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Sample records for acetaldehyde

  1. Acetaldehyde in the Alaskan subarctic snow pack

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    F. Domine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde is a reactive intermediate in hydrocarbon oxidation. It is both emitted and taken up by snowpacks and photochemical and physical processes are probably involved. Understanding the reactivity of acetaldehyde in snow and its processes of physical and chemical exchanges requires the knowledge of its incorporation mechanism in snow crystals. We have performed a season-long study of the evolution of acetaldehyde concentrations in the subarctic snowpack near Fairbanks (65° N, central Alaska, which is subjected to a vigorous metamorphism due to persistent elevated temperature gradients in the snowpack, between 20 and 200°C m−1. The snowpack therefore almost entirely transforms into depth hoar. We have also analyzed acetaldehyde in a manipulated snowpack where temperature gradients were suppressed. Snow crystals there transformed much more slowly and their original shapes remained recognizable for months. The specific surface area of snow layers in both types of snowpacks was also measured. We deduce that acetaldehyde is not adsorbed onto the surface of snow crystals and that most of the acetaldehyde is probably not dissolved in the ice lattice of the snow crystals. We propose that most of the acetaldehyde measured is either trapped or dissolved within organic aerosol particles trapped in snow, or that acetaldehyde is formed by the hydrolysis of organic precursors contained in organic aerosols trapped in the snow, when the snow is melted for analysis. These precursors are probably aldehyde polymers formed within the aerosol particles by acid catalysis, but might also be biological molecules. In a laboratory experiment, acetaldehyde-di-n-hexyl acetal, representing a potential acetaldehyde precursor, was subjected to our analytical procedure and reacted to form acetaldehyde. This confirms our suggestion that acetaldehyde in snow could be produced during the melting of snow for analysis.

  2. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

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    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  3. Study on development of adsorbent of acetaldehyde; Acetaldehyde yo kyuchakuzai no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

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    Noda, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1997-07-10

    The adsorption of acetaldehyde by porous ceramics impregnated with hydrazinium aluminum sulfate (HAS) is studied. Silicagel, activated alumina, activated clay, and activated carbon are compared, and it is found that silicagel and activated clay are suitable as a substrate for HAS impregnated adsorbent. The adsorption mechanism of acetaldehyde by the adsorbent is believed to be one in which acetaldehyde reacts with hydrazinium and yields acetaldazine. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent at low acetaldehyde concentration of 0.1 ppm was as large as 1.36 mol/kg. This adsorption capacity at 0.1 ppm acetaldehyde concentration is remarkably larger than that of conventional activated carbon. Hydrazinium decomposes easily in the air because it is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxygen or carbon dioxide. But hydrazinium impregnated on porous ceramics with HAS becomes more stable and maintains reactivity with acetaldehyde for longer than six months. An adsorbent made of porous ceramics impregnated with HAS is useful as a deodorant for acetaldehyde. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. New DNA adducts of crotonaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

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    Hecht, S S; McIntee, E J; Wang, M

    2001-09-14

    This paper summarizes our recent studies on adducts produced in the reactions of the carcinogens crotonaldehyde (2-butenal) and acetaldehyde with deoxyguanosine (dG) and DNA. Human exposure to these carcinogens can be considerable, from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Crotonaldehyde reacts with DNA to form Michael addition products, a pathway that has been well described. We describe a second major pathway, in which 3-hydroxybutanal, formed by addition of H(2)O to crotonaldehyde, reacts with DNA to produce the Schiff base N(2)-(3-hydroxybut-1-ylidene)dG as well as several diastereomers of N(2)-paraldol-dG. Acetaldehyde reacts with DNA and dG giving a major Schiff base adduct, N(2)-ethylidene-dG. A cross-linked adduct of acetaldehyde has been characterized for the first time, and other adducts resulting from the reaction of two and three molecules of acetaldehyde with dG have been observed. The results of these studies demonstrate that some structurally unique adducts are formed from these carcinogenic aldehydes and suggest some new directions for research on the potential role of aldehydes in human cancer.

  5. Widespread acetaldehyde near the galactic centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chengalur, JN; Kanekar, N

    2003-01-01

    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope images of the 1065 MHz emission from the 1(11) --> 1(10) rotational transition of acetaldehyde ( CH3CHO) in the molecular cloud complex Sgr B2. Our observations are unique in that they have a high spatial resolution (similar to4"), while still being sensiti

  6. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of acetaldehyde and acrolein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yencha, Andrew J., E-mail: ayencha@albany.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Siggel-King, Michele R.F. [Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Warrrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); King, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Photon Science Institute, Manchester University, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Malins, Andrew E.R. [Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Warrrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Eypper, Marie [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acrolein. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acrolein. •Determination of vertical ionization potentials in acetaldehyde and acrolein. -- Abstract: High-resolution (6 meV and 12 meV) threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra of acetaldehyde and acrolein (2-propenal) have been recorded over the valence binding energy region 10–20 eV, employing synchrotron radiation and a penetrating-field electron spectrometer. These TPE spectra are presented here for the first time. All of the band structures observed in the TPE spectra replicate those found in their conventional HeI photoelectron (PE) spectra. However, the relative band intensities are found to be dramatically different in the two types of spectra that are attributed to the different dominant operative formation mechanisms. In addition, some band shapes and their vertical ionization potentials are found to differ in the two types of spectra that are associated with the autoionization of Rydberg states in the two molecules.

  7. Ethylene oxide and Acetaldehyde in hot cores

    CERN Document Server

    Occhiogrosso, A; Herbst, E; Viti, S; Ward, M D; Price, S D; Brown, W A

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Ethylene oxide and its isomer acetaldehyde are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxid...

  8. Methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes over ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas; Schade, Gunnar

    2007-09-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) play an active role in tropospheric chemistry but our knowledge concerning their release and ultimate fate is limited. However, the recent introduction of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) has improved our capability to make direct field observations of OVOC mixing ratios and fluxes. We used PTRMS in an eddy covariance setup to measure selected OVOC exchange rates above a well-characterized agricultural plot in Northern Germany. In fall 2003, mixing ratios of methanol and acetaldehyde 2 m above the field ranged from 1 to 10 and 0.4 to 2.1 ppb, respectively, well correlated with one another. Fluxes of both gases were followed for growing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) over a significant portion of its life cycle. Diurnally fluctuating emissions of methanol and very small acetaldehyde fluxes were observed up to the cutting and removal of the grass. Methanol emissions were exponentially related to ambient temperatures and appeared to be higher during the grass' rapid leaf area expansion and after a rain event. Acetaldehyde exchanges averaged over the whole period indicated very slow deposition. Our measurements confirm previous, similar results, as well as presumptions that grasses are comparatively low methanol emitters compared to non-grass species.

  9. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

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    Shen, Chun; Oro, J.; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde, and ammonia. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, and 6.8 percent respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. Widespread acetaldehyde near the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, J N; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Kanekar, Nissim

    2003-01-01

    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope images of the 1065 MHz emission from the 1_11 -> 1_10 rotational transition of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in the molecular cloud complex Sgr B2. Our observations are unique in that they have a high spatial resolution (~4"), while still being sensitive to large-scale emission. Most complex organic molecules in this cloud (e.g. acetone, methyl formate, acetic acid) are concentrated in a very small core, ~0.1pc across. In contrast, acetaldehyde is found to be spread over a region at least 100 times larger in extent. The line emission is confined to regions with radio continuum emission and correlates well (in both position and velocity) with formaldehyde absorption towards this continuum; this is consistent with earlier single dish results suggesting that it is likely to be weakly mased. Our observations also suggest that grain mantle destruction by shocks plays an important role in the observed gas phase abundance of CH3CHO in Sgr B2.

  12. Acetaldehyde photochemistry on TiO2(110)

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    Zehr, Robert T.; Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-07-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photon induced decomposition of acetaldehyde absorbed on the oxidized retile TIO2(110) surface was studied with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and theral programmed desorption (TPD). Acetaldehyde desorbs molecularly from TiO2(110) with minor decomposition channels yielding butene on the reduced TiO2 surface and acetate on the oxidized TiO2 surface. Acetaldehyde absorbed on oxidized TiO2(110) undergoes a facile thermal reaction to form a photoactive acetaldehyde-oxygen complex. UV irradiation of the acetaldehyde-oxygen complex resulting in the ejection of methyl radical into gas phase and conversion of the surface bound fragment to formate.

  13. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

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    Jaeger Karl E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the

  14. Complex oscillations in the combustion of acetaldehyde

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    Harding, Robert H.; Sevčikova, Hana; Ross, John

    1988-10-01

    Aperiodic dynamics are observed experimentally in the cool flame combustion region of acetaldehyde (ACH) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A gradual transition is seen, with variation of exit orifice size, from limit cycle oscillation to aperiodic variations in light emission, and then back to near periodic oscillations. We analyze this transition by calculating power spectra, autocorrelation functions, phase portraits, period distributions, and Poincaré sections. The variation in peak amplitude and peak-to-peak period of the temporal variations of light emission increases during the transition. There are many initial indications of a transition to chaos. However, after an in-depth analysis, given in the following article, we ascribe the transition to the presence of a Hopf bifurcation and noise: the path traced out in the constraint space by the change in exit orifice size is nearly tangent to a Hopf bifurcation set but does not cross this set.

  15. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

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    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  16. Acetaldehyde-Mediated Neurotoxicity: Relevance to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

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    Ming Tong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol-induced neuro-developmental abnormalities are associated with impaired insulin and IGF signaling, and increased oxidative stress in CNS neurons. We examined the roles of ethanol and its principal toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde, as mediators of impaired insulin/IGF signaling and oxidative injury in immature cerebellar neurons. Cultures were exposed to 3.5 mM acetaldehyde or 50 mM ethanol ± 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP, an inhibitor of ethanol metabolism, and viability, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and insulin responsiveness were measured 48 hours later. Acetaldehyde or ethanol increased neuronal death and levels of 8-OHdG and 4-HNE, and reduced mitochondrial function. Ethanol inhibited insulin responsiveness, whereas acetaldehyde did not. 4-MP abated ethanol-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, but failed to restore insulin responsiveness. Furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde metabolizing enzyme genes were inhibited by prenatal ethanol exposure; this effect was mediated by acetaldehyde and not ethanol + 4MP. These findings suggest that brain insulin resistance in prenatal alcohol exposure is caused by direct effects of ethanol, whereas oxidative stress induced neuronal injury is likely mediated by ethanol and its toxic metabolites. Moreover, the adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on brain development may be exacerbated by down-regulation of genes needed for metabolism and detoxification of alcohol in the brain.

  17. Decarboxylation of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde for Ethanol Production by Hyperthermophiles

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    Mohammad S. Eram

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The only PDC activity reported in hyperthermophiles was a bifunctional, TPP- and CoA-dependent pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR/PDC enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Another enzyme known to be involved in catalysis of acetaldehyde production from pyruvate is CoA-acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH encoded by mhpF and adhE. Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl-CoA by either POR or pyruvate formate lyase (PFL, and AcDH catalyzes the reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde in mesophilic organisms. AcDH is present in some mesophilic (such as clostridia and thermophilic bacteria (e.g., Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacter. However, no AcDH gene or protein homologs could be found in the released genomes and proteomes of hyperthermophiles. Moreover, no such activity was detectable from the cell-free extracts of different hyperthermophiles under different assay conditions. In conclusion, no commonly-known PDCs was found in hyperthermophiles. Instead of the commonly-known PDC, it appears that at least one multifunctional enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in hyperthermophiles.

  18. Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke

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    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cigarette blend sugar and acetaldehyde formed in its smoke is a matter of current regulatory interest. This paper provides a re-analysis of data from 83 European commercial cigarettes studied in the 1970s and more modern data on sugar levels and acetaldehyde yields from a series of 97 European commercial cigarettes containing both inherent sugar and in other cases inherent and added sugar. It also provides data from 65 experimental cigarette products made from single curing grades of tobacco, having a wide range of inherent sugar levels but no added sugar.

  19. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOI, Aya; Maruyama, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Reiko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration an...

  20. Stable acetaldehyde--protein adducts as biomarkers of alcohol exposure.

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    Conduah Birt, J E; Shuker, D E; Farmer, P B

    1998-02-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with increased risks of a number of chronic disorders including cancers. It is still not clear whether ethyl alcohol or other components such as metabolites are directly involved in the carcinogenic process or whether the effects are due to the modulation of metabolism of other carcinogens. At present, there is no good biomarker of alcohol intake, particularly at low or moderate levels of consumption. A number of studies have shown the ability of the major metabolite acetaldehyde to react with proteins in vitro to give stable and unstable adducts. The interaction of acetaldehyde with model peptides, which correspond to N-terminal globin sequences, was studied. The major stable adduct was identified by mass spectrometry and NMR as a diastereoisomeric mixture of imidazolidinones. This is believed to be formed by reaction and cyclization of the initial Schiff base adduct with the N-terminal valine. Incubation of human globin with acetaldehyde (0-2 mM) yielded products which were identified as the N-terminal adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of proteolytic digests. The specificity and sensitivity of the analysis was improved by the use of on-line HPLC-ESI-MS. Tryptic digests of the modified globin which contained both the N-terminal acetaldehyde adducts of alpha-globin (heptapeptide) and beta-globin (octapeptide) were resolved. These results suggest that analysis of stable imidazolidinone adducts is a promising approach to estimation of alcohol exposure.

  1. Aromatic Amines Exert Contrasting Effects on the Anticoagulant Effect of Acetaldehyde upon APTT

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    La'Teese Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological effects of amphetamine, procaine, procainamide, DOPA, isoproterenol, and atenolol upon activated partial thromboplastin time in the absence and presence of acetaldehyde have been investigated. In the absence of acetaldehyde, amphetamine and isoproterenol exhibit a procoagulant effect upon activated partial thromboplastin time, whereas atenolol and procaine display anticoagulant effects upon activated partial thromboplastin time. DOPA and procainamide do not alter activated partial thromboplastin time. Premixtures of procaine with acetaldehyde produce an additive anticoagulant effect on activated partial thromboplastin time, suggesting independent action of these compounds upon clotting factors. Premixtures of amphetamine with acetaldehyde, as well as atenolol with acetaldehyde, generate a detoxication of the anticoagulant effect of acetaldehyde upon activated partial thromboplastin time. A similar statistically significant decrease in activated partial thromboplastin time is seen when procainamide is premixed with acetaldehyde for 20 minutes at room temperature. Premixtures of DOPA and isoproterenol with acetaldehyde do not affect an alteration in activated partial thromboplastin time relative to acetaldehyde alone. Hence, a selective interaction of atenolol, procaine, and amphetamine with acetaldehyde to produce detoxication of the acetaldehyde is suggested, undoubtedly due to the presence of amino, hydroxyl, or amide groups in these drugs.

  2. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

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    Aya YOKOI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3 ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017. After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05. Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume.

  3. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  4. Effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and cholesteryl esters on pancreatic lysosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J S; Apte, M V; Thomas, M. C.; Haber, P S; Pirola, R C

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that altered lysosomal function may be involved in the early stages of pancreatic injury. Chronic consumption of ethanol increases rat pancreatic lysosomal fragility. The aim of this study is to determine whether the lysosomal fragility observed after chronic ethanol consumption is mediated by ethanol per se, its oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde or cholesteryl esters (substances which accumulate in the pancreas after ethanol consumption). Pancreatic lysosomes from cho...

  5. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger Karl E; Eggert Thorsten; Franken Benjamin; Pohl Martina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were ...

  6. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  7. Acetaldehyde kinetics of enological yeast during alcoholic fermentation in grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erhu; Mira de Orduña, Ramón

    2017-02-01

    Acetaldehyde strongly binds to the wine preservative SO2 and, on average, causes 50-70 mg l(-1) of bound SO2 in red and white wines, respectively. Therefore, a reduction of bound and total SO2 concentrations necessitates knowledge of the factors that affect final acetaldehyde concentrations in wines. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the acetaldehyde production and degradation kinetics of 26 yeast strains of oenological relevance during alcoholic fermentation in must under controlled anaerobic conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains displayed similar metabolic kinetics where acetaldehyde reached an initial peak value at the beginning of fermentations followed by partial reutilization. Quantitatively, the range of values obtained for non-Saccharomyces strains greatly exceeded the variability among the S. cerevisiae strains tested. Non-Saccharomyces strains of the species C. vini, H. anomala, H. uvarum, and M. pulcherrima led to low acetaldehyde residues (<10 mg l(-1)), while C. stellata, Z. bailii, and, especially, a S. pombe strain led to large residues (24-48 mg l(-1)). Acetaldehyde residues in S. cerevisiae cultures were intermediate and less dispersed (14-34 mg l(-1)). Addition of SO2 to Chardonnay must triggered significant increases in acetaldehyde formation and residual acetaldehyde. On average, 0.33 mg of residual acetaldehyde remained per mg of SO2 added to must, corresponding to an increase of 0.47 mg of bound SO2 per mg of SO2 added. This research demonstrates that certain non-Saccharomyces strains display acetaldehyde kinetics that would be suitable to reduce residual acetaldehyde, and hence, bound-SO2 levels in grape wines. The acetaldehyde formation potential may be included as strain selection argument in view of reducing preservative SO2 concentrations.

  8. Involvement of Dopamine D2 Receptors in AddictiveLike Behaviour for Acetaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Brancato; Fulvio Plescia; Rosa Anna Maria Marino; Giuseppe Maniaci; Michele Navarra; Carla Cannizzaro

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the i...

  9. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further strengthen the evidence

  10. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brancato

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further

  11. Quantum Chemical Study on Reaction of Acetaldehyde with Hydroxyl Radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Ming(李明); ZHANG,Jin-Sheng(张金生); SHEN,Wei(申伟); MENG,Qing-Xi(孟庆喜)

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of acetaldehyde with hydroxyl radical was studied by means of quantum chemical methods. The geometries for all the stationary points on the potential energy surfaces were optimized fully, respectively, at the G3MP2, G3, and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels. Single-point energies of all the species were calculated at the QCISD/6-311 + +G(d,p) level. The mechanism of the reaction studied was confirmed. The predicted product is acetyl radical that is in agreement with the experiment.

  12. EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE CONTENT OF ACETALDEHYDE IN BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Jonkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the temperature, the pitching rate of yeast and wort composition (Free Amino Nitrogen on the content of acetaldehyde in beer. It is known, that higher fermentation temperatures stimulate the formation of acetaldehyde, as well as the higher rate of acetaldehyde reduction, leading to lower concentrations in the final beer. Beer produced with increased pitching rate of yeast (26 and 35 × 10[sup]6[/sup] cells•mL[sup]-1[/sup], contains lower quantities of acetaldehyde as compared to the control beer. Lower content of α-amino nitrogen in result of substitution of 5 to 10�0of the malt with rice, sugar or a combination of both does not lead to considerable differences in the acetaldehyde concentration in beer.

  13. [Effect of pyruvate, threonine, and phosphoethanolamine on acetaldehyde metabolism in rats with toxic liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron'ko, P S; Satanovskaia, V I; Gorenshteĭn, B I; Kuz'mich, A B; Pyzhik, T N

    2002-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase, threonine aldolase and phosphoethanolamine lyase can produce acetaldehyde during normal metabolism. We studied the effect of loading with the substrates of these enzymes (pyruvate, 500 mg/kg, i.p., threonine 500 mg/kg, i.p., and phosphoethanolamine, 230 mg/kg, i.p.) on the blood concentrations of endogenous acetaldehyde and ethanol and the activities of enzymes producing and oxidizing acetaldehyde in the liver of normal rats and rats with liver injury provoked by chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment (0.2 ml i.p. per rat, 2 times a week during 4 weeks). Blood was collected before the treatment and then 30 min and 1 h following the administration of the substrates to intact and CCl4-treated rats. Endogenous acetaldehyde and ethanol were determined by headspace GC. The CCl4 treatment resulted in decreased liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and a significant elevation of liver endogenous ehtanol and a clear tendency to enhance blood acetaldehyde levels. Pyruvate increased blood endogenous acetaldehyde in CCl4-treated animals and endogenous ethanol--in the control group of animals. Threonine elevated endogenous acetaldehyde in normal rats. Phosphoethanolamine increased endogenous ethanol in the intact and CCl4 groups. At the same time, in CCl4-treated rats pyruvate administration increased the liver pyruvate dehydrogenase, threonine decreased threonine aldolase, whereas phosphoethanolamine decreased phosphoethanolamine lyase. Thus, the CCl4 effect on blood endogenous acetaldehyde and ethanol may be mediated through decreased liver ALDH and ADH activities. Liver injury promotes the accumulation of acetaldehyde, derived from physiological sources, including the degration of pyruvate and threonine by decreased acetaldehyde oxidation.

  14. Formation of Schiff base adduct between acetaldehyde and rat liver microsomal phosphatidylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W C

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have established the formation of acetaldehyde adducts of proteins even at low concentrations of acetaldehyde expected to occur in vivo under conditions of ethanol metabolism. Although formation of acetaldehyde adducts with phospholipids has been obtained at high pH values and at high concentrations of acetaldehyde, the occurrence of such adducts under more physiological conditions had yet to be demonstrated. Rat liver microsomes were incubated with 0.2 mM [14C]acetaldehyde at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. After treatment with sodium borohydride to reduce any Schiff bases formed, the phospholipids were isolated. The major radioactive component within the phospholipid fraction had chromatographic properties identical to N-ethylphosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, the nitrogenous base derived therefrom by acid hydrolysis was identical to N-ethylethanolamine. These results indicate that a Schiff base adduct between acetaldehyde and microsomal phosphatidylethanolamine had been formed during incubation of low concentrations of acetaldehyde with rat liver microsomes.

  15. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  16. The effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on muscle catabolism in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-12-01

    The toxic aldehydes acetaldehyde and acrolein were previously suggested to damage skeletal muscle. Several conditions in which exposure to acetaldehyde and acrolein is increased were associated with muscle wasting and dysfunction. These include alcoholic myopathy, renal failure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A main exogenous source of both acetaldehyde and acrolein is cigarette smoking, which was previously associated with increased muscle catabolism. Recently, we have shown that exposure of skeletal myotubes to cigarette smoke stimulated muscle catabolism via increased oxidative stress, activation of p38 MAPK, and upregulation of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on catabolism of skeletal muscle. Skeletal myotubes differentiated from the C2 myoblast cell line were exposed to acetaldehyde or acrolein and their effects on signaling pathways related to muscle catabolism were studied. Exposure of myotubes to acetaldehyde did not promote muscle catabolism. However, exposure to acrolein caused increased generation of free radicals, activation of p38 MAPK, upregulation of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1, degradation of myosin heavy chain, and atrophy of myotubes. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 abolished acrolein-induced muscle catabolism. Our findings demonstrate that acrolein but not acetaldehyde activates a signaling cascade resulting in muscle catabolism in skeletal myotubes. Although within the limitations of an in vitro study, these findings indicate that acrolein may promote muscle wasting in conditions of increased exposure to this aldehyde.

  17. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-09-12

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  18. Role of apoptotic hepatocytes in HCV dissemination: regulation by acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Murali; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Zhang, Jinjin; Mott, Justin L; Poluektova, Larisa I; McVicker, Benita L; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Osna, Natalia A

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and promotes disease progression, although the mechanisms are not quite clear. We have previously observed that acetaldehyde (Ach) continuously produced by the acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS), temporarily enhanced HCV RNA levels, followed by a decrease to normal or lower levels, which corresponded to apoptosis induction. Here, we studied whether Ach-induced apoptosis caused depletion of HCV-infected cells and what role apoptotic bodies (AB) play in HCV-alcohol crosstalk. In liver cells exposed to AGS, we observed the induction of miR-122 and miR-34a. As miR-34a has been associated with apoptotic signaling and miR-122 with HCV replication, these findings may suggest that cells with intensive viral replication undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, when AGS-induced apoptosis was blocked by a pan-caspase inhibitor, the expression of HCV RNA was not changed. AB from HCV-infected cells contained HCV core protein and the assembled HCV particle that infect intact hepatocytes, thereby promoting the spread of infection. In addition, AB are captured by macrophages to switch their cytokine profile to the proinflammatory one. Macrophages exposed to HCV(+) AB expressed more IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs compared with those exposed to HCV(-) AB. The generation of AB from AGS-treated HCV-infected cells even enhanced the induction of aforementioned cytokines. We conclude that HCV and alcohol metabolites trigger the formation of AB containing HCV particles. The consequent spread of HCV to neighboring hepatocytes via infected AB, as well as the induction of liver inflammation by AB-mediated macrophage activation potentially exacerbate the HCV infection course by alcohol and worsen disease progression.

  19. Improvement of visible light photocatalytic acetaldehyde decomposition of bismuth vanadate/silica nanocomposites by cocatalyst loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Naoya; Takebe, Naohiro; Tsubota, Toshiki; Ohno, Teruhisa

    2012-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of bismuth vanadate (BiVO(4)) for acetaldehyde decomposition under visible light irradiation was improved by inclusion of a nanocomposition of silica as an adsorbent material and loading of platinum (Pt) or trivalent iron ion (Fe(3+)) as reduction cocatalysts. Addition of silica enhanced photocatalytic activity due to improvement of adsorption ability, but total decomposition of acetaldehyde was not observed within 24h of visible light irradiation. For further improvement of photocatalytic activity, BiVO(4) with an optimized amount of silica composition were modified with Pt or Fe(3+). Photodeposition of Pt greatly increased photocatalytic activity, and acetaldehyde was totally decomposed within 24h of visible light irradiation.

  20. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  1. Genetic determinants of both ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour among Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C

    2010-01-01

    Although hypersensitivity reactions following intake of alcoholic drinks are common in Caucasians, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance are not known. In contrast, in Asians, alcohol-induced asthma and flushing have been shown to be because of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)......), the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) 487lys, causing decreased acetaldehyde (the metabolite of ethanol) metabolism and high levels of histamine. However, the ALDH2 487lys is absent in Caucasians....

  2. Adsorption of Chromium(VI) from Aqueous Solutions by Coffee Polyphenol-Formaldehyde/Acetaldehyde Resins

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewater is essential as it is toxic. Thus, removal of chromium(VI) was performed using coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins as adsorbents. Adsorbent resins were prepared by condensation of decaffeinated coffee powder with formaldehyde/acetaldehyde and used for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. A simple and sensitive solid phase extraction procedure was applied for the determination of chromium at trace levels by spectroscopic meth...

  3. Pervaporation of Aqueous Solution of Acetaldehyde Through ZSM-5 Filled PDMS Composite Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳辉; 谭惠芬; 李佟茗; 金源

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic ZSM-5 zeolite filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite membranes with Nylon micro-filtration membrane as the support layer were prepared to separate acetaldehyde from its aqueous solution. The composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their structural morphology and thermal stability were also examined. The swelling study showed that the composite membranes presented higher degree of swelling in aqueous solution of acetaldehyde than in pure water at 25℃,

  4. Experiment on Reducing Acetaldehyde Content%降低乙醛含量的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常洪娟; 谭毅

    2012-01-01

    Experiments of reduction of the acetaldehyde content in beer with sodium sulfite,controlling the tank pressure during main fermentation,and the addition of different dosage of yeast were carried out to compare the changes of beer acetaldehyde values.%实验用亚硫酸钠降低啤酒中乙醛含量,控制主发酵期发酵罐压及不同酵母添加量对比啤酒乙醛值。

  5. The total margin of exposure of ethanol and acetaldehyde for heavy drinkers consuming cider or vodka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Gill, Jan S; Chick, Jonathan; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Heavy drinkers in Scotland may consume 1600 g ethanol per week. Due to its low price, cider may be preferred over other beverages. Anecdotal evidence has linked cider to specific health hazards beyond other alcoholic beverages. To examine this hypothesis, nine apple and pear cider samples were chemically analysed for constituents and contaminants. None of the products exceeded regulatory or toxicological thresholds, but the regular occurrence of acetaldehyde in cider was detected. To provide a quantitative risk assessment, two collectives of exclusive drinkers of cider and vodka were compared and the intake of acetaldehyde was estimated using probabilistic Monte-Carlo type analysis. The cider consumers were found to ingest more than 200-times the amount of acetaldehyde consumed by vodka consumers. The margins of exposure (MOE) of acetaldehyde were 224 for the cider and over 220,000 for vodka consumers. However, if the effects of ethanol were considered in a cumulative assessment of the combined MOE, the effect of acetaldehyde was minor and the combined MOE for both groups was 0.3. We suggest that alcohol policy priority should be given on reducing ethanol intake by measures such as minimum pricing, rather than to focus on acetaldehyde.

  6. An original method for producing acetaldehyde and diacetyl by yeast fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rosca

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate. The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5 °SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05 mg L-1 acetaldehyde while a total titratable acidity value of 7 °SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58 mg L-1 diacetyl. Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.

  7. An original method for producing acetaldehyde and diacetyl by yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Irina; Petrovici, Anca Roxana; Brebu, Mihai; Stoica, Irina; Minea, Bogdan; Marangoci, Narcisa

    In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color) and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate). The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5°SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05mgL(-1) acetaldehyde) while a total titratable acidity value of 7°SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58mgL(-1) diacetyl). Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.

  8. The influence of oxygen supply on the production of acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mastroeni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oxygen supply rate on the growth and the production of both ethanol and acetaldehyde by the aerotolerant fermentative bacterium Z. mobilis is discussed in this work. The results showed similar values of cell mass yield (0.043 g/g for the five different levels of initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K La studied. The maximum specific growth rate (µx,m. under anaerobic conditions was higher than those found in aerated runs. Anaerobic cultivation resulted in the best ethanol yield (0.38 g/g. For initial K La values of 62, 94, and 118 h-1, ethanol yields were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.09 g/g, respectively, whereas for K La of 30 h-1, an intermediate value (0.24 g/g was achieved. Under anaerobiosis, no acetaldehyde was produced. With initial K La values of 62, 94, and 118 h-1, acetaldehyde yields were similar (0.12 to 0.17 g/g, and for K La of 30 h-1 only 0.07 gram of acetaldehyde was formed per gram of glucose. Although increasing values for the maximal specific acetaldehyde formation rate were calculated as K La was increased, our results showed that the presence of an excess of dissolved oxygen throughout fermentation is enough to provide appropriate conditions for the production of acetaldehyde by Z. mobilis.

  9. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  10. Quantification by SIFT-MS of acetaldehyde released by lung cells in a 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Abigail V; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Yang, Ying; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, David; Sulé-Suso, Josep

    2013-01-07

    Our previous studies have shown that both lung cancer cells and non-malignant lung cells release acetaldehyde in vitro. However, data from other laboratories have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, all these studies have been carried out in 2D models which are less physiological cell growth systems when compared to 3D models. Therefore, we have carried out further work on the release of acetaldehyde by lung cells in 3D collagen hydrogels. Lung cancer cells CALU-1 and non-malignant lung cells NL20 were seeded in these hydrogels at different cell concentrations and the release of acetaldehyde was measured with the Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) technique. The data obtained showed that the amount of acetaldehyde released by both cell types grown in a 3D model is higher when compared to that of the same cells grown in 2D models. More importantly, acetaldehyde from the headspace of lung cancer cells could be measured even at a low cell concentration (10(5) cells per hydrogel). The differential of acetaldehyde release could be, depending on the cell concentration, more than 3 fold higher for cancer cells when compared to non-malignant lung cells. This pilot study is the first to study acetaldehyde emission from albeit only two cell types cultured in 3D scaffolds. Clearly, from such limited data the behaviour of other cell types and of tumour cells in vivo cannot be predicted with confidence. Nevertheless, this work represents another step in the search for volatile biomarkers of tumour cells, the ultimate goal of which is to exploit volatile compounds in exhaled breath and other biological fluids as biomarkers of tumours in vivo.

  11. Measurement of acetaldehyde in exhaled breath using a laser absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pratyuma C.; Roller, Chad B.; Namjou, Khosrow; Jeffers, James D.; Faramarzalian, Ali; Salas, Rodolfo; McCann, Patrick J.

    2007-07-01

    A high-resolution liquid-nitrogen-free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system was used to perform real-time measurement of acetaldehyde concentrations in human exhaled breath following ingestion of an alcoholic beverage. Acetaldehyde absorption features were measured near 5.79 μm (1727 cm-1) using a IV-VI semiconductor laser, a 100 m long path optical gas cell, and second- harmonic detection coupled with wavelength modulation. Acetaldehyde levels were measured with a minimum detection limit of 80 ppb for 5 s integration time. The variations in exhaled acetaldehyde levels over time were analyzed prior to and following ingestion of two different amounts of white wine. A method to calibrate acetaldehyde measurements internally using water vapor absorption lines was investigated to eliminate the need for system calibration with gas standards. The potential of a TDLAS system to be used as a noninvasive clinical tool for measurements of large volatile compounds with possible applications in cancer detection is demonstrated.

  12. Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined experimental and simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Xuan, Chuan-Jin; Feng, Wen-Ling; Tian, Shan Xi, E-mail: sxtian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Center of Advanced Chemical Physics, and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-02-14

    Dissociation dynamics of the temporary negative ions of ethanol and acetaldehyde formed by the low-energy electron attachments is investigated by using the anion velocity map imaging technique and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The momentum images of the dominant fragments O{sup −}/OH{sup −} and CH{sub 3}{sup −} are recorded, indicating the low kinetic energies of O{sup −}/OH{sup −} for ethanol while the low and high kinetic energy distributions of O{sup −} ions for acetaldehyde. The CH{sub 3}{sup −} image for acetaldehyde also shows the low kinetic energy. With help of the dynamics simulations, the fragmentation processes are qualitatively clarified. A new cascade dissociation pathway to produce the slow O{sup −} ion via the dehydrogenated intermediate, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup −} (acetaldehyde anion), is proposed for the dissociative electron attachment to ethanol. After the electron attachment to acetaldehyde molecule, the slow CH{sub 3}{sup −} is produced quickly in the two-body dissociation with the internal energy redistributions in different aspects before bond cleavages.

  13. Redirection of the Reaction Specificity of a Thermophilic Acetolactate Synthase toward Acetaldehyde Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cheng

    Full Text Available Acetolactate synthase and pyruvate decarboxylase are thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetolactate and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although the former are encoded in the genomes of many thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, the latter has been found only in mesophilic organisms. In this study, the reaction specificity of acetolactate synthase from Thermus thermophilus was redirected to catalyze acetaldehyde formation to develop a thermophilic pyruvate decarboxylase. Error-prone PCR and mutant library screening led to the identification of a quadruple mutant with 3.1-fold higher acetaldehyde-forming activity than the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the increased activity of the mutant was due to H474R amino acid substitution, which likely generated two new hydrogen bonds near the thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site. These hydrogen bonds might result in the better accessibility of H+ to the substrate-cofactor-enzyme intermediate and a shift in the reaction specificity of the enzyme.

  14. Impact of bioethanol fuel implementation in transport based on modelled acetaldehyde concentration in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvor, Ingrid; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2014-10-15

    This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the current situation in Oslo where one bus line is running with bioethanol (E95; 95% ethanol-5% petrol) among petrol and diesel vehicles; and 2) a hypothetical scenario characterized by a full implementation of high-blend bioethanol (i.e. E85) as fuel for transportation, and thus an entire bioethanol fleet. The results indicate that a full implementation of bioethanol will have a certain impact on urban air quality due to direct emissions of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde emissions are estimated to increase by 233% and concentration levels increase up to 650% with regard to the baseline.

  15. One-pot microbial synthesis of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside from glucose, acetaldehyde, and a nucleobase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Jun; Kawano, Takako; Sakai, Takafumi; Saito, Kyota; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Mie; Mikami, Yoichi; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2006-06-01

    A one-pot enzymatic synthesis of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside from glucose, acetaldehyde, and a nucleobase was established. Glycolysis by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) generated ATP which was used to produce D: -glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate production from glucose via fructose 1,6-diphosphate. The D: -glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate produced was transformed to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside via 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate and then 2-deoxyribose 1-phosphate in the presence of acetaldehyde and a nucleobase by deoxyriboaldolase, phosphopentomutase expressed in Escherichia coli, and a commercial nucleoside phosphorylase. About 33 mM 2'-deoxyinosine was produced from 600 mM glucose, 333 mM acetaldehyde and 100 mM adenine in 24 h. 2'-Deoxyinosine was produced from adenine due to the adenosine deaminase activity of E. coli transformants.

  16. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  17. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  18. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB. In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK. Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress.

  19. ALDH2 genotype has no effect on salivary acetaldehyde without the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Helminen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages was recently classified as carcinogenic (Group 1 to humans based on uniform epidemiological and biochemical evidence. ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficient alcohol consumers are exposed to high concentrations of salivary acetaldehyde and have an increased risk of upper digestive tract cancer. However, this interaction is not seen among ALDH2 deficient non-drinkers or rare drinkers, regardless of their smoking status or consumption of edibles containing ethanol or acetaldehyde. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of the ALDH2 genotype on the exposure to locally formed acetaldehyde via the saliva without ethanol ingestion. METHODS: The ALDH2 genotypes of 17 subjects were determined by PCR-RFLP. The subjects rinsed out their mouths with 5 ml of 40 vol% alcohol for 5 seconds. Salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were measured by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Acetaldehyde reached mutagenic levels rapidly and the exposure continued for up to 20 minutes. The mean salivary acetaldehyde concentrations did not differ between ALDH2 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: For ALDH2 deficient subjects, an elevated exposure to endogenously formed acetaldehyde requires the presence of ethanol in the systemic circulation. IMPACT: Our findings provide a logical explanation for how there is an increased incidence of upper digestive tract cancers among ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers, but not among those ALDH2 deficient subjects who are locally exposed to acetaldehyde without bloodborne ethanol being delivered to the saliva. Thus, ALDH2 deficient alcohol drinkers provide a human model for increased local exposure to acetaldehyde derived from the salivary glands.

