reactions of allenols, aryl iodides, alcohols, and carbon monoxide has been developed. Notably, the formation of the title compounds features a cascade process combining carbonylation of aryl iodide, alcohoxyl carbonylation of the in situ formed allyl palladium complex, and intramolecular condensation of the α-hydroxyl enone intermediate. Moreover, the 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates obtained herein were found to be ready intermediates for the construction of the biologically significant naphtho[1,2-b]furan-5-ol scaffold. PMID:26399394

  10. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  11. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Allylic Dearomatization of Indoles by a Formal [4+2] Cycloaddition Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Yiting; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bridged indoline derivatives were synthesized by an intermolecular Pd-catalyzed allylic dearomatization reaction of substituted indoles. The reaction between indoles and allyl carbonates bearing a nucleophilic alcohol side-chain proceeds in a cascade fashion, providing bridged indolines in excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:27321285

  12. Production of alcohol and acetic acid from pineapple wastes in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S.; Nirmala, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pineapple cannery wastes were supplemented with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol. The liquid portion of the fermentation broth was inoculated with Acetobacter aceti to produce acetic acid. Maximum yields of ethanol and acetic acid were 5.8% and 1.9%, respectively. The solid residue had feed value.

  13. KINETIC OF ESTERIFICATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL BY ACETIC ACID ON A CATALYTIC RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion kinetics of diluted acetic acid to ethyl acetate by ethanol esterification in a batch reactor in liquid phase with an acidic polymer catalyst (lewatit series was studied. The intrinsic rate constants have been correlated with the reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst, initial ratios of reactants and initial water concentrations. The kinetic analysis was restricted to the system at hand in which a liquid and vapor phase are at equilibrium.

  14. Allyl 4-hydroxyphenyl carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Flores Ahuactzin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C10H10O4, is a functionalized carbonate used in the synthetic route to organic glasses. The central CH fragment of the allyl group is disordered over two positions, with occupancies in a 0.758 (10:0.242 (10ratio. This disorder reflects the torsional flexibility of the oxygen–allyl group, although both disordered parts present the expected anticlinal conformation, with O—CH2—CH=CH2 torsion angles of −111 (2 and 119.1 (4°. The crystal structure is based on chains parallel to [010], formed by O...H—O hydrogen bonds involving hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as donors and acceptors, respectively. The molecular packing is further stabilized by two weak C—H...π contacts from the benzene ring of the asymmetric unit with two benzene rings of neighboring molecules.

  15. The bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase controls ethanol and acetate production in Entamoeba histolytica under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Erika; Encalada, Rusely; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Néquiz, Mario; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-01-16

    By applying metabolic control analysis and inhibitor titration we determined the degree of control (flux control coefficient) of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) over the fluxes of fermentative glycolysis of Entamoeba histolytica subjected to aerobic conditions. The flux-control coefficients towards ethanol and acetate formation determined for PFOR titrated with diphenyleneiodonium were 0.07 and 0.09, whereas for ADHE titrated with disulfiram were 0.33 and -0.19, respectively. ADHE inhibition induced significant accumulation of glycolytic intermediates and lower ATP content. These results indicate that ADHE exerts significant flux-control on the carbon end-product formation of amoebas subjected to aerobic conditions. PMID:23201265

  16. Crystal structure of (E)-4-(acet­oxy­imino)-N-allyl-3-isopropyl-2,6-di­phenyl­piperi­dine-1-carbo­thio­amide

    OpenAIRE

    Mohandas, T; Krishnan, K. Gokula; Balamurugan, S.; Harrison, William T. A.; Thanikachalam, V.; Sakthivel, P.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C26H31N3O2S, crystallizes with two mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each case, the piperidine ring exists in a twist-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 46.16 (12)° in mol­ecule A and 44.95 (12)° in mol­ecule B. In both mol­ecules, the allyl side chain is disordered over two orientations in a 0.649 (9):0.351 (9) ratio for mol­ecule A and 0.826 (10):0.174 (10) ratio for mol­ecule B. In the crystal, neither mol­ecule forms a hydro...

  17. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  18. STUDY OF COMPOSITE MEMBRANE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE OR POLYVINYL ALCOHOL BLENDED WITH METHYLMETHACRYLATE-ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER FOR PERVAPORATION SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-lin Chen; Jun Tan; Mo-e Liu; Chang-luo Zhu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, methylmethacrylate-acrylic acid MMA-AA hydrophilic and hydrophobic copolymers were prepared by copolymerization for preparing membrane materials. The composite membrane of cellulose acetate (CA) blended with MMA-AA hydrophobic copolymer was used for the separation of methanol from pentane-methanol mixture. When the methanol concentration was only 1 wt%, the permeate flux still maintained at 350 g/m2h and separation factor was as big as 800. The composite membrane of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) blended with MMA-AA hydrophilic copolymer was used for the separation of ethanolwater mixture. The permeate flux was increased to 975 g/m2h at 74℃ and the separation factor reached 3000at 25℃. The PVA/MMA-AA blended membrane surface modified by ammonia plasma was also investigated for separating ethanol-water mixture. Both permeate flux and separation factor of the membrane was improved. However, there was no obvious difference of plasma treatment time in the interval of 20~40 min.

  19. Real-Time DNP NMR Observations of Acetic Acid Uptake, Intracellular Acidification, and of Consequences for Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde Hauge;

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control (see scheme). Herein, dynamic nuclear...... polarization (DNP) NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells....

  20. 醋酸仲丁酯加氢制备仲丁醇%Researches on hydrogenation of sec-butyl acetate to sec-butyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若愚; 姚志龙; 刘皓; 闵恩泽

    2013-01-01

    Using alumina as the support,a series of CuO/Al2O3 catalysts was prepared by impregnation method. The influence of reaction conditions of sec-butyl acetate hydrogenation was investigated. The results showed that the conversion of sec-butyl acetate and the selectivity to sec-butyl alcohol, butyl alcohol and alcohol were 98. 16% ,20.48% ,93. 37% and 88. 81% respectively under the optimum reaction condition as follows:reaction temperature 265℃ ,reaction pressure 8.0 MPa,space velocity 0.2 h-1 and n (hydrogen ):n( sec-butyl acetate) = 20.%以氧化铝为载体,采用浸制法制备了一系列负载型CuO/Al2O3催化剂,研究了醋酸仲丁酯加氢反应条件对反应结果的影响.结果表明,在反应温度265℃、反应压力8.0 MPa、空速0.2 h-1和氢酯物质的量比20条件下,醋酸仲丁酯转化率为98.16%,仲丁醇选择性为20.48%,丁醇选择性为93.37%,乙醇选择性为88.81%.

  1. Nouvelles Réactions d'Allylation Radicalaire : Exploitation de la Rupture homolytique de Liaisons Carbone-Oxygène et Carbone-Carbone

    OpenAIRE

    Debien, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis is divided in eight chapters. The first three bibliographic chapters present the general principles of radical chemistry, the possibility offered by the xanthate radical chemistry and a review of the radical allylation methods, main focus of this work. The three next chapters are dedicated to the exploitation of the radical allylation of allylic alcohols, recently discovered in our laboratory. The use of such a technology enabled the preparation of functionalized enol ethers, ...

  2. [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of fluorinated allyl (Thio)cyanates - a tool for the synthesis of fluorinated (Thio)ureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramb, Daniel C; Kost, Lisa; Haufe, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The first (thio)cyanate to iso(thio)cyanate rearrangements based on 2-fluoroallylic alcohols are presented. Long-chain 2-fluoroallylic alcohols were converted to corresponding N-unsubstituted carbamates by treatment with trichloroacetyl isocyanate. Dehydration using trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine formed intermediate allylic cyanates, which immediately underwent sigmatropic rearrangement to fluorinated allyl isocyanates. Without isolation the latter delivered fluorinated ureas by addition of amines. The thiocyanate to isothiocyanate rearrangements started from the same fluorinated allylic alcohols, which were first converted to mesylates. Heating in THF with potassium thiocyanate led to fluorinated allyl isothiocyanates, via [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of intermediate allyl thiocyanates. The formed products were further reacted with amines to fluorinated thioureas.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 1 (CG 1 consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, decanol, dodecanol, decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate. The remaining substances are considered safe for all animal species at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety between 1 and 120 and at 25 mg/kg complete feed (ethyl acetate and hexyl acetate, with a margin of safety between 2 and 6; and at 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species (ethylacrylate, ethyl hex-3-enoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, methyl isovalerate, hexyl isobutyrate, methyl 2-methyl butyrate, pentyl isovalerate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl isovalerate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and methyl 2-methylvalerate. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 1 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all 85 compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  4. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2014-01-01

    The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate) is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. I...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Thermal Cloud Point Fractionation of Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate: Partition of Nanogels in the Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Riess

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol (PVA, well-known as emulsion stabilizers, are obtained by partial hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc. Their thermal cloud point fractionation was performed in aqueous medium between 40 and 75 °C. This fractionation was carried out in order to get an insight in the partition of the initially present nanogels in the different fractions. All the fractions were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC, NMR and dynamic light scattering (DLS giving access to average degree of polymerization , DPw average degree of hydrolysis DH, average sequence lengths of vinyl acetate VAc, volume fraction and average size diameter (Dv of nanogels and “free PVA chains”. The polydispersity of the samples in DPw, DH and VAc could be confirmed. The nanogels characterized by the highest values of volume fraction and Dv, in the range of 40–43 nm, were separated in the first coacervate fraction, whereas the most soluble fraction with low VAc content does not contain nanogels but only “free chains” of a Dv value of around 7–8 nm. The nanogels in the various fractions could further be disaggregated into “free chains” by complex formation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS.

  7. The allylic chalcogen effect in olefin metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya A. Lin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Olefin metathesis has emerged as a powerful tool in organic synthesis. The activating effect of an allylic hydroxy group in metathesis has been known for more than 10 years, and many organic chemists have taken advantage of this positive influence for efficient synthesis of natural products. Recently, the discovery of the rate enhancement by allyl sulfides in aqueous cross-metathesis has allowed the first examples of such a reaction on proteins. This led to a new benchmark in substrate complexity for cross-metathesis and expanded the potential of olefin metathesis for other applications in chemical biology. The enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfide, along with earlier reports of a similar effect by allylic hydroxy groups, suggests that allyl chalcogens generally play an important role in modulating the rate of olefin metathesis. In this review, we discuss the effect of allylic chalcogens in olefin metathesis and highlight its most recent applications in synthetic chemistry and protein modifications.

  8. The allylic chalcogen effect in olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuya A

    2010-01-01

    Summary Olefin metathesis has emerged as a powerful tool in organic synthesis. The activating effect of an allylic hydroxy group in metathesis has been known for more than 10 years, and many organic chemists have taken advantage of this positive influence for efficient synthesis of natural products. Recently, the discovery of the rate enhancement by allyl sulfides in aqueous cross-metathesis has allowed the first examples of such a reaction on proteins. This led to a new benchmark in substrate complexity for cross-metathesis and expanded the potential of olefin metathesis for other applications in chemical biology. The enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfide, along with earlier reports of a similar effect by allylic hydroxy groups, suggests that allyl chalcogens generally play an important role in modulating the rate of olefin metathesis. In this review, we discuss the effect of allylic chalcogens in olefin metathesis and highlight its most recent applications in synthetic chemistry and protein modifications. PMID:21283554

  9. Interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding in dimolybdenum allyl complexes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovitch, R. J.; John, K. D.; Martin, R. L.; Obrey, S. J.; Sattelberger, A. P.; Scott, B. L.; Baker, R. T.; LANL; Univ. of Ottawa

    2009-01-01

    Addition of PMe{sub 3} to Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4} afforded Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, in which two of the allyl groups adopt an unprecedented {mu}{sub 2}-{eta}{sup 1}, {eta}{sup 3} bonding mode; theoretical studies elucidate the roles of the {sigma}- and {pi}-donor ligands in the interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes (chemical group 2 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 2 consists of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes, of which 34 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate is safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and at 5 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. 2-Methylpropan-1-ol, isopentanol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylvaleric acid, 2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, 4-methyloctanoic acid, isobutyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl propionate, 3-methylbutyl formate, glyceryl tributyrate, isobutyl isobutyrate, isopentyl isobutyrate, isobutyl isovalerate, isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate and 2-methylbutyl butyrate are safe at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all animal species. 3,7-Dimethyloctan-1-ol, 2-methylundecanal, 4-methylnonanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl dodecanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate are safe at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and of 1.0 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  11. ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols and amines with acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Farhadi; Kosar Jahanara

    2014-01-01

    A ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared from metal nitrates and tetraethyl orthosilicate by the sol-gel process, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines under solvent-free conditions. Under optimized conditions, efficient acetylation of these substrates with acetic anhy-dride over the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was obtained. Acetylation of anilines and primary aliphatic amines proceeded rapidly at room temperature, while the reaction time was longer for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols, showing that an amine NH2 group can be selectively acetylated in the presence of alcoholic or phenolic OH groups. The catalyst can be reused without obvious loss of catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was higher than that of pure ZnAl2O4. The method gives high yields, and is clean, cost effective, compatible with sub-strates having other functional groups and it is suitable for practical organic synthesis.

  12. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties. - Highlights: • Poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends were prepared as new packaging film. • The blends are superior to PLA in oxygen gas barrier property. • The blends are suitable for gamma ray sterilization and maintain useful mechanical properties. • The blends are perfectly transparent

  13. Tailor-made starch-based conjugates containing well-defined poly(vinyl acetate and its derivative poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization was adopted to synthesize starch-based conjugates that possessed controllable architecture and properties. Starch-based xanthate agent was prepared and applied as chain transfer agent to conduct the living/controlled polymerization (LCP of vinyl acetate, which generated tailor-made conjugates of starch and well-defined poly(vinyl acetate (SVAc. The relevant derivatives, conjugates of starch and chain length-controlled poly(vinyl alcohol (SVA, were obtained subsequently. Various characterizations such as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were performed to examine the structure of intermediates and the starch-based conjugates. Static contact angle measurements revealed that the hydrophilic character of starch-based conjugates was tunable. Well-defined SVAc was amphiphilic and it was able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified by contact angles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS tests. SVA exhibited much higher capability to form physically cross-linked hydrogel than starch did. Both the characteristic of SVAc and SVA were chain length-dependent.

  14. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  15. 丙烯醇催化氨化合成3-甲基吡啶催化剂的制备及性能%Preparation and performance of Zn/H-ZSM-5 catalyst for catalytic amination of allyl alcohol to 3-picoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天奇; 魏天宇; 骈岩杰; 张月成; 赵继全

    2014-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备了一系列H-ZSM-5分子筛负载过渡金属锌催化剂,在固定床反应器上考察了这些催化剂对丙烯醇催化氨化合成3-甲基吡啶的催化性能。通过对 H-ZSM-5的硅铝比、锌负载量对催化剂催化性能影响的考察,发现硅铝比为80、锌负载量为12%时得到的催化剂Zn12/H-ZSM-5(80)的催化性能最佳。在常压、反应温度420℃、氨醇摩尔比3:1、空速300 h-1条件下,丙烯醇在该催化剂上的转化率和3-甲基吡啶的选择性分别达到97.8%和37.9%。利用X射线衍射(XRD)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)以及吡啶吸附红外对催化剂进行了表征,结果表明,Zn12/H-ZSM-5(80)上负载的Zn2+为L酸;在丙烯醇生成3-甲基吡啶的反应过程中催化剂的脱氢活性物种为氧化锌,而加成和环合反应则主要是由催化剂中的L酸催化实现的。%H-ZSM-5 supported zinc catalysts were prepared by impregnation method, and their catalytic performances for amination of allyl alcohol to 3-picoline were evaluated in a fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the catalyst Zn12/H-ZSM-5(80) (H-ZSM-5 with 80 silicon/aluminum (Si/Al) ratio and zinc loading of 12%) shows the best performance among all the studied catalysts. 97.8%conversion of allyl alcohol and 37.9%selectivity toward 3-picoline are obtained on this catalyst using reaction conditions:atmospheric pressure, at 420℃, ammonia/allyl alcohol mole ratio 3:1 and gas hour space velocity 300 h-1. The characterization results, obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR of absorbed pyridine, indicate that zinc on Zn12/H-ZSM-5(80) is Zn2+, there is Lewis acid on HZSM-5. In 3-picoline formation, ZnO provides active sites of dehydrogenation reaction, and addition and cyclization reactions are mainly catalyzed by the Lewis acid.

  16. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties.

  17. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by...

  18. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  20. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Guanghu

    2013-05-17

    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Composite poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl acetate electrospun nanofibrous mats as a novel wound dressing matrix for controlled release of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannesari M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marziyeh Jannesari1, Jaleh Varshosaz2, Mohammad Morshed1, Maedeh Zamani11Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to develop novel biomedicated nanofiber electrospun mats for controlled drug release, especially drug release directly to an injury site to accelerate wound healing. Nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, and a 50:50 composite blend, loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl, were successfully prepared by an electrospinning technique for the first time. The morphology and average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies indicated an amorphous distribution of the drug inside the nanofiber blend. Introducing the drug into polymeric solutions significantly decreased solution viscosities as well as nanofiber diameter. In vitro drug release evaluations showed that both the kind of polymer and the amount of drug loaded greatly affected the degree of swelling, weight loss, and initial burst and rate of drug release. Blending PVA and PVAc exhibited a useful and convenient method for electrospinning in order to control the rate and period of drug release in wound healing applications. Also, the thickness of the blend nanofiber mats strongly influenced the initial release and rate of drug release.Keywords: biodegradable polymers, drug delivery, controlled release, electrospun nanofibers, wound dressing

  2. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2011-08-19

    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  4. Enantioselective synthesis of fluorinated branched allylic compounds via Ir-catalyzed allylations of functionalized fluorinated methylene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Chen, Jiteng; Zhao, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-14

    Enantioselective introduction of the functionalized monofluorinated methylenes into the allylic fragment under Ir catalysis has been realized, which gave the fluorinated branched allyl products in good to high yields with excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. PMID:27383920

  5. Synthesis of cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silica in anionic surfactant templating system with the aid of acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shao-Xin; Xu, Xue-Yan; He, Wen-Chao; Wang, Jin-Gui; Chen, Tie-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d structure and fascinating caterpillar-like morphology was synthesized by using anionic surfactant N-lauroylsarcosine sodium (Sar-Na) as the template and 3-amionpropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the co-structure-directing agent (CSDA) with the aid of acetate. A phase transformation from high interfacial curvature 2D hexagonal to low interfacial curvature 3D cubic Ia-3d occurred in the presence of a proper amount of acetate. Other species of salts (excluding acetate) had the ability to induce the caterpillar-like morphology, but failed to induce the cubic Ia-3d mesostructure. Furthermore, [3-(2-aminoethyl)-aminopropyl]trimethoxysilane (DAPS) was also used as the CSDA to synthesize Ia-3d mesostructured silica under the aid of sodium acetate. After extraction of the anionic surfactants, amino and di-amine functionalized 3D bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silicas were obtained and used as supports to immobilize Pd nanoparticles for supported catalysts. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested by catalytic hydrogenation of allyl alcohol.

  6. Allylic Nitro Compounds as Nitrite Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrapani, Harinath; Gorczynski, Michael J.; King, S Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Allylic nitro compounds were synthesized and evaluated as organic sources of nitrite and nitric oxide. Unactivated allylic nitro compounds do not spontaneously release nitrite and nucleophile promoted nitrite release is slow. However, 2-(nitromethyl)-cyclohex-1-ene-3-one spontaneously dissociates in buffer (pH = 7.4) to release nitrite with a kobs = 1.6 × 10−5 s−1. In the presence of L-cysteine, this compound rapidly yields nitrite and reacts with hemoglobin similarly to sodium nitrite. Struc...

  7. Elementary reaction allyl radical with oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Feng; KONG Fanao

    2003-01-01

    The elementary reaction between allyl radical with oxygen molecule wasexperimentally investigated. The allyl radical was produced via laser photolysis of C3H5Br in gaseous phase. Nascent vibrational excited products HCO, CO2, CH3CHO and HCOOH were recorded by the time- resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The product channels of C2H5+CO2, CH3CHO+HCO, and HCOOH + C2H3 have been identified. The vibrational populations of product CO2 are obtained by spectral simulation. A mechanism forming a series of three-membered ring-struc- ture intermediates is suggested.

  8. Study on the Preparation of Allyl-modified Starch in Isopropyl/Water Medium for Warp Sizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man-li; ZHU Zhi-feng; ZHANG Long-qiu

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the pretreatment of starch by etherification was developed to eliminate the problems of lower grafting efficiency associated with the preparation of starch graft copolymers as warp sizing agents.The etherification of starch with allyl chloride was investigated in order to effectively enhance the reaction efficiency.The technological variables of the reaction considered for evaluating the etherification included sodium hydroxide amount,water content in water-isopropyi alcohol medium,allyl cldoride concentration,reaction temperature and reaction time.The experimental result demonstrated that the variables considered showed evident effect on the reaction efficiency.For the etherification,a condition of 20% for the water content,1.5:1 for the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to allyl chloride.and at 30℃ under 24h reaction is Sufficient to retain the reaction efficiency above 50%.Furthermore,a contrast test demonstrated that the graft efficiency can be increased with the etherification pretreatment.

  9. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The atom-efficiency of one of the most widely used catalytic reactions for forging C-C bonds, the Tsuji-Trost reaction, is limited by the need of preoxidized reagents. This limitation can be overcome by utilization of the recently discovered palladium-catalyzed C-H activation, the allylic C...