  20. Adsorption of Chromium(VI from Aqueous Solutions by Coffee Polyphenol-Formaldehyde/Acetaldehyde Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudbudin Mulani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium(VI from wastewater is essential as it is toxic. Thus, removal of chromium(VI was performed using coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins as adsorbents. Adsorbent resins were prepared by condensation of decaffeinated coffee powder with formaldehyde/acetaldehyde and used for the removal of Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions. A simple and sensitive solid phase extraction procedure was applied for the determination of chromium at trace levels by spectroscopic method using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide reagent. The adsorption of Cr(VI on the coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins was monitored by FTIR and EDX analysis. The metal adsorption parameters such as contact time, pH, Cr(VI ion concentration, and adsorbent dose were investigated. For Cr(VI, the maximum adsorption capacity of coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde resins was 98% at pH 2. The experimental results showed that Cr(VI bound strongly with coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins and utilization of resins could be improved greatly by reuse.

  1. Sensory irritation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensory irritation of formaldehyde (FRM), acrolein (ACR) and acetaldehyde (ACE) as measured by the decrease in breathing frequency (DBF) was studied in male Wistar rats using nose-only exposure. Groups of four rats were exposed to each of the single compounds separately or to mixtures of FRM, ACR an

  2. Acetaldehyde behavior over platinum based catalyst in hydrogen stream generated by ethanol reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Lima, Adriana F.F. [Laboratorio de Catalise, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82/507, 20081-310 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica e INOG (Instituto Nacional de Oleo Gas), UERJ-CNPq, FAPERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colman, Rita C. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e de Petroleo, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Passos da Patria, 156/bl E/240, 24210-240 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Instituto de Quimica e INOG (Instituto Nacional de Oleo Gas), UERJ-CNPq, FAPERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); CETEM-MCT, Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-908 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Appel, Lucia G. [Laboratorio de Catalise, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82/507, 20081-310 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Due to the greenhouse effect, hydrogen production from bioethanol reforming is a very important subject in heterogeneous catalysis research. Pt based catalysts are employed in H{sub 2} purification processes and also as electrocatalysts of PEM (''Proton Exchange Membrane'') fuel cells. Hydrogen obtained from ethanol reforming may contain, as contaminants, acetaldehyde and small amounts of CO. This aldehyde can be decarbonylated on Pt based catalysts generating carbon monoxide and methane, rendering the hydrogen purification more challenging. Moreover, acetaldehyde might also change the electrocatalyst behavior. Therefore, this contribution aims at studying the acetaldehyde behavior in the presence of platinum based catalysts in hydrogen atmosphere. The Pt/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/USY catalysts and an electrocatalyst were characterized by n-butylamine, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption, ATG/DTG measurements and cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction. It was observed that the acid-basic properties of the supports promote condensation reactions. When in contact with Pt based catalysts, acetaldehyde undergoes C-C and C=O bond scissions. The former occurs at a wide range of temperatures, whereas the latter only at low temperatures (<200 C). The C-C bond scission (decarbonylation) produces methane and CO. The C=O bond scission generates carbon residues on the catalyst as well as oxygen species, which in turn is able to eliminate CO from the catalytic surface. The data also show that decarbonylation is not a structure-sensitive reaction. (author)

  3. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry.

  4. [Effect of pyrazole on the activity of acetaldehyde-producing enzymes in the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, D Iu; Gorenshteĭn, B I; Pyzhik, T N; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M

    1993-01-01

    Influence of pyrazole on the endogenous ethanol level and activities of acetaldehyde-producing enzymes was investigated. Drastic enhancement of the endogenous ethanol level in the blood and tissues was accompanied by an insignificant increase of phosphoethanolamine lyase activity, while activity of threonine aldolase and pyruvate dehydrogenase was unchanged.

  5. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFont

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (opioid peptides and receptors in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference. Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc, which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine. The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: 1 implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and 2 the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR.

  6. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Calcium Channels and Oxidative Stress Mediate a Synergistic Disruption of Tight Junctions by Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samak, Geetha; Gangwar, Ruchika; Meena, Avtar S; Rao, Roshan G; Shukla, Pradeep K; Manda, Bhargavi; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-12-13

    Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde in most tissues. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on the tight junction integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase sensitized Caco-2 cells to ethanol-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction, whereas aldehyde dehydrogenase attenuated acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption. Ethanol up to 150 mM did not affect tight junction integrity or barrier function, but it dose-dependently increased acetaldehyde-mediated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Src kinase and MLCK inhibitors blocked this synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde caused a rapid and synergistic elevation of intracellular calcium. Calcium depletion by BAPTA or Ca(2+)-free medium blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. Diltiazem and selective knockdown of TRPV6 or CaV1.3 channels, by shRNA blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde induced a rapid and synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species by a calcium-dependent mechanism. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cyclosporine A, blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. These results demonstrate that ethanol and acetaldehyde synergistically disrupt tight junctions by a mechanism involving calcium, oxidative stress, Src kinase and MLCK.

  8. Global atmospheric budget of acetaldehyde: 3-D model analysis and constraints from in-situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Millet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We construct a global atmospheric budget for acetaldehyde using a 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, and use an ensemble of observations to evaluate present understanding of its sources and sinks. Hydrocarbon oxidation provides the largest acetaldehyde source in the model (128 Tg a−1, a factor of 4 greater than the previous estimate, with alkanes, alkenes, and ethanol the main precursors. There is also a minor source from isoprene oxidation. We use an updated chemical mechanism for GEOS-Chem, and photochemical acetaldehyde yields are consistent with the Master Chemical Mechanism. We present a new approach to quantifying the acetaldehyde air-sea flux based on the global distribution of light absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM derived from satellite ocean color observations. The resulting net ocean emission is 57 Tg a−1, the second largest global source of acetaldehyde. A key uncertainty is the acetaldehyde turnover time in the ocean mixed layer, with quantitative model evaluation over the ocean complicated by known measurement artifacts in clean air. Simulated concentrations in surface air over the ocean generally agree well with aircraft measurements, though the model tends to overestimate the vertical gradient. PAN:NOx ratios are well-simulated in the marine boundary layer, providing some support for the modeled ocean source. We introduce the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1 for acetaldehyde and ethanol and use it to quantify their net flux from living terrestrial plants. Including emissions from decaying plants the total direct acetaldehyde source from the land biosphere is 23 Tg a−1. Other terrestrial acetaldehyde sources include biomass burning (3 Tg a−1 and anthropogenic emissions (2 Tg a−1. Simulated concentrations in the continental boundary layer are generally unbiased and capture the spatial

  9. The health- and addictive effectes due to exposure to aldehydes of cigarette smoke. Part 1; Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel I; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; van de Werken G; Stevenson H; van Aerts LAGJM; Vleeming W; LEO; LGM; LOC; CRV

    2003-01-01

    In deze literatuurstudie worden de gezondheids- en mogelijke verslavende effecten van blootstelling aan aldehyden ten gevolge van het roken van sigaretten beschreven. Dit literatuuronderzoek richt zich met name op acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrolein, en propionaldehyde. Alle aldehyden veroorzaken

  10. Modification of carbonic anhydrase II with acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, leads to decreased enzyme activity.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, can generate covalent modifications of proteins and cellular constituents. However, functional consequences of such modification remain poorly defined. In the present study, we examined acetaldehyde reaction with human carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozyme II, which has several features that make it a suitable target protein: It is widely expressed, its enzymatic activity can be monitored, its structural and catalytic properties are...

  11. The Nature of Acid-Catalyzed Acetalization Reaction of 1,2-Propylene Glycol and Acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chen; Chen, Hui; Li, Xia; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Baochen [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    We investigated catalytic activity of ion-exchange resins in acetalization of 1,2-propylene glycol with acetaldehyde. The impacts of reaction variables, such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst loading and feedstock composition, on the conversion of 1,2-propylene glycol were measured. The life of the catalyst was also studied. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of 1,2-propylene glycol acetalization was studied. It was found that reaction rate followed the first order kinetics to acetaldehyde and 1,2-propylene glycol, respectively. Therefore, overall acetalization reaction should follow the second-order reaction kinetics, expressed as r - kC{sup nA}{sub A}C{sup nB}{sub B} = 19.74e{sup -650/T}C{sup 1}{sub A}C{sup 1}{sub B}.

  12. Proton transfer reactions between nitric acid and acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde in the solid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Jérôme; Laffon, Carine; Parent, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    The heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions of acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde with solid nitric acid (HNO(3)) films have been studied with Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS) under Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) conditions in the 90-170 K temperature range. In the bulk or at the surface of the films, nitric acid transfers its proton to the carbonyl function of the organic molecules, producing protonated acetone-H(+), hydroxyacetone-H(+), acetaldehyde-H(+) and benzaldehyde-H(+), and nitrate anions NO(3)(-), a reaction not observed when nitric acid is previously hydrated [J. Lasne, C. Laffon and Ph. Parent, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 697]. This provides a molecular-scale description of the carbonyl protonation reaction in an acid medium, the first step of the acid-catalyzed condensation of carbonyl compounds, fuelling the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere.

  13. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-01-01

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetald...

  14. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and 5 acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone 10 over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass mo15 tion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  15. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  16. Improvement of visible light photocatalytic acetaldehyde decomposition of bismuth vanadate/silica nanocomposites by cocatalyst loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Naoya; Takebe, Naohiro; Tsubota, Toshiki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensuicho, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Ohno, Teruhisa, E-mail: tohno@che.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensuicho, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic activity of BiVO{sub 4} was improved by nanocomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica addition enhanced activity due to improvement of adsorption ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loading of trivalent iron ion or platinum as cocatalysts increased activity. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) for acetaldehyde decomposition under visible light irradiation was improved by inclusion of a nanocomposition of silica as an adsorbent material and loading of platinum (Pt) or trivalent iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) as reduction cocatalysts. Addition of silica enhanced photocatalytic activity due to improvement of adsorption ability, but total decomposition of acetaldehyde was not observed within 24 h of visible light irradiation. For further improvement of photocatalytic activity, BiVO{sub 4} with an optimized amount of silica composition were modified with Pt or Fe{sup 3+}. Photodeposition of Pt greatly increased photocatalytic activity, and acetaldehyde was totally decomposed within 24 h of visible light irradiation.

  17. Vertical fluxes and atmospheric cycling of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in a coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here vertical fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone measured directly with eddy covariance (EC during March to July 2012 near the southwest coast of the UK. The performance of the proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS for flux measurement is characterized, with additional considerations given to the homogeneity and stationarity assumptions required by EC. Concentrations and fluxes of these compounds vary significantly with time of day and wind direction. Higher values of acetaldehyde and acetone are usually observed in the daytime and from the direction of a forested park, most likely due to light-driven emissions from terrestrial plants. Methanol concentration and flux do not demonstrate clear diel variability, suggesting sources in addition to plants. We estimate air–sea exchange and photochemical rates of these compounds, which are compared to measured vertical fluxes. For acetaldehyde, the mean (1σ concentration of 0.13 (0.02 ppb at night may be maintained by oceanic emission, while photochemical destruction outpaces production during the day. Air-sea exchange and photochemistry are probably net sinks of methanol and acetone in this region. Their nighttime concentrations of 0.46 (0.20 and 0.39 (0.08 ppb appear to be affected more by terrestrial emissions and long distance transport, respectively.

  18. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  19. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  20. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol. PMID:26788255

  1. Sustainable production of acetaldehyde from lactic acid over the carbon catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Congming; Peng, Jiansheng; Li, Xinli; Zhai, Zhanjie; Gao, Hejun; Liao, Yunwen [China West Normal University, Nanchong (China); Bai, Wei; Jiang, Ning [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China)

    2016-01-15

    The synthesis of acetaldehyde from lactic acid over the carbon material catalysts was investigated. The carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy for morphologic features, by X-ray diffraction for crystal phases, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional group structures, by N2 sorption for specific surface area and by ammonia temperature-programed desorption for acidity, respectively. Among the tested carbon catalysts, mesoporous carbon displayed the most excellent catalytic performance. By acidity analysis, the medium acidity is a crucial factor for catalytic performance: more medium acidity favored the formation of acetaldehyde from lactic acid. To verify, we compared the catalytic performance of fresh activated carbon with that of the activated carbon treated by nitric acid. Similarly, the modified activated carbon also displayed better activity due to a drastic increase of medium acidity amount. However, in contrast to fresh carbon nanotube, the treated sample displayed worse activity due to decrease of medium acidity amount. The effect of reaction temperature and time on stream on the catalytic performance was also investigated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, 100% lactic acid conversion and 91.6% acetaldehyde selectivity were achieved over the mesoporous carbon catalyst.

  2. Synthesis of nanoporous carbohydrate metal-organic framework and encapsulation of acetaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Saleh; Kathuria, Ajay; Abiad, Mohamad; Auras, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Gamma cyclodextrin (γ-CD) metal organic frameworks (CDMOFs) were synthesized by coordinating γ-CDs with potassium hydroxide (KOH), referred hereafter as CDMOF-a, and potassium benzoate (C7H5KO2), denoted as CDMOF-b. The obtained CDMOF structures were characterized using nitrogen sorption isotherm, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High surface areas were achieved by the γ-CD based MOF structures where the Langmuir specific surface areas (SSA) of CDMOF-a and CDMOF-b were determined as 1376 m2 g-1 and 607 m2 g-1; respectively. The dehydrated CDMOF structures demonstrated good thermal stability up to 250 °C as observed by the TGA studies. XRD results for CDMOF-a and CDMOF-b reveal a body centered-cubic (BCC) and trigonal crystal system; respectively. Due to its accessible porous structure and high surface area, acetaldehyde was successfully encapsulated in CDMOF-b. During the release kinetic studies, we observed peak release of 53 μg of acetaldehyde per g of CDMOF-b, which was 100 times greater than previously reported encapsulation in β-CD. However, aldol condensation reaction occurred during encapsulation of acetaldehyde into CDMOF-a. This research work demonstrates the potential to encapsulate volatile organic compounds in CDMOF-b, and their associated release for applications including food, pharmaceuticals and packaging.

  3. Pretreatment of rice straw using a butanone or an acetaldehyde dilute solution explosion for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue-Hong; Zhong, Xia; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Kida, Kenji; Deng, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Ethanol conversion from rice straw using butanone and acetaldehyde dilute solution explosions was evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried and investigated at different temperature. Using a 0.9-mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion pressure set at 3.1 MPa, the residence time at 7 min, the dried rice straw-to-water ratio at 1:3 (w/w), and the exploded slurry drying temperuture at 90 °C for 8 h, the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 85%, 88%, 82% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol productivity was 26.0 g/100 g rice straw dry matter. Moreover, 0.5-mol/L acetaldehyde dilute solution explosion improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), and the residual inhibitors had negligible effects on EH and SSCF after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of butanone and of acetaldehyde dilute solution explosions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield, although relative crystallinity of the rice straw dry matter was increased after the explosion.

  4. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  5. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  6. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Kinetics of Visible-Light Response N-Doped TiO2 Nanocatalyst for Indoor Acetaldehyde Removal under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the removal nature of the indoor volatile organic compounds under realistic environment conditions would give clear guidance for the development of air purification devices. The study investigated the removal of indoor acetaldehyde using visible-light-responsive N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation (light and in the absence of light (dark. The adsorption kinetics of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 followed a pseudo-second-order model. The magnitude of acetaldehyde adsorption is proportional to temperature, and the results were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the effect of initial acetaldehyde concentration and visible-light intensity on the photooxidation of acetaldehyde was well described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Results show that the mesoporous N-TiO2 catalyst had a high ability to absorb acetaldehyde in the dark condition, and then acetaldehyde was subsequently photooxidized under visible-light irradiation. The adsorption capacity was found to increase with decreasing temperature. The negative value of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔS° indicate that the adsorption of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 was a spontaneous process. Finally, a reaction scheme for removal process of indoor acetaldehyde by N-TiO2 was proposed.

  7. Biochemical characterization of a bifunctional acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase purified from a facultative anaerobic bacterium Citrobacter sp. S-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kohsei; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) is a bifunctional enzyme consisting of two domains of an N-terminal acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and a C-terminal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The enzyme is known to be important in the cellular alcohol metabolism. However, the role of coenzyme A-acylating ADHE responsible for ethanol production from acetyl-CoA remains uncertain. Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of an ADHE from Citrobacter sp. S-77 (ADHE(S77)). Interestingly, the ADHE(S77) was unable to be solubilized from membrane with detergents either 1% Triton X-100 or 1% Sulfobetaine 3-12. However, the enzyme was easily dissociated from membrane by high-salt buffers containing either 1.0 M NaCl or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) without detergents. The molecular weight of a native protein was estimated as approximately 400 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 96.3 kDa. Based on the specific activity and kinetic analysis, the ADHES77 tended to have catalytic reaction towards acetaldehyde elimination rather than acetaldehyde formation. Our experimental observation suggests that the ADHES77 may play a pivotal role in modulating intracellular acetaldehyde concentration.

  8. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Shape-Controlled CeO2 Nanocrystals: Elucidation of Structure-function Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Amanda K [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL; Calaza, Florencia [Max Planck Society, Fritz Haber Institute; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    CeO2 cubes with {100} facets, octahedra with {111} facets, and wires with highly defective structures were utilized to probe the structure-dependent reactivity of acetaldehyde. Using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed surface reactions (TPSR), and in situ infrared spectroscopy it was found that acetaldehyde desorbs unreacted or undergoes reduction, coupling, or C-C bond scission reactions depending on the surface structure of CeO2. Room temperature FTIR indicates that acetaldehyde binds primarily as 1-acetaldehyde on the octahedra, in a variety of conformations on the cubes, including coupling products and acetate and enolate species, and primarily as coupling products on the wires. The percent consumption of acetaldehyde follows the order of wires > cubes > octahedra. All the nanoshapes produce the coupling product crotonaldehyde; however, the selectivity to produce ethanol follows the order wires cubes >> octahedra. The selectivity and other differences can be attributed to the variation in the basicity of the surfaces, defects densities, coordination numbers of surface atoms, and the reducibility of the nanoshapes.

  9. Influence of pyruvate, threonine and phosphoethanolamine on activities of some acetaldehyde-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, D; Gorenshtein, B; Pyzhik, T; Ostrovsky, Y u

    1993-07-01

    Threonine (50 mg/100 g, i.p.) leads to increased hepatic threonine aldolase activity in rats, although endogenous ethanol concentrations remain stable. After pyruvate administration (50 mg/100 g, i.p.), endogenous blood ethanol levels are raised within 30 min, but return to normal at 60 min. The activity of threonine aldolase is decreased in the liver, whereas phosphoethanolamine lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities remain unchanged. Phosphoethanolamine administration (23 mg/100 g, i.p.) did not change the endogenous ethanol concentration or pyruvate dehydrogenase, threonine aldolase and phosphoethanolamine lyase activities. Pyruvate appears to be a better precursor of acetaldehyde than threonine or phosphoethanolamine.

  10. The (impossible?) formation of acetaldehyde on the grain surfaces: insights from quantum chemical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Enrique-Romero, Joan; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Balucani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, it is not clear whether their synthesis occurs on the icy surfaces of interstellar grains or via a series of gas-phase reactions. As a test case of the COMs synthesis in the ISM, we present new quantum chemical calculations on the formation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) from the coupling of the HCO and CH3 radicals, both in gas phase and on water ice surfaces. The binding energies of HCO and CH3 on the amorphous water ice were also computed (2333 and 734 K, respectively). Results indicate that, in gas phase, the products could be either CH3CHO, CH4 + CO, or CH3OCH, depending on the relative orientation of the two radicals. However, on the amorphous water ice, only the CH4 + CO product is possible due to the geometrical constraints imposed by the water ice surface. Therefore, acetaldehyde cannot be synthesized by the CH3 + HCO coupling on the icy grains. We discuss the implications of these results and other cases, such a...

  11. Shock Tube Measurement for the Dissociation Rate Constant of Acetaldehyde Using Sensitive CO Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Davidson, David F; Hanson, Ronald K

    2016-09-08

    The rate constant of acetaldehyde thermal dissociation, CH3CHO = CH3 + HCO, was measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1273-1618 K and pressures near 1.6 and 0.34 atm. The current measurement utilized sensitive CO diagnostics to track the dissociation of CH3CHO via oxygen atom balance and inferred the title rate constant (k1) from CO time histories obtained in pyrolysis experiments of 1000 and 50 ppm of CH3CHO/Ar mixtures. By using dilute test mixtures, the current study successfully suppressed the interferences from secondary reactions and directly determined the title rate constant as k1(1.6 atm) = 1.1 × 10(14) exp(-36 700 K/T) s(-1) over 1273-1618 K and k1(0.34 atm) = 5.5 × 10(12) exp(-32 900 K/T) s(-1) over 1377-1571 K, with 2σ uncertainties of approximately ±30% for both expressions. Example simulations of existing reaction mechanisms updated with the current values of k1 demonstrated substantial improvements with regards to the acetaldehyde pyrolysis chemistry.

  12. Computational studies of the isomerization and hydration reactions of acetaldehyde oxide and methyl vinyl carbonyl oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Keith T; Hermes, Matthew R; Carlson, Matthew J; Zogg, Cheryl K

    2010-09-02

    Alkene ozonolysis is a major source of hydroxyl radical (*OH), the most important oxidant in the troposphere. Previous experimental and computational work suggests that for many alkenes the measured *OH yields should be attributed to the combined impact of both chemically activated and thermalized syn-alkyl Criegee intermediates (CIs), even though the thermalized CI should be susceptible to trapping by molecules such as water. We have used RRKM/master equation and variational transition state theory calculations to quantify the competition between unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular hydration reactions for the syn and anti acetaldehyde oxide formed in trans-2-butene ozonolysis and for the CIs formed in isoprene ozonolysis possessing syn-methyl groups. Statistical rate theory calculations were based on quantum chemical data provided by the B3LYP, QCISD, and multicoefficient G3 methods, and thermal rate constants were corrected for tunneling effects using the Eckart method. At tropospheric temperatures and pressures, all thermalized CIs with syn-methyl groups are predicted to undergo 1,4-hydrogen shifts from 2 to 8 orders of magnitude faster than they react with water monomer at its saturation number density. For thermalized anti acetaldehyde oxide, the rates of dioxirane formation and hydration should be comparable.

  13. Astrochemistry at work in the L1157-B1 shock: acetaldehyde formation

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Ceccarelli, C; Podio, L; Viti, S; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Lefloch, B

    2014-01-01

    The formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in protostellar environments is a hotly debated topic. In particular, the relative importance of the gas phase processes as compared to a direct formation of COMs on the dust grain surfaces is so far unknown. We report here the first high-resolution images of acetaldehyde (CH$_3$CHO) emission towards the chemically rich protostellar shock L1157-B1, obtained at 2 mm with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. Six blueshifted CH$_3$CHO lines with $E_{\\rm u}$ = 26-35 K have been detected. The acetaldehyde spatial distribution follows the young ($\\sim$ 2000 yr) outflow cavity produced by the impact of the jet with the ambient medium, indicating that this COM is closely associated with the region enriched by iced species evaporated from dust mantles and released into the gas phase. A high CH$_3$CHO relative abundance, 2-3 $\\times$ 10$^{-8}$, is inferred, similarly to what found in hot-corinos. Astrochemical modelling indicates that gas phase reactions can produce...

  14. The (impossible?) formation of acetaldehyde on the grain surfaces: insights from quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique-Romero, J.; Rimola, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Balucani, N.

    2016-06-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, it is not clear whether their synthesis occurs on the icy surfaces of interstellar grains or via a series of gas-phase reactions. As a test case of the COMs synthesis in the ISM, we present new quantum chemical calculations on the formation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) from the coupling of the HCO and CH3 radicals, both in gas phase and on water ice surfaces. The binding energies of HCO and CH3 on the amorphous water ice were also computed (2333 and 734 K, respectively). Results indicate that, in gas phase, the products could be either CH3CHO, CH4 + CO, or CH3OCH, depending on the relative orientation of the two radicals. However, on the amorphous water ice, only the CH4 + CO product is possible due to the geometrical constraints imposed by the water ice surface. Therefore, acetaldehyde cannot be synthesized by the CH3 + HCO coupling on the icy grains. We discuss the implications of these results and other cases, such as ethylene glycol and dimethyl ether, in which similar situations can occur, suggesting that formation of these molecules on the grain surfaces might be unlikely.

  15. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB. Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs. Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption.

  16. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-03-10

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption.

  17. Experimental and modeling study of the oxidation of acetaldehyde in an atmospheric-pressure pulsed corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, C.; Touchard, S.; Vega-Gonzalez, A.; Redolfi, M.; Bonnin, X.; Hassouni, K.; Duten, X.

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results obtained for the degradation of acetaldehyde by an atmospheric plasma corona discharge working in a pulsed regime. It was shown that a few hundred ppm of acetaldehyde diluted in a pure N2 gas flow can be removed up to 80% by a discharge fed with an electric power lower than 1 W. Under the same conditions, adding up to 5% of O2 allowed the removal of up to 95% of the initial acetaldehyde. The main identified end products were CO2, CO and methanol. A quasi-homogeneous zero-dimensional chemical model was developed to investigate the respective efficiency of the discharge and post-discharge periods in the global removal of the pollutant. The identified main pathways of acetaldehyde degradation were quenching of N2 metastable states during plasma pulses and oxidation by O and OH radicals during the post-discharge. This latter contribution increased with input power because of ozone accumulation in the gas mixture acting as an additional oxygen reservoir.

  18. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a mino...

  19. The health- and addictive effectes due to exposure to aldehydes of cigarette smoke. Part 1; Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; LEO; LGM; LOC; CRV

    2003-01-01

    In the desk study presented here, health effects and possible addictive effects of aldehyde exposure due to cigarette smoking are discussed. In the light of currently available literature the health effects of exposure to acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrolein and propionaldehyde were assessed. All al

  20. Changes in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed by inhalation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are well-known upper respiratory tract irritants and occur simultaneously as pollutants in many indoor and outdoor environments. The upper respiratory tract, and especially the nose, is the prime target for inhaled aldehydes. To study possible additive or int

  1. Activation of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Factor Snail Mediated Acetaldehyde-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elamin, E.; Masclee, A.; Troost, F.; Dekker, J.; Jonkers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Acetaldehyde (AcH) is mutagenic and can reach high concentrations in colonic lumen after ethanol consumption and is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction and an increased risk of progressive cancers, including colorectal carcinoma. Snail, the transcription factor of epithelial-

  2. Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by acetaldehyde in human intestinal LS174T goblet-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elamin, E.; Masclee, A.; Troost, F.; Dekker, J.; Jonkers, D.

    2014-01-01

    There is compelling evidence indicating that ethanol and its oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde can disrupt intestinal barrier function. Apart from the tight junctions, mucins secreted by goblet cells provide an effective barrier. Ethanol has been shown to induce goblet cell injury associated with al

  3. Kinetic analysis on photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on nanosized porous TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sopyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia on highly active nanostructured-anatase and rutile films were investigated. It was found that the anatase film showed a higher photocatalytic activity than the counterpart did, however, the magnitude of difference in the photocatalytic activity of both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide. To elucidate the reasons for the observation, the adsorption characteristics and the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of the three reactants on both films were analyzed. The adsorption analysis examined using a simple Langmuir isotherm, showed that adsorbability on both films decreased in the order ammonia>acetaldehyde>hydrogen sulfide, which can be explained in terms of the decreasing electron-donor capacity. Acetaldehyde and ammonia adsorbed more strongly and with higher coverage on anatase film (1.2 and 5.6 molecules/nm2, respectively than on rutile (0.6 and 4.7 molecules/nm2, respectively. Conversely, hydrogen sulfide molecules adsorbed more strongly on rutile film (0.7 molecules/nm2 than on anatase (0.4 molecules/nm2. Exposure to UV light illumination brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of the three gases in contact with both TiO2 films, and the decrease in concentration were measured, and their kinetics are analyzed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. From the kinetic analysis, it was found that the anatase film showed the photocatalytic activities that were factors of ~8 and ~5 higher than the rutile film for the degradation of gaseous ammonia and acetaldehyde, respectively. However, the activity was only a factor of ~1.5 higher for the photodegradation of hydrogen sulfide. These observations are systematically explained by the charge separation efficiency and the adsorption characteristics of each catalyst as well as by the physical and electrochemical properties of each

  4. Brain Acetaldehyde Exposure Impacts upon Neonatal Respiratory Plasticity and Ethanol-Related Learning in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María B.; D'Aloisio, Génesis; Haymal, Olga B.; Molina, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that neonates are very sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects and to its depressant effects upon breathing. Acetaldehyde (ACD) appears to play a major role in terms of modulating early reinforcing effects of the drug. Yet, there is no pre-existing literature relative to the incidence of this metabolite upon respiratory plasticity. The present study analyzed physiological and behavioral effects of early central administrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde or vehicle. Respiration rates (breaths/min) were registered at post-natal days (PDs) 2 and 4 (post-administration time: 5, 60, or 120 min). At PD5, all pups were placed in a context (plethysmograph) where they had previously experienced the effects of central administrations and breathing patterns were recorded. Following this test, pups were evaluated using and operant conditioning procedure where ethanol or saccharin served as positive reinforcers. Body temperatures were also registered prior to drug administrations as well as at the beginning and the end of each specific evaluation. Across days, breathing responses were high at the beginning of the evaluation session and progressively declined as a function of the passage of time. At PDs 2 and 4, shortly after central administration (5 min), ACD exerted a significant depression upon respiration frequencies. At PD5, non-intoxicated pups with a prior history of ACD central administrations, exhibited a marked increase in respiratory frequencies; a result that probably indicates a conditioned compensatory response. When operant testing procedures were conducted, prior ethanol or ACD central administrations were found to reduce the reinforcing effects of ethanol. This was not the case when saccharin was employed as a reinforcer. As a whole, the results indicate a significant role of central ACD upon respiratory plasticity of the neonate and upon ethanol's reinforcing effects; phenomena that affect the physiological integrity of the

  5. Acetaldehyde as an underestimated risk factor for cancer development: role of genetics in ethanol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a strong risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the large intestine and the female breast. Multiple mechanisms are involved in alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Among those the action of acetaldehyde (AA), the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation is of particular interest. AA is toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments. AA binds to DNA and forms carcinogenic adducts. Direct evidence of the role of AA in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis derived from genetic linkage studies in alcoholics. Polymorphisms or mutations of genes coding for AA generation or detoxifying enzymes resulting in elevated AA concentrations are associated with increased cancer risk. Approximately 40% of Japanese, Koreans or Chinese carry the AA dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele in its heterozygous form. This allele codes for an ALDH2 enzyme with little activity leading to high AA concentrations after the consumption of even small amounts of alcohol. When individuals with this allele consume ethanol chronically, a significant increased risk for upper alimentary tract and colorectal cancer is noted. In Caucasians, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 (ADH1C*1) allele encodes for an ADH isoenzyme which produces 2.5 times more AA than the corresponding allele ADH1C*2. In studies with moderate to high alcohol intake, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colon and the female breast. These studies underline the important role of acetaldehyde in ethanol-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19847467

  6. Acetonitrile and N-Chloroacetamide Formation from the Reaction of Acetaldehyde and Monochloramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Susana Y; Vu, Trang Nha; Komaki, Yukako; Plewa, Michael J; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-08-18

    Nitriles and amides are two classes of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with chloramination that are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated DBPs. Monochloramine reacts with acetaldehyde, a common ozone and free chlorine disinfection byproduct, to form 1-(chloroamino)ethanol. Equilibrium (K1) and forward and reverse rate (k1,k-1) constants for the reaction between initial reactants and 1-(chloroamino)ethanol were determined between 2 and 30 °C. Activation energies for k1 and k-1 were 3.04 and 45.2 kJ·mol(-1), respectively, and enthalpy change for K1 was -42.1 kJ·mol(-1). In parallel reactions, 1-(chloroamino)ethanol (1) slowly dehydrated (k2) to (chloroimino)ethane that further decomposed to acetonitrile and (2) was oxidized (k3) by monochloramine to produce N-chloroacetamide. Both reactions were acid/base catalyzed, and rate constants were characterized at 10, 18, and 25 °C. Modeling for drinking water distribution system conditions showed that N-chloroacetamide and acetonitrile concentrations were 5-9 times higher at pH 9.0 compared to 7.8. Furthermore, acetonitrile concentration was found to form 7-10 times higher than N-chloroacetamide under typical monochloramine and acetaldehyde concentrations. N-chloroacetamide cytotoxicity (LC50 = 1.78 × 10(-3) M) was comparable to dichloroacetamide and trichloroacetamide, but less potent than N,2-dichloroacetamide and chloroacetamide. While N-chloroacetamide was not found to be genotoxic, N,2-dichloroacetamide genotoxic potency (5.19 × 10(-3) M) was on the same order of magnitude as chloroacetamide and trichloroacetamide.

  7. Gibbs energy of activation for thermal isomerization of (1Z)-acetaldehyde hydrazone and (1Z)-acetaldehyde N,N-dimethylhydrazone by Gaussian-4 theory and CCSD(T)/CBS computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shih-I

    2009-11-15

    In this article, we examined the Gibbs energy of activation for the Z/E thermal isomerization reaction of (1Z)-acetaldehyde hydrazone and (1Z)-acetaldehyde N,N-dimethylhydrazone, at 298.15 K in the solvent of cyclohexane. We carried out computations employing both the Gaussian-4 (G4) theory and the coupled cluster method using both single and double substitutions and triple excitations noniteratively, CCSD(T). The CCSD(T) energy is extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS). We compared the calculated results to the available experimental observation. It appeared that both G4 and CCSD(T)/CBS computations overestimated the experimental value by as much as about 6 and 12 kcal/mol in the present two cases. We discussed possible sources of error and proposed the experimental kinetic data could be questionable.

  8. Synthesis and Characterisation of Porous Titania-Silica Composite Aerogel for NO(x) and Acetaldehyde Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Young; Park, Se Min; Kim, Jong Beom; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Shahid, Mohammad; Kim, Geon-Joong; Shon, Ho Kyong; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the synthesis of porous titania-silica (TiO2-SiO2) composite aerogel at ambient pressure by using non-hazardous chemicals as a source of silica was investigated. TiO2-SiO2 composite aerogels were characterised and their photocatalytic performances were investigated for the removal efficiency of acetaldehyde and NO(x) under UV light. Results showed that porous composite aerogel with aggregated morphology, high surface area and an increased mesoporosity were formed. TiO2-SiO2(1.8) composite, with high Ti/Si ratio, showed the best results in terms of photocatalytic removal of acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxide.

  9. On apparent quantized transition-state thresholds in the photofragmentation of acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Rollin A. [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2525 (United States); Allen, Wesley D. [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2525 (United States); Schaefer, Henry F. III [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2525 (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Recent photofragmentation experiments have observed stepwise increases in the dissociation rate for CH{sub 3}CHO (T{sub 1}){yields}CH{sub 3} (X(tilde sign) {sup 2}A{sub 2}{sup ''})+HCO (X(tilde sign) {sup 2}A{sup '}) as a function of excitation energy. In accord with the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) form of transition-state theory, these steps were interpreted as corresponding to vibrational levels of the fragmentation transition state on the triplet surface. We have investigated this acetaldehyde dissociation using coupled cluster (CC) and density functional (DFT) methods with [C,O/H] atomic-orbital basis sets ranging in quality from [4s2p1d/2s1p] to [6s5p4d3f2g1h/5s4p3d2 f1g]. A high-level focal point analysis, along with harmonic force field computations, results in predictions of the dissociation energy, D{sub 0}=1583 cm{sup -1}, and the association barrier height, V{sub 0}{sup *}=3149 cm{sup -1}. With a basis set of triple-{zeta} plus double-polarization plus f(TZ2Pf ) quality, the DFT method UB3LYP and the CC method RCCSD predict barrier frequencies of 355i cm{sup -1} and 516i cm{sup -1}, respectively, while the empirical value inferred from RRKM models is only 60i cm{sup -1}. The RRKM-derived frequencies for the degrees of freedom orthogonal to the reaction path are more reasonable but still not in convincing agreement with electronic structure theory. Thus, while the experimental steps in the dissociation rate of acetaldehyde (as well as ketene) have yet to be satisfactorily explained, proven ab initio methods provide strong evidence that simple RRKM fits to the k(E) profile provide misleading vibrational frequencies of the transition state on the corresponding triplet potential energy surface. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse: insight into AM281 administration on operant-conflict paradigm in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio ePlescia; Anna eBrancato; Rosa Anna Maria eMarino; Carla eCannizzaro

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde (ACD) as the mediator of the rewarding and motivational properties of ethanol. Indeed, ACD stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and it is self-administered under different conditions. Besides the dopaminergic transmission, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to play an important role in ethanol central effects, modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug-seeking and relapse behaviour. Drug motivational properties are h...