  10. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E

    2016-02-01

    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products. PMID:27308214

  11. Fludrocortisone Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of aspirin or other arthritis medication, limit your consumption of alcoholic beverages while taking this drug. Fludrocortisone makes your stomach and intestines more susceptible to the irritating effects of alcohol, aspirin, and certain arthritis medications. This ...

  12. Polymer-Supported Chiral Monodentate Phosphoramidites in Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG,Zhi-Dong; MENG,Zhao-Hai

    2007-01-01

    A new and simple method for immobilization of monodentate chiral ligand on the cheap resin has been developed.A series of resin-immobilized phosphoramidite ligands based on BINOL and TADDOL backbones have been synthesized and characterized with gel-phase NMR.The immobilized ligands have been applied to the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate.Among four ligands,the supported bulky monodentate phosphoramidite ligand based on TADDOL backbone afforded the chiral product with ee up to 65%;moreover,this ligand could be recycled for 3 times without substantial decrease of the conversion and ee.

  13. Mechanistic Investigation of Palladium–Catalyzed Allylic C–H Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Jensen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sergio;

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism for the palladium–catalyzed allylic C–H activation was investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. A Hammett study revealed a buildup of a partial negative charge in the rate-determining step, while determination of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE...... acetate acts as a base in an intramolecular fashion during the C–H activation step. The re-oxidation of palladium was found to reach a similar energy level as that of the C–H activation. Calculations of turnover frequencies (TOF) for the entire catalytic cycle for the C–H alkylation were used to acquire a...

  14. Pressure Dependent Product Formation in the Photochemically Initiated Allyl + Allyl Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zeuch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photochemically driven reactions involving unsaturated radicals produce a thick global layer of organic haze on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. The allyl radical self-reaction is an example for this type of chemistry and was examined at room temperature from an experimental and kinetic modelling perspective. The experiments were performed in a static reactor with a volume of 5 L under wall free conditions. The allyl radicals were produced from laser flash photolysis of three different precursors allyl bromide (C3H5Br, allyl chloride (C3H5Cl, and 1,5-hexadiene (CH2CH(CH22CHCH2 at 193 nm. Stable products were identified by their characteristic vibrational modes and quantified using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to the (re- combination pathway C3H5+C3H5 → C6H10 we found at low pressures around 1 mbar the highest final product yields for allene and propene for the precursor C3H5Br. A kinetic analysis indicates that the end product formation is influenced by specific reaction kinetics of photochemically activated allyl radicals. Above 10 mbar the (re- combination pathway becomes dominant. These findings exemplify the specificities of reaction kinetics involving chemically activated species, which for certain conditions cannot be simply deduced from combustion kinetics or atmospheric chemistry on Earth.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF ALLYL PHENYL ETHER AND CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  16. 水-仲丁醇-乙酸仲丁酯三元体系的液液相平衡研究%Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of the Water+sec-Butyl Alcohol+sec-Butyl Acetate Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 郭川; 吴燕翔

    2013-01-01

      测定了水-仲丁醇-乙酸仲丁酯三元体系在303.15,323.15,343.15,353.15 K下的液液相平衡数据,并用NRTL模型和 UNIQUAC模型对相平衡数据进行关联,应用单纯形法求得相应的模型参数.计算值与实验值比较结果表明:NRTL模型与UNIQUAC模型的计算值与实验数据吻合良好.%Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data of the water +sec-butyl alcohol + sec-butyl acetate ternary system were measured at 303.15 K, 323.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The active coefficients in the LLE equations were calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the calculated LLE data of water+sec-butyl alcohol+sec-butyl acetate ternary system were compared with the experimental data. Based on the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, the calculated equilibrium compositions of the studied ternary system are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Resonance Raman spectrum of the allyl-d5 radical and the force field analysis of the allyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianming; Getty, James D.; Kelly, Peter B.

    1993-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the allyl-d5 radical have been obtained with excitation between 247 and 223 nm. Analysis of the spectra yields the first observation of fundamental frequencies, nu4, nu5, and nu7 and overtone frequencies 2nu9, 2nu10, and 2nu12. The new vibrational data are combined with previously observed frequencies of allyl-h5 and allyl-d5 radical to produce the force field analysis for the allyl radical. This study suggests reassignment of several previously observed infrared (IR) bands. Experimental frequencies and assignments for allyl-h5 and allyl-d5 are compared with results from ab initio calculations. Force constants obtained in the present work are compared with the force constants of other sp2 hybridization molecules such as benzene, allene, and ethylene.

  18. 耐高温高醇醋酸菌的筛选及其发酵工艺的初步优化%Screening and fermentation optimization of a thermoresistant and alcohol-tolerant acetic acid bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文瑛; 陈雄; 王志; 王永泽; 雷锦成; 姚娟

    2011-01-01

    Twelve acetic acid bacteria were isolated from some rotten fruits, one of which was selected for its comprehensive performance on alcohol tolerance, temperature tolerance and acetic acid production was highest, and identified as Acetobacter according to physiological-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. The optimal fermentation medium for the strain was op timized by orthogonal test as follows: glucose 2%,yeast extract 2%, MgSO4·7H2O 0.02%, KH2PO4 0.1%, ethanol 7%vol. and the ultimate acetic acid production can reach to 48.6g/L.%分别从各种腐烂水果中分离出12株产醋酸菌,比较其对乙醇和温度的耐受性以及发酵产醋酸的量,选择综合性能相对最高的一株,利用生理生化实验和16S rDNA同源序列分析,初步认定其为Acetobacter属.正交试验优化该菌最佳发酵培养基为:葡萄糖2%,酵母粉2%,MgSO4·7H2O.02%,KH2PO40.1%,乙醇7%vol,醋酸产量为48.6g/L.

  19. Nano-Aluminum Powder Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shi-Zhen; LIU Jin

    2008-01-01

    A new and effective Barbier-Grignard allylation of aldehydes or ketones has been carried out with nano-aluminum powder in aqueous 0.1 mol·L-1 NH4Cl (aq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Aromatic carbonyl compounds gave homoallylic alcohols in good yields. The effectiveness of reaction was strongly influenced by the steric environment surrounding the carbonyl group. Aliphatic carbonyl compounds proceeded in low yields. The dominant stereoisomer was an erythro-isomer when an ortho-hydroxyl carbonyl compound was reacted under such a reaction condition.

  20. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...

  1. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  2. DFT-Based Explanation of the Effect of Simple Anionic Ligands on the Regioselectivity of the Heck Arylation of Acrolein Acetals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Cacchi, Sandro;

    2009-01-01

    The Heck arylation of acrolein acetal has been studied computationally and compared to the corresponding reaction with allyl ethers. The reaction can be controlled to give either cinnamaldehydes or arylpropanoic esters by addition of different coordinating anions, acetate, or chloride. The comput...

  3. Iridium-catalyzed allylic substitutions with cyclometalated phosphoramidite complexes bearing a dibenzocyclooctatetraene ligand: preparation of (π-allyl)Ir complexes and computational and NMR spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskatov, Jevgenij A; Jäkel, Mascha; Straub, Bernd F; Rominger, Frank; Helmchen, Günter

    2012-11-01

    (π-Allyl)Ir complexes derived from dibenzocyclooctatetraene and phosphoramidites by cyclometalation are effective catalysts for allylic substitution reactions of linear monosubstituted allylic carbonates. These catalysts provide exceptionally high degrees of regioselectivity and allow the reactions to be run under aerobic conditions. A series of (π-allyl)Ir complexes were prepared and characterized by X-ray crystal structure analyses. An allylic amination with aniline displayed different resting states depending on the presence of a strong base. DFT calculations were carried out on the mechanistic aspects of these reactions. The results suggest that for the (π-allyl)Ir complexes, the formation and reactions with nucleophiles proceed with comparable rates. PMID:23018807

  4. Effect of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer blockiness on the dynamic interfacial tension and dilational viscoelasticity of polymer-anionic surfactant complex at the water-1-chlorobutane interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanase, Leonard Ionut; Bistac, Sophie; Riess, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA) copolymers obtained by partial hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) are of practical importance for many applications, including emulsion and suspension polymerization processes. Their molecular characteristics have a major influence on the colloidal and interfacial properties. The most significant characteristics are represented by the average degree of hydrolysis D̅H̅, average degree of polymerization D̅P̅w̅ but also by the average acetate sequence length n(VAc)(0) which designates the so-called blockiness. Colloidal aggregates were observed in the aqueous PVA solutions having a D̅H̅ value of 73 mol%. The volume fraction of these aggregates at a given D̅H̅ value is directly correlated to the blockiness. Three PVA samples with identical D̅H̅ and D̅P̅w̅ but different blockiness were examined. By pendant drop and oscillating pendant drop techniques it was shown that the PVA sample having the lowest blockiness and thus the lowest volume fraction of colloidal aggregates has lower interfacial tension and elastic modulus E' values. On the contrary, the corresponding values are highest for PVA sample of higher blockiness. In the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the colloidal aggregates are disaggregated by complex formation due to the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. The PVA-SDS complex acts as a partial polyelectrolyte that induces the stretching of the chains and thus a reduction of the interface thickness. In this case, the interfacial tension and the elastic modulus both increase with increasing SDS concentration for all three PVA samples and the most significant effect was noticed for the most "blocky" copolymer sample.

  5. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten;

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing...

  6. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols.......In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  7. Clostebol acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maccaroni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H29ClO3 [systematic name (8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S-4-chloro-3-oxoandrost-4-en-17β-yl acetate], is a 4-chloro derivative of testosterone, used as an anabolic androgenic agent or applied topically in ophthalmological and dermatological treatments. The absolute configurations at positions 8, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17 were established by refinement of the Flack parameter as R, S, R, S, S, and S, respectively. Rings B and C of the steroid ring system adopt chair conformations, ring A has a half-chair conformation, while ring D is in a C13 envelope conformation. Ring B and C, and C and D are trans fused. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a weak C—H...O interaction.

  8. Structurally defined allyl compounds of main group metals: coordination and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Okuda, Jun

    2013-05-10

    Organometallic allyl compounds are important as allylation reagents in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts, and as volatile metal precursors in material science. Whereas the allyl chemistry of synthetically relevant transition metals such as palladium and of the lanthanoids is well-established, that of main group metals has been lagging behind. Recent progress on allyl complexes of Groups 1, 2, and 12-16 now provides a more complete picture. This is based on a fundamental understanding of metal-allyl bonding interactions in solution and in the solid state. Furthermore, reactivity trends have been rationalized and new types of allyl-specific reactivity patterns have been uncovered. Key features include 1) the exploitation of the different types of metal-allyl bonding (highly ionic to predominantly covalent), 2) the use of synergistic effects in heterobimetallic compounds, and 3) the adjustment of Lewis acidity by variation of the charge of allyl compounds.

  9. Effects of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, on the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice: a comparison with naproxen, aspirin, and paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Carbajal-Quintana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available D-002 es una mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos superiores purificados de la cera de abejas con efectos antiinflamatorios demostrados en modelos experimentales sin efectos gastrotóxicos o hepatotóxicos. Algunos estudios han demostrado el efecto analgésico del D-002 relacionado con su acción antiinflamatoria. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar el efecto del D-002, naproxeno, aspirina y paracetamol sobre el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético en ratones . Los ratones fueron distribuidos en 13 grupos (10 animales/grupo:un control con vehículo, cuatro con D-002 (25, 50, 200 y 400 mg/kg, tres con naproxeno (10, 20 y 50 mg/kg tres con aspirina (50, 100 y 300 mg/kg y dos con paracetamol (100 y 400 mg/kg por vía oral. Una hora después del tratamiento, los ratones fueron inyectados con ácido acético (1,0 % y el número de contorsiones durante 15 min registrado. El tratamiento oral con D-002 (50, 200 y 400 mg/kg inhibió significativamente las contorsiones abdominales (36, 43 y 40 %. El número de contorsiones disminuyó significativamente con 100 y 300 mg/kg de aspirina (47 y 83 %; naproxeno 20 y 50 mg/kg (37 % con ambas dosis y paracetamol 400 mg/kg (24 %. La menor dosis de cada tratamiento no mostró efecto analgésico. El efecto del D-002 (400 mg/kg fue comparable al naproxeno (20 and 50 mg/kg. La máxima dosis efectiva de D-002 (200 mg/kg y naproxeno (20 mg/kg fueron menos efectivas que la aspirina (300 mg/kg en inhibir las contracciones por ácido acético, mientras que el paracetamol (400 mg/kg resultó el tratamiento menos efectivo.

  10. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  11. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatics with unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2016-08-18

    A cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatic and heteroaromatic amides with unactivated alkenes, allyl acetates and allyl alcohols is described. This method offers an efficient route for the synthesis of vinyl and allyl benzamides in a highly stereoselective manner. It is observed that the ortho substituent on the benzamide moiety is crucial for the observation of allylated products in unactivated alkenes.

  12. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  13. Highly Enantioselective Formation of α-Allyl-α-Arylcyclopentanones via Pd-Catalysed Decarboxylative Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Ramulu; Doran, Robert; Guiry, Patrick J

    2016-07-11

    A highly enantioselective Pd-catalysed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation of cyclopentanone derived α-aryl-β-keto esters employing the (R,R)-ANDEN-phenyl Trost ligand has been developed. The product (S)-α-allyl-α-arylcyclopentanones were obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99.9 % ee). This represents one of the most highly enantioselective formations of an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center reported to date. This reaction was demonstrated on a 4.0 mmol scale without any deterioration of enantioselectivity and was exploited as the key enantioselective transformation in an asymmetric formal synthesis of the natural product (+)-tanikolide. PMID:27191198

  14. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−)-anverene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−)-anverene. PMID:27559385

  15. Sulfonium-based Ionic Liquids Incorporating the Allyl Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Dyson

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of sulfonium halides bearing allyl groups have been prepared andcharacterized. Anion metathesis with Li[Tf2N] and Ag[N(CN2] resulted in sulfonium-basedionic liquids which exhibit low viscosities at room temperature. The solid state structure ofone of the halide salts was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  16. Electrochemical Allylic Oxidation of Olefins: Sustainable and Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Selt, Maximilian

    2016-10-01

    The power you're supplying: With the application of an optimized electrochemical approach, the allylic oxidation of olefins, which is an important C-H activation process that provides access to enones, becomes a sustainable, versatile, and potent key reaction for organic synthesis.

  17. Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Rebecca Jay Spangenberg; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (ana...

  18. Gas Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Isopropyl Alcohol , Isoamyl alcohol and Ethyl hexanoate in Distilled Spirit%毛细管柱气相色谱法同时测定白酒中的乙酸乙酯、甲醇、异丁醇、异戊醇和己酸乙酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆; 苏建国; 赵燕; 胡建

    2012-01-01

      本文建立了毛细管柱气相色谱法同时测定白酒中的乙酸乙酯、甲醇、异丁醇、异戊醇和己酸乙酯,使用FID检测器进行检测,采用内标法进行定量分析.结果显示:乙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、甲醇、异丁醇和异戊醇,平均回收率均在87.9~98.7%之间,6次测定的相对标准偏差均小于2.04%,该方法具有准确、简单及灵敏度高的特点,能够适应大规模样品的快速分析要求.%  This paper reported the methods for determination of Determination of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, isoamyl alco-hol and Ethyl hexanoate, in distilled spirit by gas Chromatography. The determinations were utilized FID detector and the contents were deter-mined by internal standard method for quantitative analysis. The results showed that tThe recovery rates were 87.9~98.7 ,and 6 parallel determi-nation of the relative standard deviation is less than 2.04%. This method is rapid, simple and accurate, high sensitivity for measurements of ben-zene homologues. Its can adapt to quick analysis the large samples.

  19. Branching Out: Rhodium-Catalyzed Allylation with Alkynes and Allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschker, Philipp; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-08-16

    We present a new and efficient strategy for the atom-economic transformation of both alkynes and allenes to allylic functionalized structures via a Rh-catalyzed isomerization/addition reaction which has been developed in our working group. Our methodology thus grants access to an important structural class valued in modern organic chemistry for both its versatility for further functionalization and the potential for asymmetric synthesis with the construction of a new stereogenic center. This new methodology, inspired by mechanistic investigations by Werner in the late 1980s and based on preliminary work by Yamamoto and Trost, offers an attractive alternative to other established methods for allylic functionalization such as allylic substitution or allylic oxidation. The main advantage of our methodology consists of the inherent atom economy in comparison to allylic oxidation or substitution, which both produce stoichiometric amounts of waste and, in case of the substitution reaction, require prefunctionalization of the starting material. Starting out with the discovery of a highly branched-selective coupling reaction of carboxylic acids with terminal alkynes using a Rh(I)/DPEphos complex as the catalyst system, over the past 5 years we were able to continuously expand upon this chemistry, introducing various (pro)nucleophiles for the selective C-O, C-S, C-N, and C-C functionalization of both alkynes and the double-bond isomeric allenes by choosing the appropriate rhodium/bidentate phosphine catalyst. Thus, valuable compounds such as branched allylic ethers, sulfones, amines, or γ,δ-unsaturated ketones were successfully synthesized in high yields and with a broad substrate scope. Beyond the branched selectivity inherent to rhodium, many of the presented methodologies display additional degrees of selectivity in regard to regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective transformations, with one example even proceeding via a dynamic kinetic resolution. Many advances

  20. Synthesis of oxacyclic scaffolds via dual ruthenium hydride/Brønsted acid-catalyzed isomerization/cyclization of allylic ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascic, Erhad; Ohm, Ragnhild G; Petersen, Rico; Hansen, Mette R; Hansen, Casper L; Madsen, Daniel; Tanner, David; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2014-03-17

    A ruthenium hydride/Brønsted acid-catalyzed tandem sequence is reported for the synthesis of 1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indoles (THPIs) and related oxacyclic scaffolds. The process was designed on the premise that readily available allylic ethers would undergo sequential isomerization, first to enol ethers (Ru catalysis), then to oxocarbenium ions (Brønsted acid catalysis) amenable to endo cyclization with tethered nucleophiles. This methodology provides not only an attractive alternative to the traditional oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction for the synthesis of THPIs, but also convenient access to THPI congeners and other important oxacycles such as acetals. PMID:24616060

  1. A novel and selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols with polymer-supported periodic acid under mild aprotic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Mehrosadat Tabaean; S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi

    2012-01-01

    A new polymeric oxidizing reagent was prepared by supporting periodic acid on poly(1,4-phenylene-2,5-pyridine dicarboxyamide).This polymeric reagent was used for the selective oxidation of primary benzylic alcohols to the corresponding benzaldehydes in CH3CN at reflux conditions.Excellent selectivity was observed between primary benzyl alcohols and secondary ones as well as non-benzylic alcohols in the oxidation reactions.Allylic alcohols were also converted to the corresponding aldehydes with good yields.

  2. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  3. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  4. Hypervalent iodine/TEMPO-mediated oxidation in flow systems: a fast and efficient protocol for alcohol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Ambreen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypervalent iodine(III/TEMPO-mediated oxidation of various aliphatic, aromatic and allylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds was successfully achieved by using microreactor technology. This method can be used as an alternative for the oxidation of various alcohols achieving excellent yields and selectivities in significantly shortened reaction times.

  5. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John;

    2001-01-01

    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed by...... asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  6. THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS OF ACETIC ACID BETWEEN WATER AND SOLVENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution coefficients of acetic acid between aqueous phase and solvents (water-C6-C10 alcohols, butyl acetate, ether and benzene were studied. Synergetic effect was obtained for alcohol and ester systems. A slightly positive deviation was obtained for benzene–ester mixtures. The best distribution coefficient was obtained for hexanol-butyl acetate systems. The coefficients of Redlisch-Kister equation were obtained for the deviations.

  7. [Characterization of surface properties of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid by inverse gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yali; Wang, Qiang; Deng, Lishuang; Zhang, Zhengfang; Tang, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The determination of the dispersive component of surface free energies (gamma(s)d) at different temperatures and Lewis acid-base parameters of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([AMIM]Cl) were investigated by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Four n-alkanes, including n-hexane (C6), n-heptane (C7), n-octane (C8) and n-nonane (C9), were chosen as the apolar probes to characterize the dispersive component of the surface free energies at 343.15, 353.15, 363.15 and 373.15 K, respectively; and dichloromethane (DCM), trichloromethane (TCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethyl acetate (EtAc), acetone (Acet) as the polar probes to estimate the Lewis acid-base parameters to judge the interactions between [AMIM] Cl and the solvents. The IGC characterizations encompassed the adsorption thermodynamic parameters to acid-base surface interactions, including the standard enthalpy (deltaHa(s)) and the free energy change of adsorption (deltaGa(s)) at different temperatures. The results showed that the Lewis acid parameter Ka of [AMIM] Cl was 0.34, and the base parameter Kb was 1.68, which indicated it was Lewis amphoteric with predominantly basic character. Furthermore, the free energy of adsorption deltaGa(s) was also figured out. It was found that the gamma(s)d of the [AMIM] Cl were 52.26, 50.82, 46.08 and 42.05 mJ/m2 at 343.15, 353.15, 363.15 and 373.15 K, respectively. The results are of great importance to the study of the surface properties and the application of ionic liquid.

  8. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  9. Practical and Broadly Applicable Catalytic Enantioselective Additions of Allyl-B(pin) Compounds to Ketones and α-Ketoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Daniel W; Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Volkov, Alexey; Torker, Sebastian; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    A set of broadly applicable methods for efficient catalytic additions of easy-to-handle allyl-B(pin) (pin=pinacolato) compounds to ketones and acyclic α-ketoesters was developed. Accordingly, a large array of tertiary alcohols can be obtained in 60 to >98 % yield and up to 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. At the heart of this development is rational alteration of the structures of the small-molecule aminophenol-based catalysts. Notably, with ketones, increasing the size of a catalyst moiety (tBu to SiPh3 ) results in much higher enantioselectivity. With α-ketoesters, on the other hand, not only does the opposite hold true, since Me substitution leads to substantially higher enantioselectivity, but the sense of the selectivity is reversed as well.

  10. Allyl sulphides in olefin metathesis: catalyst considerations and traceless promotion of ring-closing metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Grant A; Culp, Phillip A; Chalker, Justin M

    2015-01-11

    Allyl sulphides are reactive substrates in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis reactions, provided each substrate is matched with a suitable catalyst. A profile of catalyst activity is described, along with the first demonstration of allyl sulphides as traceless promoters in relayed ring-closing metathesis reactions.

  11. Pd-catalyzed cascade allylic alkylation and dearomatization reactions of indoles with vinyloxirane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-09-14

    We have developed Pd-catalyzed intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type allylic alkylation and allylic dearomatization reactions of substituted indoles bearing a nucleophilic group with vinyloxirane, providing an efficient method to synthesize structurally diverse tetrahydrocarboline and spiroindolenine derivatives under mild conditions. PMID:27511802

  12. Allyl sulphides in olefin metathesis: catalyst considerations and traceless promotion of ring-closing metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Grant A; Culp, Phillip A; Chalker, Justin M

    2015-01-11

    Allyl sulphides are reactive substrates in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis reactions, provided each substrate is matched with a suitable catalyst. A profile of catalyst activity is described, along with the first demonstration of allyl sulphides as traceless promoters in relayed ring-closing metathesis reactions. PMID:25410944

  13. Green Synthesis and Regioselective Control of Sn/I2 Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Crotyl Halide in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yan; ZHA,Zhang-Gen; ZHOU,Yu-Qing; WANG,Zhi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Barbier-type carbonyl allylation is particularly useful due to ease of operation and the availability and tractability of allylic substrates,[1] Metals such as indium, zinc and tin are often used as the mediator. Here we present a green approach toward the synthesis, that is, Sn/I2 mediated allylation of carbonyl compounds with crotyl halide in water.

  14. Construction of an Asymmetric Quaternary Carbon Center via Allylation of Hydrazones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Bum; Satyender, Apuri; Jang, Doo Ok [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Asymmetric indium-mediated allylation of imine derivatives bearing a chiral auxiliary is a reliable strategy for the synthesis of chiral homoallylic amines. Various techniques for indium-mediated stereoselective allylation of imines bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported. In 1997 Loh and co-workers reported indium-mediated allylation with imines derived from L-valine methyl ester. Since then, many forms of indium-mediated allylation bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported, including imines derived from (S)-valinol, (R)-phenylglycinol, uracil, (R)-phenylglycinol methyl ester, N-tert-butanesufinamide, and (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-indanol. However, the synthesis of chiral auxiliaries often involves a laborious multi-step synthesis with expensive reagents. Therefore, the development of readily accessible chiral auxiliaries for asymmetric indium-mediated all-ylation is in high demand.

  15. Estudo comparativo da reação inflamatória renal entre álcool de polivinil - flocular e álcool de polivinil + acetato de polivinil - esférico: estudo experimental Comparative study of renal inflammatory reaction between irregular - polyvinyl alcohol and spherical - polyvinyl alcohol + polyvinyl acetate: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Dias Siqueira Mendes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características e os efeitos de um agente embólico, disponível comercialmente, consistindo de Polivinil Álcool (PVA de morfologia flocular, e comparar com um agente esférico, de tecnologia nacional, consistindo de Polivinil Álcool e Polivinil Acetato (PVA + PVAc. MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas fêmeas de coelho albino "New Zealand", submetidas à embolização arterial renal. PVA-flocular foi usado em 24 animais, assim como PVA+PVAc-esférico. Seis animais foram utilizados como controle. Todos foram mantidos em cativeiro até a morte, por períodos pós-operatórios de 48 horas, cinco dias, 10 dias e 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Ambos os agentes promoveram oclusão do vaso e infarto do órgão. O estudo microscópico inicial das artérias embolizadas com PVA-flocular, mostra oclusão com trombo e PVA. Os vasos embolizados com PVA+PVAc-esférico, mostram os agentes ocupando praticamente todo o lúmen. No estudo de 30 dias, observa-se absorção do trombo e retração dos agentes de PVAflocular, criando espaços. E com PVA+PVAc-esférico, pode-se observar os agentes circundados por intensa fibrose. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as partículas foram efetivas para causar isquemia tecidual. A reação inflamatória foi mais intensa com PVA+PVAc-esférico que também apresentou grau de penetração maior no sistema vascular.BACKGROUND: To evaluate the characteristics and the effects of an embolic agent, available commercially, consisting of irregular - Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA, and to compare with a spherical agent, of brazilian technology, consisting of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA + PVAc. METHODS: Renal arterial embolization was performed in females of New Zealand White rabbits. Irregular - PVA was used in 24 animals. Spherical - PVA+PVAc was used in 24 animals. Six animals were used as control. All animals were maintained in captivity until the euthanasia, after 48 hours, 5 days, 10 days and 30 days. RESULTS: Both agents resulted

  16. Enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds following a strategy of functionalization and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2013-11-27

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.

  17. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  20. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  1. Bromoallenes as allyl dication equivalents in the presence or absence of palladium(0): direct construction of bicyclic sulfamides containing five- to eight-membered rings by tandem cyclization of bromoallenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Hisao; Kosaka, Shohei; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Tetsuaki

    2007-01-01

    A highly regioselective synthesis of bicyclic sulfamides is described. Based on our recent discovery that bromoallenes can act as allyl dication equivalents in the presence of a palladium catalyst and alcohol, we investigated tandem cyclization of bromoallenes bearing a sulfamide group. It is found that some bromoallenes act as allyl dication equivalents even in the absence of a palladium(0) catalyst to afford cyclosulfamides containing five- or six-membered rings. While the palladium-free cyclization is dependent on the substrate structure affording the bicyclic sulfamides through the first cyclization onto the proximal or central carbon atom of the bromoallenes, the palladium-catalyzed reaction strongly promotes the first cyclization onto the central allenic carbon atom to afford bicyclic sulfamides containing a seven- or eight-membered ring. Formation of two types of bicyclic sulfamides from single bromoallenes by simply changing the reaction conditions is also described. PMID:17200916

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  3. Studies on the Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloid: Preparation of the Key Allylic Silyl Ether Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lei SONG; Yong Qiang TU; Shuan Hu GAO; Yi Jun JIANG; Shu Yu ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A convergent strategy to the key allylic silyl ether precursor 4 in our synthetic efforts toward morphinan alkaloid is presented. The vital step is the selective 1,2-addition of the organocerium agent of 6 to ketene 5.

  4. Facile synthesis of allyl resinate monomer in an aqueous solution under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanju Lu; Mixia Wang; Zhendong Zhao; Yuxiang Chen; Shichao Xu; Jing Wang; Liangwu Bi

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a facile method for production of allyl resinate monomer (allyl rosin ester) via a phase transfer reaction under microwave irradiation. The synthesis of allyl resinate was conducted using allyl chloride and sodium resinate as starting materials in aqueous solution at 50°C for 30 min with a yield of 94.7%, which is 20% higher than conventional heating method. The products precipitated spontaneously from the aqueous phase after reaction, which significantly facilitated the subsequent separation of monomer products. The synthesized monomer product appeared as a viscous liquid, with a viscosity of 460 mPa·s at 25°C and a density of 1.0469 g/cm3. The physical and chemical properties suggested that the synthesized monomer has great potential for free radical polymerization.

  5. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.

    2013-06-01

    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  6. Total Synthesis of Clavosolide A via Tandem Allylic Oxidation/Oxa-Conjugate Addition Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph B.; Kim, Hyoungsu; Hong, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    The tandem allylic oxidation/oxa-conjugate addition reaction promoted by the gem-disubstituent effect in conjunction with the NHC-mediated oxidative esterification was explored for the facile synthesis of clavosolide A. PMID:26236051

  7. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2010-05-01

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but spoilage then occurred due to growth of fermentative yeasts, which produced ethanol in the cucumbers. Allyl isothiocyanate (2 mM) prevented growth of Zygosaccharomyces globiformis, which has been responsible for commercial pickle spoilage, as well as the yeasts that were present on fresh cucumbers. However, allyl isothiocyanate did not prevent growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. When these compounds were added in combination to acidified cucumbers, the cucumbers were successfully preserved as indicated by the fact that neither yeasts or lactic acid bacteria increased in numbers nor were lactic acid or ethanol produced by microorganisms when cucumbers were stored at 30 degrees C for at least 2 mo. This combination of 2 naturally occurring preservative compounds may serve as an alternative approach to the use of sodium benzoate or sodium metabisulfite for preservation of acidified vegetables without a thermal process.

  8. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  9. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Monopoli; Pietro Cotugno; Zambonin, Carlo G.; Francesco Ciminale; Angelo Nacci

    2015-01-01

    The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand...

  10. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. A New Route to Preparations of Silyl Ethers by Reactions of Silyl Triflimides with Alcohol or Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zi-Long

    2008-01-01

    A few of acyclic and cyclic silyl ethers were firstly synthesized in good yields by reactions of silyl triflimides with alcohol or ether. The corresponding silyl triflimides were easily produced by protodesilylation of phenyl or allyl silanes with HNTf2. All new compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR and HRMS.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Dearomative Allylic Alkylation of Indoles with Alkynes To Synthesize Indolenines with C3-Quarternary Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang; Wu, Zijun; Fang, Xinxin; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-08-01

    A palladium-catalyzed dearomative allylic alkylation of indoles with alkynes to construct indolenines with C3-quarternary centers was reported. The in situ formed arylallene intermediate omitted the need to install leaving groups on the allylic compounds and employ extra oxidants to oxidize the allylic C-H bonds. The reaction exhibited good functional group tolerance and high atom economy. Moreover, the reaction was further expanded to synthesize pyrroloindolines and furanoindolines. PMID:27442021

  13. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  15. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  17. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate....

  18. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    -negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  19. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  20. Alcohol: A Nutrient with Multiple Salutary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Pownall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly its cardioprotective effects until it was reported that acetate, the terminal product of alcohol metabolism, is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPCR43, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we recast much of some of the major lipid and lipoprotein effects of alcohol in the context of this newly discovered G-protein and develop a mechanistic model connecting the interaction of acetate with adipose tissue-GPCR43 with these effects. According to our model, ingestions of acetate could replace alcohol as a means of improving plasma lipid risk factors, improving glucose disposal, and reducing cardiovascular disease. Future studies should include biochemical, cell, animal, and human tests of acetate on energy metabolism.

  1. Rapid formation of β-allyl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives via Claisen rearrangement using a microfludic device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ping Ma; Zhi Ming Li; Quan Rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    The thermal Claisen rearrangement of O-allyl substituted isotetronic acids 1 was successfully carried out within a glass microreactor operated with temperature at 150 ℃ and a flow rate of 1 mL/h. The strategy provides an efficient alternative way to β-allyl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives 2 in high yields with much accelerated reaction speed.

  2. Dicyano-Functionalized MCM-41-Supported Palladium Complex as An Efficient Catalyst for Allylation of Aldehydes and Ketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong; CAI Ming-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Dicyano-functionalized MCM-41-supported palladium complex was prepared from dicyano-functionalized MCM-41 and palladium chloride. This complex exhibited high catalytic activity in the allylation of aldehydes and ketones with allylic chlorides in the presence of SnCl2. This polymeric palladium complex can be recovered and reused without noticeable loss of activity.

  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  4. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism.

  5. A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G

    2010-01-01

    A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing. PMID:19765983

  6. Kinetic Studies that Evaluate the Solvolytic Mechanisms of Allyl and Vinyl Chloroformate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At 25.0 °C the specific rates of solvolysis for allyl and vinyl chloroformates have been determined in a wide mix of pure and aqueous organic mixtures. In all the solvents studied, vinyl chloroformate was found to react significantly faster than allyl chloroformate. Multiple correlation analyses of these rates are completed using the extended (two-term Grunwald-Winstein equation with incorporation of literature values for solvent nucleophilicity (NT and solvent ionizing power (YCl. Both substrates were found to solvolyze by similar dual bimolecular carbonyl-addition and unimolecular ionization channels, each heavily dependent upon the solvents nucleophilicity and ionizing ability.

  7. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  8. One-pot synthesis and characterization of a new, branched polycarbosilane bearing allyl groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hua Huang; Zhao Ju Yu; Xu Min He; Mu He Huang; Li Fu Chen; Hai Ping Xia; Li Tong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A highly branched polycarbosilane bearing allyl groups has been prepared by a one-pot synthesis with chloromethyltrichlorosilane, chloromethylmethyldichlorosilane and allyl chloride as the starting materials.The resultant polymer, with the approximate formula [SiH1.2(CH)30.71(CH2CH=CH2)0.09CH2]n,has been characterized by 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR, GPC, TG and elemental analysis.It could be cross-linked thermally at 170℃ in the absence of oxygen.Pyrolysis of the polymer gave a ceramic with a yield of about 70%.

  9. Synthesis of (-)-Piperitylmagnolol Featuring ortho-Selective Deiodination and Pd-Catalyzed Allylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Atsushi; Ogawa, Narihito; Kondo, Daiki; Kawada, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A 1,4-addition strategy using an enone and a copper reagent was studied for the synthesis of (-)-piperitylmagnolol. A MOM-protected biphenol copper reagent was added to BF3·OEt2-activated 4-isopropylcyclohexenone, whereas 1,4-addition of protected monophenol reagents possessing an allyl group was found to be unsuccessful. The allyl group was later attached to the p-,p'-diiodo-biphenol ring by Pd-catalyzed coupling with allylborate. The aforementioned iodide was synthesized using a new method for ortho-selective deiodination of o-,p-diiodophenols. PMID:27109890

  10. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  11. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N

    2016-01-01

    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  12. COMPORTAMENTO DAS FERMENTAÇÕES ALCOÓLICA E ACÉTICA DE SUCOS DE KIWI (Actinidia deliciosa: COMPOSIÇÃO DOS MOSTOS E MÉTODOS DE FERMENTAÇÃO ACÉTICA BEHAVIOUR OF ALCOHOLIC AND ACETIC FERMENTATIONS OF KIWI MASHES (Actinidia deliciosa; COMPOSITION OF MASHES AND PRODUCTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana BORTOLINI

    2001-08-01

    methods. Mashes were prepared in six treatments: natural kiwi fruit juice (T1; kiwi fruit juice and nutrients added (T2; kiwi fruit juice and sucrose until 18O Brix (T3; kiwi fruit juice and sucrose until 18O Brix and nutrients (T4; kiwi fruit juice and sucrose until 22O Brix (T5; and kiwi fruit juice and sucrose until 22O Brix and nutrients (T6. The alcoholic fermentation occurred at 28O C, with 10(6 CFU/mL of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Only treatments 1, 3 and 5 were used in the acetic fermentation since the addition of nutrients didn't influence ethanol production. In acetic fermentation vertical generator (PG, at room temperature, and submerged fermentator (PS, at 25O C, 500rpm agitation an oxygen flow of 0.05vvm, both in a 2-liter work volume were utilised. The alcoholic fermentation yield varied between 38.65 and 47.23%, with efficiency of 75.62 to 92.41% and it's productivity between 0.74 and 2.0g/L.h. The pH values were higher at the end of the process in treatments with lower concentrations of total sugars (T1 and T2. In acetic fermentation at the PG, the composition of mashes didn't increase acetic acid production, but for PS initial higher concentrations of ethanol were more productive. The vinegars obtained by PS, produced in 12 hours between 1.00 and 1.78% (p/v acetic acid, with yields varying between 93.24 and 98.34% and productivity between 0.83 and 1.73g/L.h. The sensory analysis performed with a ranking test showed that kiwi fruit vinegars obtained by PG were better than those obtained by PS, with acceptability indexes above 70%. The analyzed data showed that it is possible to produce kiwi fruit vinegar using surplus production fruits to diversify the products.

  13. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  14. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I S

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to in...

  15. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  16. In(OTf)3 catalyzed allylation reaction of imines with tetraallyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ning Wei; Ling Yan Liu; Bing Wang; Wei Xing Chang; Jing Li

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic amount of In(OTf)3 (10 mol%), a series of aldimines reacted with tetraallyltin in a 2:1 molar ratio to afford the corresponding homoallylic amines in good yields. The good atom efficiency was achieved under mild reaction conditions and a new protocol (allyl)4Sn/In(OTf)3 for simple imines was developed.

  17. Enantioselective copper catalyzed allylic alkylation using Grignard reagents; Applications in synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, Anthoni Wouter van

    2009-01-01

    Enantioselective copper catalyzed allylic alkylation is a powerful carbon-carbon bond forming reaction. In this thesis the development of a new catalyst for the use of Grignard reagents in this reaction is described. This catalyst is based on copper and the ligand Taniaphos. The high regio- and enan

  18. Electrochemical studies and self diffusion coefficients in cyclic ammonium based ionic liquids with allyl substituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tzi-Yi [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Su, Shyh-Gang [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, H. Paul [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yuan-Chung [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Gung, Shr-Tusen; Lin, Ming-Wei [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Sun, I.-Wen, E-mail: iwsun@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-03-30

    Research highlights: Cyclic ammonium-based ionic liquids with allyl substituent have high conductivity. Ionic liquids with allyl substituent have wide electrochemical window. Electrochemical and self diffusion coefficients are available for comparison. The Stokes-Einstein plots of DT{sup -1} vs. {eta}{sup -1} for redox couples in ILs are evaluated. Stokes-Einstein product of ferrocene is larger than that of cobaltocenium in ILs. - Abstract: Several cyclic ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with allyl substituent are synthesized, these allyl substituent ILs have high ionic conductivity (up to 4.72 mS cm{sup -1} at 30 {sup o}C) and wide electrochemical window of 5 V. The electrochemical behaviors of two organometallic redox couples Fc/Fc{sup +} (ferrocene/ferrocenium) and Cc/Cc{sup +} (cobaltocene/cobaltocenium) have been studied in these ILs, the calculated Stokes-Einstein product (D{eta} T{sup -1}) of ferrocene in ILs is larger than that of cobaltocenium in ILs. The self-diffusion coefficients of cation and anion in these ILs are studied using pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR technique. There are very few reports where electrochemically derived diffusion coefficients and self diffusion coefficients are available for comparison, so a new key concept in electrochemistry could be developed in this paper.

  19. α-Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds and Allyl Halides Mediated by Praseodymium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San; Li, Ying; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    The first utility of praseodymium as a mediating metal in the Barbier reaction of carbonyl compounds with allyl halides was reported in this paper. In contrast to the traditional metal-mediated or catalyzed Barbier reactions, exclusive α-adducts were obtained in this one-pot reaction with a broad scope of substrates and feasible reaction conditions. PMID:27490708

  20. Reactions of unsaturated compounds. CXXIV. Claisen rearrangement of allyl and propargyloxydienyl phosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangyan, Yu.M.; Tirakyan, M.R.; Panosyan, G.A.; Badanyan, Sh.O.

    1986-12-20

    O,O-Dialkyl-1-ethylidene-2-allyl(propargyl)oxy-2-butenyl phosphonates have been obtained from vinylallenyl phosphonates and undergo thermal Claisen rearrangement to form highly unsaturated ketophosphonates. Comprehensive coupling constant and chemical shift figures from an NMR analysis are given.

  1. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates of isatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee and in high yields (up to 97%.

  2. Zirconium-allyl complexes as resting states in zirconocene-catalyzed α-olefin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Valentina N; Babushkin, Dmitrii E; Brintzinger, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    UV-vis spectroscopic data indicate that zirconocene cations with Zr-bound allylic chain ends are generally formed during olefin polymerization with zirconocene catalysts. The rates and extent of their formation and of their re-conversion to the initial pre-catalyst cations depend on the types of zirconocene complexes and activators used.

  3. Synthesis of telechelic vinyl/allyl functional siloxane copolymers with structural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jensen, Rasmus Egekjær;

    2014-01-01

    Multifunctional siloxane copolymers with terminal vinyl or allyl functional groups are synthesised through the borane-catalysed polycondensation of hydrosilanes and alkoxysilanes. Copolymers of varying mole- cular weights ( M ̄ w =13200 – 70 300 g mol − 1 ), spatially well-distributed functional...