  11. Rapid and sensitive method for the determination of acetaldehyde in fuel ethanol by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saczk, Adelir Aparecida; Okumura, Leonardo Luiz; Firmino de Oliveira, Marcelo; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice; Ramos Stradiotto, Nelson [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Quitandinha, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2005-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of acetaldehyde in fuel ethanol was developed. Acetaldehyde was derivatized with 0.900 mL 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPHi) reagent and 50 {mu}L phosphoric acid 1 mol L{sup -1} at a controlled room temperature of 15 C for 20 min. The separation of acetaldehyde-DNPH (ADNPH) was carried out on a Shimadzu Shim-pack C{sub 18} column, using methanol/LiCl{sub (aq)} 1.0 mM (80/20, v/v) as a mobile phase under isocratic elution and UV-Vis detection at 365 nm. The standard curve of ADNPH was linear in the range 3-300 mg L{sup -1} per injection (20 {mu}L) and the limit of detection (LOD) for acetaldehyde was 2.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999 and a precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) of 5.6% (n=5). Recovery studies were performed by fortifying fuel samples with acetaldehyde at various concentrations and the results were in the range 98.7-102%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) from 0.2% to 7.2%. Several fuel samples collected from various gas stations were analyzed and the method was successfully applied to the analysis of acetaldehyde in fuel ethanol samples. (orig.)

  12. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ∼0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

  13. Taraxerone enhances alcohol oxidation via increases of alcohol dehyderogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and gene expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chang-Keun; Kim, Seung-Mi; Oh, Chang-Jin; Yang, Sun-A; Han, Byung-Hee; Mo, Eun-Kyoung

    2012-07-01

    The present study, taraxerone (d-friedoolean-14-en-3-one) was isolated from Sedum sarmentosum with purity 96.383%, and its enhancing effects on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities were determined: EC(50) values were 512.42 ± 3.12 and 500.16 ± 3.23 μM for ADH and ALDH, respectively. In order to obtain more information on taraxerone related with the alcohol metabolism, 40% ethanol (5 mL/kg body weight) with 0.5-1mM of taraxerone were administered to mice. The plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations of taraxerone-treated groups were significantly lowered than those of the control group (p<0.01): approximately 20-67% and 7-57% lowered for plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde, respectively. Compare to the control group, the ADH and ALDH expressions in the liver tissues were abruptly increased in the taraxerone-treated groups after ethanol exposure. In addition, taraxerone prevented catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione concentrations from the decrease induced by ethanol administration with the concentration dependent manner.

  14. Simple and rapid gas-liquid-solid chromatographic analysis of trace concentrations of acetaldehyde in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Y

    1977-07-21

    A simple and rapid gas-liquid-solid chromatographic method for the analysis of trace concentrations of acetaldehyde in urban air (in the Nagoya area) was developed, with the use of cold trapping with liquid oxygen. In the analytical main column the conditions were: stationary phase, Triton X-100 (0.4%); support, Carbopack B (60-80 mesh); glass column, 1.5 m X 3 mm I.D.; column temperature, 75 degrees; carrier gas (nitrogen) flow-rate, 50-80 ml/min. In the cold trapping pre-column the conditions were: stationary phase, Tris (2-cyanoethoxy) propane (25%); support, Shimalite (AW, DMCS) (60-80 mesh); glass column, 31 cm X 4 mm I.D.; operating temperature for the trapping, -183 degrees (liquid oxygen temperature); operating temperature for injection of the condensed sample into the gas chromatograph, increased from -183 degrees to +100 degrees for 2 min. The acetaldehyde peak was identified by the disappearance method with a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-orthophosphoric acid-glass beads column. The ranges and average concentrations of acetaldehyde detected in 13 urban air samples were 1.5-9.6 and 4.7 ppb, respectively.

  15. Quantification of trace levels of the potential cancer biomarkers formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanol in breath by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, has been increased such that it is now possible to detect metabolites present at a part-per-billion, ppb, level in single breath exhalations. However, to utilize this improved sensitivity, the overlaps (coincidences) of those ions resulting from interfering reactions of impurity precursor ions with some breath metabolites present at higher concentrations with the analytical product ions characteristic of particular metabolites must be accounted for. In this paper, the full reaction schemes are presented for SIFT-MS analyses of three volatile potential cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath, namely formaldehyde, HCHO, acetaldehyde, CH(3)CHO and 2-propanol, CH(3)CH(OH)CH(3), which identify both the characteristic SIFT-MS product ions for these compounds and the interfering ions at the same mass-to-charge, m/z, values. An absolute quantification equation accounting for these interferences is formulated and appropriate entries into the SIFT-MS kinetics library are indicated. It is shown that when using H(3)O(+) to quantify formaldehyde and acetaldehyde the reactions of impurity O(2)(+) ions with methanol and ethanol (always present in breath) must be accounted for and that the quantification of acetaldehyde must avoid the interference of the CO(2) present in exhaled breath. Finally, it is indicated that the analysis of 2-propanol can be achieved using both H(3)O(+) and NO(+) precursor ions.

  16. Acetaldehyde, Motivation and Stress: Behavioral Evidence of an Addictive ménage à trois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) contributes to alcohol's psychoactive effects through its own rewarding properties. Recent studies shed light on the behavioral correlates of ACD administration and the possible interactions with key neurotransmitters for motivation, reward and stress-related response, such as dopamine and endocannabinoids. This mini review article critically examines ACD psychoactive properties, focusing on behavioral investigations able to unveil ACD motivational effects and their pharmacological modulation in vivo. Similarly to alcohol, rats spontaneously drink ACD, whose presence is detected in the brain following chronic self-administration paradigm. ACD motivational properties are demonstrated by operant paradigms tailored to model several drug-related behaviors, such as induction and maintenance of operant self-administration, extinction, relapse and punishment resistance. ACD-related addictive-like behaviors are sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and endocannabinoid signaling. Interestingly, the ACD-dopamine-endocannabinoids relationship also contributes to neuroplastic alterations of the NPYergic system, a stress-related peptide critically involved in alcohol abuse. The understanding of the ménage-a-trois among ACD, reward- and stress-related circuits holds promising potential for the development of novel pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing alcohol abuse.

  17. Atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at the campus University of Hiroshima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Naomi Nomi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO were measured at Hiroshima (Japan during spring and summer of 2005. Measurements of O3, NOx, and SO2 were simultaneously conducted, in an attempt to identify temporal profiles and sources for these aldehydes. Atmospheric aldehydes were collected using C18 silica gel cartridges coated with an acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection adjusted to 360 nm. Summer concentrations were higher than spring levels. FA concentrations during spring period ranged from 0.50 to 1.05 ppb and AA concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 1.31 ppb; during summer their concentrations ranged from 1.55 to 4.12 ppb and 0. 34 to 2.03 ppb. Average FA/AA in spring and summer were 3.09 and 3.72 suggesting biogenic emissions of aldehydes. The levels of FA and AA, their temporal variations, and their concentration ratio (FA/AA indicated that photochemical reactions contributed significantly to the formation of atmospheric aldehydes at the study site.

  18. Hypersensitivities for acetaldehyde and other agents among cancer cells null for clinically relevant Fanconi anemia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soma; Sur, Surojit; Yerram, Sashidhar R; Rago, Carlo; Bhunia, Anil K; Hossain, M Zulfiquer; Paun, Bogdan C; Ren, Yunzhao R; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Azad, Nilofer A; Kern, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Large-magnitude numerical distinctions (>10-fold) among drug responses of genetically contrasting cancers were crucial for guiding the development of some targeted therapies. Similar strategies brought epidemiological clues and prevention goals for genetic diseases. Such numerical guides, however, were incomplete or low magnitude for Fanconi anemia pathway (FANC) gene mutations relevant to cancer in FANC-mutation carriers (heterozygotes). We generated a four-gene FANC-null cancer panel, including the engineering of new PALB2/FANCN-null cancer cells by homologous recombination. A characteristic matching of FANCC-null, FANCG-null, BRCA2/FANCD1-null, and PALB2/FANCN-null phenotypes was confirmed by uniform tumor regression on single-dose cross-linker therapy in mice and by shared chemical hypersensitivities to various inter-strand cross-linking agents and γ-radiation in vitro. Some compounds, however, had contrasting magnitudes of sensitivity; a strikingly high (19- to 22-fold) hypersensitivity was seen among PALB2-null and BRCA2-null cells for the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, associated with widespread chromosomal breakage at a concentration not producing breaks in parental cells. Because FANC-defective cancer cells can share or differ in their chemical sensitivities, patterns of selective hypersensitivity hold implications for the evolutionary understanding of this pathway. Clinical decisions for cancer-relevant prevention and management of FANC-mutation carriers could be modified by expanded studies of high-magnitude sensitivities.

  19. Acetaldehyde, Motivation and Stress: Behavioral Evidence of an Addictive ménage à trois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) contributes to alcohol’s psychoactive effects through its own rewarding properties. Recent studies shed light on the behavioral correlates of ACD administration and the possible interactions with key neurotransmitters for motivation, reward and stress-related response, such as dopamine and endocannabinoids. This mini review article critically examines ACD psychoactive properties, focusing on behavioral investigations able to unveil ACD motivational effects and their pharmacological modulation in vivo. Similarly to alcohol, rats spontaneously drink ACD, whose presence is detected in the brain following chronic self-administration paradigm. ACD motivational properties are demonstrated by operant paradigms tailored to model several drug-related behaviors, such as induction and maintenance of operant self-administration, extinction, relapse and punishment resistance. ACD-related addictive-like behaviors are sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and endocannabinoid signaling. Interestingly, the ACD-dopamine-endocannabinoids relationship also contributes to neuroplastic alterations of the NPYergic system, a stress-related peptide critically involved in alcohol abuse. The understanding of the ménage-a-trois among ACD, reward- and stress-related circuits holds promising potential for the development of novel pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:28232795

  20. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  1. Acetaldehyde metabolism by brain mitochondria from UChA and UChB rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, M E; Tampier, L

    1995-01-01

    The acetaldehyde (AcH) oxidizing capacity of total brain homogenates from the genetically high-ethanol consumer (UChB) appeared to be greater than that of the low-ethanol consumer (UChA) rats. To gain further information about this strain difference, the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AIDH) in different subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from naive UChA and UChB rat strains of both sexes has been studied by measuring the rate of AcH disappearance and by following the reduction of NAD to NADH. The results demonstrated that the higher capacity of brain homogenates from UChB rats to oxidize AcH when compared to UChA ones was because the UChB mitochondrial low Km AIDH exhibits a much greater affinity for NAD than that of the UChA rats, as evidenced by four-to fivefold differences in the Km values for NAD. But the dehydrogenases from both strains exhibited a similar maximum rate at saturating NAD concentrations. Because intact brain mitochondria isolated from UChB rats oxidized AcH at a higher rate than did mitochondria from UChA rats only in state 4, but not in state 3, this strain difference in AIDH activity might be restricted in vivo to NAD disposition.

  2. Recombinant human diamine oxidase activity is not inhibited by ethanol, acetaldehyde, disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate or cyanamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, Johann; Gludovacz, Elisabeth; Petroczi, Karin; Borth, Nicole; Jilma, Bernd; Boehm, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Human diamine oxidase (hDAO, EC 1.4.3.22) is the key enzyme in the degradation of extracellular histamine. Consumption of alcohol is a known trigger of mast cell degranulation in patients with mast cell activation syndrome. Ethanol may also interfere with enzymatic histamine degradation, but reports on the effects on DAO activity are controversial. There are also conflicting reports whether disulfiram, an FDA-approved agent in the treatment of alcohol dependence, inhibits DAO. We therefore investigated the inhibitory potential of ethanol and disulfiram and their metabolites on recombinant human DAO (rhDAO) in three different assay systems. Relevant concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate did not inhibit rhDAO activity in an in vitro assay system using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) -mediated luminol oxidation. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; EC 1.2.1.3) inhibitors cyanamide and its dimer dicyanamide also had no effect on DAO activity. In one assay system, the irreversible ALDH inhibitor disulfiram and its main metabolite diethyldithiocarbamate seemed to inhibit DAO activity. However, the decreased product formation was not due to a direct block of DAO activity but resulted from inhibition of peroxidase employed in the coupled system. Our in vitro data do not support a direct blocking effect of ethanol, disulfiram, and their metabolites on DAO activity in vivo.

  3. Photocatalytic Oxidation of a Volatile Organic Component of Acetaldehyde Using Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide nanotubes are prepared and treated with Au (Au/nanotube sample and Pt (Pt/nanotube sample, and the photoactivity of these catalysts compared to a standard Degussa P25 photocatalyst is investigated. The samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM. Both high-resolution TEM images and high-angle annular dark-field (HAAD images were recorded for the specimens. Oxidation of acetaldehyde was used to test the efficiency of the catalysts. Nanotube samples showed better photoactivity than the standard P25, because the P25 titania deactivates quickly. Enhanced reactivity of the nanotube is related to surface charge polarity developed on outer and inner surfaces due to the difference in overlap of oxygen anions that resulted from curving of octahedral sheets. A tentative and qualitative surface polarity model is proposed for enhancing electron-hole pair separation. The inner surface benefits reduction; whereas, the outer surface benefits oxidation reactions. Both the metal identity and the size of the metal particles in the nanotubes affected the photocatalytic activity. Specifically, the addition of platinum increased the activity significantly, and increased the total yield. The addition of gold had lesser impact compared to the platinum. Formation of Pt large nanoparticles on the nanotube surfaces reduces the oxidation reactivity.

  4. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12 h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery.

  5. NOX2 amplifies acetaldehyde-mediated cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Moritz; Garlapati, Venkata; Oelze, Matthias; Sotiriou, Efthymios; Knorr, Maike; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Kossmann, Sabine; Schönfelder, Tanja; Morawietz, Henning; Schulz, Eberhard; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Wenzel, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) resulting from excess alcohol consumption is an important cause of heart failure (HF). Although it is assumed that the cardiotoxicity of the ethanol (EtOH)-metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA) is central for its development and progression, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. Murine cardiomyocytes (CMs) exposed to ACA or EtOH showed increased superoxide (O2•−) levels and decreased mitochondrial polarization, both being normalized by NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition. C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient for the ACA-degrading enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2−/−) were fed a 2% EtOH diet for 5 weeks creating an ACA-overload. 2% EtOH-fed ALDH-2−/− mice exhibited a decreased cardiac function, increased heart-to-body and lung-to-body weight ratios, increased cardiac levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as increased NOX activity and NOX2/glycoprotein 91phox (NOX2/gp91phox) subunit expression compared to 2% EtOH-fed C57BL/6 mice. Echocardiography revealed that ALDH-2−/−/gp91phox−/− mice were protected from ACA-overload-induced HF after 5 weeks of 2% EtOH-diet, demonstrating that NOX2-derived O2•− contributes to the development of ACM. Translated to human pathophysiology, we found increased gp91phox expression in endomyocardial biopsies of ACM patients. In conclusion, ACM is promoted by ACA-driven mitochondrial dysfunction and can be improved by ablation of NOX2/gp91phox. NOX2/gp91phox therefore might be a potential pharmacological target to treat ACM. PMID:27624556

  6. The keto-enol equilibrium in substituted acetaldehydes: focal-point analysis and ab initio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M.

    2011-10-01

    High-level ab initio electronic structure calculations up to the CCSD(T) theory level, including extrapolations to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, resulted in high precision energetics of the tautomeric equilibrium in 2-substituted acetaldehydes (XH2C-CHO). The CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of the tautomers were estimated using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, MP3/aug-cc-pVQZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations with MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ geometries. The relative enol (XHC = CHOH) stabilities (ΔE e,CCSD(T)/CBS) were found to be 5.98 ± 0.17, -1.67 ± 0.82, 7.64 ± 0.21, 8.39 ± 0.31, 2.82 ± 0.52, 10.27 ± 0.39, 9.12 ± 0.18, 5.47 ± 0.53, 7.50 ± 0.43, 10.12 ± 0.51, 8.49 ± 0.33, and 6.19 ± 0.18 kcal mol-1 for X = BeH, BH2, CH3, Cl, CN, F, H, NC, NH2, OCH3, OH, and SH, respectively. Inconsistencies between the results of complex/composite energy computations methods Gn/CBS (G2, G3, CBS-4M, and CBS-QB3) and high-level ab initio methods (CCSD(T)/CBS and MP2/CBS) were found. DFT/aug-cc-pVTZ results with B3LYP, PBE0 (PBE1PBE), TPSS, and BMK density functionals were close to the CCSD(T)/CBS levels (MAD = 1.04 kcal mol-1).

  7. A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T Nieminen

    Full Text Available The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH. ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HICA on C. albicans biofilm formation and ACH production in vitro. Inhibition of biofilm formation by HICA, analogous control compounds or caspofungin was measured using XTT to measure biofilm metabolic activity and PicoGreen as a marker of biomass. Biofilms were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ACH levels were measured by gas chromatography. Transcriptional changes in the genes involved in ACH metabolism were measured using RT-qPCR. The mean metabolic activity and biomass of all pre-grown (4, 24, 48 h biofilms were significantly reduced after exposure to HICA (p40 µM of ACH were detected in 24 and 48 h biofilms at both pHs. Interestingly, no ACH production was detected from D-glucose in the presence of HICA at acidic pH (p<0.05. Expression of genes responsible for ACH catabolism was up-regulated by HICA but down-regulated by caspofungin. SEM showed aberrant hyphae and collapsed hyphal structures during incubation with HICA at acidic pH. We conclude that HICA has potential as an antifungal agent with ability to inhibit C. albicans cell growth and biofilm formation. HICA also significantly reduces the mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms, which may be important when treating bacterial-fungal biofilm infections.

  8. Formaldehyde degradation in Corynebacterium glutamicum involves acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmeier, Lennart; Hoefener, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium belonging to the actinomycetes, is able to degrade formaldehyde but the enzyme(s) involved in this detoxification process were not known. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald, which is essential for ethanol utilization, and FadH, characterized here as NAD-linked mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, were shown to be responsible for formaldehyde oxidation since a mutant lacking ald and fadH could not oxidize formaldehyde resulting in the inability to grow when formaldehyde was added to the medium. Moreover, C. glutamicum ΔaldΔfadH did not grow with vanillate, a carbon source giving rise to intracellular formaldehyde. FadH from C. glutamicum was purified from recombinant Escherichia coli and shown to be active as a homotetramer. Mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde oxidation revealed Km values of 0.6 mM for mycothiol and 4.3 mM for formaldehyde and a Vmax of 7.7 U mg(-1). FadH from C. glutamicum also possesses zinc-dependent, but mycothiol-independent alcohol dehydrogenase activity with a preference for short chain primary alcohols such as ethanol (Km = 330 mM, Vmax = 9.6 U mg(-1)), 1-propanol (Km = 150 mM, Vmax = 5 U mg(-1)) and 1-butanol (Km = 50 mM, Vmax = 0.8 U mg(-1)). Formaldehyde detoxification system by Ald and mycothiol-dependent FadH is essential for tolerance of C. glutamicum to external stress by free formaldehyde in its habitat and for growth with natural substrates like vanillate, which are metabolized with concomitant release of formaldehyde.

  9. Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase produces acetoin from acetaldehyde: a novel tool to study the mechanism of steps subsequent to carbon dioxide loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G C; Jordan, F

    1984-07-31

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was developed for the determination of both acetaldehyde and the 3-4% acetoin side product that results from the brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) catalyzed reaction of pyruvic acid. Employing this method enabled the demonstration of the catalysis of acetaldehyde condensation to acetoin by the enzyme. It was found that the acetoin produced enzymatically from pyruvic acid or from acetaldehyde was optically active, thus providing stereochemical information about the reaction. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (employing CH3CHO and CH3CDO) were determined on the steady-state kinetic parameters to be 4.5 (Vmax) and 3.2 (Vmax/Kappm), respectively. This enabled, for the first time, the estimation of relative kinetic barriers for steps past decarboxylation. It could be concluded that (a) C-H bond scission was part of rate limitation in the enzyme-catalyzed condensation of acetaldehyde to acetoin and that (b) among the steps leading to the release of acetaldehyde, protonation of the key enamine intermediate was part of rate limitation. This latter finding is also directly applicable to the mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

  10. Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains co-fermentation increases acetaldehyde accumulation: effect on anthocyanin-derived pigments in Tannat red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non-Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine-making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction-dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co-fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co-fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid removal and decomposition of gaseous acetaldehyde by the thermo- and photo-catalysis of gold nanoparticle-loaded anatase titanium(IV) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, Tomoyuki; Naya, Shin-ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean particle size ranging from 2.1 to 7.4 nm were loaded on anatase TiO2 particles (Au/TiO2) by the heating temperature-varied deposition precipitation technique. This study has shown that Au/TiO2 with Au particle size TiO2 surface area >50 m(2) g(-1) can be a promising environmental catalyst for the rapid removal and decomposition of gaseous acetaldehyde in a closed space. The Au loading on TiO2 causes a drastic enhancement of the acetaldehyde adsorption in the dark, and the adsorption amount increases as the Au particle size decreases. This result originates from the thermocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 for the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid under ambient conditions. The resulting acetic acid spontaneously moves to the TiO2 surface due to the great adsorptivity for the carboxyl group. Consequently, the acetaldehyde adsorption amount strongly depends on the TiO2 surface area in addition to the Au particle size. UV-light irradiation of acetaldehyde (or acetate)-adsorbed Au/TiO2 leads to the complete decomposition to carbon dioxide by the high photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2.

  12. Distribution of the thiamin diphosphate C(2)-proton during catalysis of acetaldehyde formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    The distribution of tritium derived from enzyme-bound [thiazole-2-T]thiamin diphosphate (TDP) during the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was determined under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The specific radioactivity of the [1-L]acetaldehyde product and solvent ([L]H2O) was 43 +/- 4% and 54 +/- 2%, respectively, of the initial specific radioactivity of PDC-bound [thiazole-2-T]TDP and was independent of the extent of the single-turnover reaction. There is little (< or = 3%) or no return of the abstracted C(2)-hydron to the C(2) position of PDC-bound TDP. This provides evidence that the abstracted C(2)-hydron is involved in the specific protonation of the C(alpha) position of the PDC-bound intermediate 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP), which is cleaved to form [1-L]acetaldehyde and PDC-bound [thiazole-2-H]TDP. The partial exchange of C(2)-derived tritium into solvent requires that (1) hydron transfer from C(2) occurs to a catalytic-base in which the conjugate catalytic acid is partially shielded from hydron exchange with the solvent, (2) the conjugate catalytic acid transfers the C(2)-derived hydron to the C(alpha) position of HETDP, and (3) hydron transfer to C(2) to regenerate the coenzyme occurs either from solvent directly or from a second catalytic acid of the enzyme that undergoes rapid hydron exchange with the solvent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Ethanol Metabolism by HeLa Cells Transduced with Human Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes: Control of the Pathway by Acetaldehyde Concentration†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C.; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. Methods The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I ADH (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. Results The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs were constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. Conclusion The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady–state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. PMID:21166830

  14. 瓶级聚酯切片生产中的乙醛含量控制%Acetaldehyde Content Control during Bottle Grade PET Chips Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦国; 曹正俊; 夏林密

    2011-01-01

    论述了在瓶级聚酯切片生产过程中,基础切片、预结晶、结晶切片乙醛含量及催化剂的性能与瓶片中乙醛含量的相互关系,提出了通过监控循环氮气中的碳氢含量、调节氧含量和循环氮气流量控制瓶片乙醛含量的方法.%This paper studies the relationships between the acetaldehyde content of amorphous chips,pre-crystallized chips, crystallized chips and performance of catalyst with the acetaldehyde content of products during bottle grade chips production. Also gives the methods of controlling acetaldehyde content by monitoring the hydrocarbon content in the nitrogen recycle, adjusting the content of oxygen and the flow of the nitrogen recycle.

  15. Dissociation of acetaldehyde on beta-Mo2C to yield ethylidene and oxo surface groups: a possible pathway for active site formation in heterogeneous olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaj, Mohamed; Reed, Corey; Oyama, S Ted; Scott, Susannah L; McBreen, Peter H

    2004-08-11

    The dissociative adsorption of acetaldehyde on beta-Mo2C was studied using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. In contrast to what is observed for all metals previously studied, acetaldehyde undergoes selective carbonyl bond scission on the carbide surface. By comparison to calculated spectra, the surface product is identified as an oxo-ethylidene species. The study thus provides the first extended-range infrared spectrum of a propene metathesis initiator or propagator alkylidene. Aldehydes may be formed in the presence of olefins during the induction period of supported metal oxide olefin metathesis catalysts. Hence, the observed dissociative chemisorption of acetaldehyde suggests a possible answer to the question of how initiator sites are formed in heterogeneous olefin metathesis. This question has never been satisfactorily answered. In the proposed mechanism, aldehydes formed during the induction period subsequently react with the catalyst surface to generate alkylidene sites.

  16. Effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction integrity: in vitro study in a three dimensional intestinal epithelial cell culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaseen Elamin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of endotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the conventional two dimensional cell culture models. The present study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of ethanol at concentrations detected in the blood after moderate ethanol consumption, of its metabolite acetaldehyde and of the combination of both compounds on intestinal barrier function in a three-dimensional cell culture model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Caco-2 cells were grown in a basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™ to induce spheroid formation and were then exposed to the compounds at the basolateral side. Morphological differentiation of the spheroids was assessed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The barrier function was assessed by the flux of FITC-labeled dextran from the basal side into the spheroids' luminal compartment using confocal microscopy. Caco-2 cells grown on Matrigel assembled into fully differentiated and polarized spheroids with a central lumen, closely resembling enterocytes in vivo and provide an excellent model to study epithelial barrier functionality. Exposure to ethanol (10-40 mM or acetaldehyde (25-200 µM for 3 h, dose-dependently and additively increased the paracellular permeability and induced redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin without affecting cell viability or tight junction-encoding gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol and acetaldehyde induced lysine residue and microtubules hyperacetylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ethanol at concentrations found in the blood after moderate drinking and acetaldehyde, alone and in combination, can increase the intestinal epithelial permeability. The data also point to the involvement of protein hyperacetylation in

  17. Preparation of phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for fast extraction and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danni; Sha, Yunfei; Zheng, Saijing; Liu, Baizhan; Deng, Chunhui

    2013-10-15

    Acetaldehyde is regarded as a toxic mainstream cigarette smoke constituent, and measurement of acetaldehyde in complex real samples is difficult owing to its high volatility and reactivity. In this work, phenyl group-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres were developed as the solid-phase extraction sorbents for enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. The functional magnetic microspheres were first synthesized through a facile one-pot co-condensation approach. The prepared nanomaterials possessed abundant silanol groups in the exterior surface and numerous phenyl groups in the interior pore-walls, as well as a large surface area (273.5m(2)/g), strong superparamagnetism and uniform mesopores (3.3 nm). Acetaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke was collected in water and derivatizated with O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine. The formed acetaldehyde oximes were extracted and enriched by the prepared adsorbents via π-π interactions and subsequently analyzed using GC-MS. Extraction conditions such as amounts of sorbents, eluting solvent, adsorption and desorption time were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection were also studied. It was found that the suggested methodology provided low detection limit of 0.04 mg/mL, good recovery of 88-92%, intra-day and inter-day RSD values of 4.5% and 10.1%, and linear range of 0.25-4 mg/mL (R(2)=0.999). The results indicated that the proposed method based on phenyl-functionalized magnetic mesoporous microspheres was rapid, efficient and convenient for the enrichment and analysis of acetaldehyde in tobacco.

  18. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in relation to assimilation and transpiration was investigated with 2 3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited measurable emissions of any of the compounds, but rather low deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was observed instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid were only observed from the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning suggest that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted, though we can not totally exclude other production pathways. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (25 1700 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5 500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions

  19. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: Surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhi; Sareen, Neha; McNeill, V Faye

    2011-01-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(\\pm2) dyn/cm in pure water and 62(\\pm1) dyn/cm in AS solutions. Surface t...

  20. Photochemical fabrication of size-controllable gold nanoparticles on chitosan and their application on catalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chung-Chin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kuang-Hsuan, E-mail: khy@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yu-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Chuen [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    In this work, we report a new pathway to prepare size-controllable gold nanoparticles (NPs) on chitosan (Ch) in aqueous solutions for improving catalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde by pure gold NPs at room temperature. First, Au substrates were cycled in deoxygenated aqueous solutions containing 0.1N NaCl and 1 g/L Ch from -0.28 to +1.22 V vs Ag/AgCl at 500 mV/s for 200 scans. Then the solutions were irradiated with UV lights of different wavelengths to prepare size-controllable Au NPs on Ch. Experimental results indicate that the particle sizes of prepared NPs are increased when UV lights with longer wavelengths were employed. The particle sizes of resulted Au NPs can be controlled from 10 to 50 nm. Moreover, the decomposition of acetaldehydes in wines can be significantly enhanced by ca. 190% of magnitude due to the contribution of the adsorption of Au NPs on Ch.

  1. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS, and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2 dyn cm−1 in pure water and 62(±1 dyn cm−1 in AS solutions. Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9 % reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  2. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Compounds via C-C Coupling Reactions. Computational and Experimental Studies of Acetaldehyde and Furan Reactions in HZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Evans, Tabitha J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cheng, Lei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mukarakate, Calvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robichaud, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-02

    These catalytic C–C coupling and deoxygenation reactions are essential for upgrading of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuel-range hydrocarbons. Detailed understanding of mechanistic and energetic aspects of these reactions is crucial to enabling and improving the catalytic upgrading of small oxygenates to useful chemicals and fuels. Using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the reactions of furan and acetaldehyde in an HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, a representative system associated with the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. Comprehensive energy profiles were computed for self-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde coupling and furan coupling) and cross-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde + furan) of this representative mixture. Major products proposed from the computations are further confirmed using temperature controlled mass spectra measurements. Moreover, the computational results show that furan interacts with acetaldehyde in HZSM-5 via an alkylation mechanism, which is more favorable than the self-reactions, indicating that mixing furans with aldehydes could be a promising approach to maximize effective C–C coupling and dehydration while reducing the catalyst deactivation (e.g., coke formation) from aldehyde condensation.

  3. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  4. Screening of brewer's yeast with low acetaldehyde by directional domestication%低产乙醛啤酒酵母的定向驯化筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈楠; 王金晶; 刘春凤; 李永仙; 李崎

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at reduce the acetaldehyde concentration in beer,an industrial brewing yeast strain M14 was used as original strain and mutagenized with ultraviolet radiation.After primary screening with disulfiram and domestication with media containing acetaldehyde,a mutant strain D-A-14 was obtained with considerably low yield of acetaldehyde.The concentration of acetaldehyde in the beer brewed with the mutant strain was 2.86 mg/L,which was 76% lower than that of MI4.In the meantime,the beer brewed with the mutant strain contained less higher alcohols and more esters and showed more harmonious flavor.These results demonstrated that the low-acetaldehyde mutant strain D-A-14 would be suitable for beer industry.%为降低啤酒中乙醛含量,采用紫外线对1株啤酒工业生产菌株M41进行诱变,经双硫仑平板初筛、乙醛培养基驯化复筛,获得了1株低产乙醛的啤酒酵母D-A-14.与出发菌株M14相比,采用该突变株酿制的啤酒中乙醛含量为2.86 mg/L,降低了76%;且高级醇总量降低而酯含量升高,风味更加协调.这表明筛选得到的低乙醛突变株适于啤酒工业生产.

  5. Peracetic Acid Synthesis by Acetaldehyde Liquid Phase Oxidation in Trickle Bed Reactor%滴流床中乙醛液相氧化合成过氧乙酸新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腾云; 罗京莉; K.Chuang; 钟理

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, shorter residence time (a few minutes) with high yield in the trickle bed process for peracetic acid synthesis by acetaldehyde liquid phase oxidation can be realized on the selected packing material SA-5118.For acetaldehyde in acetone with ferric ion as catalyst, the optimized process conditions were presented.The main factors influencing the yield, selectivity and conversion are residence time, temperature and acetaldehyde concentration, respectively.The temperature range checked is from 30 to 65℃.High yield of 81.53% with high selectivity of 91.84% can be obtained at higher temperature of 55℃ when the residence time is 5.5min and the acetaldehyde concentration is 9.85% (by mass).And there is a critical acetaldehyde concentration point (Cccp) between 18% and 19.5% (by mass).At temperature less than 55℃, the highest yield to peracetic acid at each temperature level increases with temperature when the acetaldehyde concentration is below Cccp and decreases with temperature when the acetaldehyde concentration is above Cccoy.

  6. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS, and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2 dyn cm−1 in pure water (a 10% surface tension reduction from that of pure water and 62(±1 dyn cm−1 in AS solutions (a 20.6% reduction from that of a 3.1 M AS solution. Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9% reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  7. Theoretical Study on the C-H Activation in Decarbonylation of Acetaldehyde by NiL2 (L=SO3CH3) Using Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongfei; JIA Tiekun; MIN Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations were carried out to explore the potential energy surface (PES) associated with the gas-phase reaction of NiL2(L=SO3CH3) with acetone. The geometries and energies of the reactants, intermediates, products and transition states of the triplet ground potential energy surfaces of [Ni, O, C2, H4] were obtained at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels in C,H,O atoms and B3LYP/Lanl2dz in Ni atom. It was found through our calculations that the decabonylation of acetaldehyde contains four steps including encounter complexation, C-C activation, aldehyde H-shift and nonreactive dissociation. The results revealed that C-C activation induced by NiL2(L=SO3CH3) led to the decarbonylation of acetaldehyde.

  8. Quantification of acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the headspace of malignant and non-malignant lung cells in vitro by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé-Suso, Josep; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, showed that CALU-1 lung cancer cell cultures emit acetaldehyde in proportion to the number of cells in the culture medium. However, studies in another laboratory led to conflicting results, so these SIFT-MS studies have been repeated and extended to include NL20 normal lung epithelial cells and 35FL121 Tel+ telomerase positive lung fibroblast cells. Thus, SIFT-MS has been used to quantify acetaldehyde and, additionally, carbon dioxide, acetone and ethanol in the headspace of the cell culture medium alone and the headspace of the appropriate medium containing 50 x 10(6) or 80 x 10(6) cells following incubation for 16 h at 37 degrees C. Three independent experiments were carried out for each cell type for both cell numbers and for each of the two culture media used. The results showed that acetone and ethanol were only released by the culture medium, specifically from the foetal calf serum contained in the medium, and not by the cells. Acetaldehyde was also released by the medium, but at relatively lower levels than the other three compounds, and was also generated by the CALU-1 and NL20 cell cultures in proportions to the number of cells in the medium. However, following incubation, the acetaldehyde levels in the headspace of the 35FL121 Tel+ cell cultures were much lower than those present in the headspace of the medium alone. Carbon dioxide was clearly generated by the CALU-1 and 35FL121 Tel+ cells indicating that they were respiring normally, but much less was produced by the NL20 cells, presumably indicating that normal metabolism was being inhibited.

  9. Density Functional Theory Study on Mechanism of Forming Spiro-Ge-heterocyclic Ring Compound from Me2Ge=Ge: and Acetaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-hui Lu; Yong-qing Li; Wei-jie Bao; Dong-ting Liu

    2013-01-01

    The H2Ge=Ge:,as well as and its derivatives (X2Ge=Ge:,X=H,Me,F,CI,Br,Ph,Ar,...)is a kind of new species.Its cycloaddition reactions is a new area for the study of germylene chemistry.The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet Me2Ge=Ge:and acetaldehyde was investigated with the B3LYP/6-31G* method in this work.From the potential energy profile,it could be predicted that the reaction has one dominant reaction pathway.The reaction rule is that the two reactants firstly form a four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring germylene through the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction.Because of the 4p unoccupied orbital of Ge:atom in the four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring germylene and the π orbital of acetaldehyde forning a π-p donor-acceptor bond,the four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring germylene further combines with acetaldehyde to form an intermediate.Because the Ge atom in intermediate happens sp3 hybridization after transition state,then,intermediate isomerizes to a spiro-Ge-heterocyclic ring compound via a transition state.The research result indicates the laws of cycloaddition reaction between Me2Ge=Ge:and acetaldehyde,and lays the theory foundation of the cycloaddition reaction between H2Ge=Ge:and its derivatives (X2Ge=Ge:,X=H,Me,F,Cl,Br,Ph,Ar) and asymmetric π-bonded compounds,which are significant for the synthesis of small-ring and spiro-Ge-heterocyclic ring compounds.

  10. Electron spin resonance study of free radicals produced from ethanol and acetaldehyde after exposure to a Fenton system or to brain and liver microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonthier, B.; Jeunet, A.; Barret, L. (Departement de Toxicologie, C.H.R.U. de Grenoble, (France))

    1991-09-01

    Free radical formation from ethanol and acetaldehyde was studied in the presence of a spin-trap and a NADPH generating system with a chemical model, Fenton's reagent, or by enzymatic oxidation of these solvents by rat liver and brain microsomes. The free radicals were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (E.S.R.), using the spin-trapping agent, alpha-(4-pyridyl l-oxide)-N-tertbutyl-nitrone (POBN). Under such conditions, the hydroxyethyl radical derived from ethanol was obtained after both incubation in liver and brain microsomes as well as after exposure to the Fenton system. Enzymatic inhibition and activation showed that the mixed function oxidase system plays an important role in the generation of such a radical, even in the brain. Under all the experimental conditions acetaldehyde could also generate a free radical deriving directly from the parent molecule and modified by enzymatic activation or inhibition. A second, longer lasting radical was also observed in the presence of acetaldehyde. On the basis of a comparative study to a known process causing lipoperoxidation, its lipidic origin was suggested.

  11. 乙醛缩合法制乙酸乙酯工艺放大实验%Preparation of ethyl acetate from acetaldehyde by condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永玲

    2013-01-01

    As the starting raw material,two molecular acetaldehyde are condensed to ethyl acetate in the presence of aluminum ethoxide at-5 ~0℃,with one hour and fifty minutes staying time.Catalyst is removed as residue during evaporation stage.Ethyl acetate with purity more than 99.9% is obtained by distillation of the crude products.Both the selectivity to ethyl acetate and the conversion of acetaldehyde are over 99%.Single consumption of acetaldehyde is 1.057.%以乙醛为原料,在-5~0℃、停留时间为1h50min,在乙醇铝催化剂的存在下,两分子乙醛缩合成乙酸乙酯,经蒸发除去催化剂、再经粗产品精馏精制得到纯度大于99.9%的乙酸乙酯.乙酸乙酯选择性、乙醛的转化率均大于99%,乙醛单耗为1.057.

  12. Simultaneous removal of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides over V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Li; Jing Wang; Kai He; Xia An; Wei Huang; Kechang Xie

    2011-01-01

    V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts with different vanadium contents were prepared by a combined sol-gel and impregnation method.X-ray diffraction(XRD),N2 adsorption-desorption(BET),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)and catalytic removal of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides at low temperature(<300℃)were used to assess the properties of the catalysts.The results showed that the sample with 1wt% vanadium exhibited an excellent catalytic performance for simultaneous removal of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides.The conversions of ethanol,acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides at 250℃ were 100%,74.4% and 98.7%,respectively.V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst with 1 wt% vanadium showed the largest surface area and higher dispersion of vanadium oxide on the catalyst surface,and possessed a larger mole fraction of V4+species and unique PdO species on the surface,which can be attributed to the strong synergistic effect among palladium,vanadium and the carriers.The higher activity of V-Pd/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst is related to the V4+and Pd2+species on the surface,which might be favorable for the formation of active sites.

  13. 醋酸乙烯装置乙醛精馏塔模拟及优化%Simulation and optimization of acetaldehyde distillation in vinyl acetate production unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂开慧; 王煤; 程橙; 陈果

    2012-01-01

    运用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件,对某天然气乙炔法醋酸乙烯装置中的乙醛精馏塔进行了模拟,模拟结果与实际工况数据吻合良好.在此基础上,利用Aspen Plus中的Model Analysis Tools,对乙醛精馏塔的侧线和各主要操作参数进行了分析及初步优化.经优化后,乙醛回收率从98.6%提高到99.5%;侧线采出产品中丙酮质量分数从19.9%提高到20.5%.%A model of the acetaldehyde distillation in a vinyl acetate production unit based on vapor acetylene route was built and Aspen Plus software was used to simulate it Simulated results were in good agreement with actual data. Further, the side stream and key operation parameters for acetaldehyde distillation were analyzed and optimized by Model Analysis Tools of Aspen Plus. After optimization, acetaldehyde recovery increased from 98.6% to 99.5%, and the mass fraction of acetone in side draw increased from 19.9% to 20.5%.

  14. Efficient expression of codon-adapted human acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 cDNA with 6×His tag in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YuFeng; LEI MingKe; WU YuanXin; ZHANG ZiSheng; WANG CunWen

    2009-01-01

    Human mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Therefore, ALDH2 has therapeutic potential in detoxification of acetaldehyde. Furthermore, ALDH2 catalyzes nitroglycerin to nitrate and 1, 2-glyceryldinitrate during therapy for angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Large quantities of ALDH2 will be needed for potential clinical practice. In this study, Pichia pastoris was used as a platform for expression of human ALDH2.Based on the ALDH2~*1 cDNA sequence, we designed ALDH2 cDNA by choosing the P. pastoris preferred codons and by decreasing the G + C content level. The sequence was synthesized using the overlap extension PCR method. The cDNA and 6×His tags were subcloned into the plasmid pPIC9K.The recombinant protein was expressed in P. pastoris GS115 and purified using Ni~(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The amount of secreted protein in the culture was 80 mg/L in shake-flask cultivation and 260 mglL in high-density bioreactor fermentation. Secreted ALDH2 was easily purified from the culture supernatant by using Ni2+-Sepharose affinity chromatography. After purification of the fermentation supernatant, the enzyme had a specific activity of 1.2 U/mg protein. The yield was about 16 mg/L in a shake flask culture of P. pastoris GS115 which contained the original human ALDH2~*1 cDNA.

  15. Efficient expression of codon-adapted human acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 cDNA with 6×His tag in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Human mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Therefore, ALDH2 has therapeutic potential in detoxification of acetaldehyde. Further-more, ALDH2 catalyzes nitroglycerin to nitrate and 1, 2-glyceryldinitrate during therapy for angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Large quantities of ALDH2 will be needed for potential clinical practice. In this study, Pichia pastoris was used as a platform for expression of human ALDH2. Based on the ALDH2*1 cDNA sequence, we designed ALDH2 cDNA by choosing the P. pastoris preferred codons and by decreasing the G + C content level. The sequence was synthesized using the overlap extension PCR method. The cDNA and 6×His tags were subcloned into the plasmid pPIC9K. The recombinant protein was expressed in P. pastoris GS115 and purified using Ni2+-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The amount of secreted protein in the culture was 80 mg/L in shake-flask cultivation and 260 mg/L in high-density bioreactor fermentation. Secreted ALDH2 was easily purified from the culture supernatant by using Ni2+-Sepharose affinity chromatography. After purification of the fermentation supernatant, the enzyme had a specific activity of 1.2 U/mg protein. The yield was about 16 mg/L in a shake flask culture of P. pastoris GS115 which contained the original human ALDH2*1 cDNA.

  16. Decontamination of gaseous acetaldehyde over CoOx-loaded SiO2 xerogels under ambient, dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyanov, I N; Uma, S; Rodrigues, S; Klabunde, K J

    2005-03-15

    A series of CoO(x)-doped silica xerogels with various Co(2+) loadings (Co/Si = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 mol %) has been prepared. All xerogels exhibit large (800-1050 m(2)/g) surface areas. Narrow pore size distributions with pore size maxima around 3 nm are characteristic for Co/Si = 1, 2, 4, 6, 10 samples. As-prepared CoO(x)/SiO(2) xerogels show high catalytic activity in the air oxidation of gaseous acetaldehyde at room temperature. Carbon dioxide and trace amounts of methane are the only products detected in the gas phase. Acetic acid, a less volatile product, resides on the surface of the xerogels but can slowly desorb. The formation of CO(2) begins after an induction period. The beginning of CO(2) production coincides with the conversion of Co(2+) incorporated in the SiO(2) framework into Co(3+). Thermogravimetry/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies, as well as kinetic measurements are employed for CoO(x)/SiO(2) catalyst characterization. A possible mechanism of the reaction is discussed.

  17. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  18. Integration of Inhibition Kinetics and Molecular Dynamics Simulations: A Urea-Mediated Folding Study on Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Lee, Jinhyuk; Lü, Zhi-Rong; Mu, Hang; Zhang, Qian; Park, Yong-Doo

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) folding is important because this enzyme is directly involved in several types of cancers and other diseases. We investigated the urea-mediated unfolding of ALDH1 by integrating kinetic inhibition studies with computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Conformational changes in the enzyme structure were also analyzed using intrinsic and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS)-binding fluorescence measurements. Kinetic studies revealed that the direct binding of urea to ALDH1 induces inactivation of ALDH1 in a manner of mixed-type inhibition. Tertiary structural changes associated with regional hydrophobic exposure of the active site were observed. The urea binding regions on ALDH1 were predicted by docking simulations and were partly shared with active site residues of ALDH1 and with interface residues of the oligomerization domain for tetramer formation. The docking results suggest that urea prevents formation of the ALDH1 normal shape for the tetramer state as well as entrance of the substrate into the active site. Our study provides insight into the structural changes that accompany urea-mediated unfolding of ALDH1 and the catalytic role associated with conformational changes.

  19. Concerns regarding 24-h sampling for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S.; Hays, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    There is high demand for accurate and reliable airborne carbonyl measurement methods due to the human and environmental health impacts of carbonyls and their effects on atmospheric chemistry. Standardized 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based sampling methods are frequently applied for measuring gaseous carbonyls in the atmospheric environment. However, there are multiple short-comings associated with these methods that detract from an accurate understanding of carbonyl-related exposure, health effects, and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this brief technical communication is to highlight these method challenges and their influence on national ambient monitoring networks, and to provide a logical path forward for accurate carbonyl measurement. This manuscript focuses on three specific carbonyl compounds of high toxicological interest—formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein. Further method testing and development, the revision of standardized methods, and the plausibility of introducing novel technology for these carbonyls are considered elements of the path forward. The consolidation of this information is important because it seems clear that carbonyl data produced utilizing DNPH-based methods are being reported without acknowledgment of the method short-comings or how to best address them.

  20. Acetaldehyde metabolism by liver mitochondrial ALDH from UChA and UChB rats: effect of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampier, L; Sánchez, E; Quintanilla, M E

    1996-01-01

    We have observed that blood acetaldehyde (AcH) levels after an ethanol dose were significantly higher in disulfiram-pre-treated UChA (low ethanol consumer) than in UChB (high ethanol consumer) rats. In order to explore these results further, we studied the effect of disulfiram (300 mg/kg i.p.) and chlorpropamide (80) mg/kg i.p.) pre-treatment on blood AcH levels after oral ethanol (60 mmol/kg) and on AcH metabolism by liver mitochondrial aldehyde(s) dehydrogenase(s) from UChA and UChB rats. AcH metabolism by liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was studied by following AcH disappearance rate and the formation of NADH at 340 nm in the incubation medium. The results showed that chlorpropamide, like disulfiram, produced a higher blood AcH level consistent with a greater inhibition of the low-Km mitochondrial ALDH in the UChA rats than in the UChB rats. These drugs did not inhibit the high Km mitochondrial ALDH. Kinetic studies of mitochondrial ALDH show that low-Km mitochondrial ALDH from UChB rats exhibits a higher affinity for NAD than UChA rats. This observation could explain the different inhibition of ALDH by both drugs, assuming that the inhibitors reduce NAD availability, the rate limiting step in the mitochondrial ALDH oxidation.

  1. Effect of acid catalysts and accelerated aging on the reaction of methanol with hydroxy-acetaldehyde in bio-oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil is a promising alternative source of energy produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Increasing the viscosity of bio-oil during storage is a major problem that can be controlled by the addition of methanol or other alcohols. This paper reports the results of our investigation of the reactions of short chain alcohols with aldehydes and acids in bio-oil. The reaction of methanol with hydroxyacetaldehyde (HA to form the acetal was catalyzed by the addition of 7 x 10-4 M strong acids such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, p-toluene sulfonic acid, and methanesulfonic acid. HA formed 2,2-dimethoxyethanol (DME, and at 60 oC the equilibrium was reached in less than one hour. Smaller amounts of DME were formed in the absence of strong acid. HA, acetaldehyde, and propanal formed their corresponding acetals when reacted with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol. Esters of acetic acid and hydroxyacetic acid were observed from reactions with these same four alcohols. Other acetals and esters were observed by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products. The results from accelerated aging experiments at 90 oC suggest that the presence of methanol slows polymerization by formation of acetals and esters from low molecular weight aldehydes and organic acids.

  2. 降低聚酯装置乙醛排放量%Lower Acetaldehyde Emission in the PET Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓静

    2011-01-01

    上海石化2号聚酯装置经过多年增量改造后产能大幅提高,但由于工艺条件强化,副产物乙醛的生成量有所上升.通过酯化釜扩容缓和了工艺反应条件,从而降低了酯化反应中的副反应;同时,提出对乙醛进行回收,变废为宝,减少对大气的污染,进一步推进装置清洁化生产.%The production was increased greatly with same energy consumption after the capacity expanding of No.2 PET Plant in SPC. With the rising of temperature, the by-product acetaldehyde (AA) became more. Through modification of the reactor and decrease the temperature of esterification, the emission mount of AA was cutdown. At the same time the plan was made to recover the AA produced by reaction of heat degradation in order to avoid atmospheric pollution.

  3. Study on Analytical Method of Carbon Isotopes for Acetaldehyde in Ambient Air%大气乙醛碳同位素分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭送军; 谭吉华; 文晟; 王新明; 盛国英; 傅家谟

    2012-01-01

    A method was described for determination of carbon isotope composition of acetaldehyde in ambient air together with combined gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). Through acetaldehyde via NaHSO3 and cysteamine derivatization, it was found that no carbon isotope fractionation occurred during derivatization reaction process (the differences between measured and calculated acetaldehyde derivatives were 0. Ll‰ to 0.35‰, within precision limits of GC/C/IRMS system). By determining carbon iso-topic compositions of cysteamine and acetaldehyde-cysteamine derivative, δ13C values of acetaldehyde in ambient air could be calculated through a mass balance. Using the method, almost identical δ13C values for acetaldehyde in ambient air were found at the same site [ they were ( -34.21 ±0. 27)‰ and ( -31.23±0.16)‰at two different sampling sites, respectively]. The method could be used as an effective tool to provide valuable information on different sources of acetaldehyde in ambient air.%利用气相色谱/燃烧/同位素比值质谱(GC/C/IRMS)分析技术,采用NaHSO3与半胱胺衍生化方法,测定了气态乙醛在衍生化反应过程中的碳同位素效应,探讨了采用该方法测定大气乙醛碳同位素组成的可行性.试验测定了乙醛、衍生剂半胱胺及相应衍生物的碳同位素比值,结果表明,乙醛衍生物的δ13C测量值与理论值的偏差范围为0.11‰~0.35‰,在仪器精密度范围内(<0.50‰),即在衍生化过程中基本不会发生碳同位素分馏.采用该方法初步测定了大气中乙醛的碳同位素组成,实测数据显示,广州地化所和肇庆鼎湖山大气乙醛δ13C平均值分别为(-34.21±0.27)‰和(-31.23±0.16)‰,相同采样点的大气乙醛碳同位素组成基本不变,可见该方法可作为研究大气乙醛不同排放源的一种有效方法.

  4. Mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde in the up-regulation of the human α2(I) collagen gene in hepatic stellate cells: key roles of Ski, SMAD3, SMAD4, and SMAD7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Arellanes-Robledo, Jaime; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Rojkind, Marcos; Lakshman, M Raj

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol-induced liver fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis is a leading cause of death. Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, up-regulates expression of the human α2(I) collagen gene (COL1A2). Early acetaldehyde-mediated effects involve phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD3/4-containing complexes that bind to COL1A2 promoter to induce fibrogenesis. We used human and mouse hepatic stellate cells to elucidate the mechanisms whereby acetaldehyde up-regulates COL1A2 by modulating the role of Ski and the expression of SMADs 3, 4, and 7. Acetaldehyde induced up-regulation of COL1A2 by 3.5-fold, with concomitant increases in the mRNA (threefold) and protein (4.2- and 3.5-fold) levels of SMAD3 and SMAD4, respectively. It also caused a 60% decrease in SMAD7 expression. Ski, a member of the Ski/Sno oncogene family, is colocalized in the nucleus with SMAD4. Acetaldehyde induces translocation of Ski and SMAD4 to the cytoplasm, where Ski undergoes proteasomal degradation, as confirmed by the ability of the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin to blunt up-regulation of acetaldehyde-dependent COL1A2, but not of the nonspecific fibronectin gene (FN1). We conclude that acetaldehyde up-regulates COL1A2 by enhancing expression of the transactivators SMAD3 and SMAD4 while inhibiting the repressor SMAD7, along with promoting Ski translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm. We speculate that drugs that prevent proteasomal degradation of repressors targeting COL1A2 may have antifibrogenic properties.

  5. Acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse: insight into AM281 administration on operant-conflict paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa A M; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde (ACD) as the mediator of the rewarding and motivational properties of ethanol. Indeed, ACD stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and it is self-administered under different conditions. Besides the dopaminergic transmission, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to play an important role in ethanol central effects, modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug-seeking, and relapse behavior. Drug motivational properties are highlighted in operant paradigms which include response-contingent punishment, a behavioral equivalent of compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. The aim of this study was thus to characterize ACD motivational and rewarding properties employing an operant-conflict paradigm in which rats, trained to lever press in order to get ACD solution (0.9%), undergo extinction, reinstatement and conflict sessions, according to a modified Geller-Seifter procedure. Furthermore, the role played by CB1 receptor system in modulating ACD-induced effects were investigated through the administration of CB1 receptor antagonist, AM281 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during the extinction-, relapse-, and conflict-experiments. Our results indicate that ACD is able to induce and maintain an operant behavior, a high number of responses during extinction, an increase in the lever presses during the reinstatement phase, and a higher emission of punished responses during the conflict experiments, when compared to controls. The administration of AM281 is able to decrease ACD-seeking behavior during extinction, the number of lever presses during reinstatement and to strongly decrease the punished responses for ACD. Our data strengthen the idea that ACD may be responsible for the central effects of ethanol, and pinpoint at the CB1 system as one of the neural substrates underlying its addictive properties.

  6. Effect of diet and disulfiram on acetaldehyde blood levels after ethanol in UChA and UChB rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, M E; Sepúlveda, S; Tampier, L

    1993-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (AcH) levels in blood samples taken from different zones of the vascular system 2 h after a p.o. dose of ethanol (2.76 g/kg) were studied in UChA (low ethanol consumer) and UChB (high ethanol consumer) rats fed a diet devoid of animal products, diet 1 (D1), and a diet containing fish meal, diet 2 (D2), and in rats pretreated with disulfiram (600 mg/kg p.o.). The results showed that, while there is no significant difference between UChA and UChB rats fed D1 with respect to blood AcH levels and the basal activity of the hepatic mitochondrial high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (AIDH), a significant strain difference was observed in rats fed D2, which induced high blood AcH levels in UChA rats but not in UChB ones. No strain differences were observed in blood ethanol levels in the two groups of rats. When rats fed D1 were pretreated with disulfiram, the raising of AcH blood levels induced by ethanol after disulfiram was significantly higher in UChA than in UChB rats in suprahepatic vein, femoral vein, and tail blood. This difference was concomitant with a greater inhibition of the hepatic mitochondrial high-affinity ADH activity in UChA rats than in UChB ones, whether disulfiram was administered in vivo or in vitro, which excluded the possibility that the strain difference would be caused by a different bioavailability of disulfiram.

  7. Acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse: insight into AM281 administration on operant-conflict paradigm in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio ePlescia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde (ACD as the mediator of the rewarding and motivational properties of ethanol. Indeed, ACD stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and it is self-administered under different conditions. Besides the dopaminergic transmission, the endocannabinoid system has been reported to play an important role in ethanol central effects, modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug-seeking and relapse behaviour. Drug motivational properties are highlighted in operant paradigms which include response-contingent punishment, a behavioural equivalent of compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences.The aim of this study was thus to characterize ACD motivational and rewarding properties employing an operant-conflict paradigm in which rats, trained to lever press in order to get ACD solution (0.9%, undergo extinction, reinstatement and conflict sessions, according to a modified Geller-Seifter procedur. Furthermore the role played by CB1 receptor system in modulating ACD-induced effects were investigated through the administration of CB1 receptor antagonist, AM281 (1 mg/kg, i.p. during the extinction-, relapse- and conflict experiments.Our results indicate that ACD is able to induce and maintain an operant behaviour, a high number of responses during extinction, an increase in the lever presses during the reinstatement phase, and a higher emission of punished responses during the conflict experiments, when compared to controls.The administration of AM281 is able to decrease ACD-seeking behaviour during extinction, the number of lever presses during reinstatement and to strongly decrease the punished responses for ACD. Our data strengthen the idea that ACD may be responsible for the central effects of ethanol, and pinpoint at the CB1 system as one of the neural substrates underlying its addictive properties.

  8. Catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid over a Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/γ-alumina catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pil-Gyu; Ohno, Takanobu; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2015-10-01

    Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation and wet impregnation methods for catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid in water. In the present catalysts, Pt and CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2 were successfully dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 support. Dependences of platinum content and reaction time on the selective oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions for obtaining both high acetaldehyde conversion and highest selectivity to acetic acid. Among the catalysts, a Pt(6.4wt.%)/Ce0.68Zr0.17Sn0.15O2.0(16wt.%)/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed the highest acetaldehyde oxidation activity. On this catalyst, acetaldehyde was completely oxidized after the reaction at 0°C for 8hr, and the selectivity to acetic acid reached to 95% and higher after the reaction for 4hr and longer.

  9. Caffeine inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells induced by acetaldehyde via adenosine A2A receptor mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK signal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR. Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine's inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway.Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the lactic acid and acetaldehyde produced by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginc, Y; Topcal, F; Comertpay, S; Akyol, I

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-producing abilities of lactic acid bacterial species isolated from traditionally manufactured Turkish yogurts using HPLC. The lactic acid bacterial species purified from the yogurts were the 2 most widely used species in industrial yogurt production: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria have the ability to ferment hexose sugars homofermentatively to generate lactic acid and some carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde through pyruvate metabolism. The levels of the compounds produced during fermentation influence the texture and the flavor of the yogurt and are themselves influenced by the chemical composition of the milk, processing conditions, and the metabolic activity of the starter culture. In the study, morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics were employed to identify the bacteria obtained from homemade yogurts produced in different regions of Turkey. A collection of 91 Strep. thermophilus and 35 L. bulgaricus strains were investigated for their lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-formation capabilities in various media such as cow milk, LM17 agar, and aerobic-anaerobic SM17 agar or de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar. The amounts of the metabolites generated by each strain in all conditions were quantified by HPLC. The levels were found to vary depending on the species, the strain, and the growth conditions used. Whereas lactic acid production ranged between 0 and 77.9 mg/kg for Strep. thermophilus strains, it ranged from 0 to 103.5 mg/kg for L. bulgaricus. Correspondingly, the ability to generate acetaldehyde ranged from 0 to 105.9 mg/kg in Strep. thermophilus and from 0 to 126.9 mg/kg in L. bulgaricus. Our study constitutes the first attempt to determine characteristics of the wild strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts, and the approach presented here, which reveals the differences in metabolite production abilities of the

  11. Design Essentials of 80 m3 Diluted Acetaldehyde Storage Tank%浅谈80 m3稀乙醛储槽设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春山; 刘文元

    2009-01-01

    Combination 80 m3 thin acetaldehyde tank design, the paper focused on low-pressure tank-top cans bearing ring, tank walls, tank top and anchor set design and the method of calculating and comparing the general design of storage tanks were introduced.%结合80 m3稀乙醛储槽的设计,着重介绍低压储罐罐顶承压环、罐壁、罐顶以及锚栓设置的设计及其计算方法,并与一般储罐设计进行比较.

  12. Cause analysis of high acetaldehyde formation in induction period of vinyl acetate catalyst and optimization measures%醋酸乙烯催化剂活化期乙醛含量高原因分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东强

    2012-01-01

    醋酸乙烯合成反应过程中,产品中的乙醛含量在催化剂活化期远高于活性期.在理论结合生产实践的基础上,逐一分析了造成催化剂活化期乙醛含量高的原因,提出了优化方法,从而降低了乙醛含量.%In the production of vinyl acetate, acetaldehyde content of the product in catalyst induction period was much higher than that in stabilization period. On the basis of theory and production practice, the reasons caused the high acetaldehyde content in catalyst induction period were analyzed and the optimization measures were proposed, by which the acetaldehyde content was reduced effectively.

  13. Effects of acetaldehyde and L-carnitine on morphology and enzyme activity of myocardial mitochondria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan-Zhe; Wang, Guo-Feng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Yan, Bin; Hu, Wei-Na

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of acetaldehyde (AA) and L-carnitine (LC) on morphology and enzyme activity of myocardial mitochondria in rats. Sixty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group (n = 20), the AA low-dose group (n = 15), the AA high-dose group (n = 15) and the AA + LC group (n = 15). Different doses (110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg) AA was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks administration, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of morphology of rat myocardial mitochondria was performed. Serum levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were detected to evaluate mitochondrial enzymes activities. Light micrograph of rat myocardiocytes in the control group showing normal architecture of myocytes. The numerical density and number of mitochondria in both low-dose and high-dose AA groups were lower than that of the control group. After administration of LC, the rats in the AA + LC group showed an obvious increase in the numerical density and number of mitochondria. TEM showed that both low-dose and high-dose AA could induce myocardial mitochondrial damage in rats in a dose-dependent manner, such as mitochondrial swelling, disruptions of crest and membrane, mitochondrial deficiency. The degree of mitochondrial damage of the AA + LC group was significantly decreased after administration of LC. Our results showed that serum levels of SDH and SOD in the AA + LC and control groups were also higher than those of the low-dose and high-dose AA groups; while the MDA level in the AA + LC and control groups were lower than that of the low-dose and high-dose AA groups. The low-dose AA, high-dose AA and AA + LC groups exhibited a higher level of serum cTnI than that of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in serum cTnI level among the low-dose AA, high-dose AA and AA + LC groups. Our findings

  14. 乙醛吸收塔内件损坏原因分析及处理%Reason Analysis and Treatment Measures of Inner Parts Damage in Acetaldehyde Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会娟

    2012-01-01

    乙醛吸收塔是酒精氧化制乙醛的关键设备,检修中发现内件损坏严重。对内件损坏原因进行了分析,制定了解决措施,运行效果良好。%Acetaldehyde absorption tower is the key equipment in preparing acetaldehyde by alcohol.To find serious dam- age in maintenance of absorption tower. To analyze the reasons of damage, put forword the treatment measures, and the operation effect is good.

  15. Preparations of TiO2 film coated on foam nickel substrate by sol-gel processes and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of acetaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hai; XIAO Wen-jun; YUAN Jian; SHI Jian-wei; CHEN Ming-xia; SHANG GUAN Wen-feng

    2007-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 films were successfully prepared on foam nickel substrates by sol-gel technique using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor. The characteristics of the TiO2 films were investigated by XPS, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2 films were investigated by photocatalytic degradation reactions of gaseous acetaldehyde, an indoor pollutant, under ultraviolet light irradiation. It was found that Ni2+ doping into TiO2 films due to the foam nickel substrates resulted in the extension of absorption edges of TiO2 films from UV region to visible light region. The pre-heating for foam nickel substrates resulted in the formation of NiO layer, which prevented effectively the injection of photogenerated electrons from TiO2 films to metal nickel. The TiO2 films displayed high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of acetaldehyde, and were enhanced by calcining the substrates and coating TiO2 films repeatedly. The high activity was mainly attributed to the improvement of the characteristics of substrate surface and the increase of active sites on photocatalyst.

  16. Preparations of TiO2 film coated on foam nickel substrate by sol-gel processes and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Xiao, Wen-jun; Yuan, Jian; Shi, Jian-wei; Chen, Ming-xia; Shang Guan, Wen-feng

    2007-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 films were successfully prepared on foam nickel substrates by sol-gel technique using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor. The characteristics of the TiO2 films were investigated by XPS, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2 films were investigated by photocatalytic degradation reactions of gaseous acetaldehyde, an indoor pollutant, under ultraviolet light irradiation. It was found that Ni2+ doping into Ti02 films due to the foam nickel substrates resulted in the extension of absorption edges of TiO2 films from UV region to visible light region. The pre-heating for foam nickel substrates resulted in the formation of NiO layer, which prevented effectively the injection of photogenerated electrons from TiO2 films to metal nickel. The TiO2 films displayed high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of acetaldehyde, and were enhanced by calcining the substrates and coating TiO2 films repeatedly. The high activity was mainly attributed to the improvement of the characteristics of substrate surface and the increase of active sites on photocatalyst.

  17. Acetaldehyde-induced formation of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, J; Ueno, Y; Ogawa, Y; Hishida, S; Yamamoto, K; Ouchi, H; Tatsuno, Y

    1993-02-24

    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) is one of the metabolites of peak E substance, which, based on epidemiological studies, has been thought to be a possible causative agent of the tryptophan-induced eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Acute ethanol and L-tryptophan administration in rats pretreated with cyanamide resulted in the formation of MTCA. Concentrations of MTCA were estimated at 27 ng/g in blood and 33 ng/g in kidneys. Chronic treatment with a liquid diet containing ethanol as 36% of the total calories for 6 weeks increased these levels. MTCA was barely observed in rats that had received acute or chronic ethanol in the absence of cyanamide, or in the cyanamide-tryptophan controls. Cyanamide facilitation of ethanol-dependent MTCA biosynthesis may be due to a potentiation of the blood level of acetaldehyde derived from ethanol. The blood acetaldehyde level in rats that had been acutely treated with cyanamide, ethanol and L-tryptophan was 348 microM, and averaged 503 microM in rats that received the same treatment after chronic consumption of ethanol. In contrast to the above findings, L-tryptophan intake promoted the formation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TCCA) in rats. This is the first report of MTCA in mammalian tissue during tryptophan and ethanol metabolism.

  18. Symthesis of Methyl Hexyl Acetaldehyde by Darzems Reactiom%Darzens 反应合成甲基己基乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文抗

    2014-01-01

    The solvent method for synthesizing methyl hexyl acetaldehyde,under the anhydrous and alkali catalysis,methyl nonyl ketone and α - halogenated acid ester via Darzens reaction to generate α,β - epoxy acid ester,saponification, acidification,heating and decarboxylation. The optimum process conditions acquired:petroleum ether as solvent,reaction temperature for 10 ~ 15℃ for condensation,condensation rate of reached 75% ;25% NaOH solution for saponification;2% sulfuric acidhyl sulfoxide for decarboxylation,the methyl hexyl acetaldehyde must rate reached 61% .%溶剂法缩合制甲基己基乙醛,以甲基壬酮与α-卤代酸酯在无水碱催化下,通过 Darzens 反应生成α,β-环氧酸酯,经皂化、酸化、加热脱羧而得,并对该工艺进行优化,缩合反应以石油醚为溶剂,反应温度为10~15℃,缩合收率达到75%;水解反应:用25%的 NaOH 溶液;脱羧反应:用2%的硫酸,使甲基己基乙醛总收率达到61%。

  19. Increased levels of the acetaldehyde-derived DNA adduct N 2-ethyldeoxyguanosine in oral mucosa DNA from Rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; Juanes, Rita Cervera; Khariwala, Samir; Baker, Erich J; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is a human carcinogen. A causal link has been established between alcohol drinking and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, colon, liver and breast. Despite this established association, the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. Various mechanisms may come into play depending on the type of cancer; however, convincing evidence supports the concept that ethanol's major metabolite acetaldehyde may play a major role. Acetaldehyde can react with DNA forming adducts which can serve as biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and potentially of cancer risk. The major DNA adduct formed from this reaction is N (2)-ethylidenedeoxyguanosine, which can be quantified as its reduced form N (2)-ethyl-dG by LC-ESI-MS/MS. To investigate the potential use of N (2)-ethyl-dG as a biomarker of alcohol-induced DNA damage, we quantified this adduct in DNA from the oral, oesophageal and mammary gland tissues from rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol drinking over their lifetimes and compared it to controls. N (2)-Ethyl-dG levels were significantly higher in the oral mucosa DNA of the exposed animals. Levels of the DNA adduct measured in the oesophageal mucosa of exposed animals were not significantly different from controls. A correlation between the levels measured in the oral and oesophageal DNA, however, was observed, suggesting a common source of formation of the DNA adducts. N (2) -Ethyl-dG was measured in mammary gland DNA from a small cohort of female animals, but no difference was observed between exposed animals and controls. These results support the hypothesis that acetaldehyde induces DNA damage in the oral mucosa of alcohol-exposed animals and that it may play role in the alcohol-induced carcinogenic process. The decrease of N (2)-ethyl-dG levels in exposed tissues further removed from the mouth also suggests a role of alcohol metabolism in the oral cavity, which may be considered separately from ethanol liver metabolism in the

  20. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Giia-Sheun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; these polymorphisms have been shown to be the important genetic determinants in ethanol metabolism and alcoholism. Here, we briefly review recent advances in genomic studies of human ADH/ALDH families and alcoholism, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetic consequences of venous blood acetaldehyde in the different ALDH2 genotypes following the intake of various doses of ethanol. This paper illustrates a paradigmatic example of phenotypic verifications in a protective disease gene for substance abuse.

  1. Study on the Derivatization conditions for Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde%甲醛、乙醛衍生化条件的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏伟; 袁文杰; 黄剑英

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish the derivatization conditions for controlling the contents of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde by HPLC method at the same time.METHODS After derivatization of which formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was mixed thoroughly with the reagent solution (2,4-DNPH) and heated at 60 ℃ in a water bath for 60 min,the test was performed on Agilent TC-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) column with the mobile phase of water-acetonitrile (45 ∶ 55) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1.The detection wavelength was set at 350 nm and the column temperature was 40 ℃.The injection volume was 20 μL.RESULTS The resolution of the mixture solution of derivatization was 7.2.The linear ranger of formaldehyde was 0.028~9.23 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 4),the average recovery (n=9) was 102.6% (RSD=0.9%),LQDformaldehyde was 3.7×10-6 μg,LODformaldehyde was 1.8×10-6 μg; The linear ranger of acetaldehyde was 0.063~20.9 μg.mL-1(r=0.999 5),the average recovery (n=9) was 102.0% (RSD=1.2%),LOQacetaldehyde was 1.1 × 10-4 μg,LODacetaldehyde was 5.5 × 10-5 μg.CONCLUSION The method is accurate and sensitive.The study may provide a basis for the safety monitoring of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.%目的 建立通过HPLC方法同时控制甲醛量、乙醛量的衍生化条件.方法 甲醛、乙醛与2,4-二硝基苯肼溶液在60℃水浴中加热60 min衍生化反应,采用Agilent TC-C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),以水-乙腈(45∶55)为流动相,流速1.0 mL.min-1,检测波长350 nm;柱温为40℃;进样量20 μL.结果 甲醛、乙醛衍生化物峰的分离度为7.2,甲醛的线性范围为0.028~9.23 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 4),平均回收率(n=9)为102.6%(RSD=0.9%),定量限为3.7× 10-6 μg、检测限为1.8×10-6 μg;乙醛的线性范围为0.063~20.90 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 5),平均回收率(n=9)为102.0%(RSD=1.2%),定量限为1.1×10-4μg、检测限为5.5×10-5 μg.结论 本法准确、灵敏,为甲醛、乙醛的安全监测提供检测依据.

  2. Controlling acetaldehyde in the banana wine brewage%酿制香蕉酒过程中乙醛含量的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娜; 朱晓芳; 钟秋平

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-screening yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae W6 as the strain,the impaction on the content of acetaldehyde after alcohol fermentation was studied by using single factor experiments and response surface analysis methodology,the impact factors included sugar,sulfur dioxide,ammonium dibasic phosphate,ammonium sulfate.And the relationship between the content of acetaldehyde and the adding of four factors can also be concluded.The best option:sugar content was 22°Bx,sulfur dioxide dosage of 60mg/L,ammonium dibasic phosphate in the dosage of 600mg/L,ammonium sulfate addition level 639.35mg/L.For the production of low-sulfur type of banana wine provide the theoretical basis.%以自行筛选的Saccharomyces cerevisiaeW6酵母为出发菌株,利用单因素实验和响应面设计实验研究糖度、二氧化硫、磷酸氢二铵和硫酸铵4个因素对香蕉酒发酵结束后乙醛含量的影响,并得到乙醛含量与4个影响因素添加量之间的关系。最佳方案:糖度为22°Bx,二氧化硫添加量为60mg/L,磷酸氢二铵的添加量为600mg/L,硫酸铵的添加量为639.35mg/L。为低硫型香蕉酒的生产提供理论依据。

  3. Determination of acetaldehyde in beer by headspace gas chromatography%顶空进样气相色谱法检测啤酒中乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 魏良鑫; 佟婷婷; 柳亚迪; 王林祥; 刘春凤; 李崎; 顾国贤

    2011-01-01

    A method for the determination of acetaldehyde in beer was established by using the automatic headspace gas chromatography in this paper. Optimization of detection conditions were as below; headspace injector equilibrium temperature 70% , equilibrium time 30 min; column initial temperature 40% , temperatureprogrammed from 10%/min to 180 %; column flow 1.2 ml/min, addition of sodium chloride 1.8 g. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the concentration range of 2 ~ 64 mg/L( R2 = 0.999 ) ; good precision was obtained with six easurements. For 10 mg/L standard acetaldehyde solution, RSD, the recoveries and detection limit were 2. 5% , 96% ~ 108% and 0.4 mg/L, respectively.%建立了项空自动进样气相色谱法测定啤酒发酵液中乙醛含量的方法.检测条件优化为:顶空进样器平衡温度70℃,平衡时间30 min;色谱柱初始温度40℃,经程序升温10℃/min到180℃;柱流量1.2 mL/min,加盐量1.8g.对不同浓度的乙醛标准溶液进样测定,标准曲线证明线性良好,R2为0.999,线性范围2~64 mg/L;以浓度10 mg/L乙醛标准液6次测定结果RSD为2.5%;加标回收率为96%~108%,检测限为0.4 mg/L.