  4. Allylic and benzylic sp3 C-H oxidation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei Jie; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-28

    A copper-catalyzed method for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic sp(3) C-H by aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (T-Hydro) in water using a recyclable fluorous ligand has been developed. The reaction procedure is tolerant to additional functional groups and the fluorous ligand could be reused with little loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25412371

  5. Silylene-mediated ring contraction of homoallylic ethers to form allylic silanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Laura E; Haile, Pamela A; Woerpel, K A

    2009-09-18

    (-)-Isopulegol derivatives undergo a ring contraction under silylene-mediated conditions to provide cyclopentane products. Silylene transfer to other homoallylic ethers did not provide the ring contraction products. Allylic silane products were elaborated to determine the stereochemical course of the ring contraction reaction. A mechanism for the transformation is proposed. PMID:19681592

  6. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of β-methyl-γ- monofluoromethyl-substituted alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2011-06-07

    Enanatiopure β-methyl-γ-monofluoromethyl alcohols were prepared from the allylic alkylation between fluorobis(phenylsulfonyl)methane with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates. The reaction was catalyzed by using the Cinchona alkaloid derivative, (DHQD)2AQN. The origin of the stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed stereoselectivity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  8. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination of N-Allylic,N′-Aryl Ureas to form Imidazolidin-2-ones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hao; Song, Feijie; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of N-allylic,N′-aryl ureas with a catalytic 1:1 mixture of di-tert-butyl-o-biphenylphoshphine gold(I) chloride and silver hexafluorophosphate (1 mol %) in chloroform at room temperature led to 5-exo hydroamination to form the corresponding imidazolidin-2-ones in excellent yield. In the case of N-allylic ureas that possessed an allylic alkyl, benzyloxymethyl, or acetoxymethyl substituent, gold(I)-catalyzed 5-exo hydroamination leads to formation of the corresponding trans-3,4-disubst...

  9. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination of N-Allylic,N'-Aryl Ureas to form Imidazolidin-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Song, Feijie; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2011-04-18

    Treatment of N-allylic,N'-aryl ureas with a catalytic 1:1 mixture of di-tert-butyl-o-biphenylphoshphine gold(I) chloride and silver hexafluorophosphate (1 mol %) in chloroform at room temperature led to 5-exo hydroamination to form the corresponding imidazolidin-2-ones in excellent yield. In the case of N-allylic ureas that possessed an allylic alkyl, benzyloxymethyl, or acetoxymethyl substituent, gold(I)-catalyzed 5-exo hydroamination leads to formation of the corresponding trans-3,4-disubstituted imidazolidin-2-ones in excellent yield with ≥50:1 diastereoselectivity. PMID:21709731

  10. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to o

  11. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  12. Vibronic spectra of the allyl radical at 6-8 eV with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The allyl radical was produced in molecular beam by pyrolysis of allyl iodide. The vibronic spectra from ground state to six new electronic states of the allyl radical at 6-8 eV, p?3dxz , p?3dxy, and p?ns (n=4, 6, 7, 8) were observed firstly with the aid of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique. Vibrational progression of n7 (C3 bend) with gross spacing of about 430 cm-1 was observed in ns Rydberg states. The adiabatic ionization potential of the allyl radical was obtained to be (65641 ± 20) cm-1 ((8.138 ± 0.002) eV) by fitting the term values of ns (n=4,6,7,8) Rydberg states with Rydberg formula.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Palladium Colloidal Nanoparticles by Thermal Decomposition of Palladium Acetate with Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixian CHEN; Baolin HE; Hanfan LIU

    2005-01-01

    A series of solvent-stabilized palladium colloidal nanoparticles were prepared via thermal decomposition of palladium acetate methylisobutylketone (MIBK) solution in the presence of alkali and alcohol with microwave irradiation. The colloidal nanoparticles were characterized with TEM, XPS and XRD. The average diameters of nanoparticles increase from 30 to 40 nm with the increase in concentration of palladium acetate. TEM and XRD observation demonstrated that the palladium colloidal nanoparticles were clusters agglomerated from hundreds of smaller palladium crystallines with size of 3~4 nm. The influence of the concentrations of alkali and alcohol to the particle size was also discussed.

  14. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Unsaturated Epoxy Alcohols Prepared by Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the synthesis and applications of chiral 2,3-epoxy alcohols containing unsaturated chains is presented. One of the fundamental synthetic routes to these compounds is Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which is reliable, highly chemoselective and enables easy prediction of the product enantioselectivity. Thus, unsaturated epoxy alcohols are readily obtained by selective oxidation of the allylic double bond in the presence of other carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The wide availability of epoxy alcohols with unsaturated chains, the versatility of the epoxy alcohol functionality (e.g. regio- and stereo-selective ring opening; oxidation; and reduction, and the arsenal of established alkene chemistries, make unsaturated epoxy alcohols powerful starting materials for the synthesis of complex targets such as biologically active molecules. The popularization of ring-closing metathesis has further increased their value, making them excellent precursors to cyclic compounds.

  15. Enantioselective Allylic C-H Oxidation of Terminal Olefins to Isochromans by Palladium(II)/Chiral Sulfoxide Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Stephen E; Liu, Wei; White, M Christina

    2016-08-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of isochroman motifs has been accomplished by palladium(II)-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation from terminal olefin precursors. Critical to the success of this goal was the development and utilization of a novel chiral aryl sulfoxide-oxazoline (ArSOX) ligand. The allylic C-H oxidation reaction proceeds with the broadest scope and highest levels of asymmetric induction reported to date (avg. 92 % ee, 13 examples with greater than 90 % ee). PMID:27376625

  16. Iodine Supported on 3-Aminopropyl Silica Gel as Efficient Catalyst for Acetylation of Alcohols under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDAVI Hossein; GHAEMY Mosa; ZERAATPISHEH Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    3-Aminopropyl silica gel (I2/APSG) was found to catalyze the acetylation of alcohols and phenols efficiently with acetic anhydride. The reaction is mild and selective with high yields. A wide variety of alcohols and phenols are selectively converted into the corresponding acetates using I2/APSG under solvent-free conditions at room tem-perature.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE MEDIA ON ACETIC FERMENTATION WITH SELECTED Acetobacter STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically followed the efficiency of acetic fermentation, by cultivating 14 Acetobacter strains (previously isolated and identified, within a medium obtain out of ethanol and acetic acid, in various proportions, and utilizing corn extract (CE as a nutrient. The purpose of the research was to determine the resistance of the studied Acetobacter strains related to the composition of the cultivation media (acidity and alcohol content of the medium, as well as following the dynamics of the acetic fermentation by calculating the practical yield. The research led to optimal variants which may be industrially exploited in order to obtain vinegar.

  18. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds...... to a wide variety of mixtures containing acetic acid, including gas solubilities, cross-associating systems (with water and alcohols), and polar chemicals like acetone and esters. Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria are considered for both binary and ternary mixtures. With the exception of a somewhat...... inferior performance for the water-acetic acid VLE, which does not seem to affect substantially the performance for the multicomponent systems studied, CPA performs satisfactorily in most cases, using a single interaction parameter over extensive temperature ranges. For accurate description of water-acetic...

  19. Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution using Various Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaved Hossain Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In the study a model has been developed to separate the acetic acid from aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction and find out the proper solvent for this separation. Various solvents such as n-butanol, iso butanol, amyl alcohol and ethyl acetate are used for separation of acetic acid from water. The binodal curves (mutual solubility curves for acetic acid distributed between water and an organic solvent were obtained by titrating known mixtures of two components (water and solvents with the third component acetic acid to the point of first appearance of permanent turbidity. In order to determine the tie-lines, the absorbance of the coexisting phases, obtained by the separation of ternary mixtures within the binodal curve are needed to be determined. The absorbance of each point had been determined by a UV spectrophotometer. Distribution diagrams are obtained by plotting weight percent of acetic acid in solvent phase against the weight percent of acetic acid in water phase. Selectivity diagrams are also obtained by plotting (wt. % of acetic acid / (percent of acetic acid + percent of water in solvent phase against the same quantity in the diluent phase. The separation factor is determined numerically from the tie-line data.

  20. Rheology and viscosity scaling of gelatin/1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Li, Tianduo; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiaodeng; Xu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions are prepared by using the ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent. The rheological properties of the gelatin solutions have been investigated by steady shear and oscillatory shear measurements. In the steady shear measurements, the gelatin solutions with high concentration show a shear-thinning flow behavior at high shear rates, while another shear thinning region can be found in the dilute gelatin solutions at low shear rates. The overlap concentration of gelatin in [amim]Cl is 1.0 wt% and the entanglement concentration is a factor of 4 larger (4.0 wt%). The high intrinsic viscosity (295 mL/g) indicates that the gelatin chains dispersed freely in the ionic liquid and no aggregation phenomenon occurs in dilute gelatin solution. The frequency dependences of modulus changed obviously with an increase in gelatin concentration. The empirical time-temperature superposition principle holds true at the experimental temperatures.

  1. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  2. On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II) bisphosphinite complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2006-11-01

    Palladium and platinum complexes of bisphosphinites and bisphosphines derived from mandelic acid have been prepared and characterized. Their ability to catalyze allylation of imines with allyltributylstannane has been studied. Bisphophinite complexes of Pd (II) are shown to be ideal and they work best in the presence of one equivalent of water. The near neutral conditions employed make the catalysts suitable for a wide variety of substrates.

  3. Tether-directed synthesis of highly substituted oxasilacycles via an intramolecular allylation employing allylsilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Liam R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a silyl tether to unite an aldehyde electrophile and allylsilane nucleophile into a single molecule allows a subsequent Lewis-acid-mediated allylation to proceed in an intramolecular sense and therefore receive all the benefits associated with such processes. However, with the ability to cleave the tether post allylation, a product that is the result of a net intermolecular reaction can be obtained. In the present study, four diastereoisomeric β-silyloxy-α-methyl aldehydes, which contain an allylsilane tethered through the β-carbinol centre, have been prepared, in order to probe how the relative configuration of the two stereogenic centres affects the efficiency and selectivity of the intramolecular allylation. Results Syn-aldehydes, syn-4a and syn-4b, both react poorly, affording all four possible diastereoisomeric oxasilacycle products. In contrast, the anti aldehydes anti-4a and anti-4b react analogously to substrates that lack substitution at the α-site, affording only two of the four possible allylation products. Conclusion The outcome of the reaction with anti-aldehydes is in accord with reaction proceeding through a chair-like transition state (T.S.. In these systems, the sense of 1,3-stereoinduction can be rationalised by the aldehyde electrophile adopting a pseudoaxial orientation, which will minimise dipole-dipole interactions in the T.S. The 1,4-stereoinduction in these substrates is modest and seems to be modulated by the R substituent in the starting material. In the case of the syn-substrates, cyclisation through a chair T.S. is unlikely as this would require the methyl substituent α to the reacting carbonyl group to adopt an unfavourable pseudoaxial position. It is therefore proposed that these substrates react through poorly-defined T.S.s and consequently exhibit essentially no stereoselectivity.

  4. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of 2-Methyl-2-Butene: Allylic Hydrocarbon Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K; Pitz, William J; Mehl, Marco; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique; Mathieu, Olivier; Petersen, Eric L; Bugler, John; Curran, Henry J

    2015-07-16

    Two experimental studies have been carried out on the oxidation of 2-methyl-2-butene, one measuring ignition delay times behind reflected shock waves in a stainless steel shock tube, and the other measuring fuel, intermediate, and product species mole fractions in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR). The shock tube ignition experiments were carried out at three different pressures, approximately 1.7, 11.2, and 31 atm, and at each pressure, fuel-lean (ϕ = 0.5), stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0), and fuel-rich (ϕ = 2.0) mixtures were examined, with each fuel/oxygen mixture diluted in 99% Ar, for initial postshock temperatures between 1330 and 1730 K. The JSR experiments were performed at nearly atmospheric pressure (800 Torr), with stoichiometric fuel/oxygen mixtures with 0.01 mole fraction of 2M2B fuel, a residence time in the reactor of 1.5 s, and mole fractions of 36 different chemical species were measured over a temperature range from 600 to 1150 K. These JSR experiments represent the first such study reporting detailed species measurements for an unsaturated, branched hydrocarbon fuel larger than iso-butene. A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism was developed to study the important reaction pathways in these experiments, with particular attention on the role played by allylic C-H bonds and allylic pentenyl radicals. The results show that, at high temperatures, this olefinic fuel reacts rapidly, similar to related alkane fuels, but the pronounced thermal stability of the allylic pentenyl species inhibits low temperature reactivity, so 2M2B does not produce "cool flames" or negative temperature coefficient behavior. The connections between olefin hydrocarbon fuels, resulting allylic fuel radicals, the resulting lack of low-temperature reactivity, and the gasoline engine concept of octane sensitivity are discussed. PMID:25822578

  5. Synthesis of alkenyl boronates from allyl-substituted aromatics using an olefin cross-metathesis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaere, Rémy; Carreaux, François; Carboni, Bertrand

    2013-07-01

    An efficient synthesis of 3-aryl-1-propenyl boronates from pinacol vinyl boronic ester and allyl-substituted aromatics by cross metathesis is reported. Although the allylbenzene derivatives are prone to isomerization reaction under metathesis conditions, we found that some ruthenium catalysts are effective for this methodology. This strategy thus provides an interesting alternative approach to alkyne hydroboration, leading to the preparation of unknown compounds. Moreover, the boron substituent can be replaced by various functional groups in good yields.

  6. Surprisingly Mild Enolate-Counterion-Free Pd(0)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, David; Prestat, Guillaume; Martini, Elisabetta;

    2005-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization for such an...... for such an unexpected result is put forth and validated by DFT-B3LYP calculations. The results suggest cyclization via a counterion-free (E)-enolate TS....

  7. Allyl isothiocyanate induced stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Saini AkalRachna K; Tyler Robert T; Shim Youn; Reaney Martin JT

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also examined factors affecting the production of AITC from its precursor, sinigrin, a glucosinolate, in ground Brassica juncea cv. Vulcan seed as mustard has some potential as a biopesticide. Findings An assay to determine the concentration of AITC in ground mustard ...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxovaleric acid, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl-O-butyryllactate, hex-3-enyl lactate, hexyl lactate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, diethylsuccinate and diethyl malonate are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use levels proposed when used as feed flavourings; octano-1,4-lactone, nonano-1,4-lactone, decano-1,4-lactone and undecano-1,4-lactone are safe at 20 mg/kg complete feed; butyro-1,4-lactone, pentano-1,4-lactone, hexano-1,4-lactone, heptano-1,4-lactone, octano-1,5-lactone, nonano-1,5-lactone, decano-1,5-lactone and undecano-1,5-lactone at 5 mg/kg complete feed; dodecano-1,4-lactone, dodecano-1,5-lactone, tetradecano-1,5-lactone, and pentadecano-1,15-lactone at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and of 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 9 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  9. Rhodium-catalysed asymmetric allylic arylation of racemic halides with arylboronic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.

    2015-11-01

    Csp2-Csp2 cross-coupling reactions between arylboronic acid and aryl halides are widely used in both academia and industry and are strategically important in the development of new agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Csp2-Csp3 cross-coupling reactions have been developed, but enantioselective variations are rare and simply retaining the stereochemistry is a problem. Here we report a highly enantioselective Csp2-Csp3 bond-forming method that couples arylboronic acids to racemic allyl chlorides. Both enantiomers of a cyclic chloride are converted into a single enantiomer of product via a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation. This Rh-catalysed method uses readily available and inexpensive building blocks and is mild and broadly applicable. For electron-deficient, electron-rich or ortho-substituted boronic acids better results are obtained with racemic allyl bromides. Oxygen substitution in the allyl halide is tolerated and the products can be functionalized to provide diverse building blocks. The approach fills a significant gap in the methods for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  10. The soft X-ray absorption spectrum of the allyl free radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagia, M; Bodo, E; Decleva, P; Falcinelli, S; Ponzi, A; Richter, R; Stranges, S

    2013-01-28

    The first experimental study of the X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of the allyl free radical, CH(2)CHCH(2), is reported. A supersonic He seeded beam of hyperthermal allyl radicals was crossed by a high resolution synchrotron radiation (SR) in the focus of a 3D ion momentum imaging time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer to investigate the soft X-ray absorption and fragmentation processes. The XAS, recorded as Total-Ion-Yield (TIY), is dominated by C1s electron excitations from either the central carbon atom, C(C), or the two terminal carbon atoms, C(T), to the frontier orbitals, the semi-occupied-molecular-orbital (SOMO) and the lowest-unoccupied-molecular-orbital (LUMO). All of the intense features in the XAS could only be assigned with the aid of ab initio spectral simulation at the Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent-Field (MCSCF) level of theory, this level being required because of the multi-reference nature of the core-excited state wavefunctions of the open shell molecule. The ionization energies (IEs) of the singlet and triplet states of the C1s ionized allyl radical (XPS) were also calculated at the MCSCF level. PMID:23232557

  11. Catalytic enantioselective reductions and allylations of prochiral ketones

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, A

    2002-01-01

    The use of LiGaH sub 4 in combination with the S,O-chelate 2-hydroxy-2'-mercapto-1,1'-binaphthyl (monothiobinaphthol, MTBH sub 2), forms an active catalyst (2 mol %) for the asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, when using catecholborane as the hydride source. This catalyst has successfully been applied to the enantioselective reduction of aryl/n-alkyl ketones, providing the chiral sec-alcohols in yields of 82 - 96% and with enantiomeric excess values of 59 - 93%. Alkyl/methyl ketones are reduced in yields of 72 - 93% and in 46 - 79% enantiomeric excess. Enantioface differentiation is on the basis of the steric requirements of the ketone substituents. The X-ray structure of the pre-catalyst, Li(THF) sub 3 Ga(MTB) sub 2 has been determined and in solution is in equilibrium with a dimeric species of constitution Li sub 2 Ga sub 2 (MTB) sub 4. An indium analogue whose X-ray structure was determined as Li sub 2 (THF) sub 5 lnCI(MTB) sub 2 has also been prepared. The indium- based catalyst does not form an en...

  12. On the Nature of the Intermediates and the Role of Chloride Ions in Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylations: Added Insight from Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Tanner, David Ackland;

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of intermediates in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation was investigated using DFT (B3LYP) calculations including a PB-SCRF solvation model. In the presence of both phosphine and chloride ligands, the allyl intermediate is in equilibrium between a cationic eta(3)-allylPd complex...... with two phosphine ligands, the corresponding neutral complex with one phosphine and one chloride ligand, and a neutral eta(1)-allylPd complex with one chloride and two phosphine ligands. The eta(1)-complex is unreactive toward nucleophiles. The cationic eta(3)-complex is the intermediate most...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  14. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  15. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  16. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  18. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was prepared by adding chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution during the acetalation reaction of PVA and formaldehyde.The effect of vesicant and chitosan to the pore morphology,water absorption ratio,water absorption rate,expansion time and mechanical properties were studied.The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was used as a hemostatic packing material for the injured rabbit nasal tissue.The hemostatic effect and the healing effect of the modified sponge on the nasal mucosa after nasal surgery were studied.The results indicated that the polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an interconnected pore structure and the wall between large pores also has small pores.The chitosan adhered on the inner surface of the pores.The increased content of vesicant led to an increase in pore diameter,in the water absorption ratio and in expansion time.However,there was only a small change in the water absorption rate and a decrease in tensile strength and compression strength were noted.With an increase in chitosan content,the pore diameter and interconnection of the sponge was reduced.Water absorption ratio,expansion time and water absorption rate decreased,but tensile strength and compression strength improved.Observation of the rabbit nasal tissue after surgical operation suggested that polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an anti-inflammatory,hemostatic and antiadherent characteristic and could promote the healing and functional recovery of rabbit nasal mucosa.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  1. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of the Neural Transcriptome and Alcohol Interference During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol eResendiz; Stephen eMason; Zhou, Feng C.; Chiao-Ling eLo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol intoxicated cells broadly alter their metabolites–– among them methyl and acetic acid can alter the DNA and histone epigenetic codes. Together with the promiscuous effect of alcohol on enzyme activities (including DNA methyltransferases) and the downstream effect on microRNA and transposable elements, alcohol is well placed to affect intrinsic transcriptional programs of developing cells. Considering that the developmental consequences of early alcohol exposure so profoundly affect ne...

  3. Epigenetic regulation of the neural transcriptome and alcohol interference during development

    OpenAIRE

    Resendiz, Marisol; Mason, Stephen; Lo, Chiao-Ling; Zhou, Feng C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol intoxicated cells broadly alter their metabolites – among them methyl and acetic acid can alter the DNA and histone epigenetic codes. Together with the promiscuous effect of alcohol on enzyme activities (including DNA methyltransferases) and the downstream effect on microRNA and transposable elements, alcohol is well placed to affect intrinsic transcriptional programs of developing cells. Considering that the developmental consequences of early alcohol exposure so profoundly affect ne...

  4. The impact of acetate metabolism on yeast fermentative performance and wine quality: reduction of volatile acidity of grape musts and wines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A. Vilela; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Faia, A. Mendes; Silva, Rui D.; Chaves, S R; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Acetic acid is the main component of the volatile acidity of grape musts and wines. It can be formed as a byproduct of alcoholic fermentation or as a product of the metabolism of acetic and lactic acid bacteria, which can metabolize residual sugars to increase volatile acidity. Acetic acid has a negative impact on yeast fermentative performance and affects the quality of certain types of wine when present above a given concentration. In this minireview, we present an o...