  4. Thermodynamics of Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde%乙醛缩合反应体系热力学计算和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳辉; 梁泽磊; 刘剑; 刘仲能

    2011-01-01

    The standard enthalpies of formation, the standard Gibbs free energy of formation and the heat capacity of each compound in acetaldehyde condensation reaction system were calculated with the application of Yoneda group contribution method. Comparison of the calculated results with some literature values show that the calculation results are reliable.Then the reaction enthalpies, reaction Gibbs free energy changes and equilibrium constants of relevant reactions in this system from 278 K to 368 K in liquid phase and 600 K in vapor phase were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the temperature has important influence on the main reaction.Conducting the reactions in liquid phase at low temperature benefited the main reaction, while high temperature led to low conversion and selectivity. 2,4-hexadienoic aldehyde was the main by-product. The thermodynamic analysis agreed well with experimental results. Acetaldehyde condensation is not recommended to proceed at high temperature. To improve the conversion and selectivity of practical reaction, the temperature is proposed be controlled reasonably or the main product needs to be separated from the reactant in time.%采用Yoneda基团贡献法估算了乙醛羟醛缩合反应体系中各物质的标准生成焓、标准熵和等压热容,与部分文献值的比较表明估算较为准确.在此基础上计算了278-368 K液相反应和600 K气相反应时主、副反应的反应焓变、反应吉布斯自由能变和反应平衡常数.结果表明温度对主反应影响较大,低温液相反应对主反应有利,高温气相反应选择性低,主要副产物为2,4-己二烯醛.热力学分析与实验结果一致,乙醛缩合反应不宜采用高温气固相反应.因此实际生产中需对反应温度进行合理控制或对反应产物和原料及时分离,以提高反应转化率和选择性.

  5. Study on Acetalization of Acetaldehyde Aqueous Solution and Methanol%甲醇与乙醛水溶液缩合制备二甲醇缩乙醛研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梦蛟; 宋昭峥

    2016-01-01

    以甲醇和乙醛水溶液为原料,合成二甲醇缩乙醛,反应过程中考察催化剂种类、催化剂改性效果、搅拌速度、反应温度、反应平衡时间、醇/醛摩尔比、乙醛质量分数等因素对反应的影响。结果表明:以NKC-9树脂作为催化剂,搅拌速度300 r/min,反应温度30益,反应时间25 min,甲醇/乙醛摩尔比13.1时乙醛的转化率最高。1%SnCl4进行改性的改性效果最好。%The 1,1-dimethoxyethane was synthesized with the raw material of acetaldehyde aqueous solution and methanol. Experiment respectively investigated influence of reaction from the types of catalyst, stirring speed, reaction temperature, reaction time of arrival in balance, the molar ratio of methanol and acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde concentration. The modification effect of catalyst was also investigated. The experimental results showed that NKC-9 resin gave the highest acetalization behavior. The highest conversion rate needed stirring rate 300 r/min, the reaction temperature of 30 ℃, reaction time of 25 min, the mole ratio of methanol and acetaldehyde of 13. 1. Using modified catalyst 1%SnCl4 resin catalyst had the best modification effect.

  6. 顶空-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈%Determination of Acetaldehyde,Acrylaldehyde and Acrylonitrile in Water with Headspace Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芸菁

    2013-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography method was developed for acetaldehyde, acrylaldehyde and acrylonitrile in water. This method shows good separating effect and high sensitivity. The lowest detection limits were 0.03mg/L for acetaldehyde, 0.07mg/L for acrylaldehyde , 0.04mg/L for acrylonitrile. The recovery rates were 86% ~115% for acetaldehyde, 81%~110%for acrylaldehyde , 80%~108%for acrylonitrile. Experiment results show that the advantages of this method are simple, rapid, accurate for determination of acetaldehyde, acrylaldehyde and acrylonitrile in surface water and wastewater.%建立了顶空-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的分析方法。该方法分离度好,灵敏度高,水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的检出浓度为0.03mg/L、0.07mg/L、0.04mg/L,回收率分别为86%~115%、81%~110%、80%~108%。结果表明,顶空-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈方法简单快捷,准确,适合地表水、废水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的同时测定。

  7. 大体积进样气相色谱法测定水中乙醛%Detection of acetaldehyde in water by large volume injection-gas chromatography process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟士; 赵小敏

    2011-01-01

    试验采用大体积直接进样,气相色谱填充柱进行分离分析水中乙醛浓度.结果表明该方法分离度好、灵敏度高,水中乙醛检出限为0.01 mg/L,乙醛样品加标回收率为98.4%~108.4%;平行测定结果的相对标准差为4.1%(n=7).大体积进样气相色谱法简便、快速、准确、重现性好,适合于水体中乙醛的测定.%The acetaldehyde in water was separated and detected using the combined process of large volume injection and packed column gas chromatography. The results of the test showed that, the said process had good separable degree and high sensitivity, the detection limit of acetaldehyde was 0.01 mg/L, and the recovery of standard addition was 98.4% - 108.4%; the relative standard deviation got from the parallel determination was 4.1%(n = 7). It could be seen that, large volume injection-gas chromatography process had advantages of convenient, quick, accurate and good reproductivity, which was suitable for the detection of acetaldehyde in water.

  8. Benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxine B₁ and acetaldehyde mutational patterns in TP53 gene using a functional assay: relevance to human cancer aetiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Paget

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TP53 gene are the most common alterations in human tumours. TP53 mutational patterns have sometimes been linked to carcinogen exposure. In hepatocellular carcinoma, a specific G>T transversion on codon 249 is classically described as a fingerprint of aflatoxin B(1 exposure. Likewise G>T transversions in codons 157 and 158 have been related to tobacco exposure in human lung cancers. However, controversies remain about the interpretation of TP53 mutational pattern in tumours as the fingerprint of genotoxin exposure. By using a functional assay, the Functional Analysis of Separated Alleles in Yeast (FASAY, the present study depicts the mutational pattern of TP53 in normal human fibroblasts after in vitro exposure to well-known carcinogens: benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B(1 and acetaldehyde. These in vitro patterns of mutations were then compared to those found in human tumours by using the IARC database of TP53 mutations. The results show that the TP53 mutational patterns found in human tumours can be only partly ascribed to genotoxin exposure. A complex interplay between the functional impact of the mutations on p53 phenotype and the cancer natural history may affect these patterns. However, our results strongly support that genotoxins exposure plays a major role in the aetiology of the considered cancers.

  9. The Comparative Study on Analytical Method of Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in Water%水中乙醛和丙烯醛分析方法的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀艳; 陈烨; 于海斌; 谭丽; 许人骥; 滕恩江

    2014-01-01

    In this paper three kinds of methods for the determination of acetaldehyde and acrolein in water are summarized,which are 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization method, headspace gas chromatography and purge-trap gas chromatography mass spectrometry.In addition, respective advantages and characteristics of these methods are showed through the comparison and analysis of the method principles, factors affecting the determi-nation and performance validation.The analysis results on actual water samples by these methods showed that there was no significant difference, and precision and accuracy of these methods all meet the monitoring require-ments.%对测定水中乙醛和丙烯醛的3种方法---2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生化法、顶空气相色谱法和吹扫捕集-气相色谱质谱法进行概述和总结,并对各方法的试验条件、方法原理、测定影响因素以及效能验证等分析、比对,突出表现各自的优势和特点。用3种方法同时测定实际水样,结果无显著差异,精密度、准确度满足监测要求。

  10. Acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2) and clathrin are involved in internalization of human transferrin by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Magda; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María; Avila, Eva E; de la Garza, Mireya

    2011-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a host glycoprotein capable of binding two ferric-iron ions to become holotransferrin (holoTf), which transports iron in to all cells. Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan able to use holoTf as a sole iron source in vitro. The mechanism by which this parasite scavenges iron from holoTf is unknown. An E. histolytica holoTf-binding protein (EhTfbp) was purified by using an anti-human transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibody. EhTfbp was identified by MS/MS analysis and database searches as E. histolytica acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2), an iron-dependent enzyme. Both EhTfbp and EhADH2 bound holoTf and were recognized by the anti-human TfR antibody, indicating that they correspond to the same protein. It was found that the amoebae internalized holoTf through clathrin-coated pits, suggesting that holoTf endocytosis could be important for the parasite during colonization and invasion of the intestinal mucosa and liver.

  11. 6万t/a乙醛生产装置国产化%NATIONALIZATION OF 60 kt/a ACETALDEHYDE PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立文

    2001-01-01

    介绍了吉林化学工业股份有限公司电石厂对其引进的6万t/a乙醛生产装置的消化吸收、技术改造情况,经过技术改造使其生产能力由6万t/a提高到8万t/a。1998年,该厂与吉林化学工业集团公司设计院合作新建了一套6万t/a国产化乙醛生产装置。新装置投资少、建设周期短、一次开车成功。%Production,digestion and absorption,and technical transformation of JiH ua acetaldehyde plant imported are reviewed.After remoulding the production capa city of the plant has been increased from 60kt/a to 80 kt/a.In 1998,a new nation alized acetaldahyde plant with a capacity of 60 kt/a was built up.It is charact er ized by less investment,shorter construction period and putting into operation rapidly.

  12. 顶空气相色谱法同时测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈%Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrylaldehyde and Acrylonitrile in Water with Headspace Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於香湘; 缪建军; 吴鹏; 项徐伟

    2011-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of acetaldehyde,acrylaldehyde and acrylonitrile in water. Acetaldehyde, acrylaldehyde and acrylonitrile in water samples were extracted by headspace technology,then seperated with HP-innowax capillary column and detected by FID. Retention time of the peaks was used for qualitative analysis,while external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The lowest detection limits were 0.04 mg/L for acetaldehyde, 0.02 mg/L for acrylaldehyde and 0.01 mg/L for acrylonitrile. The recovery rates were 95.2% ~ 98.7% for acetaldehyde, 95.8% ~ 97.9% for acrylaldehyde and 96.7% ~ 99.6% for acrylonitrile. And RSD (n = 6)were lower than 5.2%. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and applicable for determination of acetaldehyde,acrylaldehyde and acrylonitrile in various water samples.%建立水中微量乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的顶空气相色谱(HS-GC)测定方法,经项空进样,用HP-INNOWAX毛细管色谱柱程序升温分离,FID检测,以保留时间定性,外标法定量.水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的检出质量浓度分别为0.04,0.02和0.01 mg/L.样品加标回收率乙醛为952%~98.7%,丙烯醛为95.8%~97.9%,丙烯腈为96.7%~99.6%,6次平行测定结果的相对标准差不大于5.2%.该方法简便、快速、准确、重现性好,适合各种水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的同时测定.

  13. 溶剂浸提条件下鱼腥草中癸酰乙醛的高效提取%Highly Efficient Extraction of Decanoyl Acetaldehyde in Houttuynia cordata thunb under Solvent Immersing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青松; 殷华茹

    2013-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata thumb (HCT),the so called antibiotic of traditional Chinese medicine,has been widely employed for clinic therapy.However,the effective extraction of houttuynium (decanoyl acetaldehyde) as a main component of HCT remains an intellectual challenge.In this paper,through the solvent immersing method,the essential oil was extracted,and the influence of reaction conditions on the efficiency of decanoyl acetaldehyde extraction were investigated such as the type of solvents,temperature and time.When ethyl acetate was used as solvent and extraction was processed at room temperature for 456 h,the maximum extractability of essential oil was 0.294 %,and the content of decanoyl acetaldehyde was up to 40.14% in the essential oil,and only trace of 2-undecanone was found.In the procedure,the mild extraction condition has reduced the decomposition of decanoyl acetaldehyde.The current study provides a promise way to highly effective extraction of decanoyl acetaldehyde from HCT on a large scale.%本文采用溶剂浸泡提取鱼腥草挥发油,考察了浸泡溶剂、浸泡温度和浸泡时间等因素的影响,探究了鱼腥草中最关键的抗菌成分之一鱼腥草素(癸酰乙醛)的真实含量.研究发现,室温下采用乙酸乙酯浸泡鱼腥草456 h,鱼腥草挥发油的提取率高达0.294%,挥发油中癸酰乙醛的含量高达40.14%,仅检测到少量甲基正壬酮.结果表明,温和的提取条件有效抑制了癸酰乙醛的氧化分解,获得远高于水蒸汽蒸馏条件下的癸酰乙醛含量(0.03%).该研究为从鱼腥草中高效提取癸酰乙醛提供了一种切实可行的手段.

  14. Determination of photo-catalytic activity of un-doped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase powders on acetaldehyde under UV and visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C., E-mail: bpapadim@chemistry.uoc.gr [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Kinetics, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Stefanopoulos, Vassileios G.; Romanias, Manolis N. [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Kinetics, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papagiannakopoulos, Panos, E-mail: panosp@chemistry.uoc.gr [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Kinetics, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Sambani, Kyriaki; Tudose, Valentin; Kiriakidis, George [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527,Vasilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) photocatalytic powder materials doped with various levels of manganese (Mn) were synthesized to be used as additives to wall painting in combating indoor and outdoor air pollution. The heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) on Mn-TiO{sub 2} surfaces under ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) irradiation was investigated, by employing the Photochemical Static Reactor coupled with Fourier-Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (PSR/FTIR) technique. Experiments were performed by exposing acetaldehyde ({approx} 400 Pa) and synthetic air mixtures ({approx} 1.01 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} Pa total pressure) on un-doped TiO{sub 2} and doped with various levels of Mn (0.1-33% mole percentage) under UV and visible irradiation at room temperature. Photoactivation was initiated using either UV or visible light sources with known emission spectra. Initially, the photo-activity of CH{sub 3}CHO under the above light sources, and the physical adsorption of CH{sub 3}CHO on Mn-TiO{sub 2} samples in the absence of light were determined prior to the photocatalytic experiments. The photocatalytic loss of CH{sub 3}CHO on un-doped TiO{sub 2} and Mn-TiO{sub 2} samples in the absence and presence of UV or visible irradiation was measured over a long time period ( Almost-Equal-To 60 min), to evaluate their relative photocatalytic activity. The gaseous photocatalytic end products were also determined using absorption FTIR spectroscopy. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was identified as the main photocatalysis product. It was found that 0.1% Mn-TiO{sub 2} samples resulted in the highest photocatalytic loss of CH{sub 3}CHO under visible irradiation. This efficiency was drastically diminished at higher levels of Mn doping (1-33%). The CO{sub 2} yields were the highest for 0.1% Mn-TiO{sub 2} samples under UV irradiation, in agreement with the observed highest CH{sub 3}CHO decomposition rates. It was demonstrated that low-level (0

  15. Nonlinear responses for chromosome and gene level effects induced by vinyl acetate monomer and its metabolite, acetaldehyde in TK6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinsky, Robert; Gollapudi, Bhaskar; Albertini, Richard J; Valentine, Rudolph; Stavanja, Mari; Teeguarden, Justin; Fensterheim, Robert; Rick, David; Lardie, Thomas; McFadden, Lisa; Green, Amanda; Recio, Leslie

    2013-12-01

    Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) produced rat nasal tumors at concentrations in the hundreds of parts per million. However, VAM is weakly genotoxic in vitro and shows no genotoxicity in vivo. A European Union Risk Assessment concluded that VAM's hydrolysis to acetaldehyde (AA), via carboxylesterase, is a critical key event in VAM's carcinogenic potential. In the following study, we observed increases in micronuclei (MN) and thymidine kinase (Tk) mutants that were dependent on the ability of TK6 cell culture conditions to rapidly hydrolyze VAM to AA. Heat-inactivated horse serum demonstrated a high capacity to hydrolyze VAM to AA; this activity was highly correlated with a concomitant increase in MN. In contrast, heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS) did not hydrolyze VAM and no increase in MN was observed. AA's ability to induce MN was not impacted by either serum since it directly forms Schiff bases with DNA and proteins. Increased mutant frequency at the Tk locus was similarly mitigated when AA formation was not sufficiently rapid, such as incubating VAM in the presence of FBS for 4 hr. Interestingly, neither VAM nor AA induced mutations at the HPRT locus. Finally, cytotoxicity paralleled genotoxicity demonstrating that a small degree of cytotoxicity occurred prior to increases in MN. These results established 0.25 mM as a consistent concentration where genotoxicity first occurred for both VAM and AA provided VAM is hydrolyzed to AA. This information further informs significant key events related to the mode of action of VAM-induced nasal mucosal tumors in rats.

  16. Determination of Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in Surface Water by Headspace Gas Chromatography%顶空气相色谱法同时测定地表水中的乙醛、丙烯醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹芳瑶; 寸宇智; 杨卫花; 赵浩军; 赵丽萍

    2016-01-01

    采用顶空气相色谱法测定地表水中乙醛、丙烯醛的含量,优化的顶空条件为:平衡温度80℃,平衡时间20 min,加 NaCl 添加量4 g,样品量10 mL。水中乙醛、丙烯醛的最低检出限分别为0.05和0.08 mg/L,乙醛加标回收率为84.8%~109.1%,丙烯醛为79.2%~108.3%;乙醛相对标准偏差为2.4%~8.6%,丙烯醛为5.2%~10.7%。%A method for the determination of acetaldehyde and acrolein in surface water by headspace gas chromatography was studied.As a result,the temperature of 80 ℃,the balance time of 20 min,the NaCl amount of 4 g and the water volume of 10 mL were chosen as the optimization of headspace conditions.The detection limits was 0.05 mg/L of acetaldehyde and 0.08 mg/L of acrolein.The results showed that the re-covery of acetaldehyde ranged between 84.8% - 109.1% and the recovery of acrolein ranged between 79.2% -108.3%.The relative standard deviations were ranged from 2.4% to 10.7%.

  17. 二氧化碳中环氧乙烷和乙醛分离色谱柱的选择%Selection of Column for Separation Acetaldehyde And Ethylene Oxide in Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边鲁宁; 王崇

    2015-01-01

    Discussing the ethyene oxide and acetaldehyde separation in carbon dioxide that related to the chromatographic column.Do the experiments, determine the chromatographic column and chromatographic condition .Conclusion separation effect in order to get the best chromatographic column .%讨论二氧化碳中环氧乙烷和乙醛分离有关的色谱柱。进行相关实验,确定色谱柱、色谱条件的选择,总结其分离效果,得出最佳色谱柱。

  18. 超高效液相色谱法测定卷烟包装纸中的甲醛和乙醛%Determination of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde in Cigarette Wrapping Paper by UPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹悦; 杨式华; 王惠; 孔兰芬; 董胜强; 李立兵; 王保兴

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in cigarette wrapping paper was studied. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were derivatizated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, then they were separated by Waters BEH ShieldRP18 column with 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase and detected with photodiode array detecter (PDA) at 360 nm. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were completely separated and detected in 5 min. The method has good repeatability and linearity. All the correlation coefficients are above 0. 9999. Their recoveries were 97.9% and 95.5% respectively. The method was satisfied with the results by rapid determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in cigarette wrapping paper.%研究了超高效液相色谱用于卷烟包装纸中甲醛和乙醛含量测定方法。甲醛和乙醛通过2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生化后,以0.5%甲酸水溶液-乙腈(体积比为65:35)为流动相,在Waters BEH Shield RP18(1.7um,2.1mm×50mm)色谱柱上分离,二极管阵列检测器检测,检测波长360nm。甲醛和乙醛在5min内即可完全分离,方法具有较好的重现性和线性关系,相关系数均达到0.9999,加标回收率甲醛为97.9%,乙醛为95.5%;用于卷烟包装纸中甲醛和乙醛的快速测定,结果满意。

  19. Liquid-Phase Aldol Condesation of Acetaldehyde and Its Kinetics%乙醛液相羟醛缩合反应工艺和动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳辉; 任伟丽; 梁泽磊; 刘仲能; 吴高胜

    2013-01-01

    考察了KOH,NaOH,Na2CO3,NaOH和Na2CO3混合碱,三乙胺及阴离子交换树脂在乙醛缩合反应过程中的催化性能,以及反应体系的pH值和温度对反应的影响.结果表明,以Na2CO3为催化剂有利于维持反应体系pH稳定,当反应体系pH值为11~12,反应温度35℃时,反应转化率和选择性较高.在不同温度和pH值时进行动力学研究,得到pH值分别为10.4,11.0和11.4的动力学方程和相应的参数,其中pH值为11.4时,反应活化能最小.%The catalytic performance of different catalysts, KOH, NaOH, Na2CO3, mixed alkalis of NaOH and Na2CO3, triethylamine, and anionic exchange resin, in aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, were examined. The effects of solution pH level and reaction temperature on the reaction extent were investigated. The results indicate that a relatively constant pH level could be maintained with Na2CO3 as the catalyst. The reaction has a high conversion and a high selectivity at the reaction temperature of 35 ℃ and the pH range of 11-12. Kinetic studies were then carried out with Na2CO3 as the catalyst at different reaction temperatures and pH levels. The kinetic equations and the corresponding parameters were finally obtained for pH level of 10.4, 11.0, and 11.4, respectively. The activation energy at pH value of 11.4 is the lowest.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous detection of malonaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde to monitor the oxidative stress in heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordis, G A; Bagchi, D; Maulik, N; Das, D K

    1994-02-11

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with the production of lipid hydroperoxides, cyclic peroxides, cyclic endoperoxides, and finally fragmentation to ketones and aldehydes (including malonaldehyde, MDA). Estimation of LPO through MDA formation measured by assaying thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive products remains the method of choice to study the development of oxidative stress in tissues. However, MDA estimation by TBA reactive products is non-specific and often gives erroneous results. In this report we describe a method using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation to estimate MDA, formaldehyde (FDA), acetaldehyde (ADA), acetone, and propionaldehyde (PDA), the degradation products of oxygen-derived free radicals (ODFR) and PUFA, as presumptive markers for LPO. Oxidative stress was induced in the tissue by perfusing an isolated rat heart with hydroxyl radical generating system (xanthine + xanthine oxidase + FeCl3 + EDTA). The coronary effluents were collected, derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and extracted with pentane. Aliquots of 25 microliters in acetonitrile were injected onto a Beckman Ultrasphere C18 (3 microns) column. The products were eluted isocratically with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (40:60:0.1, v/v/v), measured at three different wavelengths (307, 325 and 356 nm) using a Waters M-490 multichannel UV detector and collected for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The peaks were identified by cochromatography with DNPH derivatives of authentic standards, peak addition, UV pattern of absorption at the three wavelengths, and by GC-MS. The retention items of MDA, FDA, ADA, acetone, and PDA were 5.3, 6.6, 10.3, 16.5, and 20.5 min, respectively. The results of our study indicated progressive increase of all five lipid metabolites as a function of the duration of ODFR perfusion. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, superoxide

  1. Improvement of Acetaldehyde Determination in PET Bottles for Oral Preparations%口服药用聚酯瓶标准中乙醛测定方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻亮宇; 黄海萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To improve the determination method of Acetaldehyde in PET bottles for oral preparations.Method:The head-space gas chromatography was adopted.Result:The curve of Acetaldehyde was linear in the range of 0.2-3.0μg (r=0.995 4), the average recovery was 103.2%with RSD of 3.5%(n=9).Conclusion:The improved method is simple, accurate which can be used to control the quality of PET bottles for oral preparations efficiently.%目的:改进现行口服药用聚酯瓶质量标准中乙醛测定方法。方法:采用顶空气相色谱法对乙醛进行含量测定。结果:乙醛进样量在0.2~3.0μg范围内线性良好,r=0.9954,平均回收率为103.2%,RSD=3.5%(n=9)。结论:修订后的方法简便、准确,能够更有效地控制口服药用聚酯瓶的质量。

  2. Gene regulation to increase acetaldehyde and diacetyl production by lactic acid bacteria%发酵乳风味物质乙醛、双乙酰的合成途径及其调控机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丹彤; 包秋华; 孟和毕力格; 王俊国; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria can produce flavor compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes and esters, among others, during fermentation. These bacteria also produce several organic acids, such as lactic acid, raw acetic acid, propionic acid, and others, during glycolysis. These organic acids can interact with flavor compounds to form unique flavors of fermented milk. Acetaldehyde and diacetyl have been recognized as important flavor components in yogurt. The present review article is focused on altering the acetaldehyde and diacetyl metabolic pathways as well as on increasing the production of these flavor compounds. The results of the studies conducted by domestic and foreign scholars on the regulation of the production of the acetaldehyde and diacetyl, as well as the synthesis pathways of these flavor compounds, are also summarized in the current paper.%乳酸菌在发酵过程中能够产生醇、醛、酮等多种风味物质,这些风味物质和乳酸菌在糖酵解过程中产生的乳酸、生醋酸、丙酸等有机酸相互作用,形成具有独特风味的发酵乳。在酸奶的风味物质中,乙醛、双乙酰是其主要成分。目前,关于酸奶风味物质研究的焦点主要集中在通过改变乙醛、双乙酰的代谢途径提高乙醛、双乙酰的产量上。这篇综述主要描述了乳酸菌在酸奶发酵过程中生产的风味物质、以及乙醛、双乙酰的合成途径和国内外学者在乙醛、双乙酰产量调控方面取得的研究成果。

  3. Determination of Residual Acetaldehyde in Oral Liquid PET Bottle by Headspace Gas Chromatography%顶空气相色谱法测定口服液体药用聚酯瓶中乙醛残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞生; 崔勇和; 李林

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for determination of residual acetaldehyde in oral liquid PET bottle. METHODS: Headspace gas chromatography was adopted. The determination was performed on DB-FFAP capillary column. FID detector was used with injector temperature of 200 ℃ and detector temperature of 200 ℃ using nitrogen as carrier gas. The equilibrium temperature of headspace sampling was set at 70 t with equilibrium time of 30 min by programmed temperature. RESULTS: The linear range of acetaldehyde was 0.002~0.02 mg·L-1 (r=0.999 Dwith average recovery of 98.37% (RSD=2.82%, n=6). The detection limit was 0.1 ng. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, relibale and can be used for determination of the limit of acetaldehyde in oral liquid PET bottle.%目的:建立口服液体药用聚酯瓶中乙醛残留量的测定方法.方法:采用顶空气相色谱法.色谱柱为DB-FFAP毛细管柱,氢火焰离子化检测器,进样口温度为200℃,检测器温度为200℃,载气为氮气;顶空进样器平衡温度为70℃,平衡时间为30 min,程序升温.结果:乙醛检测浓度线性范围为0.002~0.02 mg·L-1(r=0.999 1),平均回收率为98.37%,RSD=2.82%(n=6),检测限为0.1ng.结论:本方法准确可靠,可用于口服液体药用聚酯瓶中乙醛的限度检查.

  4. Kinetic Migration Behaviors of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde from Paper Packaging Materials into Food Stimulant Tenax%纸质包装材料中甲醛、乙醛向食品模拟物改性聚苯醚的迁移行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 朱瑞芝; 张凤梅; 刘志华; 申钦鹏; 苏钟璧; 司晓喜

    2015-01-01

    The migration of two potential contaminants, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from two paper materials into food simulant Tenax was studied. A rapid and simple one-step extraction-derivatization method combined with ultra high performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in paper packaging materials and food stimulants. The linear correlation coefficients (R2) were greater than 0. 9999 in the range of 0. 14-35. 7 mg/m2 for both formaldehyde and 0. 20-49. 1 mg/m2 for acetaldehyde, with detection limits of 0. 03 mg/m2 for formaldehyde and 0. 04 mg/m2 for acetaldehyde. The recoveries were 90. 1%-108. 6% for paper sample and Tenax. The migration behaviors of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at different temperatures and migration times were investigated. Both for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, the amount of migration gradually increased with time first, then decreased, finally reached a steady value. The migration rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were differently influenced by temperature. After reaching a steady value, the maximum migration rate for formaldehyde was at 30℃, and for acetaldehyde was at 70℃ and 50℃. The migration rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde greatly varied, and the migration rate of acetaldehyde was far more than the migration rate of formaldehyde when reaching a steady value.%为了解纸质包装材料中甲醛、乙醛向食品模拟物改性聚苯醚( Tenax)中的迁移行为,建立了一步提取衍生化、超高效液相色谱测定纸质包装材料和Tenax中的甲醛和乙醛的方法。本方法在甲醛和乙醛的测定范围内,线性相关系数R2>0.9999,甲醛检出限为0.03 mg/m2,乙醛检出限为0.04 mg/m2,测定纸样和Tenax的加标回收率为90.1%~108.6%。采用本方法研究不同温度和时间下两种纸质包装材料中甲醛、乙醛向Tenax中的迁移规律。研究表明,甲醛、乙醛迁移行为随时间变化趋势大致相同,均呈现

  5. Determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography%DNPH柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定啤酒中微量甲醛和乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涛; 陈秀杰; 谭倩

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨DNPH柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定啤酒中微量甲醛和乙醛的方法.方法:采用蒸馏法处理样品,馏出液于60℃的水浴中衍生20 min,用环己烷提取,最后于液相色谱仪进行分析定量.结果:甲醛、乙醛在0 μg/ml ~ 8.0 μg/ml浓度范围内,标准曲线线性关系良好,相关系数r分别为0.9998、0.9995;甲醛的相对标准偏差为0.7% ~2.9%,乙醛的相对标准偏差为1.3%~3.5%;甲醛的加标回收率为93%~96%,乙醛的加标回收率为93% ~ 102%;甲醛检测结果与国标方法比较无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:本方法不但可同时检测啤酒中微量的甲醛和乙醛,具有灵敏度高、选择性好、精密度和准确度好等优点,而且简便、快捷,适合分析大批量检测工作.%Objective: To develop the method for the determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer by precolumn derivation high - performance liquid chromatography. Methods: The sample was treated by dis-tillation, and the distillate was derived in water - bath at 60℃ for 20 min, then extracted with cyclohexane, finally analyzed by high - performance liquid chromatography for quantification analysis. Results: The linear ranges of de-termination for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 0 μg/ml ~8.0 μg/ml(r =0. 9998) , 0 μg/ml ~8.0 μg/ml(r = 0. 9995 ) , respectively. The relative standard derivations for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 0. 7% ~ 2.9% , 1. 3% ~3. 5% respectively, and the recoveries of them were 93% ~96% , 93% ~ 102% ,respectively. The detec-tion result of formaldehyde had no significant difference with that of national standard method ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclu-sion: The method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, good selectivity, excellent precision and accuracy, which can be used for simultaneous analysis of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer.

  6. Solvent Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 2J(C,Hf and 1J(C,Hf Spin–Spin Coupling Constants in Acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Esteban

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The known solvent dependence of 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings in acetaldehyde is studied from a theoretical viewpoint based on the density functional theory approach where the dielectric solvent effect is taken into account with the polarizable continuum model. The four terms of scalar couplings, Fermi contact, paramagnetic spin orbital, diamagnetic spin orbital and spin dipolar, are calculated but the solvent effect analysis is restricted to the first term since for both couplings it is by far the dominant contribution. Experimental trends of Δ1J(Cc,Hf and Δ2J(C1,Hf Vs ε (the solvent dielectric constant are correctly reproduced although they are somewhat underestimated. Specific interactions between solute and solvent molecules are studied for dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, solutions considering two different one-to-one molecular complexes between acetaldehyde and DMSO. They are determined by interactions of type C=O---H---C and S=O---H---C, and the effects of such interactions on 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings are analyzed. Even though only in a semiquantitative way, it is shown that the effect of such interactions on the solvent effects, of Δ1J(Cc,Hf and Δ2J(C1,Hf, tend to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental values. These results seem to indicate that a continuum dielectric model has not enough flexibility for describing quantitatively solvent effects on spin-spin couplings. Apparently, even for relatively weak hydrogen bonding, the contribution from “direct” interactions is of the same order of magnitude as the “dielectric” effect.

  7. GC Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein and Acrylonitrile in Water with Purge and Trap Technique%吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文娟; 王晋宇; 陈玲瑚; 赵辰

    2011-01-01

    Purge and trap technique was applied in the GC determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile in water. The analytes were purged, trapped and thermodesorbed using the Trap Vocarb 3000, and determined by CR2 with flame ionization detector (FID). Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile obtained were same in the range of 0. 020--0.20 mg·L^-1 , with detection limits (3S/N) of 0. 005, 0. 010, 0. 001mg·L^-1 respectively. Tests for recovery and precision were made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 90. 0%-110.0% and values of RSD's (n=7) were less than 50%.%提出了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的分析方法。样品用Trap Vocarb 3000捕集阱吹扫、捕集及热解析后,用气相色谱法氢火焰离子化检测器分析。3种化合物的质量浓度在0.020~0.20mg·L^-1的相同范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)分别为0.005,0.010,0.001mg·L^-。标准加入回收率在90.0%~110.0%之间,相对标准偏差(n=7)均小于5%。

  8. 城市饮用水中消毒副产物三氯乙醛生产量的影响因素研究%Study on the influence factors on three-chlorine acetaldehyde production in urban drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清华; 陈卓华; 张晓娜; 陈丽珠

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the influence factors on three-chlorine acetaldehyde production in water and compared then with the actual data of three-chlorine acetaldehyde production in effluent from water treatment plant.The experimental results showed that the water temperature had great influence on three-chlorine acetaldehyde formation and there was linear relationship between them;the water treatment plant operation data showed that in summer,there was high risk of exceeding standard of three-chlorine acetaldehyde concentration in effluent from water treatment plant.There was little impact from pH on three-chlorine acetaldehyde production.When the dosage of NaClO changed as 1.0 mg/L,1.5 mg/L,2.0 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L (with effective chlorine)respectively, the three-chlorine acetaldehyde production increased first and then decreased;the three-chlorine ac-etaldehyde concentration peak reached 6.72 μg/L when the dosage of NaClO was 1.5 mg/L.The reaction time had great impact on three-chlorine acetaldehyde production;in the first 12 hours,the three-chlorine acetaldehyde production would increase with the extension of reaction time and its peak reached 16.08 μg/L at the 12 hours;after that,it would decline gradually.%研究水中三氯乙醛生成量的影响因素,并比较水厂出厂水的三氯乙醛实际数据,试验结果表明:反应水温对三氯乙醛生成量的影响较大,且两者呈较好的线性关系,水厂实际运行数据显示夏季水温高时出厂水中三氯乙醛有较高的超标风险。pH 对三氯乙醛的生成量无影响。在1.0 mg/L、1.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、2.5 mg/L NaClO(以有效氯计)投加量下,水中三氯乙醛生成量呈现先增高后降低趋势,且在1.5 mg/LNaClO 投加量下三氯乙醛浓度出现峰值达到6.72μg/L。反应时间对三氯乙醛的生成量影响较大,12 h 内随着反应时间的延长,三氯乙醛浓度逐渐增加,12 h 后随着反应时间的延长反而有所降低,在12 h 的反

  9. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  10. Eletroanálise de derivados acetaldeído com hidrazina e determinação em amostras de álcool combustível por voltametria de onda quadrada Electroanalysis of acetaldehyde derivatized with hydrazine and determination in fuel ethanol by square wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Rodgher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A square wave voltammetric method is described for the determination of acetaldehyde using the derivatization reaction with hydrazine sulphate, based on the reduction of hydrazone generated as a product that exhibits a single well-defined peak at -1.19V in acetate buffer at pH 5. Calibration graphs were obtained from 1.0 x 10-6 mol L-1 to 10 x 10-6 mol L-1 of acetaldehyde, using a reaction time of 8 min and a hidrazine concentration of 0.02 mol L-1. The detection limit was 2.38 x 10-7 mol L-1. The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of total aldehyde in fuel ethanol samples without any pre-treatment.

  11. 顶空气相色谱法测试瓶片乙醛含量标准曲线的制作研究%The research of producing standard curve in determining acetaldehyde content of bottle grade PET chips by headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦国; 夏林密; 吕咏梅

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the standard curve producing of acetaldehyde content in bottle grade pet chips by headspace gas chromatography .The chromatographic operational details such as sample amount,linear range were studied.The repeatability and reproducibility of method are improved.The more practicable method ensure the determination accuracy of acetaldehyde content in bottle grade PET chips and its production.%论述了瓶级聚酯切片顶空气相色谱法测试乙醛含量的标准曲线制作方法,对色谱进样量、线性范围等操作细节进行了研究,使得方法的重复性和再现性得到改善,可操作性强,确保瓶片及其制品的乙醛含量测试准确。

  12. 吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中的乙醛和丙烯醛%Determination of Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in Water by Purge and Trap GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许雄飞; 彭利; 王燕; 禹文峰; 欧阳姗; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    建立了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水样中乙醛和丙烯醛的方法,并对吹扫捕集测试条件进行优化,考察了吹扫温度和吹扫时间对吹扫捕集效率和方法检出限的影响.在50℃下,吹扫时间为20 min时,该方法乙醛和丙烯醛的检出限分别为0.001 2 mg/L、0.0006 mg/L,相对标准偏差分别为3.5%6.9%、2.9%-5.8%,加标回收率分别为91.6%-108%、92.0%-105%.与GB3838-2002推荐使用的分析方法相比较,该方法具有操作简便、灵敏度高、重复性好、基本上不消耗有机溶剂等特点,可满足地表水和废水中乙醛和丙烯醛的测定要求.%This paper reports a new purge-trap GC analytic method established for determination of acetaldehyde and acrolein in water with condition of purge and trap being optimized. The effects of purge temperature and time on trap efficiency and detection limits were investigated. It was found that when the sample was purged at 50 ℃ for 20 min. detection limits of acetaldehyde and acrolein would be 0.001 2 mg/L and 0.000 6 mg/L respectively. Compared with the recommended analysis method of the relevant national standard of GB3838-2002, this method was characterized by ease of operation, high sensitivity and good repeatability, and on the other hand, almost no organic solvent was consumed during the operation.

  13. Why Do Enolate Anions Favor O-Alkylation over C-Alkylation in the Gas Phase? The Roles of Resonance and Inductive Effects in the Gas-Phase SN2 Reaction between the Acetaldehyde Enolate Anion and Methyl Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christian G; Zhang, Huaiyu; Mo, Yirong; Karty, Joel M

    2016-05-06

    Contributions by resonance and inductive effects toward the net activation barrier were determined computationally for the gas-phase SN2 reaction between the acetaldehyde enolate anion and methyl fluoride, for both O-methylation and C-methylation, in order to understand why this reaction favors O-methylation. With the use of the vinylogue extrapolation methodology, resonance effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 9.5 kcal/mol for O-methylation and by about 21.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Inductive effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 1.7 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 4.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Employing our block-localized wave function methodology, we determined the contributions by resonance to be 12.8 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 22.3 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Thus, whereas inductive effects have significant contributions, resonance is the dominant factor that leads to O-methylation being favored. More specifically, resonance serves to increase the size the barrier for C-methylation significantly more than it does for O-methylation.

  14. 乙醛脱氢酶1与妇科肿瘤关系的研究进展%The research progress of relations between acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and gynecological tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 付博达; 孔宪超

    2015-01-01

    乙醛脱氢酶1(Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase,ALDH1)是乙醛脱氢酶基因家族的成员之一,在各种不同的组织中广泛存在,参与蛋白质和脂肪等物质的代谢过程,具有氧化活性,可将细胞内的乙醛氧化为乙酸,并降解细胞内的有毒物质.近些年ALDH1作为肿瘤干细胞标志物之一被研究发现,其与多种实体肿瘤的发生、侵袭、转移和预后关系密切,可作为良、恶性肿瘤早期诊断和评估预后的指标之一,有望成为肿瘤基因治疗的新的靶点.本文就乙醛脱氢酶1与妇科肿瘤关系的研究进展做一综述.

  15. Impact of engineered Streptococcus thermophilus trains overexpressing glyA gene on folic acid and acetaldehyde production in fermented milk Impacto de linhagens de Streptococcus thermophilus com aumento da expressão do gene glyA na produção de ácido folico e acetaldeído em leite fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sampaio Dória Chaves

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The typical yogurt flavor is caused by acetaldehyde produced through many different pathways by the yogurt starter bacteria L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. The attention was focused on one specific reaction for acetaldehyde and folic acid formation catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, encoded by the glyA gene. In S. thermophilus, this enzyme SHMT also plays the typical role of the enzyme threonine aldolase (TA that is the interconvertion of threonine into glycine and acetaldehyde. The behavior of engineered S. thermophilus strains in milk fermentation is described, folic acid and acetaldehyde production were measured and pH and counts were followed. The engineered S. thermophilus strains StA2305 and StB2305, have the glyA gene (encoding the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase overexpressed. These engineered strains showed normal growth in milk when it was supplemented with Casitione. When they were used in milk fermentation it was observed an increase in folic acid and in acetaldehyde production by StA2305 and for StB2305 it was noticed a significative increase in folic acid formation.O acetaldeído, responsável pelo sabor e aroma característicos de iogurte, é produzido por diferentes vias metabólicas pelas bactérias lácticas: Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus. Neste trabalho, a atenção foi focada especificamente na reação para a formação de acetaldeído e de ácido fólico, catalisada pela enzima serina hidroximetil transferase (SHMT, codificada pelo gene glyA. A enzima SHMT catalisa diversas reações e, no caso da bactéria S. thermophilus, ela exerce também a atividade característica da enzima treonina aldolase (TA, definida como a interconversão do aminoácido treonina em glicina e acetaldeído. Foram construídas linhagens de S. thermophilus (StA2305 e StB2305 com super expressão do gene glyA. Estas linhagens modificadas apresentaram

  16. Highly Efficient Extraction of Decanoyl Acetaldehyde in Houttuynia cordata thunb Under Steam Distillation and Its Mass Spectrometric Analysis%水蒸汽蒸馏条件下鱼腥草中癸酰乙醛的高效提取及质谱定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青松; 王展; 殷华茹

    2012-01-01

    根据质谱学规律,剖析了在电子轰击下中药材鱼腥草中最关键的抗菌成分鱼腥草素(癸酰乙醛)的离子形成机理:癸酰乙醛的分子中存在两个-C=O,处于端位上的-C=O活性远大于-CH3,易失去H2O(M+18)、CO(M+ 28)等基团,产生较强的m/z180、170等离子碎片,此外,还易失去H2O+H2O(M+ -36)、H2O+CO(M+-46)、CO+CO(M+-56)等基团,产生m/z162、152、142等离子碎片,这同实验中得到的癸酰乙醛质谱图完全吻合,纠正了文献中对癸酰乙醛的错误定性.在此基础上采用常规、Ar气保护和减压三种水蒸汽蒸馏方式提取鱼腥草挥发油,发现在惰性气氛或较低温度下有利于癸酰乙醛的提取,与常规水蒸汽蒸馏条件相比,Ar气保护下癸酰乙醛的含量从0.03%提高至0.53%,而减压条件下癸酰乙醛的溶出效率进一步提高至3.37%.研究表明常规水蒸汽蒸馏条件下癸酰乙醛易氧化分解是得到较少癸酰乙醛的根本原因.%Regarded as the antibiotic of traditional Chinese medicine, houttuynia cordata thunb (HCT) has been widely employed for clinic therapy. In this paper,one of the key effective components of HCT, houttuynium (decanoyl acetaldehyde) was studied in detail. At first, according to the law of mass spectrometry,the formation mechanism of decanoyl acetaldehyde ions was analyzed under electronic bombarding:there are two - C=O and the tip one is more active than - CH3 in decanoyl acetaldehyde molecular,so it is easy to lose H2O(M+-18) ,CO(M+-28) groups,resulting in a strong abundance of m/zl80,170 ions. Furthermore,ions of m/z162,152,142 are produced when H2O+H2O(M+-36) , H2O + CO(M+-46) ,CO+CO(M+-56) are lost easily. The results were consistent completely with the mass spectrum obtained by our experiment, contrasting with the mass spectrum definition of decanoyl acetaldehyde in the literature. Secondly, the essential oil from HCT was extracted by three steam distillation methods of normal, argon gas

  17. TiO2/Graphene多孔微球对亚甲基蓝和乙醛的光催化活性%Photocatalytic activities of TiO2/Graphene porous microspheresfor Methylene blue and Acetaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继凯; 杨馥瑜; 亢嘉琪; 陈张笑雄; 寇艳强; 王国政

    2016-01-01

    通过喷雾高温分解的方法制备了TiO2多孔微球和TiO2/Graphene多孔微球.石墨烯作为电子受体,能够增强TiO2电子和空穴的分离效率.另外,石墨烯的引入提高了TiO2对太阳光的利用率.在太阳光的照射下,TiO2/Graphene多孔微球对亚甲基蓝具有较高的光催化活性,然而其对乙醛的降解和CO2的生成均显示了较低的光催化活性.%TiO2 and TiO2/Graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Graphene acted as an electron-acceptor material to effectively hinder the electron–hole pair recombination of TiO2,Moreover,the introduc-tion of graphene increased the light absorption in the whole visible region and displayed a red-shifted absorption edge. Under solar irradiation,TiO2/graphene porous microspheres showed higher photocatalytic activity for methylene blue deg-radation compared with TiO2 microspheres. However,TiO2/graphene porous microspheres showed low photocatalytic ac-tivity for acetaldehyde degradation and CO2 generation compared with TiO2.

  18. Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol and acetaldehyde-metabolising genes with alcohol dependence (with or without comorbid anxiety symptoms) in a Cape Mixed Ancestry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew; Dalvie, Shareefa; Lewis, Sarah; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel; Fein, George; Koenen, Karestan; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a χ2 test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p = 0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35% (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08, 1.68, p = 0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.05, p = 0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification.

  19. Effects of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on acetaldehyde-stimulated proliferation of hepatic stellate cells HSC-T6%PI3K/Akt 信号传导通路在乙醛刺激下大鼠肝星状细胞株 HSC-T6增殖中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 程敏; 康馨丹; 陈卫刚; 郑勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨磷脂酰肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶 B(PI3K/Akt)信号传导通路在乙醛刺激的大鼠肝星状细胞株HSC-T6增殖中的作用。方法将大鼠 HSC-T6随机分为6组:空白对照组(A 组):采用10%胎牛血清的 DMEM培养液培养;乙醛组(B 组):在 A 组基础上加乙醛,使终浓度为200μmol/L;实验组在 B 组基础上加入不同浓度(25、50、75、100μmol/L)的 PI3K/Akt 通路抑制剂 LY294002,分别称为 C、D、E、F 组。用 CCK-8法检测大鼠 HSC-T6增殖活力(用 A 值表示)。再随机将 HSC-T6分为3组:空白对照组(10%胎牛血清的 DMEM培养液培养)、乙醛组(在空白对照组基础上加乙醛,使终浓度为200μmol/L)、乙醛+LY294002组(在乙醛组的基础上加入50μmol/L LY294002),用 Western blotting 法检测大鼠 HSC-T6中 PI3K、p-Akt 蛋白的表达情况。结果 A、B、C、D、E、F 组 A 值分别为0.5450±0.0244、0.9523±0.0455、0.9273±0.0419、0.8658±0.0289、0.8143±0.0247、0.7593±0.2200。与 A 组比较,其他各组 A 值均升高;与 B、C 组比较,D、E、F 组降低(P 均<0.01)。与空白对照组比较,乙醛组、乙醛+LY294002组 PI3K、p-AKT 蛋白相对表达量高(P 均<0.01),与乙醛组比较,乙醛+LY294002组降低(P <0.05)。结论 PI3K/Akt 信号传导通路部分参与调控乙醛刺激的大鼠 HSC-T6增殖。%Objective To investigate the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway spe-cific inhibitor LY294002 on the proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6)stimulated by acetaldehyde.Methods The rat HSC-T6 cells were randomly divided into six groups:the blank control group (group A):we used DMEMculture solution with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)to culture,the acetaldehyde group (group B):we added acetaldehyde on the basis of the blank control group and made the final

  20. Identification and analysis of acetaldehyde induced deoxyribonucleic acid adducts by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法鉴定与分析乙醛诱导脱氧核糖核苷酸加合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张园; 张维冰

    2016-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( UPLC-MS/MS)was used for the identification and analysis of the two diastereomers of adducts((6S,8S) 1,N2-propano-2′-deoxyguanosine(ProdG)and(6R,8R)ProdG). By contrasting the chromato-graphic retention time and mass spectrographic fragmentation patterns with ProdG standard ,it was proved that ProdG addcuts can be formed from the reaction of 2′-deoxyguanosine( dG ) with acetaldehyde. Vitro experiments showed that ProdG adducts can be formed in double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid( DNA)by the induction of acetaldehyde,and the formation of (6R,8R)ProdG was higher than that of( 6S,8S)ProdG. In cell experiments,acetaldehyde exposure can significantly increase the levels of ProdG adducts in genomic DNA of human embryonic lung fibroblast MRC5 cells,and the enhancement of ProdG was positively correlated with the concentration of acetaldehyde. In addition,the up-regulation of(6R,8R)ProdG was from 6. 4±0. 3 to 127. 2±2. 7 adducts per 108 nucleotides,higher than that of( 6S,8S)ProdG from 6. 5±0. 3 to 115. 3±2. 5 adducts per 10 8 nucleotides by acetaldehyde exposure at 100μmol/L. This work provides an experimental basis for the up-regulation of DNA adducts induced by acetaldehyde exposure.%采用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法对两种非对映异构体(6S,8S)1,N2-丙基-2′-脱氧鸟苷(ProdG)和(6R,8R) ProdG加合物进行鉴定与分析。通过色谱保留时间及质谱碎裂方式分析,证明乙醛与2′-脱氧鸟苷( dG)反应可形成 ProdG加合物。体外实验表明,乙醛能够诱导脱氧核糖核苷酸( DNA)形成 ProdG 加合物,并且(6R,8R)ProdG的生成量大于(6S,8S)ProdG的生成量。细胞实验结果显示,乙醛暴露能显著提高人肺胚成纤维细胞(MRC5)基因组 DNA中 ProdG加合物的水平,且 ProdG加合物的水平与乙醛的暴露浓度呈正相关。此外,100μmol/L 的乙醛暴露使(6R,8R

  1. Determination of Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in Water-borne Adhesives by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography(UPLC)%超高效液相色谱(UPLC)同时测定水性胶黏剂中甲醛、乙醛、丙烯醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响丽; 刘巍; 范多青; 王庆华; 卢红

    2013-01-01

    A method for separation and determimtion of formaldehyde,acetaldehyde and acrolein in water-borne adhesives was developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC).Deionized water was used to extract water-borne adhesives.In acid conditions,three kinds of aldehyde was derived by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine,and were separated on a ACOUITY UPLC (R) BEH C18 column(1.7 μn, 100 mm × 2.1 mm)column,using water-acetonitrile as mobile phase.Formaldehyde,Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in water-borne adhesives were separated within 8.0 minutes and then determined by UPLC with a diode array detector.The average recoveries of formaldehyde,acetaldehyde and acrolein were 100.66 %,96.57 %,99.56 %,respectively,and the relative standard deviations were in the range of2.1%-3.4 %.This is a faster,simpler and solvent-saving method,and is suitable for rapid analysis of formaldehyde,acetaldehyde and acrolein in water-borne adhesives.%建立了超高效液相色谱(UPLC)法同时测定水性胶黏剂中甲醛、乙醛和丙烯醛的分析方法.水性胶黏剂采用去离子水进行振荡萃取,在酸性条件下,经2,4-二硝基苯肼(DNPH)衍生化后,采用ACOUITY UPLC(R)BEH C18 2.1 mm×100 mm(1.7 μm)柱为分离柱,以乙腈-水为流动相,采用优化后的条件二极管阵列检测器进行检测,分析时间为8.0 min.结果表明,甲醛、乙醛、丙烯醛的回收率分别为:100.66%、96.57%、99.56%,相对标准偏差为2.1%~3.4%;该方法分析时间短、流动相消耗量少、结果准确可靠,适合于水性胶黏剂中甲醛、乙醛和丙烯醛的快速测定.

  2. Effect of caffeine on proliferation,apoptosis in hepatic stellate cell-T6 stimulated by acetaldehyde and its partial mechanisms%咖啡因对乙醛刺激的大鼠肝星状细胞HSC-T6增殖、凋亡的影响及部分作用机制代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代雪飞; 吕雄文; 管文婕; 杨万枝; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨咖啡因(CAF)对乙醛刺激的大鼠肝星状细胞(HSC)-T6增殖、凋亡的影响及部分作用机制.方法用不同浓度的CAF(0.5、1、2、4、8 mmol/L)对乙醛刺激的HSC-T6进行处理,四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法检测细胞增殖;流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡及细胞周期分布;RT-PCR法检测HSC-T6中平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)、肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡诱导配体(TRAIL)受体DR4、DR5的mRNA表达.结果 CAF对乙醛刺激的大鼠HSC-T6增殖具有抑制作用,阻滞细胞于G0/G1期;能够明显下调HSC-T6中α-SMA的mRNA表达,上调DR4、DR5的mRNA表达.结论 CAF对乙醛刺激的HSC-T6增殖具有抑制作用,并能够促进其凋亡,其机制可能与TRAIL受体DR4、DR5的表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of caffeine on proliferation, apoptosis in hepatic stellate cell-T6( HSCT6 ) stimulated by acetaldehyde and its partial mechanisms. Methods HSC-T6 stimulated by acetaldehyde was incubated with different doses of caffeine( 0. 5 ,1 .2 ,4 ,8 mmol/L ) , cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT colorimetric assay, apoptosis rate and the cell cycle distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry( FCM ). The mRNA expressions of a-SMA.TRAIL receptor DR4 and DR5 were measured by RT-PCR. Results Caffeine could inhibit HSCT6 stimulated by acetaldehyde,the cells were accumulated in the G0/G1 phase. The mRNA expression levels of αSMA decreased,but DR4 and DR5 increased. Conclusion Caffeine can inhibit the growth of HSC-T6 stimulated by acetaldehyde and promote the apoptosis,the mechanisms may be related to the expression of TRAIL receptor DR4 and DR5.

  3. p53和γ-H2AX作为乙醛引起DNA损伤早期生物标记物的实验研究%Changes of p53 andγ-H2AXofTK6 cells causedby acetaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周学贤; Penny Jones; Paul Carmichael; 郝卫东

    2014-01-01

    acetaldehyde and to explore the roles and the sensitivity of p53,γ-H2AX in DNA damage detection by comparison in the indicators of DNA strand breaks (comet assay). METHODS:TK6 cells were exposed to acetaldehyde with different concentrations of 0.5-20 mmol/L for 20 min,2 and 12 h. Flow cytometry was applied to investigate the changes of relevant biomarkers of DNA damage. Alkaline comet assay was used to detect the indicators of DNA strand breaks (percentage of cells with tails,tail length,percentage of tail DNA,tail moment). RESULTS:After exposure to acetaldehyde for 12 h,a significant increase ofγ-H2AX expression was observed at acetaldehyde doses of 15 and 20 mmol/L. A significant dose-dependent increase of p-p53 expression rate was found at acetaldehyde dose between 0.5-7.5 mmol/L. In parallel,a similar trend of expression was observed in total p53,but no significant increase was shown. For the comet assay,significant dose-dependent increases of percentage of cells with tails,tail length,percentage of tail DNA,tail moment were obtained after 12 h exposure acetaldehyde dose between 5.0-12.5 mmol/L. 2 h exposure showed that both total p53 and p-p53 expression rates increased significantly at concentrations of 15 and 20 mmol/L of acetaldehyde,and significant increases of percentage of cells with tails,tail DNA,tail moment accurred at the concentration of 20 mmol/L acetaldehyde,but no response was observed in γ-H2AX. For 20 min exposure,no clear trend for all the three biomarkers and no significant change were shown with the indicators of DNA strand breaks. CONCLUSION:Acetaldehyde could induce increase of p-p53 expression rate,γ-H2AX expression amount,percentage of cells with tails,tail length,percentage of tail DNA,tail moment and total p53 expression rate to a less extent. The biomarker p-p53 may be more sensitive reflecting the DNA damage caused by acetaldehyde than γ-H2AX and indicators of DNA strand breaks.

  4. 液相色谱法测定环氧乙烷和乙二醇装置中气体和液体的醛含量%Determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde content in the gas and liquid sample in the ethylene oxide and EG equipment with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘殿丽; 孟亚宁; 李华文; 杨丹

    2009-01-01

    Derivation method was combined with HPLC,The sample was mixed with excess 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivative liquid.Derivative reaction was occured between formaldehyde,acetaldehyde in the sample and dinitrophenylhydrazine separately.The hydrazone derivatives of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was produced,then separated with HPLC ODS column.The DAD detector was used to measure the peak area under the wavelength of 254 nm,the standard curve external standard method was used to calculate the results.The formadehyde and acetaldhyde content in the sample was determined accurately.The technique problems that respectively quantitative determination of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde content in the outlet gas of ethylene oxide equipment reactor,in ethylene glycol solution and in ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol product were solved.The determination method is efficient,sensitive and accurate%衍生技术与液相色谱法相结合,将样品与过量的2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生液混合,样品中的甲醛、乙醛分别与2,4-二硝基苯肼发生衍生反应,生成甲醛、乙醛的腙衍生物,用高效液相色谱ODS柱分离,采用DAD检测器在254 nm波长下分别测量峰面积,应用标准曲线外标方法计算结果,准确定量测定样品中的甲醛、乙醛含量,解决了环氧乙烷装置反应器出口气中、乙二醇水溶液中以及环氧乙烷和乙二醇产品中的甲醛、乙醛分别定量测定的技术难题,高效、灵敏、准确.

  5. 静态顶空气相色谱法对土壤中乙醛等物质分析及研究%Analysis and Research of the Substances in Soils Such as Acetaldehyde by Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳

    2015-01-01

    In this research, static headspace technology is used for preliminary treatment of soils and a detection and analysis method of determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile and pyridine in soils is set up by static headspace–gas chromatography. Under a certain condition of static headspace-gas chromatography, time and temperature for static headspace is optimized and detection limits for determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in soils by static headspace–gas chromatography are identified, with satisfactory separation efect, linear regression equation, precision and accuracy achieved. The results indicate that analysis of the target compounds in soils by headspace-gas chromatography can reduce the loss of the organic matter in soils to be determined and improve sensitivity and accuracy of the experimentalanalysis.%研究用静态顶空技术处理土壤,从而建立了静态顶空-气相色谱(GC-FID)测定土壤中的乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶的检测分析方法。在一定的静态顶空和气相色谱条件下,进行了顶空的时间和温度优化,确定了静态顶空气相色谱法测定土壤中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶方法的检出限,并取得了满意的分离效果、线性回归方程、精密度和准确度。结果表明:用顶空气相色谱法处理土壤样品,可以减少土壤中待测有机物的损失,提高实验分析的灵敏度和准确度。

  6. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation inhibits myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in senescent rats%激活乙醛脱氢酶2抑制老年大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢媛; 殷玥; 石曌玲; 李晨; 王博文; 王衍帅; 高峰; 马恒

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aging heart shows significantly reduced tolerance to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, so senescent heart is prone to be damaged by the injury. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) agonist Alda-1 in aging rats after myocardial I/R injury. Methods A total of 40 aging male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (at an age of 20 to 22 months) were randomized into I/R group (I/R) and Alda-1 group (I/R + Alda). Another 40 adult rats at an age of 3 to 4 months served as adult control. Rat acute myocardial I/R model was established by ligation of left anterior descending artery for 30min followed by reperfusion for 4h. Alda-l(16mg/kg) and normal saline at the same volume were intravenously infused at a flow rate of 2ml/(kg · h) into the left ventricle of corresponding rats in 5min before reperfusion. The left ventricular pressure was monitored at the same time. At the end of 4 hours reperfusion, ALDH2 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and protein carbonylation in the myocardial tissue were measured. Serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was tested. Results A significant decrease in ALDH2 activity was observed in the aging hearts, but this effect was blocked by Alda-1. Compared with the adult hearts, myocardial I/R injury was significantly aggravated in aging hearts, which were evidenced by reduced ± LVdP/dtmax and increased serum level of LDH (P < 0.05). ALDH2 activator infusion during reperfusion effectively suppressed the above mentioned ischemic injury in the aging hearts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, protein carbonylation and ROS production in the myocardium were increased in the aging hearts compared with the adult hearts (P < 0.05), which was attenuated by Alda-1 treatment. Conclusion Activating myocardial ALDH2 significantly improves the resistance ability to myocardial I/R injury in aging heart. ALDH2-induced cardiac protection may be through suppressing myocardial I

  7. 抗纤复方I号对乙醛刺激的肝星状细胞的细胞外基质及细胞因子分泌的干预作用%KangXian FuFang I inhibits acetaldehyde-stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis and cytokine secretion in cultured hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林红; 黄玉红; 李异玲; 傅宝玉; 王炳元

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of KangXian Fu-Fang I (KXI) on acetaldehyde-stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis and cytokine secretion in cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).METHODS: HSCs were isolated from rats and then primarily cultured and subcultured in vitro. Serum containing KXI was collected from normal rats intragastrically given the drug. HSCs were treated with acetaldehyde and the drug-containing serum. The contents of hyaluronic acid (HA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the media and expression of type I collagen al mRNA in stimulated HSCs were measured by radioimmunoassay, ELISA and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively.RESULTS: After HSCs were stimulated with acetaldehyde (100 μmol/L), the expression level of type I collagen al mRNA (1.193 ± 0.0344 vs 0.988 ± 0.0208, P < 0.05) in HSCs and secreted levels of HA (1243.22 ng/L ± 58.13 ng/L vs 602.33 ng/L ± 194.06 ng/L, P < 0.05) and TGF-β1 (2734.43 ng/L ± 787.12 ng/L vs 559.92 ng/L ± 97.63 ng/L, P < 0.01) in the media significantly increased. Drug-containing serum (10%) significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-stimulated expression of type I collagen al mRNA (0.973 ± 0.0605 vs 1.193 ± 0.0344, P < 0.05) and secretion of HA (1032.667 ng/L ± 77.65 ng/ L vs 1243.22 ng/L ± 58.13 ng/L, P < 0.05) and TGF-β1 (759.62 ng/L ± 205.34 ng/L vs 2734.43 ng/L ± 787.12 ng/L, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: KXI could inhibit acetaldehyde-stimulated secretion of HA and TGF-β1 and expression of type I collagen al mRNA in cultured HSCs.%目的:研究乙醛对肝星状细胞(HSC) 细胞外基质和细胞因子分泌的影响及中药抗纤复方I号(KXI) 的干预作用.方法:采用大鼠肝脏原位灌流消化法获得并原代及传代培养HSC,大鼠灌以KXI 制备药物血清,以乙醛和药物血清作用于HSC,通过RTPCR 测定细胞内α1(I) 型胶原mRNA 的表达,以放射免疫法和ELISA 法分别测定培养上清中透明质酸(HA)

  8. 吹扫捕集-气相色谱法同时测定水中的乙醛、丙烯醛和甲醛%Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein and Formaldehyde in Water by Gas Chromatography with Purge and Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂宾; 陈勇; 黄龙; 尹辉

    2011-01-01

    研究了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法同时测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和甲醛的方法并优化了实验条件.实验结果表明,该方法操作简便,灵敏高效,目标化合物的检出限分别为0.037、0.012、0.0006mg/L,相对标准偏差在3.9% ~15.8%之间,实际水样的加标回收率在73.0% ~118%之间,能很好满足《地表水环境质量标准》中相关项目的要求.%Determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein and formaldehyde in water by GC coupled with purge and trap was studied. After working parameters optimizing, experimental results show that the advantages of this method is simple, sensitive and high efficient. DL (detection limit) of the target compounds was 0.037, 0.012 and 0. 0006mg/L, respectively. RSD (Relative standard deviations) was ranged from 3.9% to 15.8% , and the recovery were 73.0% - 118%. This method could meet the monitoring requirement of target compounds in " Environment Quality Standard of Surface Water".

  9. 嗜热链球菌产乙醛关键功能基因在发酵乳后熟期动态表达分析%Dynamic expression analysis of key functional gene of acetaldehyde production of Streptococcus thermophilus in after-ripening period of yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌仁图雅; 于洁; 王宏梅; 秦艳婷; 德亮亮; 刘文俊; 张和平; 孟和毕力格

    2014-01-01

    研究3株具有不同产乙醛特性的嗜热链球菌,在发酵牛乳后熟期(贮藏初期0~48 h)内,采用乙醛试剂盒测定发酵乳乙醛含量,并选取嗜热链球菌中与乙醛形成相关的功能基因pdc(Pyruvate decarboxylase)、ald(Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase)、pfl(Pyruvate formate-lyase)及lld(Lactate dehydrogenase)进行q-PCR定量分析;结合发酵乳乙醛含量的表型数据,阐明这些基因对发酵乳乙醛含量的影响.结果表明,3株嗜热链球菌中pdc、ald及pfl基因表达量随着乙醛含量的增加而升高,促进发酵乳乙醛生成;而lld基因在不同菌株中有明显的表达差异,为高、中产乙醛菌株提供了乙醛的生成前体物丙酮酸,而低产乙醛菌株中,将大量丙酮酸催化生成了乳酸,从而使得发酵乳乙醛含量较低.

  10. Effect of caffeine on signaling transduction of TGF-β1 and CTGF in hepatic stellate cell-T6 stimulated by acetaldehyde%咖啡因对乙醛诱导的HSC-T6中TGF-β1,CTGF信号转导通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管文婕; 吕雄文; 杨万枝; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of caffeine on proliferation in hepatic stellate cell stimulated by acetaldehyde and its signaling pathway of TGF-β and CTGF. Methods Trials are divided into normal group( regular training ), model group, adenosine receptor group,which were given caffeine( 4 mmol · L-1 ),adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385( 1 μmol · L-1 ),adenosine A2A receptor agonists CGS21680( 1 μmol · L-1 ),caffeine + CGS21680,ZM241385 + CGS21680 and HSC-T6 respectively,stimulated by acetaldehyde after 1 h,before continueing to cultivate 48 h. The protein expression of a-SMA was analyzed by immunocytochemistry methods. The mR-NA expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF were measured by RT-PCR. The protein expression of CTGF was analyzed by western blot methods. Results Caffeine or ZM241385 treatment inhibited the increase expressions of TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA in the HSC-T6,likewise,as with CGS21680 plus caffeine or ZM241385 groups, caffeine or ZM241385 prevented the adenosine A2A receptor agonist from stimulating an increase in hepatic stellate cell. Conclusion Caffeine can suppress the activation of α-SMA in HSC-T6 stimulated by acetaldehyde. Caffeine treatment inhibited the increase expressions of TGF-βl and CTGF in the HSC-T6,the mechanisms of which may be related to the expression of adenosine A2A receptor.%目的 探讨咖啡因(caffeine)对乙醛诱导的大鼠肝星状细胞系(Hepatic Stellate Cell-T6,HSC-T6)中转化生长因子-β1(Transforming Growth Factor-β1,TGF-β1),结缔组织生长因子(Connective Tissue Growth Factor,CTGF)信号转导通路的影响.方法 实验设正常组(常规培养),模型组及腺苷受体(Adenosine Receptor,AR)调节剂干预组.分别给予caffeine(4 mmol·L-1)[1-2],腺苷A2A受体拮抗剂ZM241385(1 μmol·L-1)[3],腺苷A2A受体激动剂CGS21680(1 μmol·L-1)[3],caffeine+CGS21680,ZM241385+CGS21680 与HSC-T6共同培养,1 h后加入终浓度200 μmol·L-1的乙醛刺激(每12 h补充1次),继续培养48 h.采

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaldehyde,Acrolein,Acrylonitrile and Pyridine in Water by Purge-and-trap-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%吹扫捕集-气相色谱/质谱法测定水中的乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许家慧; 普学伟; 施艳峰; 觉玉峰

    2015-01-01

    水中的乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶经吹扫捕集、解吸后,用HP-VOC毛细管色谱柱进行GC分离,用GC-MS法选择离子模式( SIM)下进行检测,外标法定量。结果表明,选择取样量25 mL,吹扫流量为40 mL/min,吹扫温度为40℃,吹扫时间为15 min,解吸时间为2 min,解吸温度为200℃,烘焙时间20 min,乙醛和吡啶质量浓度在0.025~0.60 mg/L之间,丙烯醛和丙烯腈质量浓度在0.0025~0.10 mg/L之间时,校准曲线呈线性关系,相关系数r>0.995,乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶的方法检出限分别为0.0016,0.0013,0.0005和0.0021 mg/L。对3个不同浓度样品进行空白加标实验,测量的回收率为87.8%~114.3%,相对标准偏差(n=6)为2.51%~10.4%。对3批实际水样进行分析,其中一个废水水样加标回收率为79.2%~103.8%,相对标准偏差(n=6)为3.04%~6.39%。%A method for simultaneous determination of acetaldehyde,acrolein,acrylonitrile and pyridine in water by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) was reported.These compounds were concentrated by purging and trapping fol-lowed by desorption before GC-MS measurement using the HP-VOC capillary column for separation and selective ion mode ( SIM) for MS detection.External calibration was used for quantification.The following experimental conditions were used:the sampling vol-ume was 25 mL,purging gas flow was 40 mL/min,purging temperature was 40 ℃,purging time was 15 min,desorption time was 2 min,desorption temperature was 200℃,and baking time was 20 min.Under this condition,it was determined that the concentrations of acetaldehyde and pyridine were between 0.025 and 0.60 mg/L,and acrolein and acrylonitrile were between 0.002 5 and 0.10 mg/L.The calibration curve showed good linearity with the correlation coefficient r>0.995.The method detection limits of acetalde

  12. The effects of different concentrations of nitroglycerin on cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury and the mechanism of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2%不同浓度硝酸甘油对心脏缺血/再灌注的作用及ALDH2的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 李正红; 夏满莉; 胡杰; 姜翠荣; 高琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同浓度硝酸甘油(GTN)对离体大鼠心脏缺血/再灌注损伤的作用,进一步分析线粒体乙醛脱氢酶2(ALDH2)在其中的作用.方法 采用离体大鼠心脏Langendorff灌流方法,局部结扎冠状动脉左前降支30 min,复灌30 min复制缺血/再灌注模型.实验分五组,正常对照组,单纯缺血/再灌注组,GTN低浓度组(10 -8 mol/L GTN),中浓度组(10-7 mol/L GTN)及高浓度组(2×10 -6 mol/L GTN).测定心室动力学指标和复灌期间冠脉流出液中乳酸脱氢酶( lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)含量,RT-PCR测定左心室前壁心尖组织线粒体ALDH2基因mRNA表达水平.结果 与单纯缺血/再灌注组相比,GTN低浓度组左心室发展压(LVDP)、室内压最大上升/下降速率(±dp/dtmax)均增高,左心室舒张末压(LVEDP)降低,中浓度组无明显差异,高浓度组LVDP和±dp/dtmax均降低;LVEDP增高.与缺血/再灌注组相比,正常对照组和低浓度GTN组心肌组织ALDH2 mRNA表达增高,中浓度无明显差异,高浓度组大鼠心肌ALDH2 mRNA表达降低.结论 低浓度GTN可对抗心肌缺血/再灌注损伤,高浓度GTN加重损伤,中浓度GTN对损伤影响不大,此现象可能与不同浓度GTN引起心肌ALDH2的释放量不同有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of different concentrations of nitroglycerin ( GTN) in isolated rat hearts subjected to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury and the role of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 ( ALDH2). Methods The isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 30 min local ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. The rats were divided into control, I/R, low concentration GTN (10~8 mol/L GTN) , middle concentration GTN (10~7 mol/L GTN) group, high concentration GTN (2 xlO"6 mol/L GTN) groups. The ventricular hemodynamic parameters and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release during reperfusion were measured. The ALDH2 mRNA expression of left anterior myocardium was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain

  13. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley;

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  14. Water and acetaldehyde in HH212: The first hot corino in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Cabrit, S; Podio, L; Bachiller, R; Fontani, F; Gusdorf, A; Lefloch, B; Leurini, S; Tafalla, M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Using the unprecedented combination of high resolution and sensitivity offered by ALMA, we aim to investigate whether and how hot corinos, circumstellar disks, and ejected gas are related in young solar-mass protostars. Methods: We observed CH$_3$CHO and deuterated water (HDO) high-excitation ($E_{\\rm u}$ up to 335 K) lines towards the Sun-like protostar HH212--MM1. Results: For the first time, we have obtained images of CH$_3$CHO and HDO emission in the inner $\\simeq$ 100 AU of HH212. The multifrequency line analysis allows us to contrain the density ($\\geq$ 10$^{7}$ cm$^{-3}$), temperature ($\\simeq$ 100 K), and CH$_3$CHO abundance ($\\simeq$ 0.2--2 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$) of the emitting region. The HDO profile is asymmetric at low velocities ($\\leq$ 2 km s$^{-1}$ from $V_{\\rm sys}$). If the HDO line is optically thick, this points to an extremely small ($\\sim$ 20--40 AU) and dense ($\\ge$ 10$^{9}$ cm$^{-3}$) emitting region. Conclusions: We report the first detection of a hot corino in Orion. The HDO asymm...

  15. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  16. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  17. The Screening of Acetaldehyde-resistant Beer Yeast Strains by High-concentration Acetaldehyde Method%乙醛法筛选抗乙醛啤酒酵母菌株的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玮鋆; 李红; 王君伟

    2016-01-01

    乙醛是使啤酒产生硬纸板味、烂苹果味的主要来源,对啤酒品质有较大影响.本实验采用紫外诱变与高浓乙醛平板选育结合法,将筛选得到的菌株(共20株)与出发菌株进行低温发酵实验,然后利用气相色谱法测定菌株发酵液乙醛含量,并将其与出发菌株乙醛含量相比较.对具有较大乙醛降幅的菌株(共3株)进行乙醇脱氢酶活性的验证及稳定性实验,由此筛选出抗乙醛啤酒酵母菌株.该菌株可抵抗高浓度乙醛环境,从而快速还原代谢产生的乙醛,其乙醛含量为4.42 mg/L±0.14 mg/L,较出发菌株降低了71.13%;乙醇脱氢酶(ADH1、ADH3与ADH4)活性显著高于出发菌株(增幅为88.80%),且遗传稳定性表现良好.

  18. Neurobiological and genetic aspects of alcohol addiction: a special focus on acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Quertemont, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    Although alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction, its neurobiological mechanisms still remain unclear. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the interaction of multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids. Additionally, long term changes in these neurotransmitter systems are believed to promote the development of alcoholism, probably through specific alterations of brain regions invol...

  19. Prospecting for Acetaldehyde-tolerant DERAs from Thermophilic Microorganism%嗜热微生物中获取耐乙醛变性醛缩酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铖璐; 杜鹏飞; 裴晓林; 吴慧丽; 谢开林; 王秋岩

    2010-01-01

    在催化他汀药物中间体合成中,对高浓度乙醛底物的耐受是醛缩酶的重要应用性质.通过克隆并在大肠杆菌中过表达了来源于嗜热微生物Geobacillus thermodenitrificans的耐热醛缩酶(DERAGth),该蛋白质序列长度为223 aa,对应的分子量为25.0 kD.初步酶学性质表征结果表明,该酶对天然底物2-脱氧核酸-5-磷酸的活力19.3 U/mg,最适pH为7.5,最适温度为60 ℃.在40-100 ℃保温10 min的结果表明,DERAGth具有较好的热稳定性,在60 ℃下10 min活力仍保持100%.对乙醛耐受的实验表明,该酶在300 mmol乙醛中25 ℃保温2 h,剩余活力高于40%.连续醛缩活力对比实验结果表明,该酶的连续醛缩活力远大于来源于常温微生物的大肠杆菌醛缩酶.