  5. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  6. Genome wide association mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies novel genes involved in linking allyl glucosinolate to altered biomass and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL, may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 µM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  7. New [Mo(eta3-allyl)(CO)2L3]+ complexes with monodentate or tridentate nitrogen-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Julio; Morales, Dolores; Nieto, Sonia; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Cationic complexes [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2L3]+ (L3 = either nitrogen-donor tridentate ligand or three monodentate ligands) were prepared in high yield and under mild conditions using as precursors either the triflato complex [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(OTf)(CO)2(NCMe)2] or the combination of the chloro complex [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)Cl(CO)2(NCMe)2] and the salt NaBAr'(4)(Ar'= 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl). The tridentate ligands employed were 2,2':6',2'-terpyridine (terpy) and cis,cis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetriamine (CHTA), whereas the monodentate ligands imidazole (im) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpz) were chosen. In order to stabilize the labile intermediates, an excess of acetonitrile was used in most of the syntheses. However, the pyrazole complex was prepared through a nitrile-free route to avoid reactions at the coordinated nitrile. The solid state structures of [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(terpy)]OTf (2), [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(CHTA)]BAr'4 (3), [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(NCMe)3]BAr'4 (4), [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2(im)3]OTf (5) and [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2(dmpz)3]BAr'4 (6) were determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:15726140

  8. Thermophysical properties and reaction kinetics of γ-irradiated poly allyl diglycol carbonates nuclear track detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K.; Seddik, Usama

    2015-07-01

    Kinetic thermogravimetric technique was used to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the poly allyl diglycol carbonates (PADC) within the dose range from 50 to ? Gy. The approach of Coats-Redfern was used to analyze the data. Results showed that low doses around 50 Gy make the polymer slightly more resistive to heat treatment. Higher radiation doses cause severe effects in the samples accompanied by the formation of lower molecular mass species and consequent crosslinking. Results support the domination of re-polymerization and crosslinking for the γ radiation interaction PADC at dose below about ? Gy, while the situation is inverted above ? Gy in which chain secession dominates.

  9. Synthesis of Aminophosphine Ligands with Binaphthyl Backbones for Silver(I)-catalyzed Enantioselective Allylation of Benzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Yi(王以); JI,Bao-Ming(吉保明); DING,Kui-Ling(丁奎岭)

    2002-01-01

    A series of aminophosphine ligands was synthesized from 2amino-2′-hydroxy-1,1′-binaphthyl (NOBIN). Their asymmetric induction efficiency was examined for silver(I)catalyzed enantioselective allylation reaction of benzaldehyde with allyltributyltin.Under the optimized reaction conditions,quantitative yield as well as moderate ee value (54.5% ee)of product was achieved by the catalysis with silver(I)/3 complex. The effects of the binaphthyl backbone and the substituted situated at chelating N, Patoms on enantioselectivity of the reaction were also discussed.

  10. Unusual selectivity-determining factors in the phosphine-free Heck arylation of allyl ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrogio, I.; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.;

    2008-01-01

    The Heck reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with allyl ethers has been investigated. Using phosphinefree Pd(OAc)(2) in DNIF at 90 degrees C in the presence of Bu4NOAc, the reaction gave cinnamyl derivatives, usually in good to high yields, with a wide range of aryl halides. The reaction tolera...... for cinnamyl ether over enol ether products. Interestingly, it was found that the product selectivity does not arise from competing beta-hydride eliminations but rather from a competition between beta-elimination and hindered single-bond rotation in the initial carbopalladation product....

  11. Lanthanum triflate triggered synthesis of tetrahydroquinazolinone derivatives of N-allyl quinolone and their biological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardosh Hardik H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 24 derivatives of tetrahydroquinazolinone has been synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation reaction of N-allyl quinolones, cyclic β-diketones and (thiourea/N-phenylthiourea in presence of lanthanum triflate catalyst. This methodology allowed us to achieve the products in excellent yield by stirring at room temperature. All the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains using broth microdilution MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration method for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Amongst these sets of heterocyclic compounds 5h, 6b, 6h, 5f, 5l, 5n and 6g found to have admirable activity.

  12. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Nucleophilic Alkynylation of Allyl Fluorides Affording Chiral Skipped Ene-ynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusu, Satoshi; Okazaki, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Shibata, Norio

    2016-06-01

    Asymmetric methods for preparation of chiral alkynyl-containing compounds are in extremely high demand in many sectors of chemical research. In this work, we report the discovery of a general organocatalytic enantioselective alkynylation based on the idea of Si/F activation of the allylic C-F bond. This approach features reasonably broad substrate scope, functional group tolerance, and relatively neutral, mild, and operationally convenient reaction conditions; all of which bode well for the synthetic value of the discovered method. In particular, this method provides unique chiral skipped 1,4-ene-ynes having two kinds of versatile functional groups. PMID:27111713

  13. Combined experimental and theoretical mechanistic investigation of the Barbier allylation in aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    -determining step. For Zn, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi, an inverse secondary kinetic isotope effect was found (k(H)/k(D) = 0.75-0.95), which was compatible with the formation of a discrete organometallic species prior to allylation via a closed six-membered transition state. With Mg, a significantly larger build...... with the effect of solvent described by a polarized continuum model. The calculated secondary deuterium isotope effects based on this mechanism were found to be in good agreement with experimental values, thus adding further support to this mechanistic scenario....

  14. Allyl Isothiocyanate Increases MRP1 Function and Expression in a Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Dian-lei Wang; Chen-yin Wang; Yin Cao; Xian Zhang; Xiu-hua Tao; Li-li Yang; Jin-pei Chen; Shan-shan Wang; Ze-geng Li

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, plays an important role in normal lung physiology by protecting cells against oxidative stress and toxic xenobiotics. The present study investigates the effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on MRP1 mRNA and MRP1 protein expression and transporter activity in the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-. MRP1 mRNA and MRP1 protein expression in 16HBE14o...

  15. Direct asymmetric allylic alkenylation of N-itaconimides with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2012-08-03

    The asymmetric allylic alkenylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with N-itaconimides as nucleophiles has been developed using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid catalyst. A variety of multifunctional chiral α-methylene-β-maleimide esters were attained in moderate to excellent yields (up to 99%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). The origin of the regio- and stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed regio- and enantioselectivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Synthesis of Aryl Allyl Ether in the Recyclable Ionic Liquid [bmim]PF6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mei-Yun; Li Yi-Qun; Xu Xin-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Ionic liquids, especially imidazonium salts, have recently gained recognition as possible environmentally benign alternative chemical process solvents. This is mainly due to their nonvolatile nature, insolubility in some solvents as well as their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, allowing the ionic liquids easy recovery and recycling. Examples of their application in organic reactions have been summarized in a number of recent review articles.1Aryl allyl ether is very useful intermediate in organic synthesis. The Williamson reaction is a well knows method for the preparation ethers. However, the reaction of alkylating agents with the phenoxide ions was conventionally carried out in the organic solvents. The usual solvents for this type of reaction are DCM, 2 DMSO, 3 DMF, 4 CH3CN5 etc. With the current desire to avoid the use of organic molecular solvents in organic synthesis, we decide to investigate the use of the ionic liquid for the alternative solvent for the Williamson reaction to prepare the aryl allyl ethers. The ionic liquid employed here was the moisture stable 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim]PF6.6 The ionic liquid is non-volatile, thermally stable, and depending on the anion, can present low immiscible with water,alkanes and dialky ethers. We have now found that aryl allyl ethers can have been obtained from various phenols and allyl bromide in the presence of potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 as a replacement for classical organic solvents in the ambient temperature. The results are shown in Scheme 1.The reaction were carried out by simple mixing the phenolwith the ally bromide and potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 and stirred at room temperature for 4h. The results are summarized in Table 1.In conclusion, Williamson reaction can be successfully conducted in ionic liquid [bmim]PF6 with a number of advantages: the procedure is simple, the reaction condition is mild and the yields are excellent

  17. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  18. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deslorelin acetate. 522.533 Section 522.533 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Deslorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each implant contains 2.1 milligrams deslorelin acetate. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  7. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  8. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  9. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso–ene mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethylamine (TPA and N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-N,N′-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN are established catalysts of C–O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C–N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol % or FeBPMEN (10 mol % converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxycarbamate in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso–ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+-(2R,2′R-1,1′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-2,2′-bipyrrolidine ((R,R′-PDP.

  10. Further exploration of the heterocyclic diversity accessible from the allylation chemistry of indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakoori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity-directed synthesis based on the cascade allylation chemistry of indigo, with its embedded 2,2’-diindolic core, has resulted in rapid access to new examples of the hydroxy-8a,13-dihydroazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(8H-one skeleton in up to 51% yield. Additionally a derivative of the novel bridged heterocycle 7,8-dihydro-6H-6,8a-epoxyazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(13H-one was produced when the olefin of the allylic substrate was terminally disubstituted. Further optimisation also produced viable one-pot syntheses of derivatives of the spiro(indoline-2,9'-pyrido[1,2-a]indol-3-one (65% and pyrido[1,2,3-s,t]indolo[1,2-a]azepino[3,4-b]indol-17-one (72% heterocyclic systems. Ring-closing metathesis of the N,O-diallylic spiro structure and subsequent Claisen rearrangement gave rise to the new (1R,8aS,17aS-rel-1,2-dihydro-1-vinyl-8H,17H,9H-benz[2',3']pyrrolizino[1',7a':2,3]pyrido[1,2-a]indole-8,17-(2H,9H-dione heterocyclic system.

  11. Further exploration of the heterocyclic diversity accessible from the allylation chemistry of indigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Alireza; Bremner, John B; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Willis, Anthony C; Haritakun, Rachada

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diversity-directed synthesis based on the cascade allylation chemistry of indigo, with its embedded 2,2’-diindolic core, has resulted in rapid access to new examples of the hydroxy-8a,13-dihydroazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(8H)-one skeleton in up to 51% yield. Additionally a derivative of the novel bridged heterocycle 7,8-dihydro-6H-6,8a-epoxyazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(13H)-one was produced when the olefin of the allylic substrate was terminally disubstituted. Further optimisation also produced viable one-pot syntheses of derivatives of the spiro(indoline-2,9'-pyrido[1,2-a]indol)-3-one (65%) and pyrido[1,2,3-s,t]indolo[1,2-a]azepino[3,4-b]indol-17-one (72%) heterocyclic systems. Ring-closing metathesis of the N,O-diallylic spiro structure and subsequent Claisen rearrangement gave rise to the new (1R,8aS,17aS)-rel-1,2-dihydro-1-vinyl-8H,17H,9H-benz[2',3']pyrrolizino[1',7a':2,3]pyrido[1,2-a]indole-8,17-(2H,9H)-dione heterocyclic system. PMID:25977722

  12. Polymerizations of beta-substituted allylic arsonium ylides with catalytic amounts of organoboron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    My Ph.D. work consisted in the generalization and optimization of a new polymerization reaction involving allylic arsonium ylides and catalytic amounts of various boron compounds. Thus, various β-substituted allylic arsonium salts were produced according to synthetic strategies that depended on the nature of the functional group born by the salt. These salts were converted in situ to the corresponding arsonium ylides which were then treated with boron compounds to yield polymers. Our new method of polymerization afforded either non conjugated polyenes that are functionalized every three atoms of carbon, or statistic copolymers, depending on the nature of the group R born on the β position of the ylide. These new polymers cannot be synthesized by usual methods of polymerization. Initial molar ratios of reactants were found to give molar mass control of the synthesized polymers. This controlled polymerization allowed us to produce several bloc copolymers. All the polymers were characterized by NMR techniques, by size exclusion chromatography and, for some of them, by mass spectrometry. Investigation of their physicochemical properties will need additional experiments. (author)

  13. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  14. A Double Activation Method for the Conversion of Vinyl Epoxides into vic-Amino Alcohols and Chiral Benzoxazine/Quinoxaline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Gourishetty; Ramakrishna, Kallaganti V S; Sharma, Gangavaram V M

    2015-09-18

    A new method for the synthesis of 1,2-syn-vic amino alcohols (with double inversion of configuration) from vinyl epoxides, by the amination of a π-allyl palladium-borate complex generated by using Pd(0) and phenyl-o-phenylene borate (a double activation technique), is reported. Further, this new method with broad functional group compatibility was extended to a one-pot/two-step synthesis of chiral benzoxazine and quinoxaline derivatives.

  15. Isolation of two independent allyl alcohol resistant Adh-1 null mutants following selection of pollen and seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.; Ramanna, M.S.; Zabel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Adh-1 null mutant (B15-1-8) isolated previously was used to establish conditions that allow the selection of ADH-deficient pollen grains and seeds of tomato. New Adh-1 null mutants were then selected among the progenies derived from crosses between the genetically unstable tomato lines Yvms, Sul

  16. Asymmetric allylic alkylation in combination with ring-closing metathesis for the preparation of chiral N-heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, Johannes F.; Zhang, Suyan; Zijl, Anthoni W. van; Slaa, Jan Willem; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric copper-catalyzed allylic substitution with methylmagnesium bromide is employed in combination with ring-closing olefin metathesis or ene-yne metathesis to achieve the synthesis of chiral, unsaturated nitrogen heterocycles. The resulting six- to eight-membered chiral heterocycles are acces

  17. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  18. Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidations of Phthalimide Protected Allylic Amines : A New Catalytic Route to beta(3)-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Baeza Garcia, Alejandro; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of B-3-amino acids is presented. Phthalimide protected allylic amines are oxidized under Wacker conditions selectively to aldehydes using PdCl2 and CuCl or Pd(MeCN)(2)Cl(NO2) and CuCl2 as complementary catalyst systems. The aldehydes are produced in excellent yields an

  19. Thiol addition to protected allyl glycosides: an improved method for the preparation of spacer-arm glycosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Seeventer, P.B. van; Dorst, J.A.L.M. van; Siemerink, J.F.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A useful method for the preparation of differently functionalized sulfide spacer-arm glycosides is presented. Several protected allyl glycosides were variously elongated via a radical addition reaction with pentanethiol, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, or 2-mercaptoethanol. The hydroxyl function of pro

  20. Synthesis of novel chiral phosphine-triazine ligand derived from α-phenylethylamine for Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Di Huang; Xiang Ping Hu; Zhuo Zheng

    2008-01-01

    A novel chiral phosphine-triazine ligand was synthesized from chiral model reaction of Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-l,3-diphenylprop-2-en-l-yl pivalate with dimethyl malonate, good enantioselectivity (90% e.e.) was obtained by using this ligand.

  1. Growth behavior prediction of fresh catfish fillet with Pseudomonas aeruginosa under stresses of allyl isothiocyanate, temperature and modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common spoilage microorganism in fish, grows rapidly when temperature rises above 4 degree C. The combination of allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and modified atmosphere (MA) was applied and proved to be effective to retard the growth of P. aeruginosa. The objective of this resea...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  3. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  4. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  5. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  6. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit cri...

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  8. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-12-18

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutting thin sheets of allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) with a CW CO2, laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have shown that Allyl Diglycol Carbonate, commercially known as CR-39 (the most sensitive among etch track detectors) can detect relativistic oxygen and other heavier nuclei. We are using large sheets of special grade CR-39 (DOP) in our experiment in Space Shuttle-Spacelab-3. As CR-39 is a highly brittle substance, special care is required to cut CR-39 shetts, especially in case of large sheets and circular cuts. A study of cutting of CR-39 sheets using laser light is described in this paper. It has been found that this method is sufficiently fast to handle large number of sheets and also equally safe for big sheets. A maximum speed up to 200 cm/min with a 5 x 104 W/cm2 laser is obtained during the present study. This study also shows that laser cutting does not affect the track properties of CR-39. (orig.)

  10. Theoretical study on the gas phase reaction of allyl chloride with hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunju; Chao, Kai; Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Wanqiao; Shi, Haijie; Yao, Cen; Su, Zhongmin; Pan, Xiumei; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Rongshun

    2014-02-28

    The reaction of allyl chloride with the hydroxyl radical has been investigated on a sound theoretical basis. This is the first time to gain a conclusive insight into the reaction mechanism and kinetics for important pathways in detail. The reaction mechanism confirms that OH addition to the C=C double bond forms the chemically activated adducts, IM1 (CH2CHOHCH2Cl) and IM2 (CH2OHCHCH2Cl) via low barriers, and direct H-abstraction paths may also occur. Variational transition state model and multichannel RRKM theory are employed to calculate the temperature-, pressure-dependent rate constants. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. At 100 Torr with He as bath gas, IM6 formed by collisional stabilization is the major products in the temperature range 200-600 K; the production of CH2CHCHCl via hydrogen abstractions becomes dominant at high temperatures (600-3000 K). PMID:24588171

  11. Theoretical study on the gas phase reaction of allyl chloride with hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunju; Chao, Kai; Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Wanqiao; Shi, Haijie; Yao, Cen; Su, Zhongmin; Pan, Xiumei; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Rongshun

    2014-02-01

    The reaction of allyl chloride with the hydroxyl radical has been investigated on a sound theoretical basis. This is the first time to gain a conclusive insight into the reaction mechanism and kinetics for important pathways in detail. The reaction mechanism confirms that OH addition to the C=C double bond forms the chemically activated adducts, IM1 (CH2CHOHCH2Cl) and IM2 (CH2OHCHCH2Cl) via low barriers, and direct H-abstraction paths may also occur. Variational transition state model and multichannel RRKM theory are employed to calculate the temperature-, pressure-dependent rate constants. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. At 100 Torr with He as bath gas, IM6 formed by collisional stabilization is the major products in the temperature range 200-600 K; the production of CH2CHCHCl via hydrogen abstractions becomes dominant at high temperatures (600-3000 K).

  12. Low-temperature Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Lewis Acidic 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 张锁江; 吕兴梅; 王倩; 左勇; 刘恋

    2012-01-01

    Lewis acidic 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate ionic liquids were used as promising electrolytes in the low-temperature electrodeposition of aluminium. Systematic studies on deposition process have been performed by cYClic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of deposits prepared at different experimental conditions were also investigated. It was shown that the nucleation density and growth rate of crystallites had a great effect on the structure of aluminium deposited. The crys- tallographic orientation of deposits was mainly influenced by temperature and current density. Smooth, dense and well adherent aluminium coatings were obtained on copper substrates at 10-25 mA.cm^-2 and 313.2-353.2 K. More- over, the current efficiency of deposition and purity of aluminium have been significantly improved, demonstrating that the ionic liquids tested have a prospectful potential in electroplating and electrorefining of aluminium.

  13. Gal3 Catalyzed Tetrahydropyranylation of Alcohols and Phenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Pei-Pei(孙培培); HU, Zhi-Xin(胡志新)

    2004-01-01

    In dichloromethane, the nucleophilic addition of alcohols or phenols to 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (DHP) was catalyzed effectively by gallium triiodide which was generated in situ by the reaction of gallium metal and iodine to give the corresponding tetrahydropyranyl acetals in good to excellent yields.

  14. Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essia Ngang, J.J.; Letourneau, F.; Wolniewicz, E.; Villa, P. (Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Cinetique)

    1990-08-01

    Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli. (orig.).

  15. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  16. NaBH4/NaNO3/H2O: A Convenient System for Selective Reduction of Aldehydes VS. Ketones to their Corresponding Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Ghaderi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NaBH4 (1.25 equivalents & NaNO3 (3 equivalents reduce a variety of aldehydes in the presence of ketones to their corresponding alcohols. Also, regioselectivity and exclusive 1,2-reduction enals to their corresponding allylic alcohols in high to excellent yields was achieved successfully with this reducing system. The reduction reactions were carried out in water as green solvent in high to excellent yields of the products. A nitrate-borane complex [H3B-NO3]Na is possibly the active reductant in the reaction mixture.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351

  19. Covalent modification of graphite oxide with acetic anhydride to enhance dispersibility in organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Yang, Anwei; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Feifei; Ma, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) was modified by acetic anhydride via a catalyzed ring-opening reaction of the attached epoxy groups at very mild condition. The dispersion of the modified GO is thus largely imporved in many organic solvents and the highest GO concentration reaches 2.0mg/mL in alkyl(aryl) chlorides, ethers, alcohols and cyclohexane, which is amongst the highest value for GO in organics.

  20. An Efficient Protocol for the Palladium-catalyzed Asymmetric Decarboxylative Allylic Alkylation Using Low Palladium Concentrations and a Palladium(II) Precatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Marziale, Alexander N.; Duquette, Douglas C.; Craig, Robert A.; Kim, Kelly E.; Liniger, Marc; Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective catalytic allylic alkylation for the synthesis of 2-alkyl-2-allylcycloalkanones and 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones and piperazinones has been previously reported by our laboratory. The efficient construction of chiral all-carbon quaternary centers by allylic alkylation was previously achieved with a catalyst derived in situ from zero valent palladium sources and chiral phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. We now report an improved reaction protocol with broad a...

  1. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Measured solubility data of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate. • Calculated Henry’s constant and thermodynamic properties of selected systems. • Concluded that selected absorbents have potential research value for CO2 capture. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, and 3-methoxybutyl acetate were measured by isothermal synthesis method under pressures up to 1.2 MPa and at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Henry’s constant was calculated based on experimental data regression. The solubilities of CO2 were found to increase with decreased temperature and increased the methyl group to the molecular structure of the absorbent. Henry’s constant and volumetric solubility of selected absorbents at T = 298.15 K were compared with those of commercial absorbents and common solvents. 3-Methoxybutyl acetate showed the best performance by mole fraction, and 2-methoxyethyl acetate behaved the best by volumetric fraction. Based on Henry’s constant, thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy of solution, enthalpy of solution, and absorption entropy of solution were determined. These properties are very essential for designing an absorption process

  2. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  5. Fragrance material review on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406574

  6. Synthesis of n-butyl acetate%乙酸正丁酯的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    补朝阳

    2013-01-01

    以乙酸和正丁醇为原料,在硫酸氢钾催化下合成了乙酸正丁酯;考察了反应时间、醇酸比、催化剂用量、带水剂用量及催化剂的重复使用对酯化率的影响.结果表明:当正丁醇用量为0.1 mol ,乙酸用量为0.135 mol ,催化剂硫酸氢钾用量为0.8g,带水剂环己烷用量为8mL时,反应的酯化率达95.2%.%Butyl acetate was synthesized with acetic acid and butyl alcohol as the raw materials and potassium bisulfate as the catalyst .The effects of reaction time ,the ratio of alcohol to acid ,dosage of catalyst ,dosage of water-carrying agent ,and the reuse of the catalyst on the esterification rate were investigated .Results show that an esterification rate of 95 .2% is ob-tained when the dosage of butyl alcohol ,acetic acid ,potassium bisulfate catalyst ,and water-carrying agent cyclohexane is set as 0 .1 mol ,0 .135 mol ,0 .8 g ,and 8 mL .