  20. IGHV1-69-Encoded Antibodies Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia React with Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde Adduct, an Immunodominant Oxidation-Specific Epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Que, Xuchu; Widhopf Ii, George F; Amir, Shahzada

    2013-01-01

    with little or no somatic mutation, and restricted IGHD and IGHJ gene usage. We found that antibodies encoded by one particular IGHV1-69 subset, designated CLL69C, with the HCDR3 encoded by the IGHD3-3 gene in reading frame 2 and IGHJ6, specifically bound to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE), which...... specifically with MAA-specific peptide mimotopes. Light chain shuffling indicated that non-stochastically paired L chain of IGLV3-9 contributes to the antigen binding of CLL69C. A nearly identical CLL69C Ig heavy chain was identified from an MAA-enriched umbilical cord phage displayed Fab library...

  1. Technical Note: Concerns regarding 24-h sampling for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources emit airborne carbonyls such as aldehydes (RCHO) and ketones (R1COR2). Vegetation, food, forest fires, fossil fuel combustion, disinfectants, fumigants, preservatives, and resins are a few examples of primary carbonyl sources. T...

  2. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  3. Development of spectrofluorimetric method for determination of certain aminoglycoside drugs in dosage forms and human plasma through condensation with ninhydrin and phenyl acetaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Hammad, Mohamed A.; Nagy, Dalia M.; Aly, Alshymaa A.

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of amikacin sulfate, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin in pure forms, pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The method was based on condensation reaction of cited drugs with ninhydrin and phenylacetaldehyde in buffered medium (pH 6) resulting in formation of fluorescent products which exhibit excitation and emission maxima at 395 and 470 nm, respectively. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction products were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plots were constructed with good correlation coefficients (0.9993 for tobramycin and 0.9996 for both neomycin and amikacin). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of cited drugs in dosage forms with high accuracy (98.33-101.7) ± (0.80-1.26)%. The results show an excellent agreement with the reference method, indicating no significant difference in accuracy and precision. Due to its high sensitivity, the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of amikacin in real human plasma.

  4. Poor Metabolizing of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde with alcohol-related Traffic Accident%乙醇、乙醛慢代谢与酒后驾车肇事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 李成涛; 赵书民; 张素华; 向平

    2010-01-01

    在体内乙醇代谢过程中起重要作用的酶有乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)、乙醛脱氢酶(ALDH)和细胞色素P4502E1酶(CYP2E1),它们均具有基因多态性,不同基因型个体对乙醇的耐受性存在差别,表现为酒后的行为反应能力不同.司机若为慢代谢型,乙醇、乙醛代谢速率低下,即使少量饮酒,酒后开车也可造成交通肇事.通过对ADH、ALDH和CYP2E1基因多态性与乙醇、乙醛代谢能力的关系进行综述.

  5. Synthesis of D-abrines by palladium-catalyzed reaction of ortho-iodoanilines with N-Boc-N-methylalanyl-substituted acetaldehyde and acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Paulami; Morkunas, Marius; Maier, Martin E

    2013-05-17

    A novel strategy to N-Boc-N-methyl--tryptophans (abrine derivatives) was developed that relies on the palladium-catalyzed annulation of ortho-iodoanilines 12 with either N-Boc-N-methyl-propargylglycine 16 or aldehyde 11. Both 11 and 16 can be prepared from d-serine. An alternative route to propargylglycine 16 utilizes an enantioselective propargylation reaction of glycine imine 17.

  6. Research progress on control of acetaldehyde in beer%关于控制啤酒乙醛含量的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勇; 王肇悦; 晏本菊

    2008-01-01

    乙醛是啤酒中重要的风味物质之一,但过量的乙醛会使啤酒产生像青草或苹果腐烂的味道.降低啤酒中的乙醛含量是啤酒工业当前的目标之一.该文综述了乙醛的性质,乙醛在啤酒发酵和贮存老化时期的代谢过程,发酵条件对乙醛含量的影响,以及对控制啤酒中乙醛含量研究的进展.

  7. 啤酒酵母乙醛代谢关键酶相关性研究%Correlation of key enzymes of acetaldehyde metabolism in beer yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔云前; 王君伟; 李红; 金玮鋆

    2016-01-01

    乙醛是啤酒中的主要风味物质,其代谢主要来自酵母细胞.酵母中乙醇脱氢酶及乙醛脱氢酶是乙醛代谢的关键酶,对乙醛变化起着重要作用.跟踪啤酒酵母发酵过程中相对酶活力及乙醛变化,发现两种乙醇脱氢酶和乙醛脱氢酶的相对酶活力与发酵过程乙醛含量变化具有一定相关性.同时对低产乙醛啤酒酿酒酵母kb2-4与出发菌株啤酒酵母kb进行发酵试验,跟踪检测相对酶活力及乙醛含量,其乙醇脱氢酶Ⅰ和乙醇脱氢酶Ⅱ及乙醛脱氢酶相对酶活力均高于出发菌株,平均增幅分别为15.5%,11.6%和5%.3种酶活性的变化协同作用可以使乙醛含量降幅最大为33.8%.

  8. Determination of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde in Beer by GC-MS%GC-MS法快速测定啤酒中的甲醛和乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫吉昌; 初人合; 李晓坤; 闫福成; 陈大伟; 王悦宏

    2006-01-01

    报道了用GC-MS法同时测定无甲醛工艺啤酒中微量甲醛和乙醛的含量.用选择离子检测法定性,标准曲线法定量,方法的检出限可达0.01×10-6g/L.该方法快速、简便,结果重现性良好.

  9. 啤酒中的乙醛及贮存过程含量变化%Acetaldehyde Content in Beer and Its Change during Beer Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝汤

    2011-01-01

    测定了啤酒贮存过程乙醛含量的变化.结果表明,啤酒中乙醛的含量随着贮存时间的增加而增加;贮存过程环境温度较高会加速啤酒中乙醛含量的升高;瓶装啤酒的乙醛含量升高比罐装啤酒要大.

  10. Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous chemicals to avoid: Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is in cannabis and e-cigarette smoke. It irritates the skin, ... infections, a connective tissue disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis , a medication reaction, and after a bone marrow, ...

  11. 高效液相色谱法测定指甲油中甲醛、乙醛和丙酮%HPLC Determination of Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde and Acetone in Nail Polish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞; 夏俊鹏

    2015-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法测定指甲油中甲醛、乙醛和丙酮的含量.样品用乙腈和水提取,2,4-二硝基苯肼为衍生剂,采用Kromasil-C18色谱柱为分离柱,以乙腈-水(65+35)溶液为流动相,在检测波长364 nm处进行测定.甲醛、乙醛和丙酮的质量浓度均在0.01~20.0 mg·L-1范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)在0.001 5~0.003 5 mg·L-1之间.加标回收率在88.6%~110%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在1.2%~9.7%之间.

  12. 啤酒生产过程中影响乙醛含量的因素%Study on factors coming from the period of beer production on content of acetaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德良; 王贵双; 肖和云; 赵涤飞

    2002-01-01

    影响成品啤酒风味物质-乙醛含量的因素较多,主要针对以下几个影响因素分析其对乙醛含量的影响,包括:发酵周期中不同代数酵母接种发酵周期乙醛含量的变化情况;发酵工艺条件-麦汁浓度差异对乙醛含量的影响;接种酵母质量对发酵末乙醛含量的影响;灭菌前清酒溶解氧含量与灭菌后啤酒中乙醛含量的关系;添加剂-酵母营养盐对发酵末乙醛含量的影响;污染微生物-发酵单胞菌的对乙醛含量的影响.

  13. 啤酒酵母代谢过程中金属离子对乙醛生成的影响%Effect of Metal Ions on Acetaldehyde Formation in Beer Yeast Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦少华; 王伟; 郭继强; 迟乃玉; 赵长新

    2007-01-01

    通过对啤酒酵母发酵过程中Na+、Mg2+、K+、Ca2+四种金属离子添加实验,采用静态项空气相色谱法对乙醛生成的影响进行了研究.实验结果表明:与空白培养基相比,随着金属离子的添加,发酵过程中乙醛的生成表现出较明显的规律性,分析结果对于实际生产具有一定的指导意义.

  14. Effects of Fermentation Conditions on the Content of Acetaldehyde and Higher Alcohols in Beer%发酵条件对啤酒中乙醛及高级醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫淑芳; 闫夫

    2007-01-01

    乙醛及高级醇的含量高是啤酒上头的主要原因.研究了啤酒发酵条件对两者的影响,实验结果表明,适当的提高发酵初期的发酵温度及减少酵母添加量可以有效地降低啤酒中乙醛的含量,而降低麦汁溶氧量和主酵温度可使高级醇含量显著降低.

  15. Determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer by LC-MS/MS%LC-MS/MS法测定啤酒中的微量甲醛和乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建强

    2008-01-01

    啤酒中的微量甲醛和乙醛经2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生后直接用LC-MS/MS检测,标准曲线定量.给出了LC-MS/MS法的液相操作条件、质谱分析测定参数、仪器最低检测限值、重复性、定量分析曲线等.该方法简单快速,灵敏度高,每个样的分析时间短,分析样品数量大.

  16. 低产乙醛啤酒酵母的筛选及其菌株的实施效果%The screening and application effect of low acetaldehyde beer yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰

    2016-01-01

    乙醛是啤酒中硬纸板昧的主要来源,过量的乙醛对人体具有一定毒性.研究对筛选得到的20株酵母进行低温发酵实验,测定其发酵液乙醛含量,并对降低率大的实验菌株进行了相关酶活性测定,据此筛选低产乙醛啤酒酵母菌株YA2,较出发菌株乙醛含量降低了71.13%;乙醇脱氢酶活性显著提高,且遗传稳定性表现良好.

  17. Study on Effect of Practical Factors in Brewing Process on the Content of Acetaldehyde in Beer%啤酒酿造过程中影响乙醛变化因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅; 冯景章

    2002-01-01

    有针对性地提出了酿造过程中影响乙醛形成的生理内因和环境外因,并从主要的几个方面进行了研究.结果表明,酿造过程染菌、麦汁充氧控制不合理、二次发酵酒添加是造成成品啤酒中乙醛含量偏高的主要环境外因.在实际生产中,应加强CIP清洗,特别是种酵母罐的清洗及无菌空气过滤的控制工作,并合理控制麦汁的溶解氧含量,尽可能减少二次发酵酒的添加.

  18. Metabolism of acetylene by Nocardia rhodochrous.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanner, D; Bartha, R

    1982-01-01

    A Nocardia rhodochrous strain capable of utilizing acetylene as its sole source of carbon and energy exhibited slow growth on low concentrations of acetaldehyde. Resting cells incubated with acetylene formed a product identified as acetaldehyde, but attempts to demonstrate acetylene hydrase activity in cell-free extracts were unsuccessful. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in N. rhodochrous was found to be NAD+ linked and nonacylating, converting acetaldehyde to acetate. Specific activities of aceta...

  19. Selective autooxidation of ethanol over titania-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts: structure and reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, C.; Thirunavukkarasu, K.; Anilkumar, M.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    We study the selective catalytic oxidation of ethanol with air as a sustainable alternative route to acetaldehyde. The reaction is catalysed by molybdenum oxide supported on titania, in a flow reactor under ambient pressure. High selectivity to acetaldehyde (70%-89%, depending on the Mo loading) is

  20. Controlled Growth and Modification of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    addition of H2O into the nanotube-growth CVD system prevented Fe catalyst particles from aggregation through Ostwald ripening due to retarded...polymerization of acetaldehyde . The insets show TEM images of an individual nanotube (a) before and (b) after being coated with a layer of the acetaldehyde

  1. Effect of Exogenous Acetaldehyde on Reactive Oxygen Metabolism in Medium-Term and Late Maturity Peaches During Storage%外源乙醛对中熟和晚熟桃果实采后活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建黎; 韩涛; 李丽萍; 孙宇婧; 张微娜; 张海英

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 研究外源乙醛处理对桃果实采后活性氧代谢的影响.[方法] 以中熟品种‘久保'和晚熟品种‘绿化9号'桃为试材,用0,0.25、0:50和1.00 ml·L-1乙醛处理果实12 h,研究桃果实在(20±1)℃与(0±1)℃贮藏期间活性氧代谢的变化.[结果] 在2种贮藏温度下,1.00ml·L-1乙醛处理提高了桃果实超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,降低了超氧负离子游离基(Q2-)生成速率和过氧化氢(H2O2)含量;0.50 ml·L-1处理在室温下降低了O2-生成速率和H2O2含量,提高了SOD和POD的活性,但对CAT活性的影响不显著,在0℃下,0.50 ml·L-1处理效果不明显;0.25 ml·L-1处理在2种贮藏温度下效果均不明显.在货架期问,不同处理问这些变化的差异不明显.[结论] 在2种贮藏温度下,适当浓度的外源乙醛处理可有效延缓桃果实活性氧代谢.

  2. 发酵乳后熟期间嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌产乙醛特性%Acetaldehyde-Producing Properties of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in Fermented Milk during Post-Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白娜; 于洁; 王宏梅; 乌仁图雅; 秦艳婷; 扎木苏; 刘文俊; 孟和毕力格; 张和平

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌在发酵乳后熟期间产乙醛特性,并研究乙醛合成与其关键调控基因表达量之间的关系.方法:以传统发酵乳制品中筛选出的具有优良发酵特性的嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌为研究对象,将各试验菌株在复原全脂乳中进行单菌发酵,发酵结束后(pH4.5~4.6)于4℃冷藏后熟,测定48 h内发酵乳中的乙醛含量;采用反转录定量PCR技术检测乙醛合成关键调控基因pdc、pdh、ald、ldh的表达特征.结果:6株嗜热链球菌产乙醛量介于2.59~14.53 μg/g之间,6株保加利亚乳杆菌产乙醛量介于9.17~39.45 μg/g之间;乙醛合成量随着基因pdc、ald及pdh表达量的升高而增加,而与基因ldh的表达量呈负相关.结论:发酵乳后熟期间嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳杆菌不同菌种、不同菌株乙醛产量差异显著,相同菌株在不同后熟时间产乙醛量差异明显,存在菌株特异性和时序变异性;调控基因pdc、pdh及ald具有促进乙醛合成的作用,基因ldh的表达不利于乙醛含量的积累.

  3. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk;

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes....... The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0...

  4. Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde to L-Phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC by Free Cells of Torulaspora delbrueckii in presence of Beta-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas. B. Shukla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to explore the possibility of decreasing the toxic and inhibitory effects of the substrate benzaldehyde during its biotransformation to L-PAC by free cells of Torulaspora delbrueckii using beta -cyclodextrin (beta -CD. Use of various levels of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde in presence of 2% of beta -CD showed that, in presence of beta -CD, the organism could tolerate higher levels of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Semi-continuous feeding of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde was found to increase the yield of L-PAC in comparison with one time feeding.

  5. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...

  6. A novel, inducible, citral lyase purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Loo, W.J.V. van; Tramper, J.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    A novel lyase, combining hydratase and aldolase activity, that converts citral into methylheptenone and acetaldehyde, was purified from spores of Penicillium digitatum. Remarkably, citral lyase activity was induced 118-fold by incubating nongerminating spores with the substrate, citral. This cofacto

  7. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Induce Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanism in a Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elamin, Elhaseen; Masclee, Ad; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; van IJzendoorn, Sven; Troost, Freddy; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Dekker, Jan; Jonkers, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: Evidence is accumulating that ethanol and its oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, can disrupt intestinal epithelial integrity, an important factor contributing to ethanol-induced liver injury. However, ethanol can also be metabolized non-oxidatively generating phosphatidylethanol

  8. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Induce Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanism in a Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elamin, E.; Masclee, A.A.M.; Juuti-Uusitalo, K.; IJzendoorn, van S.; Troost, F.; Pieters, H.J.; Dekker, J.; Jonkers, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: Evidence is accumulating that ethanol and its oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, can disrupt intestinal epithelial integrity, an important factor contributing to ethanol-induced liver injury. However, ethanol can also be metabolized non-oxidatively generating phosphatidyletha

  9. The mechanism for the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Kreis, Michael; Palmelund, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies and kinetic isotope effects) and extended by a computational study (DFT calculations). For both benzaldehyde and phenyl acetaldehyde derivatives, linear Hammett plots ...

  10. Production of methanol from heat-stressed pepper and corn leaf disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture)

    1994-05-01

    Early Calwonder'' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Jubilee'' corn (Zea mays L.) leaf disks exposed to high temperature stress produced ethylene, ethane, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol based on comparison of retention times during gas chromatography to authentic standards. Methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were also identified by mass spectroscopy. Corn leaf disks produced lower levels of ethylene, ethane, and methanol, but more acetaldehyde and ethanol than pepper. Production of ethane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, coincided with an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) in pepper but not in corn. Compared with controls, pepper leaf disks infiltrated with linolenic acid evolved significantly greater amounts of ethane, acetaldehyde, and methanol and similar levels of ethanol. EL and volatile hydrocarbon production were not affected by fatty acid infiltration in corn. Infiltration of pepper leaves with buffers increasing in pH from 5.5 to 9.5 increased methanol production.

  11. Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt/C Electrodes for Ethanol Oxidation in Vapor Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong; YE Dai-qi; LIN Wei-ming

    2005-01-01

    High performance platinized-carbon electrodes have been developed for the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in electrogenerative processes. A load current density of the electrode can be achieved as high as 600 mA per square centimeter for oxygen reducing in 3 mol/L sulfuric acid with a good stability. With these electrodes and sulfuric acid as an electrolyte in fuel cells, ethanol vapor carried by nitrogen gas can be oxidized selectively to acetaldehyde. Selectivity of acetaldehyde depends on the potential of the cell and the feed rate of ethanol vapor and it can be more than 80% under optimized conditions. The initial product of ethanol oxidized on a platinized-carbon electrode is acetaldehyde and the ethanol oxidation mechanism is discussed.

  12. 27 CFR 21.32 - Formula No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....Ethyl acetate. 522.Ethyl chloride. 523.Other ethyl esters. 530.Ethylamines. 540.Dyes and intermediates. 551.Acetaldehyde. 552.Other aldehydes. 561.Ethyl ether. 562.Other ethers. 571.Ethylene dibromide....

  13. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  14. Studies of the Removal of Astringency in Japaneses Persimmon Fruits : Reference to Natural Disappearance of Astringency in Nonastringent-Type Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    米森, 敬三; Yonemori, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    Many earlier resarchers have studied the removal of astringency in Japanese persimmon fruits, and have indicated that decrease of tannin content in the fruits is associated with ethanol and acetaldehyde accumulation. These volatiles, especialiy acetaldehyde, allow soluble tannins to coagulate and change into insoluble complexes, thereby leading to the loss of astringency. This mechanism of deastringency has been obtained mainly from studies of astringent-type fruits from which astringency wa...

  15. A Kinetic Study of Selective Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide to C2 Oxygenates on Rh-Mn-Li-Fe/SiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Yin; Yunjie Ding; Hongyuan Luo; Daiping He; Weimiao Chen; Zhiyong Ao; Liwu Lin

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of CO hydrogenation for the synthesis of C2 oxygenates over Rh-Mn-Li-Fe/SiO2was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the formation of ethanol, acetaldehyde, C2 oxygenates, methanol and methane were obtained. The activation energy, H2 and CO dependence orders for ethanol and acetaldehyde formation differed greatly, the large difference seemed to imply that they were formed through different intermediates.

  16. Polymorphism of ethanol-metabolism genes and alcoholism: correlation of allelic variations with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chyan; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wang, Ming-Fang; Tsao, Tien-Ping; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2009-03-16

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit genetic polymorphisms among racial populations. Functional variant alleles ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 have been consistently replicated to show protection against developing alcohol dependence. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 may independently influence the risk for alcoholism. It has been well documented that homozygosity of ALDH2*2 almost fully protects against developing alcoholism and that the heterozygosity only affords a partial protection to varying degrees. Correlations of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations, cardiovascular hemodynamic responses, and subjective perceptions have been investigated in men with different combinatorial ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes following challenge with ethanol for a period of 130 min. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences indicate that acetaldehyde, rather than ethanol, is primarily responsible for the observed alcohol sensitivity reactions, suggesting that the full protection by ALDH2*2/*2 can be ascribed to the intense unpleasant physiological and psychological reactions caused by persistently elevated blood acetaldehyde after ingesting a small amount of alcohol and that the partial protection by ALDH2*1/*2 can be attributed to a faster elimination of acetaldehyde and the lower accumulation in circulation. ADH1B polymorphism does not significantly contribute to buildup of the blood acetaldehyde. Physiological tolerance or innate insensitivity to acetaldehyde may be crucial for development of alcohol dependence in alcoholics carrying ALDH2*2.

  17. Hypothesis of demodicidosis rosacea flushing etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Mary Ann; Orduz, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    Most of the patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea are characterized by flushing, oedema and telangiectasia. The etiopathogenesis of the flushing in rosacea patients is unknown. Clinically the flushing in rosacea is similar to the "Asian flushing syndrome". Most Asians have an overactive alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that tends to break down alcohol into acetaldehyde faster. People with "Asians flushing syndrome" have a genetic disorder with the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2(∗)2 (ALDH2(∗)2) allele. This is the reason why they do not metabolize very well the acetaldehyde that comes from the alcohol, which means that acetaldehyde takes much longer to clear from their blood. ALDH2 enzyme is primarily responsible for oxidation of acetaldehyde derived from ethanol metabolism, as well as oxidation of various other endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. Acetaldehyde produces the vasodilatation in the "Asian flushing syndrome". The antibodies against the GroEl chaperonin protein, a 62-kDa heat shock protein were found in the Bacillus oleronius isolated from Demodex mites, in rosacea patients. The GroEl chaperonin protein is a protein that plays a key role in normal folding of ALDH2. If the GroEl chaperonin antibodies found in patients with rosacea, cross react with the human GroEl chaperonin protein, they will not fold normally the ALDH2, and then the enzyme will not metabolize the acetaldehyde. Many of the patients with rosacea have a concomitant infection with Helicobacter pylori in their stomach. The H.pylori produces high amounts of acetaldehyde, which comes from their metabolism of ethanol or carbohydrates. As a result, high amounts of acetaldehyde will circulate for longer time in the blood, until the liver CYP2E1(p450) enzyme system finally metabilizes the acetaldehyde, during that period of time the patients will experience a flushing as well as the people with the "Asian flushing syndrome" suffer when they drink ethanol. To prove the hypothesis it is necessary

  18. Deuterium D(V/K) isotope effects on ethanol oxidation in hepatocytes; Importance of the reverse ADH-reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, F.; Iversen, H.L.; Hansen, L.L. (Department of Biochemistry A, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, D(V/K), on ethanol oxidation was measured on hepatocytes from rat and pig by the radiometric competitive method using {sup 14}C-labelled ethanol containing deuterium in the (a-R)-position. The corrected D(V/K) values of 2.68 and 2.80 for rat and pig hepatocytes respectively were significantly different, suggesting differences in the amount of non-ADH ethanol oxidizing activity. The apparent isotope effects declined repidly with time when acetaldehyde was present in the medium as a result of the reduction to ethanol of the ({sup 14}C)-acetaldehyde formed from the double labelled ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Fructose and cynamide caused the acetaldehyde concentration during ethanol oxidation to increase by entirely different mechanisms, and the isotope effect to decrease with time, as did also the addition of acetaldehyde. The apparent first order rate constant for the reverse ADH reaction, assuming the reactants to be acetaldehyde and the ADH-NADH complex, was determined by two metohods giving comparable results. In the presence of semicarbazide, which removes acetaldehyde, the isotope effect was nearly constant. This was the case also when the acetaldehyde concentration was very low (<1 {mu}M) for other reasons, as in hepatocytes from starved animals. A mathematical formula describing the expected decrease of the apparent isotope effect with time was derived. The different response of pig and rat hepatocytes to addition of fructose (the 'fructose effect') is suggested to be caused by differences in activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases in the two species. (author).

  19. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Masakatsu; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke; Ohmori, Akira

    2014-08-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO2 without HAp, TiO2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO2+30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed.

  20. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  1. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion.

  2. Modulation of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and D-penicillamine depends on ethanol dose and number of conditioning trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Baliño, Pablo; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that both 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), which inhibits metabolism of ethanol (EtOH) to acetaldehyde by inhibiting catalase, and D-penicillamine (D-P), an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent, modulate EtOH-conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino Swiss (IOPS Orl) mice. These studies followed a reference-dose-like procedure, which involves comparing cues that have both been paired with EtOH. However, the role of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde has not been examined using a standard CPP method, and efficacy of these treatments could be different under the two circumstances. In the present investigation, we manipulated the strength of CPP across five separate studies and evaluated the effect of D-P and AT on EtOH-induced CPP following a standard unbiased CPP procedure. Mice received pairings with vehicle-saline injections with one cue and, alternatively, with AT- and D-P-EtOH with another cue. Our studies indicate that AT and D-P only disrupt CPP induced by EtOH in mice when the number of conditioning sessions and the dose of EtOH are low. These findings suggest that acquisition of EtOH-induced CPP may depend on the levels of acetaldehyde available during memory acquisition and the strength of the memory. Therefore, we propose that, at least when the memory processes are labile, brain acetaldehyde could participate in the formation of Pavlovian learning elicited by EtOH.

  3. Gas sensing properties of graphene–WO{sub 3} composites prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiangfeng, E-mail: xfchu99@ahut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Hu, Tao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Gao, Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Dong, Yongping; Sun, Wenqi; Bai, Linshan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The amount of graphene had an effect on the morphology of graphene–WO{sub 3} composites. • The optimum temperature of 0.1 wt% graphene–WO{sub 3} sensor to acetaldehyde was 100 °C. • 0.1 wt% graphene–WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited good selectivity to acetaldehyde at 100 °C. - Abstract: Graphene–WO{sub 3} composites mixed with different amounts of graphene (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3 wt%) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h. The as-prepared graphite oxide, graphene and graphene–WO{sub 3} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the amount of graphene in the composites on the gas-sensing responses and the gas-sensing selectivity of the materials was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the sensor based on 0.1 wt% graphene–WO{sub 3} composite exhibited high response and good selectivity to acetaldehyde vapor at 100 °C, the optimum operating temperature of this sensor to 1000 ppm acetaldehyde vapor decreased from 180 °C to 100 °C comparing with that of pure WO{sub 3}. The response time and the recovery time for 100 ppm acetaldehyde vapor were 250 s and 225 s, respectively.

  4. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  5. Temporal variation of carbonyl compound concentrations at a semi-rural site in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Skov, H.; Nielsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were measured by the DNPH-technique at the semi-rural site Lille Valby, Denmark (55 degrees N) between May-July 1995, The average concentrations were observed to be 1.2 ppbv for formaldehyde, 0.8 ppbv for acetaldehyde and 1.......9 ppbv for acetone, For the set of carbonyl compounds, concentrations were found to be highly correlated, though only during daytime, The weak correlations observed during nighttime are believed to be caused by the dry deposition of especially formaldehyde, During periods with low photochemical activity...... of hydrocarbons during long-range transport. Especially, the concentration levels of acetone showed a pronounced seasonal-variation with the highest levels observed during summertime and lowest in winter and spring. The seasonal variation in the concentration levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were small...

  6. Formation of tetrahydroharman (1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline) by Helicobacter pylori in the presence of ethanol and tryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J C; Airaksinen, M M; Salmela, K S; Salaspuro, M

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori contains alcohol dehydrogenase which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. In the present study, H. pylori cytosol was incubated in a buffered media at pH 6.0 and 7.4 in the presence of ethanol and tryptamine. Under these conditions, tetrahydroharman (1-methyl-tetrahydro-beta-carboline) was produced as a condensation product of tryptamine and acetaldehyde. At pH 6.0, 20.60 +/- 5.00% of the added tryptamine was converted to tetrahydroharman, while 27.00 +/- 4.80% (mean +/-SD) was converted at pH 7.4. Similar reactions between acetaldehyde and other dietary amines seem likely. Such biogenic alkaloids, if formed in vivo, might contribute to the dysphoric effects of alcohol.

  7. Endogenous ethanol--its metabolic, behavioral and biomedical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky YuM

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is constantly formed endogenously from acetaldehyde, and level of the former can be measured in both human beings and animals. Acetaldehyde can be generated in situ from the metabolism of pyruvate, threonine, deoxyribose-5-phosphate, phosphoethanolamine, alanine and presumably from other substrates. The levels of blood and tissue endogenous ethanol change as a function of various physiologic and experimental conditions such as starvation, aging, stress, cooling, adrenalectomy, etc. and are regulated by many exogenous compounds such as antimetabolites, derivatives of amino acids, lithium salts, disulfiram, cyanamide, etc. Under free choice alcohol selection situations, the levels of endogenous ethanol in rat blood and alcohol preference by the animals are negatively correlated. Similar negative correlations have been found between the levels of blood endogenous ethanol and the frequency of delirium in alcoholic patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal. Endogenous ethanol and acetaldehyde can therefore be regarded as compounds which fulfil substrate, regulatory and modulator functions.

  8. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity.

  9. Kinetic modeling of aldehyde adsorption rates on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by ultra-rapid-scanning fourier transform infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Husheng; Weinstock, Benjamin A; Hirsche, Blayne L; Griffiths, Peter R

    2005-04-26

    Enhancements of a model capable of precisely defining rates of adsorption in terms of a Langmuir isotherm and determined from infrared and pressure data collected in the millisecond time regime are described in detail. Rates of adsorption are determined for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposed to bare and aminopropylsilyl-derivatized silica gel. The model fits the collected data by varying the number of adsorption sites and the adsorption and desorption rate constants and determines the best fit based on the measured IR absorbance, partial pressure, exposure backpressure, number of adsorption sites, and time. The rate of adsorption onto irregular-shaped silica gel was faster than the rate onto the corresponding spherical silica gel. Formaldehyde was adsorbed more efficiently than acetaldehyde on APS silica gel than on bare silica gel, whereas acetaldehyde was adsorbed more efficiently than formaldehyde on underivatized silica, indicating the possibility that formaldehyde is adsorbed through the formation of a Schiff base.

  10. Nickel and cobalt as active phase on supported zirconia catalysts for bio-ethanol reforming: Influence of the reaction mechanism on catalysts performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R.; Rodriguez, L.; Serrano, A.; Munoz, G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Benito, M.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production was investigated on Co/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts promoted with lanthana. Catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by XRD and TPR. TPD-R experiments were also carried out to determine the role of active phase on reaction mechanism. The results suggest that adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Then, the adsorbed acetaldehyde may evolve by different mechanisms, depending on the nature of active phase. On one hand, in cobalt-based catalyst, acetaldehyde could be reformed directly. By acetaldehyde thermal decomposition, methyl and formaldehyde groups are obtained. By coupling of methyl groups, ethane can be obtained. At medium temperature range, WGS reaction contribution is noteworthy. On the other hand, in nickel-based catalyst, acetone was detected in a higher temperature range as the main intermediate reaction product, which indicates that acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone by decarbonylation of acetaldehyde leading to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} formation. In addition, acetone can also be reformed to give both H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Contrary to cobalt-based catalyst, ethylene was detected at intermediate range temperature which suggests that it was formed by ethanol dehydration reaction. Ethylene polymerization could easily explain coke formation, which must be avoided. Steam reforming reaction was studied at S/C ratio of 4.84 and 700 C, to verify the activity, selectivity and stability of the catalysts. Ethanol conversion reached 100% and catalysts were very stable for almost 50 h on stream. No significant differences were detected in both catalysts. Nevertheless, TPO experiments performed on used samples demonstrate a higher carbon production on nickel based catalyst that can be correlated to ethanol dehydration contribution on it reaction pathway. (author)

  11. Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted.

  12. Alcohol metabolism in human cells causes DNA damage and activates the Fanconi anemia – breast cancer susceptibility (FA-BRCA) DNA damage response network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jessy; Balbo, Silvia; Crabb, David; Brooks, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently reported that exposure of human cells in vitro to acetaldehyde resulted in activation of the Fanconi anemia-breast cancer associated (FA-BRCA) DNA damage response network. Methods To determine whether intracellular generation of acetaldehyde from ethanol metabolism can cause DNA damage and activate the FA-BRCA network, we engineered HeLa cells to metabolize alcohol by expression of human alcohol dehydrogenase 1B. Results Incubation of HeLa-ADH1B cells with ethanol (20 mM) resulted in acetaldehyde accumulation in the media which was prevented by co-incubation with 4-methyl pyrazole (4-MP), a specific inhibitor of ADH. Ethanol treatment of HeLa-ADH1B cells produced a 4-fold increase in the acetaldehyde-DNA adduct, N2-ethylidene-dGuo, and also resulted in activation of the Fanconi anemia -breast cancer susceptibility (FA-BRCA) DNA damage response network, as indicated by a monoubiquitination of FANCD2, and phosphorylation of BRCA1. Ser 1524 was identified as one site of BRCA1 phosphorylation. The increased levels of DNA adducts, FANCD2 monoubiquitination, and BRCA1 phosphorylation were all blocked by 4-MP, indicating that acetaldehyde, rather than ethanol itself, was responsible for all three responses. Importantly, the ethanol concentration we used is within the range that can be attained in the human body during social drinking. Conclusions Our results indicate that intracellular metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde results in DNA damage which activates the FA-BRCA DNA damage response network. PMID:21919919

  13. Thermal decomposition of ethylene oxide on Pd(111). Comparison of the pathways for the selective oxidation of ethylene and olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Ormerod, R.M. (Univ. of Keele (United Kingdom)); Tysoe, W.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The product distribution detected in the multimass temperature-programmed desorption of a saturated overlayer of ethylene oxide adsorbed on Pd(111) at [approximately] 180 K indicates that it decomposes to yield ethylene and acetaldehyde. These observations are interpreted by postulating that ethylene oxide reacts to form an oxymetallocycle. This is proposed to thermally decompose in a manner analogous to carbometallocycles that form during olefin metathesis catalysis by the reaction between an alkene and a surface carbene. Thus, the metallocycle can decompose to yield ethylene and deposit adsorbed atomic oxygen or undergo a [beta]-hydrogen transfer to form acetaldehyde. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented.

  15. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  16. Proceedings of Tripartite Conference on Submarine Medicine and IEP B-52 - France, United Kingdom, United States (6th) Held in Groton, Connecticut on 1-4 June 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-03

    gaseous pollutants were methane-equivalent hydrocarbons (177 mg/m ), CO (26 ppm), NO (I ppm), toluene (.7 ppm), NO , formaldehyde, acetaldehyde , acrolein... ripen the submarino and DSnVhi.cha. and -;t;kndbyj while i controlled dp,’essurization hack to I b rWct-1u;1; An a114n,,atlve method of cpening the...colorimetry - total hydrocarbonic pr6ducts-analyzed by flame ionization - some organic conpounds ( acetaldehyde , acrolein, acetone, toluene, etc.) determined by

  17. AFOSR(Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (33rd) FY88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Kramer Mel LeVan Arnaud Pagola Spencer Pugh PUBLICATIONS: "Theory of Ostwald Ripening for Open Systems", C.W. Beenakker and John Ross, J. Chem, PbIs., _I...of Periodic Perturbations on the Oscillatory Combustion of Acetaldehyde ", Spencer A. Pugh, Mark Schell, and John Ross, J. Chem. Phys., 85, 868 (1986...34Effects of Two Periodic Perturbations on the Oscillatory Combustion of Acetaldehyde ", Spencer A. Pugh, Bruce DeKock, and John Ross, J. Chem, Phys

  18. Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk : A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Buring, J.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Hankinson, S.E.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Marshall, J.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort stud

  19. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  20. Cyclopentene dialdehydes from Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, J; Morita, I; Tagahara, K; Hirai, K

    2000-04-01

    The isolation of two cyclopentene dialdehydes, 2-formyl-5-(4'-methoxybenzoyloxy)-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-acetal dehyde, and 2-formyl-5-(3', 4'-dimethoxybenzoyloxy)-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-acetaldehyde, from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa is reported. The structures were established by analysis of spectroscopic data. These compounds showed anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent - A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Sayed Hossein Banitaba; Sepehr Sadegh Samiei

    2009-07-01

    A convenient and efficient procedure for synthesis of quinaldine derivatives has been developed by a simple one-pot reaction of aniline derivatives and acetaldehyde on the surface of neutral alumina impregnated with hydrochloric acid under microwave irradiation without any solvent according to green chemistry.

  2. Emissions and photochemistry of oxygenated VOCs in urban plumes in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical processes inside urban plumes in the Northeast of the United States have been studied using a highly detailed chemical model, based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. The model results have been compared to measurements of oxygenated VOCs (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and methanol obtained during several flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, which sampled plumes from the New York City area during the ICARTT campaign in 2004. The agreement between the model and the measurements was within 40–60 % for all species, except acetic acid.

    The model results have been used to study the formation and photochemical evolution of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and acetaldehyde. Under the conditions encountered during the ICARTT campaign, acetone is produced from the oxidation of propane (24–28 % and i-propanol (<15 % and from a number of products of i-pentane oxidation. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is mostly produced from the oxidation of n-butane (20–30 % and 3-methylpentane (<40 %. Acetaldehyde is formed from several precursors, mostly small alkenes, >C5 alkanes, propanal and MEK. Ethane and ethanol oxidation account, respectively, for 6–23 % and 5–25 % of acetaldehyde photochemical formation. The results highlight the importance of alkanes for the photochemical production of ketones and the role of hydroperoxides in sustaining their formation far from the emission sources.

  3. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. 154.1710... Operating Requirements § 154.1710 Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. When a vessel is carrying acetaldehyde, butadiene, ethylene oxide, or vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that air is: (a)...

  4. Multi-enzyme catalyzed rapid ethanol lowering in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, D R; Chambers, R P; Dillon, A R

    1991-10-01

    Ethanol was oxidized to acetate by an enzyme system using yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (YALDH), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) recycling NAD in two model duodenal fluids and in canine duodenal aspirate in vitro. Sufficient enzyme activities were maintained to convert as much as 34% of the original ethanol to acetate with negligible acetaldehyde accumulation.