  7. A chemical assessment of the suitability of allyl- iso-propyltelluride as a Te precursor for metal organic vapour phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hails, Janet E.; Cole-Hamilton, David J.; Stevenson, John; Bell, William; Foster, Douglas F.; Ellis, David

    2001-04-01

    The chemical studies, which led to the testing of allyl- iso-propyltelluride (allylTePr i) as a Te precursor in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy are presented. The pyrolysis in hydrogen of allylTePr i gave products including 1,5-hexadiene, propane and propene. Co-pyrolysis of dimethylcadmium (Me 2Cd) and allylTePr i gave the hydrocarbons expected from the pyrolysis of the individual precursors plus additional hydrocarbons including 2-methylpropane and 1-butene. Plots of percentage decomposition versus temperature, which proved extremely useful in determining the likely growth temperatures for both CdTe and HgTe, showed that allylTePr i is less stable than both Pr 2iTe (di- iso-propyltelluride) and Me 2Cd. The possible role of Hg in the growth of CdTe is also discussed. The chemistry of allylTePr i is well suited for use as an efficient precursor for epitaxial growth of tellurium containing semiconductors since there is very little formation of other organotellurium compounds on pyrolysis.

  8. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  9. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  11. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  12. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  13. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  14. One-pot synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-protected allylic amines from N-protected α-amino esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Álvarez-Méndez, Sergio J; Martín, Víctor S

    2016-01-01

    Summary An improved protocol for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic amines is reported. N-Protected α-amino esters derived from natural amino acids were submitted to a one-pot tandem reduction–olefination process. The sequential reduction with DIBAL-H at −78 °C and subsequent in situ addition of organophosphorus reagents yielded the corresponding allylic amines without the need to isolate the intermediate aldehyde. This circumvents the problem of instability of the aldehydes. The method tolerates well both Wittig and Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons organophosphorus reagents. A better Z-(dia)stereoselectivity was observed when compared to the previous one-pot method. The (dia)stereoselectivity of the process was affected neither by the reaction solvent nor by the amount of DIBAL-H employed. The method is compatible with the presence of free hydroxy groups as shown with serine and threonine derivatives. PMID:27340486

  15. The pure rotational spectrum of a Claisen rearrangement precursor Allyl Phenyl Ether using CP-FTMW spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, G. S.; Frank, Derek S.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Cooke, S. A.; Novick, Stewart E.

    2016-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of a Claisen rearrangement precursor, Allyl Phenyl Ether (APE), has been measured on a chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer in the 8-14 GHz region. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for multiple conformations have been determined and are reported for the first time. This is the first study of a phenyl-containing ether where multiple conformers were experimentally observed all within their ground vibrational states. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to isolate low energy geometries of APE and are implemented to aid in spectral assignment. Other structural parameters such as planar moments and inertial defects for the Allyl Phenyl Ether conformers are presented and compared to similar molecules.

  16. REDUCING NONSELECTIVE PROTEIN ADSORPTION AND CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE FILMS BY COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH α-ALLYL GLUCOSIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-qiang Kou; Chao Qu; Zhi-kang Xu; You-yi Xu; Ke Yao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the surface properties of novel sugar-containing polymers, α-allyl glucoside (AG)/acrylonitrile (AN)copolymers, were studied by contact angle, protein adsorption and cell adhesion measurements. It was found that the contact angle of the copolymer films decreased from 68° to 30° with the increase of AG content in the copolymer. The adsorption amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the adhesive macrophage onto the film surface also decreased significantly with increasing α-allyl glucoside content from 0 to 42 wt% in the copolymer. These preliminary results reveal that both the hydrophilicity and the biocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes could be improved by copolymerizing acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  17. A comparative study of 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate and Na''125I in liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of performance of 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate and sodium iodine samples labelled with ''125 I is presented for liquid scintillation counting measurements. Quench effect, count rate stability and spectral evolution of samples have been followed for several weeks in Toluene, Hisafe II, Instagel, Dioxane-naphthalene and Toluene-alcohol scintillators. Organic samples have negligible quench effect in the interval of I''-concentration of 0-90 ug and inorganic samples only show a very small variation, lower than 12%, for Dioxane-naphthalene, in the same range of concentration. Satisfactory stability is obtained in general for both, organic and inorganic samples, but small counting losses, 0.03% for 19-iodocholesterol-''125I 3-acetate samples in Toluene-alcohol and 0.04% for Na''125I samples in Dioxane-naphthalene and Toluene-alcohol, have been reported. (Author) 8 refs

  18. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  19. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production. PMID:27166764

  20. Synchrotron Photoionization Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Kinetics and Product Formation in the Allyl Radical (H2CCHCH2)Self Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Talitha M.; Melini, giovanni; Goulay, Fabien; Leone, Stephen R.; Fahr, Askar; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Product channels for the self-reaction of the resonance-stabilized allyl radical, C3H5 + C3H5, have been studied with isomeric specificity at temperatures from 300-600 K and pressures from 1-6 Torr using time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. Under these conditions 1,5-hexadiene was the only C6H10 product isomer detected. The lack of isomerization of the C6H10 product is in marked contrast to the C6H6 product in the related C3H3 + C3H3 reaction, and is due to the more saturated electronic structure of the C6H10 system. The disproportionation product channel, yielding allene + propene, was also detected, with an upper limit on the branching fraction relative to recombination of 0.03. Analysis of the allyl radical decay at 298 K yielded a total rate coefficient of (2.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp -11) cu cm/molecule/s, in good agreement with pre.vious experimental measurements using ultraviolet kinetic absorption spectroscopy and a recent theoretical determination using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory. This result provides independent indirect support for the literature value of the allyl radical ultraviolet absorption cross-section near 223 nm.

  1. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  3. Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2+·C6HCl2O4−·C4H8O2, the 1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hydroxycyclohexyl and 4-hydroxyphenyl rings is 84.0 (8°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of −171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583 (15: 0.417 (15. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H...(O,O cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H...O interactions occur.

  4. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance.

  5. Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of C=O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

  6. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  7. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  8. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic. PMID:26802685

  9. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  10. 烯丙基酚醛树脂的固化动力学%Curing Kinetics of Allyl Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘诗薇; 李志强; 于景坤

    2012-01-01

    The curing behavior of allyl phenolic resin was analyzed at different heating rates using differential scanning calorimetry.The obtained kinetic data were treated by Kissinger and KAS(Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) methods to obtain the curing reaction kinetic parameters.A curing kinetics model was established for allyl phenolic resin.Compared with phenolic resin,the curing temperature of allyl phenolic resin is higher,the reaction order is closer to 1,and the average activation energy of the curing reaction is lower,111.45 kJ/mol.The activation energy of allyl phenolic resin is almost constant and changes little with temperature in the curing process.The curing kinetics model of allyl phenolic resin provides a theoretical basis for the study of curing process parameters.%利用差示扫描量热法分析了烯丙基酚醛树脂在不同升温速率下的固化行为,用Kissinger法和KAS(Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose)法对获得的动力学数据进行处理,得到了固化反应动力学参数,并建立了烯丙基酚醛树脂的固化动力学模型.结果表明:与纯酚醛树脂相比,烯丙基酚醛树脂固化温度较高,反应级数更接近于1,固化反应所需的平均表观活化能较低,为111.45kJ/mol;在整个固化过程中,烯丙基酚醛树脂的活化能较为恒定,随温度变化不大;烯丙基酚醛树脂固化动力学模型为研究该体系固化工艺参数提供了理论依据.

  11. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  12. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  13. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  14. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  15. Increased presevation of sliced mozzarella cheese by antimibrobial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clarissa dos Santos Pires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing tendency to add natural antimicrobials of plant origin into food. The objective of this work was to develop a microbial sachet incorporated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT, a volatile compound of plant origin, and to test its efficiency against growth of yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus sp. and psychrotrophic bacteria on sliced mozzarella cheese. Another objective was to quantify the concentration of AIT in the headspace of cheese packaging. A reduction of 3.6 log cycles was observed in yeasts and molds counts in the mozzarella packed with the antimicrobial sachet over 15-day storage time. The sachet also showed an antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus sp., reducing 2.4 log cycles after 12-day storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria species were the most resistant to the antimicrobial action. The highest concentration of AIT (0.08µg.mL-1 inside the active packaging system was observed at the 6-day of storage at 12 ºC ± 2 ºC. At the end of the storage time, AIT concentration decreased to only 10% of the initial concentration. Active packaging containing antimicrobial sachet has a potential use for sliced mozzarella, with molds and yeasts being the most sensitive to the antimicrobial effects.

  16. Merging allylic carbon-hydrogen and selective carbon-carbon bond activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Didier, Dorian; Zabrodski, Tamar; Schinkel, Marvin; Ackermann, Lutz; Marek, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century, many synthetic organic chemists have focused on developing new strategies to regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectively build carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds in a predictable and efficient manner. Ideal syntheses should use the least number of synthetic steps, with few or no functional group transformations and by-products, and maximum atom efficiency. One potentially attractive method for the synthesis of molecular skeletons that are difficult to prepare would be through the selective activation of C-H and C-C bonds, instead of the conventional construction of new C-C bonds. Here we present an approach that exploits the multifold reactivity of easily accessible substrates with a single organometallic species to furnish complex molecular scaffolds through the merging of otherwise difficult transformations: allylic C-H and selective C-C bond activations. The resulting bifunctional nucleophilic species, all of which have an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre, can then be selectively derivatized by the addition of two different electrophiles to obtain more complex molecular architecture from these easily available starting materials.

  17. Computational study of dissociative electron attachment to π-allyl ruthenium (II) tricarbonyl bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Rachel M.; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Ingólfsson, Oddur

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the current interest in low energy electron induced fragmentation of organometallic complexes in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) we have evaluated different theoretical protocols for the calculation of thermochemical threshold energies for DEA to the organometallic complex π-allyl ruthenium (II) tricarbonyl bromide. Several different computational methods including density functional theory (DFT), hybrid-DFT and coupled cluster were evaluated for their ability to predict these threshold energies and compared with the respective experimental values. Density functional theory and hybrid DFT methods were surprisingly found to have poor reliability in the modelling of several DEA reactions; however, the coupled cluster method LPNO-pCCSD/2a was found to produce much more accurate results. Using the local correlation pair natural orbital (LPNO) methodology, high level coupled cluster calculations for open-shell systems of this size are now affordable, paving the way for reliable theoretical DEA predictions of such compounds. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  18. Allylic amination reactivity of Ni, Pd, and Pt heterobimetallic and monometallic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Ryan W; Ess, Daniel H

    2016-06-14

    Transition metal heterobimetallic complexes with dative metal-metal interactions have the potential for novel fast reactivity. There are few studies that both compare the reactivity of different metal centers in heterobimetallic complexes and compare bimetallic reactivity to monometallic reactivity. Here we report density-functional calculations that show the reactivity of [Cl2Ti(N(t)BuPPh2)2M(II)(η(3)-methallyl)] heterobimetallic complexes for allylic amination follows M = Ni > Pd > Pt. This reactivity trend was not anticipated since the amine addition transition state involves M(II) to M(0) reduction and this could disadvantage Ni. Comparison of heterobimetallic complexes to the corresponding monometallic (CH2)2(N(t)BuPPh2)2M(II)(η(3)-methallyl) complexes reveals that this reactivity trend is due to the bimetallic interaction and that the bimetallic interaction significantly lowers the barrier height for amine addition by >10 kcal mol(-1). The impact of the early transition metal center on the amination addition barrier height depends on the late transition metal center. The lowest barrier heights for this reaction occur when late and early transition metal centers are from the same periodic table row. PMID:26893287

  19. Theoretical kinetic estimates for the recombination of hydrogen atoms with propargyl and allyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J.

    2000-01-12

    Ab initio quantum chemical simulations are coupled with variational transition state theory in estimating rate constants for the H+C{sub 3}H{sub 3} and H+C{sub 3}H{sub 5} recombination reactions. The energy of interaction between the H atom and each of the radicals is evaluated at the CAS+1+2 level for the range of separations and relative orientations spanning the transition state region. An analytic representation of these interaction energies is then implemented in variable reaction coordinate transition state theory calculations of the high pressure limit recombination rate constant for temperatures ranging from 200 to 2000 K. For the propargyl reaction the overall addition rate is separated into contributions correlating with the initial formation of allene and propyne. These theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data as well as with corresponding theoretical estimates for the H+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} and H+C{sub 2}H{sub 5} reactions. The H+propargyl and H+allyl total recombination rates are remarkably similar, with both being greater than the H+vinyl and H+ethyl rates, due to the presence of twice as many addition channels.

  20. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)

    2012-12-10

    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  1. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  2. Enhanced biocompatibility and wound healing properties of biodegradable polymer-modified allyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ju; Son, Ho Sung; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-06-01

    As poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a polymer with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, we created a new tissue adhesive (TA), pre-polymerized allyl 2-cyanoacrylate (PACA) mixed with PLLA in an effort to improve biocompatibility and mechanical properties in healing dermal wound tissue. We determined optimal mixing ratios of PACA and PLLA based on their bond strengths and chemical structures analyzed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In vitro biocompatibility of the PACA/PLLA was evaluated using direct- and indirect-contact methods according to the ISO-10993 cytotoxicity test for medical devices. The PACA/PLLA have similar or even better biocompatibility than those of commercially available cyanoacrylate (CA)-based TAs such as Dermabond® and Histoacryl®. The PACA/PLLA were not different from those exposed to Dermabond® and Histoacryl® in Raman spectra when biochemical changes of protein and DNA/RNA underlying during cell death were compared utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Histological analysis revealed that incised dermal tissues of rats treated with PACA/PLLA showed less inflammatory signs and enhanced collagen formation compared to those treated with Dermabond® or Histoacryl®. Of note, tissues treated with PACA/PLLA were stronger in the tensile strength compared to those treated with the commercially available TAs. Therefore, taking all the results into consideration, the PACA/PLLA we created might be a clinically useful TA for treating dermal wounds. PMID:25842106

  3. Allyl Isothiocyanate Induces Cell Toxicity by Multiple Pathways in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Peng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Ya-Yin; Yu, Fu-Shun; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Yu, Chien-Chih; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) occur in many cruciferous vegetables. These compounds, which have significant anticancer actions, can induce apoptosis in different human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated if allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) would induce toxicity in human breast cancer MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor negative) cells. We found that AITC stimulated reactive oxygen species and Ca[Formula: see text] production, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3 was increased by AITC in both cell lines. AITC also induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, as shown by cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G release from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and formation of DAPI-positive cells. There was a significant reduction in the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 along with a marked increase in the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in both cell lines. AITC induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via AIF and Endo G signaling pathways, but in MDA-MB-231 cells apoptosis occurred via the GADD153 pathway. This study has revealed novel anti-cancer mechanisms of AITC, a compound that is ordinarily present in human diets and may have potential therapeutic effects in various cancers. PMID:27080949

  4. Allyl isothiocyanates and cinnamaldehyde potentiate miniature excitatory postsynaptic inputs in the supraoptic nucleus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Toru; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Saito, Takeshi; Sudo, Yuka; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Minami, Kouichiro; Nagatomo, Toshihisa; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2011-03-25

    Allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde are pungent compounds present in mustard oil and cinnamon oil, respectively. These compounds are well known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists. TRPA1 is activated by low temperature stimuli, mechanosensation and pungent irritants such as AITC and cinnamaldehyde. TRPA1 is often co-expressed in TRPV1. Recent study showed that hypertonic solution activated TRPA1 as well as TRPV1. TRPV1 is involved in excitatory synaptic inputs to the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic nucleus (SON). However, it remains unclear whether TRPA1 may be involved in this activation. In the present study, we examined the role of TRPA1 on the synaptic inputs to the MNCs in in vitro rat brain slice preparations, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, AITC (50μM) and cinnamaldehyde (30μM) increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting the amplitude. This effect was significantly attenuated by previous exposure to ruthenium red (10μM), non-specific TRP channels blocker, high concentration of menthol (300μM) and HC-030031 (10μM), which are known to antagonize the effects of TRPA1 agonists. These results suggest that TRPA1 may exist at presynaptic terminals to the MNCs and enhance glutamate release in the SON. PMID:21266172

  5. Allyl functionalized phosphinite and phosphonite ligands: Synthesis, transition metal chemistry and orthopalladation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Singappagudem Govindaraju; Guddekoppa S Ananthnag; Susmita Naik; Shaikh M Mobin; Maravanji S Balakrishn

    2012-07-01

    Allyl functionalized phosphinite PPh2(OAr) [Ar=C6H4(-C3H5)] (1) and phosphonite PPh(OAr)2 (2) ligands were prepared by the reactions of 2-allylphenol with PPh2Cl and PPhCl2, respectively. The ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(6--cymene)(PPh2(OAr))Cl2] (3) and [Ru(6--cymene)(PPh(OAr)2Cl2)] (4) were obtained by reacting 1 or 2 with [Ru(6--cymene)Cl2]2 in 2:1 molar ratios, respectively. Reactions of 1 or 2 with AuCl(SMe2) gave [Au{PPh2(OAr)}Cl] (5) or [Au{PPh(OAr)2}Cl] (6) in good yield. The palladium complex, [Pd{PPh(OAr)2}2Cl2] (7) was prepared by reacting Pd(COD)Cl2 with 2 in 1:2 molar ratio. The reaction between Pd(COD)Cl2 and 1 yielded a mixture of orthopalladated cis- and trans-[Pd(Ph2P(OAr))Cl]2 (8a and 8b). The treatment of 8 with PPh3 and Ph2PCH2PPh2 resulted in the cleavage of chloro bridge to give respectively, [Ph2(OAr)PPd(PPh3)Cl] (9) and [Ph2(ArO)PPd(2-dppm)]OTf (10). Single crystal X-ray structure of the ruthenium complex 3 is described.

  6. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  7. On the predictive capabilities of CPA for applications in the chemical industry: Mulficomponent mixtures containing methyl-methacrylate, dimethyl-ether or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    with acetic acid, esters, ethers and alcohols, and in this case for water-acetic acid the CPA-Huron Vidal (CPA-HV) version of the model is used. For the latter binary mixture, new CPA-HV binary parameter sets are estimated using, among others, data for activity coefficients at infinite dilutions. The modeling...... for the acetic acid-water system for which different parameter sets at different temperatures can be recommended. Even with the use of CPA-HV mixing rules, modeling of the acetic acid-water system with few interaction parameters remains a challenging task. Excellent simultaneous VLE and LLE correlation...... is obtained for complex systems such as aqueous mixtures with ethers and esters. The multicomponent results are, with a few exceptions, very satisfactory, especially for the vapor-liquid equilibrium cases. For the demanding aqueous acetic acid-water containing systems, one parameter set is recommended...

  8. Alcohol Metabolism and Epigenetics Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites, including those generated during ethanol metabolism, can impact disease states by binding to transcription factors and/or modifying chromatin structure, thereby altering gene expression patterns. For example, the activities of enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation and histone acetylation, are influenced by the levels of metabolites such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Chronic alcohol consumption leads to significant reductions in SAM levels, thereby contributing to DNA hypomethylation. Similarly, ethanol metabolism alters the ratio of NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH) and promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species and acetate, all of which impact epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. In addition to altered carbohydrate metabolism, induction of cell death, and changes in mitochondrial permeability transition, these metabolism-related changes can lead to modulation of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Understanding the nature of these epigenetic changes will help researchers design novel medications to treat or at least ameliorate alcohol-induced organ damage. PMID:24313160

  9. Allyl/propenyl phenol synthases from the creosote bush and engineering production of specialty/commodity chemicals, eugenol/isoeugenol, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Vassão, Daniel G; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Bedgar, Diana L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2014-01-01

    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) harbors members of the monolignol acyltransferase, allylphenol synthase, and propenylphenol synthase gene families, whose products together are able to catalyze distinct regiospecific conversions of various monolignols into their corresponding allyl- and propenyl-phenols, respectively. In this study, co-expression of a monolignol acyltransferase with either substrate versatile allylphenol or propenylphenol synthases in Escherichia coli established that various monolignol substrates were efficiently converted into their corresponding allyl/propenyl phenols, as well as providing proof of concept for efficacious conversion in a bacterial platform. This capability thus potentially provides an alternate source to these important plant phytochemicals, whether for flavor/fragrance and fine chemicals, or ultimately as commodities, e.g., for renewable energy or other intermediate chemical purposes. Previous reports had indicated that specific and highly conserved amino acid residues 84 (Phe or Val) and 87 (Ile or Tyr) of two highly homologous allyl/propenyl phenol synthases (circa 96% identity) from a Clarkia species mainly dictate their distinct regiospecific catalyzed conversions to afford either allyl- or propenyl-phenols, respectively. However, several other allyl/propenyl phenol synthase homologs isolated by us have established that the two corresponding amino acid 84 and 87 residues are not, in fact, conserved.

  10. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  11. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  12. Synthesis of Phenyl Acetate from Phenol and Acetic Anhydride over Synthetic TS-1 Containing Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guowen; Shi Chunfeng; Lin Min; Zhu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, phenyl acetate was synthesized from phenol and acetic anhydride over titanium silicalite-1, in which the organic structure-directing agents were immobilized (TS-1-U). The reaction conditions were speciifed at a phenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:1.2, a catalyst dosage of 6 m%, and a reaction temperature of 70℃. A total of 96.5%of phenol was converted to phenyl acetate without producing any byproducts after 2.5 h of reaction. Besides, although the catalyst deactivation is inevitable, TS-1-U could be recycled for at least four times.

  13. Polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism genes ADH1B and ALDH2, alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Crous-Bou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81. Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025. A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants.

  14. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  15. Stereoselective coordination: a six-membered P,N-chelate tailored for asymmetric allylic alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császár, Z; Farkas, G; Bényei, A; Lendvay, G; Tóth, I; Bakos, J

    2015-10-01

    Six-membered chelate complexes [Pd(1a-b)Cl2], (2a-b) and [Pd(1a-b)(η(3)-PhCHCHCHPh)]BF4, (3a-b) of P,N-type ligands 1a, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-isopropylamino-pentane) and 1b, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-methylamino-pentane) have been prepared. The Pd-complexes have been characterized in solution by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The observed structures were confirmed by DFT calculations and in the case of 2a also by X-ray crystallography. Unexpectedly, the coordination of the all-carbon-backbone aminophosphine 1a resulted in not only a stereospecific locking of the donor nitrogen atom into one of the two possible configurations but also the conformation of the six-membered chelate rings containing three alkyl substituents was forced into the same single chair structure showing the axially placed isopropyl group on the coordinated N-atom. The stereodiscriminative complexation of 1a led to the formation of a palladium catalyst with a conformationally rigid chelate having a configurationally fixed nitrogen and electronically different coordination sites due to the presence of P and N donors. The stereochemically fixed catalyst provided excellent ee's (up to 96%) and activities in asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions. In contrast, the chelate rings formed by 1b exist in two different chair conformations, both containing axial methyl groups, but with the opposite configurations of the coordinated N-atom. Pd-complexes of 1b provided low enantioselectivities in similar alkylations, therefore emphasizing the importance of the stereoselective coordination of N-atoms in analogous P-N chelates. The factors determining the coordination of the ligands were also studied with respect to the chelate ring conformation and the nitrogen configuration.

  16. Does 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Act as a Biocompatible Solvent for Stem Bromelain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Indrani; Bisht, Meena; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2016-06-30

    The broader scope of ILs in chemical sciences particularly in pharmaceutical, bioanalytical and many more applications is increasing day by day. Hitherto, a very less amount of research is available in the depiction of conformational stability, activity, and thermal stability of enzymes in the presence of ILs. In the present study, the perturbation in the structure, stability, and activity of stem bromelain (BM) has been observed in the presence of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim][Cl]) using various techniques. This is the first report in which the influence of [Amim][Cl] has been studied on the enzyme BM. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been utilized to map out the changes in the environment around tryptophan (Trp) residues of BM and also to discuss the variations in the thermal stability of BM as an outcome of its interaction with the IL at different concentrations. Further, the work delineates the denaturing effect of high concentration of IL on enzyme structure and activity. It dictates the fact that low concentrations (0.01-0.10 M) of [Amim][Cl] are only changing the structural arrangement of the protein without having harsh consequences on its activity and stability. However, high concentrations of IL proved to be totally devastating for both activity and stability of BM. The observed decrease in the stability of BM at high concentration may be due to the combined effect of cation and anion interactions with the protein residues. The present work is successful in dictating the probable mechanism of interaction between BM and [Amim][Cl]. These results can prove to be fruitful in the studies of enzymes in aqueous IL systems since the used IL is thermally stable and nonvolatile in nature thereby providing a pathway of alteration in the activity of enzymes in potentially green systems. PMID:27268069

  17. Antibacterial activity of starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (St/AM/TP) copolymers were synthesized by simultaneous gamma irradiation and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus were explored by the viable cell counting method in sterile distilled water. At St/AM/TP 6:8.4:5.6 g, copolymers with higher graft ratio (G) and higher (AM+TP) graft efficiency (EAM+TP) were obtained at 3 and 6 kGy, while cationic degree (CD) and TP graft efficiency (ETP) continuously increased with absorbed dose from 1 to 6 kGy. All of the copolymers were capable of killing >99.75% of 107 CFU/ml S. aureus within 30 mins. Moreover, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and ETP increased with AM/TP from 0:14 to 11.2:2.8 g at St/(AM+TP) 6:14 g, while the optimum CD and antibacterial activity were achieved at AM/TP 7:7 and 8.4:5.6 g. In addition, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and CD increased with St/(AM+TP) from 6:3 to 6:18 g at AM/TP 8.4:5.6 g, while the optimum antibacterial activity was achieved at 6:10 to 6:18 g, and the optimum ETP was achieved at 6:14. - Highlights: • Cationic starch is prepared from AM and TP by Gamma irradiation. • Cationic starch is characterized by FTIR, NMR, weight method and titration method. • Grafting ratio and cationic degree depend on absorbed dose and composition. • Cationic starch shows good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus

  18. S-Allyl-Cysteines Reduce Amelioration of Aluminum Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum (Al is a trivalent cation found in its ionic form in most kinds of animal tissues and in natural waters everywhere. Approach: It is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Results: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of S-Allyl-Cysteines (SAC against Al-induced toxicity in rat model on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes of white albino rats. Six rats per group were divided into various treatment groups. Group one rats were given normal saline and served as control group. Group two animals received Al as aluminum nitrate 32.5 mg (i.p. for the induction of toxicity. Group three to five received different doses of SAC (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 for 3 days after 24 h of Al toxicity. Rats were orally administered their respective doses every day for 3 days. Evaluations were made in blood and tissues. The activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE was inhibited in all the parts of brain after Al intoxication. Significant rise were observed the Activities of Serum Transaminases (AST and ALT after toxicant exposure. The activity of â-Aminolevulinic acid Dehydratase (ALAD in blood and â-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthetase (ALAS in brain was decreased after Al exposure. Al significant increased cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea level in serum. TBARS level was significantly higher and GSH content were significantly lower during toxicity. Total and esterified cholesterol in liver, kidney and brain were increased after Al exposure. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and brain were also recouped with the therapy. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our data proved that SAC which is a bioactive and bioavailable component of garlic has organosulfur compounds which regulates the thiol status of the cell and scavenges free radicals and work as an antioxidant. Thus SAC

  19. N-allyl epiderpride: An extremely potent SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.M.; Mason, N.S.; Ansari, M.S. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    We have previously reported that epidepride is a potent (K{sub D} 24pM) and specific SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor which can be used to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in man. We have synthesized and evaluated the N-allyl analogue of epiderpride (APID) as a potential SPECT radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor. In comparison to epidepride it is even more potent at the dopamine D2 receptor, the K{sub D} for APID being 11 frontal cortical homogenate. The lipophilicity, evaluated using the log kw pH 7.5, was 2.9 versus 2.05 for epidepride. Competitive binding studies using rat striatal, hippocampal and frontal cortical homogenates showed high affinity for only dopamine D2 like cerebellar ratio of 275:1 at 320 minutes post injection-similar to that seen with epidepride, but with nearly four times higher brain uptake. Of interest was the off-rate from the dopamine D2 receptor; it was 0.0046 min{sup -1} in vitro at 25{degrees}C-corresponding to an t 1/2 of 150 minutes. Studies in rhesus monkeys show an in vivo off rate (following 2.5 mg/kg raclopride IV) of about 0.0082 min{sup -1} seen that with epidepride. SPECT studies in rhesus monkeys reveal APID is a promising SPECT radioligand that appears to be similar to epidepride, but with higher brain uptake due to its more optimal lipophilicity for entry into brain.

  20. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Weidmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site.

  1. Use of terpene-based products, with and without anhydrous alcohol, as clearing agents in trichrome staining technique for intestinal protozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubash, S M; Milburn, L

    1990-01-01

    BDH xylene substitute, a terpene-based product, and its mixture with anhydrous alcohol were found to be excellent replacements for xylene and carbol-xylene, respectively, in the trichrome staining technique applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-fixed fecal smears for detection of intestinal protozoa.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P packaging.

  3. Allyl- iso-propyltelluride, a new MOVPE precursor for CdTe, HgTe and (Hg,Cd)Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hails, Janet E.; Cole-Hamilton, David J.; Stevenson, John; Bell, William

    2000-06-01

    The use of allyl- iso-propyltelluride as the tellurium precursor for the growth of CdTe, HgTe and (Hg,Cd)Te by metal organic vapour-phase epitaxy has been investigated. It has proved to be an efficient source of tellurium with growth rates for HgTe and (Hg,Cd)Te of up to 10 μm h -1 at 300°C. The best CdTe was grown at 4.5 μm h -1 under Me 2Cd-rich conditions at 300°C in the presence of Hg vapour.

  4. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  7. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  8. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  9. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  10. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  12. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  13. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  14. 烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的熏蒸毒力研究%FUMIGATION ACTIVITY OF THE ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春武; 谢令德; 陈雅群; 何君; 贺艳萍

    2012-01-01

    以玉米象和赤拟谷盗作为实验对象,采用熏蒸方式对烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的毒力进行测定.结果表明,烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对所研究的两种害虫有较好的快速致死作用,同时研究发现在相同熏蒸时间内烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象熏蒸的LC50和LC99均小于对赤拟谷盗的LC50和LC99,这说明烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象的熏蒸效果比对赤拟谷盗的好.%Chosing Si tophilus zesmais (Motschulsky) and Tribolium castaneun (Herbst) as experimental objects, the toxicity for the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is tested systematically by fumigation method. The result demonstrates that the allyl isothiocyanate presents rapid lethal effect against both of the two types of insects. The research also shows that both the LC50 and the LC99 of the fumigation of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais are less than those of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum exposuring the same fumigating time, which indicates that the fumigating effect of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais is more effective than that of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum.

  15. Avaliação das fermentações alcoólica e acética para produção de vinagre a partir de suco de laranja = Alcohol and acetic fermentation appraisal for vinegar production from orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinéia Tessaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, em virtude de suas condições climáticas, destaca-se como grande produtor de frutas. No entanto, parcela considerável desta produção acaba sendo perdida, em face da degradação natural, maceração durante manuseio, ou ainda, por imperfeições que inviabilizam a comercialização. Neste trabalho, laranjas não-comercializáveis foram empregadas na produção de vinagre, utilizando-se três tratamentos com diferentes teores de açúcar (T1: suco in natura; T2: 18 ºBrix e T3: 22 ºBrix. Com base em análises, foi verificada maior produção de álcool e vinagre nos tratamentos T2 e T3 em detrimento de T1, provavelmente pela maior disponibilidade de substrato para os processos de conversão realizados pelos microorganismos. Entre T2 e T3, os resultados para o último tratamentoforam mais satisfatórios, embora quantidades consideráveis de açúcares remanescentes tenham sido verificadas após o processo de fermentação alcoólica.Because of its climatic conditions, Brazil stands out as a great fruitproducer. However, a considerable amount of this production is wasted, due to natural degradation, hurt during handling, or because of imperfections that make marketing impracticable. In this paper, unmarketable oranges were used in vinegar production, employing three treatments with different sugar contents (T1: natural juice; T2: 18 ºBrix; and T3: 22 ºBrix. Based upon chemical analysis, it was verified that most alcohol and vinegar production occurred with T2 and T3 treatments, probably due to the higher sugar content available to the conversion procedures carried out by microorganisms. Comparingthe results obtained with T2 and T3 treatments, the latter treatment was more satisfactory, although a considerable amount of remaining sugar was verified after the alcohol fermentation process.

  16. Control de calidad del alcohol etílico

    OpenAIRE

    Solá, Nancy Haydée

    1995-01-01

    La comercialización y fraccionamiento del alcohol etilico está regido por un importante número de leyes y decretos. En el laboratorio de control de calidad, el profesional debe optimizar las técnicas de análisis para que se pueda cumplir con lo establecido en ellos. El objetivo de este trabajo es advertir sobre la presencia de una impureza, el acetal, regularmente presente en el alcohol etílico, que eluye junto al metanol y cuya concentración es necesario cuantificar correctamente, dada su gr...

  17. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  18. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  19. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  20. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  1. Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate by Transesterifacation in Organic Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl esters are important green top-note components of food flavors and fragrances. Crude acetone powders extracted lipases from five plant seedlings of rapeseed, wheat, barley, linseed and maize were investigated for their use in the synthesis of flavor esters with vinyl acetate by transesterification in organic solvents. Rape seedlings showed the highest degree of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate synthesis with a yield of 76 percentage in 72 h. Rape seedling was chosen as promising biocatalyst to evaluate the effects of some of reaction parameters on (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate synthesis using vinyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol at 40 Degree C in n-hexane with 50 g/L enzyme as catalyst. Acetonitrile proved distinctly superior solvent. The percent remaining activity relative to fresh seedlings powders was highest in wheat and barley. Highest ester yield of 80 percentage was obtained with 0.8 M of substrate concentrations within 48 h. Crude rapeseed lipase afforded a conversion 93 percentage of ethyl alcohol. Higher ester yield was achieved within first 24 h with added molecular. The crude rape seedlings lipase is low cost yet effective, showed potential for the production of green note esters industrially. (author)

  2. 烯丙基苯并恶嗪改性BT树脂的研究%Study on Bismaleimide-Triazine Resin Modiifed by Allyl Benzoxazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 寇开昌; 王益群; 张宇; 卓龙海

    2014-01-01

    采用熔融缩聚法合成了烯丙基苯并恶嗪(Boz-allyl),并利用傅立叶变换红外光谱,磁共振氢谱对其表征。用动态扫描量热与热重分析研究了其固化过程及热性能,随后用其对双马来酰亚胺-三嗪树脂(BT树脂)改性,并分析了改性树脂的力学性能。结果表明,Boz-allyl存在两种固化机理,固化物5%和10%热失重温度分别为325,385℃,在800℃时质量保持率仍可达34%,说明其具有优良的热稳定性和耐烧蚀性,用其改性后BT树脂韧性明显提高,当Boz-allyl质量分数为8%时冲击和弯曲强度达到最大值,分别为11.32 kJ/m2和127.11 MPa。%An allyl benzoxazine(Boz-allyl) was synthesized by melt polycondensation method and the structures of Boz-allyl was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Using differential scanning calorimetery and thermal gravimetric analysis,the curing behavior and thermal property of it were probed. Then the bismaleimide-triazine resin modified by Boz-allyl was prepared and its mechanical properties was investigated. The results show a dual cure pattern of Boz-allyl ,while the 5%and 10%weight loss temperatures of polybenzoxazine is 325℃and 385℃respectively,with quality retention rate up to 34%at 800℃,which reveals good heat resistance and ablation resistance. The addition of Boz-allyl into BT resin significantly improves toughness and strength,its impact strength and flexural strength is up to their maximums of 11.32 kJ/m2 and 127.11 MPa when the mass fraction of Boz-allyl is 8%.

  3. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  4. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  5. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  6. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  7. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  8. Biomarkers derived from heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of allylic hydroperoxides resulting from alkenone autoxidation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontania, J.F.; Harji, R.; Volkmanc, J.K.

    mixtures of n-alcohols, fatty acids, alkyldiols and hydroxyacids. Methyl alkenones produced saturated n-alkan-l-ols and fatty acids ranging from C sub(13) to C sub(16) and two series of C sub(13) - C sub(16) (w-1) hydroxyacids and (1,w-1)-diols. Ethyl...

  9. Screening of native yeast from Agave duranguensis fermentation for isoamyl acetate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Hernández-Carbajal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fifty yeast strains, isolated from the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of Agave duranguensis to produce mezcal, were tested using the double coupling system. These yeasts were from the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Deckera, Hanseniaspora, and Candida. P. fermentans ITD00165 was the best isoamyl acetate producer, yielding 0.38 g/L of ester after incubation for 24 h, while K. marxianus ITD00211 produced 0.32 g/L of ester. Thus P. fermentans TD00165 could be considered as an excellent choice for use in optimization studies of the culture medium and bioreactor operating conditions to develop a process for biotechnological production of isoamyl acetate.

  10. Fractionation and some properties of acetic-ester synthesizing enzyme from Cladosporium cladosporioides, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoamyl acetate was enzymatically synthesized from acetyl-CoA and isoamyl alcohol with the cell-free extract from Cladosporium cladosporioides No. 9. The acetic-ester synthesizing enzyme was fractionated from the cell-free extract by procedures including (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-150, and column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. This enzyme was homogeneous on SDS gel electrophoresis and its molecular weight was approximately 22,000. The enzyme was obtained in about 50-fold purification in specific activity over that of the cell-free extract. The enzyme was most active at pH 6.0 and 250C, and was relatively stable between pH 6.0 and 7.5. (auth.)

  11. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz;

    2016-01-01

    resulted in a 2.9-fold increase in ethanol production by S. ovata during H2:CO2-dependent growth. It also promoted electrosynthesis of ethanol in a S. ovata-driven MES reactor and increased acetate production 4.4-fold compared to unmodified medium. Furthermore, fatty acids propionate and butyrate were...... successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  12. Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Laere, Stijn D M; Vanderhaegen, Bart M P; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-09-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Esters are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction. In order to investigate and compare the roles of the known Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1p, Atf2p and Lg-Atf1p, in volatile ester production, the respective genes were either deleted or overexpressed in a laboratory strain and a commercial brewing strain. Subsequently, the ester formation of the transformants was monitored by headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis of the fermentation products confirmed that the expression levels of ATF1 and ATF2 greatly affect the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. GC-MS analysis revealed that Atf1p and Atf2p are also responsible for the formation of a broad range of less volatile esters, such as propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate, octyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate. With respect to the esters analyzed in this study, Atf2p seemed to play only a minor role compared to Atf1p. The atf1Delta atf2Delta double deletion strain did not form any isoamyl acetate, showing that together, Atf1p and Atf2p are responsible for the total cellular isoamyl alcohol acetyltransferase activity. However, the double deletion strain still produced considerable amounts of certain other esters, such as ethyl acetate (50% of the wild-type strain), propyl acetate (50%), and isobutyl acetate (40%), which provides evidence for the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown ester synthases in the yeast proteome. Interestingly, overexpression of different alleles of ATF1 and ATF2 led to different ester production rates, indicating that differences in the aroma profiles of yeast strains may be partially due to mutations in their ATF genes. PMID:12957907

  13. Identification of bound alcohols in soil humic acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Berthier, Gersende; Dou, Sen; Peakman, Torren; Lichtfouse, Eric

    2000-01-01

    International audience Humic acids are complex, partly macromolecular, yellow-brownish substances occurring in soils, waters and sediments. In order to shed some light on their molecular structure, crop humic acids were cleaved by alkaline hydrolysis (KOH). The products were fractionated by thin layer chromatography to give mono-alcohols which were analysed as acetate derivatives by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Linear alcohols, sterols, stanols and plant-derived triterp...

  14. Analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Desmodium styracifolium using centrifugal ultrafiltration coupled with HPLC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Liangliang; Chen Miao; Chen Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of human methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning and the suppression of acetaldehyde accumulation in alcoholics. In this study, centrifugal ultrafiltration coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was utilized to screen and identify ADH inhibitors from ethyl acetate extract of Desmosium styracifolium (Osb.) Merr. The experiment conditions of c...

  15. Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol: a possible marker of recent alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaire, A; Beck, O; Borg, S

    1992-04-01

    Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) is currently being evaluated as a marker of recent alcohol consumption. To compensate for urinary dilution, the molar ratio between 5-HTOL and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) is used. The 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio showed a satisfactory degree of individual stability when it was followed in a group of teetotallers for 1 month. The mean value of 5-HTOL/5-HIAA in a group of 69 persons abstaining from alcohol was 7.6 (pmoles 5-HTOL/nmoles 5-HIAA). Ninety-seven percent had values ranging from 4 to 17, with no value exceeding 20. A group of healthy volunteers were tested 12 hr after alcohol consumption and showed a dose-dependent and statistically significant elevation in the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio. Four regular alcohol consumers who were followed during a period of 3 months of drinking had elevated values of the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio in 60% of their urine samples. The present study indicates that urinary 5-HTOL/5-HIAA is a sensitive and reliable marker of recent alcohol consumption. We propose that a 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio greater than 20 (pmoles/nmoles) can be used to indicate recent alcohol consumption. This limit gives a low frequency of false positives; the statistical probability of having a value greater than 20 during abstinence from alcohol was calculated to be less than 0.001. PMID:1375446

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  17. Dehydration pervaporation of ethyl acetate-water ??xture via sago/PVA composite membranes using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Alamaria, A.; Nawawi G.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study hydrophilic sago/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend membranes were used for pervaporation of ethyl acetate-water mixture. The effects of feed concentration, temperature and permeate pressure on the separation factor and permeation flux were studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiment and analyze pervaporation performance of homogenous sago/PVA membranes and also to obtain process optimum condition...

  18. Close correlation between heat shock response and cytotoxicity in Neurospora crassa treated with aliphatic alcohols and phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U.; Schweim, P.; Fracella, F.; Rensing, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    In Neurospora crassa the aliphatic alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and allyl alcohol and the phenolic compounds phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid were analyzed with respect to their capacities to induce heat shock proteins (HSP) and to inhibit protein synthesis. Both the alcohols and phenols showed the greatest levels of HSP induction at concentrations which inhibited the overall protein synthesis by about 50%. The abilities of the different alcohols to induce the heat shock response are proportional to their lipophilicities: the lipophilic alcohol isobutanol is maximally inductive at about 0.6 M, whereas the least lipophilic alcohol, methanol, causes maximal induction at 5.7 M. The phenols, in general, show a higher capability to induce the heat shock response. The concentrations for maximal induction range between 25 mM (sodium salicylate) and 100 mM (resorcinol). Glycerol (4.1 M) shifted the concentration necessary for maximal HSP induction by hydroquinone from 50 to 200 mM. The results reveal that the induction of HSP occurs under conditions which considerably constrain cell metabolism. The heat shock response, therefore, does not represent a sensitive marker for toxicity tests but provides a good estimate for the extent of cell damage.

  19. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10% (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4% ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10%), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9% ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13%, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10% ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF.

  20. Allyl thiourea as a corrosion inhibitor for cold rolled steel in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xianghong, E-mail: xianghong-li@163.com [Faculty of Science, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China) and Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Use in the Southwest Mountains of China Ministry of Education, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Deng Shuduan [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Fu Hui [Faculty of Science, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allyl thiourea (ATU) acts as a good inhibitor for steel in 1.0 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition efficiency increases slightly with the temperature at 0.2-0.5 mM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of ATU on steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATU behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of allyl thiourea (ATU) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution at 20-50 Degree-Sign C was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The results show that ATU is a good inhibitor, and the maximum inhibition efficiency of 0.5 mM inhibitor is higher than 95% at all studied temperatures. The adsorption of ATU obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarisation curves show that ATU behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The inhibition action is also evidenced by SEM.

  1. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  2. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  3. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  4. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuki; Seko, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao; Kasuya, Ken-ichi; Mitomo, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  5. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yuki [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: wada.yuki@jaea.go.jp; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasuya, Ken-ichi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  7. Fierce Competition in China's Ethyl Acetate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zichang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ethyl acetate is used extensively in the coatings, inks, pharmaceuticals,adhesives, cosmetics and organic synthesis sectors. With the sustained stable growth of China's national economy, the construction and automobile sectors are developing rapidly and environmental protection laws and regulations are becoming stricter.

  8. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  9. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  11. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  12. Chiral N-1-adamantyl-N-trans-cinnamylaniline type ligands: synthesis and application to palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kenji; Asano, Moeko; Shima, Yamato; Ebisawa, Toshibumi; Yoshida, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Masami

    2016-08-21

    Such chiral phosphine-internal olefin hybrid type ligands as N-1-adamantyl-N-cinnamylaniline derivatives 1 with C(aryl)-N(amine) bond axial chirality were synthesized and utilized for the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles to afford the desired products in high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:27425209

  13. γ‐ and δ-Lactams through Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis, NMR Investigation, and DFT Rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantreil, Xavier; Prestat, Guillaume; Moreno, Aitor;

    2011-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylation of unsaturated amides to give gamma- and delta-lactams has been studied in the presence of chiral ligands. Ligand (R)-3,5-tBu-MeOBIPHEP (MeOBIPHEP=6,6'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine)) afforded the best results and allowed the c...

  14. Hepatotoxicity induced by cyproterone acetate: A report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioanna Savidou; Melanie Deutsch; Aspasia S Soultati; Dimitrios Koudouras; Georgia Kafiri; Spyridon P Dourakis

    2006-01-01

    Cyproterone acetate (CPA) is a steroidal synthetic progestagen and anti-androgenic compound widely administered in prostate cancer which has been evidentially correlated with a severe hepatotoxic potency.Three male patients aged 78-83 years are presented, in whom severe hepatotoxic reactions emerged after CPA administration. Patients were treated with CPA at the doses of 200-300 mg/d for malignant prostate disease for 3-12 mo prior to the acute manifestation of the hepatic disease. Clinical features compatible with mixed hepatocellular and cholestatic liver disease including jaundice, white stools and dark urine, manifested in all three cases whereas encephalopathy and ascites were present in two of the patients. Other primary causes of hepatotoxicity (alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis)were also verified in two cases, and in those patients biopsy findings revealed the presence of cirrhotic lesions in liver parenchyma. Discontinuation of the therapeutic agent led to the amelioration of the clinical profile in all the patients whereas a patient died 40 d after hospital admission due to sepsis, despite acute liver disease improvement. The current article highlights the hepatotoxic potency of a widely administered therapeutic agent and illustrates the importance of clinical surveillance especially in patients with previous hepatic diseases. Three relevant cases are reported and a review of the published literature is made.

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  17. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  18. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  19. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  20. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  2. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  3. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  4. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  5. Light Induced C-C Coupling of 2-Chlorobenzazoles with Carbamates, Alcohols, and Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Alexander; Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till

    2016-06-01

    A light induced, transition-metal-free C-C coupling reaction of 2-chlorobenzazoles with aliphatic carbamates, alcohols, and ethers is presented. Inexpensive reagents, namely sodium acetate, benzophenone, water, and acetonitrile, are employed in a simple reaction protocol using a cheap and widely available 25 W energy saving UV-A lamp at ambient temperature. PMID:27128627

  6. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed m

  7. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  8. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  9. The adsorption stability & inhibition by allyl-thiourea of bulk nanocrystalline ingot iron in dilute HCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C. B.; Wang, S. G.; Yang, H. Y.; Long, K.; Wang, F. H.

    2006-12-01

    The inhibitive effect of thiourea's (TU) alkyl derivative—allyl-thiourea (ATU) on the corrosion behaviors of bulk nanocrystalline and conventional polycrystalline ingot iron (BNII & CPII) was tested. Results indicate that BNII is less prone to get corrosive than its coarse grain counterpart in blank 1 mol L -1 HCl at room temperature. When CPII and BNII were immersed for a very short time in the corrosive solution inhibited by ATU, namely, 5 min, no inductive loop appears at different concentrations. When time became prolonged, for BNII, a Warburg impedance appeared. Inhibited by ATU, the electrodes composed of the samples are polarized anodically during the potentiodynamic polarization tests, the phenomena of desorption happens at the concentration of 100 mg L -1, but the variation between potential Edes is obvious. The inhibition effect of ATU for BNII is very limited by comparison with CPII in dilute HCl.

  10. Crystal structure of (E-4-(acetoxyimino-N-allyl-3-isopropyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidine-1-carbothioamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mohandas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H31N3O2S, crystallizes with two molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. In each case, the piperidine ring exists in a twist-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 46.16 (12° in molecule A and 44.95 (12° in molecule B. In both molecules, the allyl side chain is disordered over two orientations in a 0.649 (9:0.351 (9 ratio for molecule A and 0.826 (10:0.174 (10 ratio for molecule B. In the crystal, neither molecule forms a hydrogen bond from its N—H group, presumably due to steric hindrance. A+A and B+B inversion dimers are formed, linked by pairs of weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds enclosing R22(22 ring motifs.

  11. Crystal structure of (E)-4-(acetoxyimino)-N-allyl-3-isopropyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidine-1-carbothioamide

    OpenAIRE

    Mohandas, T; K. Gokula Krishnan; Balamurugan, S.; Harrison, William T. A.; Thanikachalam, V.; Sakthivel, P.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C26H31N3O2S, crystallizes with two molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each case, the piperidine ring exists in a twist-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 46.16 (12)° in molecule A and 44.95 (12)° in molecule B. In both molecules, the allyl side chain is disordered over two orientations in a 0.649 (9):0.351 (9) ratio for molecule A and 0.826 (10):0.174 (10) ratio for molecule B. In the crystal, neither molecule forms a hydrogen bon...

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of the Neural Transcriptome and Alcohol Interference During Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol eResendiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxicated cells broadly alter their metabolites–– among them methyl and acetic acid can alter the DNA and histone epigenetic codes. Together with the promiscuous effect of alcohol on enzyme activities (including DNA methyltransferases and the downstream effect on microRNA and transposable elements, alcohol is well placed to affect intrinsic transcriptional programs of developing cells. Considering that the developmental consequences of early alcohol exposure so profoundly affect neural systems, it is not unfounded to reason that alcohol exploits transcriptional regulators to challenge canonical gene expression and in effect, intrinsic developmental pathways to achieve widespread damage in the developing nervous system. To fully evaluate the role of epigenetic regulation in alcohol-related developmental disease, it is important to first gather the targets of epigenetic players in neurodevelopmental models. Here, we attempt to review the cellular and genomic windows of opportunity for alcohol to act on intrinsic neurodevelopmental programs. We also discuss some established targets of fetal alcohol exposure and propose pathways for future study. Overall, this review hopes to illustrate the known epigenetic program and its alterations in normal neural stem cell development and further, aims to depict how alcohol, through neuroepigenetics, may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  13. In Situ Metabolism of Cinnamyl Alcohol in Reconstructed Human Epidermis: New Insights into the Activation of This Fragrance Skin Sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Eric; Debeuckelaere, Camille; Berl, Valérie; Elbayed, Karim; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Lepoittevin, J-P

    2016-07-18

    Chemical modification of epidermal proteins by skin sensitizers is the molecular event which initiates the induction of contact allergy. However, not all chemical skin allergens react directly as haptens with epidermal proteins but need either a chemical (prehaptens) or metabolic (prohaptens) activation step to become reactive. Cinnamyl alcohol has been considered a model prohapten, as this skin sensitizer has no intrinsic reactivity. Therefore, the prevailing theory is that cinnamyl alcohol is enzymatically oxidized into the protein-reactive cinnamaldehyde, which is the sensitizing agent. Knowing that reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models have been demonstrated to be quite similar to the normal human epidermis in terms of metabolic enzymes, use of RHE may be useful to investigate the in situ metabolism/activation of cinnamyl alcohol, particularly when coupled with high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Incubation of carbon-13 substituted cinnamyl derivatives with RHE did not result in the formation of cinnamaldehyde. The metabolites formed suggest the formation of an epoxy-alcohol and an allylic sulfate as potential electrophiles. These data suggest that cinnamyl alcohol is inducing skin sensitization through a route independent of the one involving cinnamaldehyde and should therefore be considered as a skin sensitizer on its own. PMID:27281158

  14. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  16. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  17. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  18. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 40 CFR 721.3880 - Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate. 721.3880 Section 721.3880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3880 Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate. (a) Chemical substance and... glycol substituted acetate (PMN P-91-1269) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  3. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  4. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of ...

  5. SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONES AND THEIR COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH SOME 3D METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of different N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazones and their coordination compounds described in literature. N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazide can form corresponding thiosemicarbazones with aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic carbonyl compounds. In the presence of transitional metal ions they can form coordination compounds of different structures. Both coordination compounds and proligands manifest antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimalarial activities. Copper(II coordination compounds with these ligands manifest better antitumor activity than corresponding proligands. SINTEZA, STRUCTURA ŞI ACTIVITATEA BIOLOGICĂ A N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONELOR ŞI A COMPUŞILOR COORDINATIVI AI UNOR METALE 3D CU ACEŞTI LIGANZILucrarea prezintă o revistă a N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonelor şi a compuşilor coordinativi cu aceşti liganzi descrise în literatura de specialitate. N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazida formează tiosemicarbazone cu aldehide şi cetone alifatice, aro­matice şi heteroaromatice. În prezenţa ionilor de metale de tranziţie acestea pot forma compuşi coordinativi cu diferite structuri. N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonele şi compuşii coordinativi manifestă activitate antitumorală, antibacterială, antivirală şi antimalarică. Compuşii coordinativi ai cuprului cu aceşti liganzi manifestă activitate antitumorală sporită în comparaţie cu N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonele corespunzătoare. 

  6. Kinetic modeling and docking study of immobilized lipase catalyzed synthesis of furfuryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathpati, Ashwini C; Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2016-03-01

    The present work deals with the kinetic modeling and docking study for the furfuryl acetate synthesis using immobilized Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) lipase. Initially various lipases were immobilized on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) base hybrid polymer matrix. After screening of various immobilized biocatalysts, HPMC:PVA:BCL was found to be a robust biocatalyst. Various reaction conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were obtained at molar ratio of 1:2 of furfuryl alcohol to acyl donor, temperature 50°C with catalyst loading of 30mg in 3mL of non-aqueous media toluene. Under these conditions 99.98% yield was obtained in 3h. The Arrhenius plot showed that the activation energy for furfuryl acetate synthesis was 10.68kcal/mol. The kinetics of reaction was studied close to optimized conditions which obey order bi-bi model. Molecular docking study was carried out to understand the active site of BCL which is responsible for the reaction. It was observed that the reaction proceeds via acylation of the active serine of BCL and demonstrating strong hydrogen bond between the substrate and histidine site. The catalyst recyclability study was carried up to five cycles. PMID:26827768

  7. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  8. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  9. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  10. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  11. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  13. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  14. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  15. Analysis of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and retinyl palmitate in medical foods using a zero control reference material (ZRM) as a method development tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, G W; Eitenmiller, R R; Long, A R

    1999-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for analysis of all- rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and retinyl palmitate in medical food. The vitamins are extracted in isopropyl alcohol and hexane-ethyl acetate without saponification and quantitated by normal-phase chromatography with fluorescence detection. All rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and retinyl palmitate are chromatographed isocratically with a mobile phase of 0.5% (v/v) and 0.125% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol in hexane, respectively. Recovery studies performed on a medical food zero control reference material (ZRM) fortified with the analytes averaged 99.7% (n = 25) for retinyl palmitate and 101% (n = 25) for all- rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Coefficients of variation were 0.87-2.63% for retinyl palmitate and 1.42-3.20% for all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. The method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for analysis of vitamin A and vitamin E in medical foods. Use of chlorinated solvents is avoided. PMID:10232898

  16. Coupling of Alcohols over Alkali-Promoted Cobalt-Molybdenum Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Schiødt, N.C.;

    2010-01-01

    Double or nothing: Higher alcohols are produced by the hydrogenation of CO with a K-promoted Co-MoS2/C catalyst. Ethanol, which is passed over the sulfide catalyst along with CO and H2, is mainly converted into 1-butanol, which indicates that alcohol condensation contributes to the build-up of hi......Double or nothing: Higher alcohols are produced by the hydrogenation of CO with a K-promoted Co-MoS2/C catalyst. Ethanol, which is passed over the sulfide catalyst along with CO and H2, is mainly converted into 1-butanol, which indicates that alcohol condensation contributes to the build......-up of higher alcohols over the sulfide catalyst. In a nitrogen atmosphere, ethanol is also in part converted into 1-butanol, although ethyl acetate is the major product....

  17. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  18. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  19. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  20. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  1. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana.

  2. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana. PMID:16478257

  3. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  4. Compound list: desmopressin acetate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available desmopressin acetate DDAVP 00159 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/a...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://...ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/desmopre...ssin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  5. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  6. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

  7. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  8. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  11. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  12. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  13. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  15. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  16. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  17. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. Perfluoro Allyl Fluorosulfate (FAFS: A Versatile Building Block for New Fluoroallylic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marchionni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we will present and discuss both the synthesis of CF2=CFCF2OSO2F (perfluoroallyl fluorosulfate, FAFS, focusing in particular on the important role of C3F6/SO3 ratio, reaction temperature and boron catalyst/SO3 ratio on FAFS’ yield and selectivity, as well as a wide variety of ionic and radical reactions possible with FAFS. We focused our attention on reactions of FAFS with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, acyl halides, halides, H2O2, ketones and radicals whose synthesis and reaction mechanisms will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to the novel diallyl-fluoroalkyl peroxide obtained. Factors such as pKa and Lowry and Pearson’s Hard/Soft Acid-Base Theory which determine the selectivity between Addition/Elimination vs. Nucleophilic Substitution reaction mechanisms on FAFS will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  3. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  4. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T;

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated....... No overall differences were seen between CEE and E2. CONCLUSIONS: In rabbit cerebral arteries, MPA treatment causes a higher development in arterial tension compared with NETA, indicating that different progestins may display different cerebrovascular effects. However, when accompanied by estrogens...

  5. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  6. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  7. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.;

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....

  8. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  9. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was ob...

  10. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  11. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN) test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health. PMID:26929826

  12. A formal [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route to quaternary alpha-vinyl amino acids: use of allylic N-PMP trifluoroacetimidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, David B; Wu, Bin; Li, Huijie

    2006-03-01

    Pd(II)-mediated rearrangement of allylic N-PMP (p-methoxyphenyl) trifluoroacetimidates provides the first formal sigmatropic route to quaternary, alpha-vinylic amino acids, potential suicide substrates for PLP enzymes. The amino acid side chains enter via transition-metal-mediated C-C bond constructions, including (i) Cu(I)-mediated conjugate addition (Ala); (ii) Pd(0)/AsPh3-mediated Stille coupling (allyl-Gly, Phe, DOPA, m-Tyr); and (iii) Pd(0)/Pt-Bu3-mediated Negishi coupling (Leu). In the synthesis of the DOPA decarboxylase inactivator, alpha-vinyl-m-tyrosine, the new N-PMP trifluoroacetimidate rearranges much more efficiently than the corresponding trichloroacetimidate.

  13. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  14. Starch-g-poly (vinyl alcohol)as Compatibilizer for Reducing the Phase Separation Rates of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Cornstarch Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝志峰; 周永元

    2001-01-01

    Starch- g-poly(vinyl alcohol) as a compatibilizing agent for reducing the phase separation rates of polyvinyl alcohol/starch pastes has been investigated by blending and dissolving the two polymers in distilled water. The separation rates were quantitatively evaluated by the term of initiul demixing time. The grafted starches, with a series of grafting ratios, were prepared by grafting a number of vinyl acetate onto granular cornstarch in aqueous dispersion and then alcoholating in methanol. It was found that the addition of small amounts of starch- g poly (vinyl alcohol ) in the size compositions can effectively decrease the separation rates of the blended pastes in comparison to pure starch/PVA ones.Moreover, the influence of the grafting ratio, starch content, and PVA variety on the separation rates was also studied.

  15. Intramolecular carbolithiation of N-allyl-ynamides: an efficient entry to 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines – application to a formal synthesis of sarizotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Gati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a general synthesis of polysubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines based on a highly regioselective lithiation/6-endo-dig intramolecular carbolithiation from readily available N-allyl-ynamides. This reaction, which has been successfully applied to the formal synthesis of the anti-dyskinesia agent sarizotan, further extends the use of ynamides in organic synthesis and further demonstrates the synthetic efficiency of carbometallation reactions.

  16. Anti-inflammatory potential of allyl-isothiocyanate – role of Nrf2, NF-κB and microRNA-155

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Anika Eva; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Dose, Janina; Schultheiss, Gerhard; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the underlying mechanisms of the potential anti-inflammatory properties of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) were analysed in vitro and in vivo. Murine RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were supplemented with increasing concentrations of AITC. In addition, C57BL/6 mice (n= 10 per group) were fed a pro-inflammatory high-fat diet and AITC was administered orally via gavage for 7 days. Biomarkers of inflammation were determined both in cultured cells...

  17. Identifying Barbiturate Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with [3H]Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital, a Photoreactive Barbiturate

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Chiara, David C.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    At concentrations that produce anesthesia, many barbituric acid derivatives act as positive allosteric modulators of inhibitory GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibitors of excitatory nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research on [3H]R-mTFD-MPAB ([3H]R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyldiazirinylphenyl)barbituric acid), a photoreactive barbiturate that is a potent and stereoselective anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has identified a second class of intersubunit binding si...

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Arylation of α,β-Unsaturated Imines: Catalyst-Controlled Synthesis of Enamine and Allylic Amine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minyan; González-Esguevillas, María; Berritt, Simon; Yang, Xiaodong; Bellomo, Ana; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-02-18

    A unique chemo- and regioselective α- and γ-arylation of palladium azapentadienyl intermediates is presented. Two distinct catalysts and sets of conditions successfully controlled the regioselectivity of the arylation. These methods provide the first umpolung C-H functionalization of azapentadienyl palladium intermediates and enable the divergent synthesis of allylic amine and enamine derivatives, which are of significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26846375

  19. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  20. Epoxidation of Allyl Alcohol over Ti-MWW Molecular Sieve Catalyst%烯丙醇在Ti-MWW催化剂上的环氧化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓晖; 范志勇; 魏可镁

    2006-01-01

    以水热合成-酸处理法制得的Ti-MWW分子筛为催化剂,研究了烯丙醇(AAL)和H2O2在水中的环氧化反应,考察了反应条件对AAL的转化率和环氧丙醇(GLY)选择性的影响.实验结果表明,AAL的浓度较低时有利于反应的进行,高浓度的H2O2则降低GLY的选择性,n(AAL):n(H2O2)=1时,GLY的选择性最高;当反应温度高于333 K时,GLY的选择性随反应温度升高明显下降.当Ti-MWW催化剂用量为50 mg、AAL和H2O2的用量均为10mmol、水量为20 mL时,在333 K下反应30min,AAL的转化率达到96%,同时GLY的选择性可达98%以上.该反应的机理与TS-1催化剂催化烯烃环氧化反应类似,AAL和溶剂在活性位上存在竞争吸附.GLY的高选择性归因于Ti-MWW催化剂中Ti活性位与水、H2O2形成的五元环过渡态.