  5. Oral micro-organisms in the etiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H; Uittamo, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel concept on carcinogenesis mediated by oral microbiota. Oral micro-organisms are capable of metabolizing alcohol to acetaldehyde. This finding casts light on the observed association between poor oral hygiene and oral cancer. Ethanol, as such, is not carcinogenic, but its first metabolite acetaldehyde is indisputably carcinogenic. Several gastro-intestinal microbial species possess the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is also the enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism in the liver. In oral microbiota, we observed that species such as the ubiquitous viridans streptococci and Candida also possess ADH. Ethanol can be detected in the mouth hours after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Patients with poor oral health status have shown higher salivary acetaldehyde concentrations than those with better oral health. It is thus understandable that ADH-containing micro-organisms in the mouth present a risk for carcinogenic acetaldehyde production, with subsequent potential for the development of oral cancer, particularly among heavy drinkers. In this article, we briefly review this area of investigation and conclude by highlighting some future possibilities for the control of carcinogenesis.

  6. An experimental study of adsorption interference in binary mixtures flowing through activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, R.; Photinos, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The isothermal transmission through activated carbon adsorber beds at 25 C of acetaldehyde-propane and acetylene-ethane mixtures in a helium carrier gas was measured. The inlet concentration of each component was in the range between 10 ppm and 500 ppm. The constant inlet volumetric flow rate was controlled at 200 cc (STP)/min in the acetaldehyde-propane experiments and at 50 cc (STP)/min in the acetaldehyde-ethane experiments. Comparison of experimental results with the corresponding single-component experiments under similar conditions reveals interference phenomena between the components of the mixtures as evidenced by changes in both the adsorption capacity and the dispersion number. Propane was found to displace acetaldehyde from the adsorbed state. The outlet concentration profiles of propane in the binary mixtures tend to become more diffuse than the corresponding concentration profiles of the one-component experiments. Similar features were observed with mixtures of acetylene and ethane; however, the displacement of acetylene by ethane is less pronounced.

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated, aldehydes, an ester of a hemiacetal and an orthoester of formic acid, from chemical groups 1, 2 and 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  8. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Anthony J.; Adams, Mark A.; Bleby, Tim M.; Rennenberg, Heinz; Steigner, Dominik; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    Eucalypts are among the highest emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds, yet there is relatively little data available from field studies of this genus. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes and the short-chained carbonyls formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were determined from four species ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, and Eucalytpus viminalis) in Australia. A smaller comparative study was conducted on E. camaldulensis in south-eastern Australia. Carbonyl emissions, reported here for the first time from eucalypts, were generally comparable with rates reported for other species, with diurnal emissions peaking at about 4, 75 and 34 nmol m -2 min -1 for acetone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde respectively. There was wide variation in diurnal isoprene and monoterpene emissions between species, but under standard conditions, isoprene emissions were much lower than previous reports. Conversely, standard emission rates of monoterpenes were as much as six times greater than previous reports for some species. Emission of each carbonyl was correlated with its ambient concentration across different species, but more weakly related to temperature. Acetaldehyde emission in particular was significantly correlated with transpiration, but not with sap flow or with ethanol concentrations in xylem sap, suggesting fermentation within the leaf and stomatal conductance are primary controlling processes. Differences in acetaldehyde exchange velocities between sites, in addition to transpiration differences, suggest stomata may indeed exert long term emission regulation, in contrast to compounds for which no biological sink exists.

  9. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol by Nanoparticle Vanadia/Anatase Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas;

    2009-01-01

    The gas-phase oxidation of aqueous ethanol with dioxygen has been examined with a new nanoparticle V2O5/TiO2 catalyst. Product selectivity could to a large extent be controlled by small alterations of reaction parameters, allowing production of acetaldehyde at a selectivity higher than 90%, near ...

  10. Asymmetric catalytic synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-09-01

    A concise catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B is reported. The synthetic sequence notably features an asymmetric acetaldehyde alkynylation, a Ru-catalyzed alder-ene reaction, and a Zn-ProPhenol ynone aldol condensation. Comparison with the reported data suggests a misassignment of the natural product structure.

  11. Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of Moldavian matured wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, Mikhail A.; Trofimova, Darya V.; Nezalzova, Elena I.

    2011-02-01

    Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of matured wine distillates (1-40 years aged) produced by three Moldavian manufacturers allows to characterize with sufficient certainty the eleven chemical parameters of considered alcoholic beverages: contents of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, furfural, vanillin, syringic aldehyde and acid, etc.

  12. EFFECTS OF TUNGSTATE ON THE GROWTH OF DESULFOVIBRIO-GIGAS NCIMB-9332 AND OTHER SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA WITH ETHANOL AS A SUBSTRATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENSGENS, CMH; NIENHUISKUIPER, ME; HANSEN, TA

    1994-01-01

    Growth of Desulfovibrio gigas NCIMB 9332 in mineral, vitamin-supplemented media with ethanol as substrate was strongly stimulated by the addition of tungstate (optimal level approximately 10(-7) M). At suboptimal tungstate concentrations, up to 1.0 mM acetaldehyde was detected in the culture superna

  13. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of oth...

  14. [Effect of cyanamide on the level of endogenous ethanol in the liver of normal rats and in hypocorticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Iu A; Satanovskaia, V I; Shishkin, S N; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M

    1988-01-01

    The rat liver endogenous ethanol level was found to increase under inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenases by cyanamide. Adrenalectomy results in a decrease of the liver endogenous ethanol content and abolishes cyanamide effect on this index. One of the mechanisms of cyanamide toxic effect may be accumulation of different aldehydes including acetaldehyde.

  15. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  16. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Ethanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Thomas D.; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer. PMID:23134050

  17. (S-1-[(S-4-Benzyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-3-hydroxybutan-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hong Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H17NO2S2, was synthesized by asymmetric aldol condensation of N-acylthiazolidinethione with acetaldehyde. In the molecule, the thiazolidine five-membered ring assumes an envelope conformation. Intermolecular C—H...O and intramolecular O—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonding helps to stabilize the structure.

  18. Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2006 is the 125th anniversary of a chemical reaction, the discovery of which by Mikhail Kucherov had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 19-20th centuries. This was the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions that made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene. Historical…

  19. Emissions and photochemistry of oxygenated VOCs in urban plumes in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical processes inside urban plumes in the Northeast of the United States have been studied using a highly detailed chemical model, based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. The model results have been compared to measurements of oxygenated VOCs (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and methanol obtained during several flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft, which sampled plumes from the New York City area during the ICARTT campaign in 2004. The agreement between the model and the measurements was within 40–60% for all species, except acetic acid.

    The model results have been used to study the formation and photochemical evolution of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and acetaldehyde. Under the conditions encountered during the ICARTT campaign, acetone is produced from the oxidation of propane (24–28% and i-propanol (<15% and from a number of products of i-pentane oxidation. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is mostly produced from the oxidation of n-butane (20–30% and 3-methylpentane (<40%. Acetaldehyde is formed from several precursors, mostly small alkenes, >C5 alkanes, propanal and MEK. Ethane and ethanol oxidation account, respectively, for 6–23% and 5–25% of acetaldehyde photochemical formation. The results highlight the importance of long-chain alkanes for the photochemical production of ketones and the role of hydroperoxides in sustaining their formation far from the emission sources.

  20. Interaction between ADH1C Arg272Gln and alcohol intake in relation to breast cancer risk suggests that ethanol is the causal factor in alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon Larsen, Signe; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. We wanted to determine if ADH polymorphisms which modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, were associated with breast cancer risk. We matched 809 postmenopausal breast cancer cases with 809 controls, nested within the prospective Diet...

  1. Technical Papers Presented at the Defense Nuclear Agency Global Effects Review. Held at Moffett Field, California on 25-27 February 1986. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-15

    Aldehydes, organic acids, and others. a.) Acetaldehyde (.08 to 14.13 g/kg) b.) Furfuraldehyde (.03 to 2.09 g/kg) We have proposed making measurements of...2/23/86) warming--personal communication, M. MacCracken). While this was sufficient to retard the ripening of cereal crops by 10 to 15 days, despite

  2. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2016-07-18

    There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The

  3. Synthesis of nanoporous carbohydrate metal-organic framework and encapsulation of selected organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Saleh

    Cyclodextrin metal organic frameworks (CDMOFs) with different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) (i.e., Alpha, Beta and Gamma-CD) and coordination potassium ion sources (KOH) CDMOF-a and (C7H5KO2) CDMOF-b were synthesized and fully characterized. The physical and thermal properties of the successfully produced CDMOFs were evaluated using N2 gas sorption, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The N2 gas sorption isotherm revealed high uptake into the micropores (330 cm3.g -1 for Gamma-CDMOF-a) to macropore (125 cm3.g -1 for Gamma-CDMOF-b) structures with isotherm types I and II for Gamma-CDMOFs and Alpha-CDMOFs, respectively. The Langmuir specific surface area (SSA) of Gamma-CDMOF-a (1376 m2.g-1) was significantly higher than the SSA of Alpha-CDMOF-a (289 m2.g -1) and Beta-CDMOF-a (54 m2.g-1). The TGA of dehydrated CDMOF crystals showed the structures were thermally stable up to 300 °C. The XRD of the Gamma-CDMOFs and Alpha-CDMOFs showed a highly face-centered-cubic symmetrical structure. An Aldol condensation reaction occurred during the encapsulation of acetaldehyde, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and ethanol into Gamma-CDMOF-a, with a SSA of 1416 m2.g -1. However, Gamma-CDMOF-b with a SSA of 499 m2.g -1 was successfully used to encapsulate acetaldehyde. The maximum release of acetaldehyde from CDMOF-b was 53 mug of acetaldehyde per g of CDMOF, which is greater than previously reported acetaldehyde encapsulation on Beta-CD inclusion complexes.

  4. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  5. Facilitated ethanol metabolism promotes cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction through autophagy in murine hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Hu, Nan; Kandadi, Machender R.; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Chronic drinking leads to myocardial contractile dysfunction where ethanol metabolism plays an essential role. Acetaldehyde, the main ethanol metabolite, mediates alcohol-induced cell injury although the underlying mechanism is still elusive. This study was designed to examine the mechanism involved in accelerated ethanol metabolism-induced cardiac defect with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type FVB and cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase mice were placed on a 4% nutrition-balanced alcohol diet for 8 weeks. Myocardial histology, immunohistochemistry, autophagy markers and signal molecules were examined. Expression of micro RNA miR-30a, a potential target of Beclin 1, was evaluated by real-time PCR. Chronic alcohol intake led to cardiac acetaldehyde accumulation, hypertrophy and overt autophagosome accumulation (LC3-II and Atg7), the effect of which was accentuated by ADH. Signaling molecules governing autophagy initiation including class III PtdIns3K, phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K were enhanced and dampened, respectively, following alcohol intake. These alcohol-induced signaling responses were augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated or unmasked alcohol-induced downregulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and MiR-30a. Interestingly, ADH aggravated alcohol-induced p62 accumulation. Autophagy inhibition using 3-MA abolished alcohol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Moreover, acetaldehyde led to cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and autophagy induction, which was ablated by 3-MA. Ethanol or acetaldehyde increased GFP-LC3 puncta in H9c2 cells, the effect of which was ablated by 3-MA but unaffected by lysosomal inhibition using bafilomycin A1, E64D and pepstatin A. In summary, these data suggested that facilitated acetaldehyde production via ADH following alcohol intake triggered cardiac autophagosome formation along with impaired lysosomal degradation, en route to myocardial defect. PMID:22441020

  6. An experimental study of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and its inter ventional treatments in hepatic ifbrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-De Jiang; Shu-Mei Zheng; Hui Xu; Wei-Zheng Zeng; Yong Zhang; Hao-Ping Sun; Yun-Xia Wang; Jian-Ping Qin; Xiao-Ling Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The pathogenesis of hepatic ifbrosis and cirrhosis is still not fully understood. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PD98059, a speciifc inhibitor of ERK, on the cell cycle, cell proliferation, secretion of typeⅠcollagen and expression of cyclin D1 mRNA, CDK4 mRNA and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) stimulated by acetaldehyde. METHODS:Rat HSCs stimulated by acetaldehyde were incubated with PD98059 at different concentrations. The cell cycle was analysed by lfow cytometry. Cell proliferation was assessed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay. The mRNA expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and TGF-β1 was examined using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Type Ⅰcollagen in the culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: 20, 50 and 100 μmol/L PD98059 signiifcantly inhibited the proliferation and provoked a G0/G1-phase arrest of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The secretion of typeⅠ collagen and the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs were markedly inhibited by 50 and 100μmol/L PD98059, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The ERK pathway regulates the cell proliferation, secretion of type Ⅰ collagen and the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in rat HSCs stimulated by acetaldehyde, which is likely related to its regulative effect on the cell cycle.

  7. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  8. Calcium-dependent microneme protein discharge and in vitro egress of Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinlei; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Ji, Yongsheng; Suo, Xun

    2016-11-01

    Egress is a vital step in the endogenous development of apicomplexan parasites, as it assures the parasites exit from consumed host cells and entry into fresh ones. However, little information has previously been reported on this step of Eimeria spp. In this study, we investigated in vitro egress of Eimeria tenella sporozoites triggered by acetaldehyde. We found that addition of exogenous acetaldehyde induces egress of sporozoites from primary chicken kidney cells (PCKs) and stimulate secretion of E. tenella microneme 2 protein (EtMic 2). Moreover, by using cellular calcium inhibitors, we further proved that these processes were dependent on the intracellular calcium of the parasites. Our findings provide clues to the study of interaction between eimerian parasites and their hosts.

  9. Influence of oxygen and pH on the selective oxidation of ethanol on Pd catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbitts, David D.; Neurock, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The selective oxidation of ethanol on supported Pd is catalytically promoted by the presence of hydroxide species on the Pd surface as well as in solution. These hydroxide intermediates act as Brønsted bases which readily abstract protons from the hydroxyl groups of adsorbed or solution-phase alcohols. The C1AH bond of the resulting alkoxide is subsequently activated on the metal surface via hydride elimination to form acetaldehyde. Surface and solution-phase hydroxide intermediates can also readily react with the acetaldehyde via nucleophilic addition to form a germinal diol intermediate, which subsequently undergoes a second C1AH bond activation on Pd to form acetic acid. The role of O2 is to remove the electrons produced in the oxidation reaction via the oxygen reduction reaction over Pd. The reduction reaction also regenerates the hydroxide intermediates and removes adsorbed hydrogen that is produced during the oxidation.

  10. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of etoricoxib using modified chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation chitosan has been chemically modified by treating with two different aldehydes like acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde to form Schiff′s bases. Schiff′s bases of chitosan with acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were named as polymer A and polymer B, respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectral data have confirmed the reaction carried out on chitosan. Drug free polymeric films of chitosan, chemically modified chitosan and chitosan/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend were prepared and evaluated for various physicochemical characters. Further, the films were incorporated with anti-inflammatory drug, etoricoxib using glycerol as plasticizer. The drug loaded films were cross-linked with sodium citrate and studied for permeation characteristics across dialysis membrane and rat skin. All the films were evaluated for bursting strength, swelling index, moisture uptake, thickness uniformity, drug content uniformity, tensile strength, percent elongation at break, percent flatness, water vapour transmission rate and in vitro drug permeation study.

  12. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

  13. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  14. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Development of hierarchically porous cobalt oxide for enhanced photo-oxidation of indoor pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. P.; Shereef, Anas; Gray, Kimberly A.; Wu, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    Porous cobalt oxide was successfully prepared by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by low temperature thermal decomposition. The morphologies of the resultant oxides remained as the corresponding hydroxides, although the morphology of cobalt hydroxides was greatly influenced by the precursor salts. The cobalt oxides with average crystal size less than 20 nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET surface area, and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the various cobalt oxides morphologies were investigated by comparing the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under simulated solar illumination. Relative to their low order structures and reference titania samples, the hierarchical nanostructures of cobalt oxide showed excellent abilities to rapidly degrade acetaldehyde, a model air pollutant. This was attributed to the unique nature of these hierarchical cobalt oxide nanoassemblies, which contained many catalytically active reaction sites and open pores.

  16. Engineering of carboligase activity reaction in Candida glabrata for acetoin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Utilization of Candida glabrata overproducing pyruvate is a promising strategy for high-level acetoin production. Based on the known regulatory and metabolic information, acetaldehyde and thiamine were fed to identify the key nodes of carboligase activity reaction (CAR) pathway and provide a direction for engineering C. glabrata. Accordingly, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase were selected to be manipulated for strengthening the CAR pathway. Following the rational metabolic engineering, the engineered strain exhibited increased acetoin biosynthesis (2.24 g/L). In addition, through in silico simulation and redox balance analysis, NADH was identified as the key factor restricting higher acetoin production. Correspondingly, after introduction of NADH oxidase, the final acetoin production was further increased to 7.33 g/L. By combining the rational metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, the acetoin-producing C. glabrata was improved stepwise, opening a novel pathway for rational development of microorganisms for bioproduction.

  17. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals, Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Robert F.; Glass, Graham P.

    2004-11-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of the chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. Work on the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde has been completed and published and work on the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} has been completed and submitted for publication. In the course of our investigation of branching ratios of the reactions of O({sup 1}D) with acetaldehyde and methane, we discovered that hot atom chemistry effects are not negligible at the gas pressures (13 Torr) initially used. Branching ratios of the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} have been measured at a tenfold higher He flow and fivefold higher pressure.

  18. Metabolic activities of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekdag, Zehra Nur; Beyath, Yavuz; Aslim, Belma

    2004-06-01

    A total of 21 strains of Lactobacillus species were isolated from Turkish kefir samples, in order to select the most suitable strains according to their metabolic activities including probiotic properties. As a result of the identification tests, 21 Lactobacillus isolates were identified as L. acidophilus (4%), L. helveticus (9%), L. brevis (9%), L. bulgaricus (14%), L. plantarum (14%), L. casei (19%) and L. lactis (28%). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity, and acetaldehyde productions of Lactobacillus spp. were determined. Different amounts of lactic acid were produced by strains studies; however, lactic acid levels were 1.7-11.4 mg/mL. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide. L. bulgaricus Z14L strain showed no proteolytic activity, L. casei Z6L strain produced the maximum amount (0.16 mg/mL) of proteolytic activity. Acetaldehyde concentration produced in Lactobacillus strains ranged between 0.88-3.52 microg/mL.

  19. Effects of whisky on plasma gastrin and cholecystokinin in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, T; Sawai, H; Okada, Y; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, M; Sato, M; Hayakawa, T; Yamaki, K

    2003-01-01

    Whisky (1 g/kg, 21.5% alcohol) was administered orally to healthy young adult male volunteers, and changes in the plasma concentrations of alcohol, acetaldehyde, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and serum amylase were measured over time. Values for alcohol and acetaldehyde rapidly reached a peak at 30-45 min after alcohol intake, followed by a gradual decline. The plasma gastrin concentration showed a rapid elevation, while the plasma CCK concentration did not exhibit any significant changes in the early phase after alcohol intake. Elevation of CCK was observed after 75 min, however. These results show that intake of whisky stimulates the secretion of gastrin and is associated with a later increase in CCK.

  20. Effect of glutathione during bottle storage of sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Cardozo, Alejandro; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2017-02-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an efficient antioxidant on limiting browning, losing varietal aromas and off-flavor formation. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of GSH addition (10, 20 and 30mgL(-1)) after the disgorging of the sparkling wine during storage. The sparkling wines were analyzed at 1, 6, 12 and 18months of storage according to the color index, concentration of the free SO2, phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, acetaldehyde, total and reduced glutathione. The results show that GSH concentration decreased to the level of the control sparkling wine during the first 6months, and the total glutathione gradually declined up to 12months. The GSH reduces browning and acetaldehyde formation for up to 12months. However, the presence of glutathione had low or no influence on the concentration of free SO2, total phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic and coumaric acids.

  1. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  2. Disulfiram-like reaction with ornidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs are implicated in causation of disulfiram-like reaction. The disulfiram-like reaction can vary in severity and can occasionally be fatal. The reaction is believed to result from inhibition of metabolism of acetaldehyde to acetate by inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. The increase in serum acetaldehyde results in unpleasant clinical manifestations. Metronidazole is known to cause disulfiram-like reaction. Although no previous report has implicated ornidazole in causation of disulfiram-like reaction, caution has been advised with the use of all imidazoles. We report the case of a 48-year-old male, who was taking ornidazole and developed features of disulfiram-like reaction after taking alcohol. The patient was managed with supportive measures and improved. The report highlights the need for clinicians to advise patients to restrict intake of alcohol if they are being prescribed imidazole derivatives.

  3. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group.

  4. The Role of CYP2E1 in Alcohol Metabolism and Sensitivity in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Claire; Dong, Hongbin; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Deitrich, Richard A.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol consumption has effects on the central nervous system (CNS), manifesting as motor incoordination, sleep induction (hypnosis), anxiety, amnesia, and the reinforcement or aversion of alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde (the direct metabolite of ethanol oxidation) contributes to many aspects of the behavioral effects of ethanol. Given acetaldehyde cannot pass through the blood brain barrier, its concentration in the CNS is primarily determined by local production from ethanol. Catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) represent the major enzymes in the CNS that catalyze ethanol oxidation. CYP2E1 is expressed abundantly within the microsomes of certain brain cells and is localized to particular brain regions. This chapter focuses on the discussion of CYP2E1 in ethanol metabolism in the CNS, covering topics including how it is regulated, where it is expressed and how it influences sensitivity to ethanol in the brain. PMID:23400924

  5. Peptide bond formation through gas-phase reactions in the interstellar medium: formamide and acetamide as prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: predondo@qf.uva.es [Computational Chemistry Group, Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    A theoretical study of the reactions of NH{sub 4}{sup +} with formaldehyde and CH{sub 5}{sup +} with formamide is carried out. The viability of these gas-phase ion-molecule reactions as possible sources of formamide and acetamide under the conditions of interstellar medium is evaluated. We report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies and an analysis of their potential energy surfaces. Formation of protonated formamide from the reaction between ammonium cation and formaldehyde is an exothermic process, but all the channels located on the potential energy surface leading to this product present net activation energies. For the reaction between methanium and formamide, different products are possible from a thermodynamic point of view. An analysis of its potential energy surface showed that formation of protonated acetamide and amino acetaldehyde takes place through barrier-free paths. Therefore, this reaction could be a feasible source of acetamide and amino acetaldehyde in space.

  6. 紫外光谱法测定乙酸乙烯酯中的对苯二酚%Determination of hydroquinone in vinyl acetate with UV spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 杨晓兰; 游世文

    2013-01-01

    采用紫外光谱法测定乙酸乙烯酯中对苯二酚含量时,乙酸乙烯酯中的有机杂质会对测试结果产生影响.其中乙醛、丙酮对测试结果的影响程度基本呈线性递增关系,而醋酸甲酯、醋酸乙酯对测试结果不会产生影响.%When UV spectrophotometry was used to determine the content of hydroquinone in vinyl acetate, the organic impurities contained in vinyl acetate will affect the test results. The effects of acetaldehyde and acetone on the test results linearly increase with increasing the amounts of acetaldehyde and acetone. Whereas, the methyl acetate and ethyl acetate do not affect the test results.

  7. Development of hierarchically porous cobalt oxide for enhanced photo-oxidation of indoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. P., E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Shereef, Anas; Gray, Kimberly A., E-mail: k-gray@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Center for Catalysis and Surface Science (United States); Wu, Jinsong [Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Porous cobalt oxide was successfully prepared by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by low temperature thermal decomposition. The morphologies of the resultant oxides remained as the corresponding hydroxides, although the morphology of cobalt hydroxides was greatly influenced by the precursor salts. The cobalt oxides with average crystal size less than 20 nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET surface area, and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the various cobalt oxides morphologies were investigated by comparing the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under simulated solar illumination. Relative to their low order structures and reference titania samples, the hierarchical nanostructures of cobalt oxide showed excellent abilities to rapidly degrade acetaldehyde, a model air pollutant. This was attributed to the unique nature of these hierarchical cobalt oxide nanoassemblies, which contained many catalytically active reaction sites and open pores.

  8. Analyses of organics in irradiated aqueous N,N-diethylhydroxylamine solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The organics in γ-ray irradiated aqueous N, N-diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) solution, which is used as a reducing agent in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with FFAP capil-lary column and flame-ionization detector. It was found that irradiated DEHA solutions contained acetaldehyde, ethanol, and acetic acid. For DEHA of 0.2 mol/L irradiated to 10~1000 kGy, the concents of acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetic acid are (9.7~18.7)×10-3, (0.4~23.4)×10-3 and (6.5~11.7)×10-3 mol/L, respectively. The concentration of DEHA decreases obviously with the dose.

  9. Thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}CHO studied by matrix infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Piech, Krzysztof M.; Reed, Beth; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Zhang Xu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States); Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, LBNL MS 6R-2100, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Osborn, David L. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969 MS 9055, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); David, Donald E. [Integrated Instrument Design Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Urness, Kimberly N.; Daily, John W. [Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2012-10-28

    A heated SiC microtubular reactor has been used to decompose acetaldehyde and its isotopomers (CH{sub 3}CDO, CD{sub 3}CHO, and CD{sub 3}CDO). The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of acetaldehyde (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of a buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 50-200 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range 1200-1900 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 50-200 {mu}s after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 {mu}Torr. The reactor has been modified so that both pulsed and continuous modes can be studied, and results from both flow regimes are presented. Using various detection methods (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and both fixed wavelength and tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry), a number of products formed at early pyrolysis times (roughly 100-200 {mu}s) are identified: H, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, CO, CH{sub 2}=CHOH, HC{identical_to}CH, H{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 2}=C=O; trace quantities of other species are also observed in some of the experiments. Pyrolysis of rare isotopomers of acetaldehyde produces characteristic isotopic signatures in the reaction products, which offers insight into reaction mechanisms that occur in the reactor. In particular, while the principal unimolecular processes appear to be radical decomposition CH{sub 3}CHO (+M) {yields} CH{sub 3}+ H + CO and isomerization of acetaldehyde to vinyl alcohol, it appears that the CH{sub 2}CO and HCCH are formed (perhaps exclusively) by bimolecular reactions, especially those involving hydrogen atom attacks.

  10. Silica-Titania Composite (STC)'s Performance in the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Polar VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Coutts, Janelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Mazyck, David; Mazyck, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the performance of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) in the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of polar VOCs for potential applications in trace contaminant control within space habitats such as the ISS and CEV Orion. Tests were carried out in a bench scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous illumination by either a UV-C germicidal lamp(lambda (sub max) = 254 nm) or UV-A fluorescent BLB (lambda(sub max) = 365 nm) for the removal of ethanol (a predominant polar VOC in the ISS cabin). The STC's performance was evaluated in terms of the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and the extent of its oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation in response to the type of light source (photon energy and photon flux) and relative humidity (RH) implemented. Results demonstrated that acetaldehyde was the only quantifiable intermediate in the effluent under UV illumination, but was not found in the dark adsorption experiments. The mineralization rate increased with an increase in photon energy (UV-C greater than UV-A), even though both lamps were adjusted to emit the same incident photon flux, and also increased with increasing photon flux. However, photonic efficiency decreased as the photon flux increased. More importantly, a higher photon flux gave rise to a lower effluent acetaldehyde concentration. The effect of RH on PCO was complex and intriguing because it affected both physical adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. In general, increasing RH caused a decrease in adsorption capacity for ethanol and reduced the mineralization efficiency with a concomitant higher acetaldehyde evolution rate. The effect of RH was less profound than that of photon flux.

  11. Zeolites Modified Metal Cations as Catalysts in Hydrocarbon Oxidation and the Alkyl Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Agadadsh Makhmud Aliyev; Zumrud Abdulmutallib Shabanova; Fikret Vakhid Aliyev; Alla M. Guseynova

    2014-01-01

    The results of studies on the creation of highly metalltceolitnyh systems and the study of their catalytic activities in the oxidation of lower olefin hydrocarbons (ethylene to acetaldehyde, acetone, propylene, butylene methyl ethyl ketone); aliphatic C1-C5 alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid esters; oxidative dehydrogenation of naphthenes in the alicyclic diene hydrocarbons and the oxidative dimerization of methane to acetylene. It has bee...

  12. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  13. Radical cation salts induced domino reaction of anilines with enol ethers: Synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Dong Jia; Yan Ren; Cong Dde Huo; Wen Juan Wang; Xiang Ning Chen; Qiong Fu; Xi Cun Wang

    2011-01-01

    A domino reaction of anilines with cyclic and acyclic enol ethers induced by catalytic amounts of TBPA+ (5 mol%) was investigated and a series of 2,4-disubstituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines were synthesized. Different from cyclic enol ethers, when acyclic enol ethers were used in the reaction, they serve as surrogates of acetaldehyde, producing a series of 2-methyl-4-anilino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines. A single electron transfer mechanism was proposed to rationalize the products formation.

  14. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  16. Photolysis of oxygen saturated ethers in the presence of Sn (Ⅱ) or Cu (Ⅱ) salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施敏

    2000-01-01

    Photolysis of diethyl ether-oxygen charge transfer complex the presence of Sn(Ⅱ) or Cu(Ⅱ) salts gave higher yields of the oxiation products, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, ethanol,ethyl formate and methanol compared with those without the salts. In addition, the photolysis of an oxygen saturated tetrahydrofuran (THF) or dibutyl lether solution gave γ-butyro-Their yields were also affected by the addition of Cu(Ⅱ) or Sn(Ⅱ) salts.

  17. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.; Ziegler, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize,...... that generated surface wrinkles on B‐ and C‐type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A‐type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch....

  18. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  19. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Ya Li; Tong Zhou; Jie Zheng; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Sha Li; Dong-Ping Xu; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver ...

  20. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  1. Thermal decomposition of CH3CHO studied by matrix infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle K.; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Reed, Beth; Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Osborn, David L.; David, Donald E.; Urness, Kimberly N.; Daily, John W.; Stanton, John F.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2012-10-01

    A heated SiC microtubular reactor has been used to decompose acetaldehyde and its isotopomers (CH3CDO, CD3CHO, and CD3CDO). The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of acetaldehyde (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of a buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 50-200 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range 1200-1900 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 50-200 μs after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 μTorr. The reactor has been modified so that both pulsed and continuous modes can be studied, and results from both flow regimes are presented. Using various detection methods (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and both fixed wavelength and tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry), a number of products formed at early pyrolysis times (roughly 100-200 μs) are identified: H, H2, CH3, CO, CH2=CHOH, HC≡CH, H2O, and CH2=C=O; trace quantities of other species are also observed in some of the experiments. Pyrolysis of rare isotopomers of acetaldehyde produces characteristic isotopic signatures in the reaction products, which offers insight into reaction mechanisms that occur in the reactor. In particular, while the principal unimolecular processes appear to be radical decomposition CH3CHO (+M) → CH3 + H + CO and isomerization of acetaldehyde to vinyl alcohol, it appears that the CH2CO and HCCH are formed (perhaps exclusively) by bimolecular reactions, especially those involving hydrogen atom attacks.

  2. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2010 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intorp M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A recommended method has been developed and published by CORESTA, applicable to the quantification of selected carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, methyl ethyl ketone, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde in cigarette mainstream smoke. The method involved smoke collection in impinger traps, derivatisation of carbonyls with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH, separation of carbonyl hydrazones by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and detection by ultra violet or diode array.

  3. Characterization of Carbonyl Compounds in the Ambient Air of an Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, and one residential area. Sampling was carried out throughout a year from December 2003 to November 2004. At one industrial site, samples were taken every six days, while those of the other sites were for seven consecutive days in every season. Each sample was collected for 150 minutes and at intervals of three times a day (morning, afternoon, and evening. A total of 476 samples were analyzed to determine 15 carbonyl compounds by the USEPA TO-11A (DNPH-cartridge/HPLC method. In general, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by formaldehyde, and acetone+acrolein. Mean concentrations of acetaldehyde were two to three times higher in the industrial sites than in the other sites, with its maximum of 77.7 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels of formaldehyde did not show any significant difference between the industrial and non-industrial groups. Its concentrations peaked in summer probably due to the enhanced volatilization and photochemical reactivity. These results indicate significant emission sources of acetaldehyde in the Gumi industrial complexes. Mean concentrations of organic solvents (such as acetone+acrolein and methyl ethyl ketone were also significantly high in industrial areas. In conclusion, major sources of carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, are strongly associated with industrial activities in the Gumi city area.

  4. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 266 - Reference Air Concentrations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... No. RAC (ug/m3) Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 10 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 10 Acetophenone 98-86-2 100 Acrolein 107...-01-8 30 Carbon Disulfide 75-15-0 200 Chloral 75-87-6 2 Chlorine (free) 0.4 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene 126... Cyanide (free) 57-12-15 20 Cyanogen 460-19-5 30 Cyanogen Bromide 506-68-3 80 Di-n-butyl Phthalate...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Eeee of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....2406. Compound name CAS No.1 2,4-D salts and esters 94-75-7 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Acetophenone 98-86-2 Acrolein 107-02-8 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Allyl chloride 107-05-1 Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Biphenyl 92-52-4 Butadiene (1,3-) 106-99-0...

  7. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  8. Salsolinol modulation of dopamine neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqin eXie; Kresimir eKrnjevic; Jiang Hong Ye

    2013-01-01

    Salsolinol, a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in the human and rat brains, is the condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol. Previous evidence obtained in vivo links salsolinol with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system: salsolinol is self-administered into the posterior of the ventral tegmental area (pVTA) of rats; intra-VTA administration of salsolinol induces a strong conditional place preference and increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. ...

  9. Salsolinol modulation of dopamine neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Guiqin; Krnjević, Krešimir; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Salsolinol, a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in the human and rat brains, is the condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol. Previous evidence obtained in vivo links salsolinol with the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) system: salsolinol is self-administered into the posterior of the ventral tegmental area (pVTA) of rats; intra-VTA administration of salsolinol induces a strong conditional place preference and increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumb...

  10. Induction of brain cytochrome P450 2E1 boosts the locomotor-stimulating effects of ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Miquel, Marta; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2014-10-01

    In the central nervous system ethanol (EtOH) is metabolized into acetaldehyde by different enzymes. Brain catalase accounts for 60% of the total production of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde, whereas cerebral cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) produces 20% of this metabolite. Acetaldehyde formed by the activity of central catalase has been implicated in some of the neurobehavioral properties of EtOH, yet the contribution of CYP 2E1 to the pharmacological actions of this drug has not been investigated. Here we assessed the possible participation of CYP 2E1 in the behavioral effects of EtOH. Thus, we induced CYP 2E1 activity and expression by exposing mice to chronic acetone intake (1% v/v for 10 days) and examined its consequences on the stimulating and uncoordinating effects of EtOH (0-3.2 g/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Our data showed that 24 h after withdrawal of acetone brain expression and activity of CYP 2E1 was induced. Furthermore, the locomotion produced by EtOH was boosted over the same interval of time. Locomotor stimulation produced by amphetamine or tert-butanol was unchanged by previous treatment with acetone. EtOH-induced motor impairment as evaluated in a Rota-Rod apparatus was unaffected by the preceding exposure to acetone. These results indicate that cerebral CYP 2E1 activity could contribute to the locomotor-stimulating effects of EtOH, and therefore we suggest that centrally produced acetaldehyde might be a possible mediator of some EtOH-induced pharmacological effects.

  11. Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, M O; Onal, I [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Van Santen, R A, E-mail: r.a.v.santen@tue.nl [Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-12

    It is demonstrated that, on a silver oxide surface, direct formation of ethylene oxide (EO) through the reaction between gas phase ethylene and surface oxygen is possible. The direct reaction channel produces EO selectively without competing with acetaldehyde (AA) formation. The oxometallacycle (OMC) forms on an oxygen vacant surface and reduces EO selectivity. Cl adsorption removes these surface vacant sites and hence prevents the formation of the OMC intermediate.

  12. Urticarial Reaction Caused by Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Nakagawa

    2006-01-01

    Discussion: Only acetic acid, a metabolite of alcohol, induced a positive prick test in the patient with alcohol-induced urticaria. This result was not observed in normal volunteers. An oral challenge test with diluted-alcohol or Shochu showed a positive wheal reaction in a dose dependent-manner which suggests that urticaria seen in this patient might be induced by alcohol-intolerance. However possible allergic reaction to acetaldehyde could not be excluded.

  13. Effects of Hypobaric Storage on Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Postharvest Dong Jujube Fruit During Cold Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Meng-lin; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Ji-shu; WANG Li

    2003-01-01

    Effects of hypobaric storage on physiological and biochemical changes in Dong jujube fruit wereinvestigated. Hypobaric storage significantly delayed the decrease in firmness and maintained content of ascor-bic acid, reduced accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in pulp and respiration, inhibited activities of as-corbic acid oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase and slowed down the rate of ethylene production, but had littleeffect on flesh browning of the fruit.

  14. Expression analysis of the glyA gene encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) with threonine aldolase activity in Streptococcus thermophilus S13-6%脱脂乳中苏氨酸的浓度对嗜热链球菌乙醛产量及glyA基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丹彤; 张和平

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Streptococcus thermophilus S13-6 strains with good flavor-enhancing property were investigated to evaluate the acetalde-hyde production as well as the expression of glyA gene. The results showed that acetaldehyde production was linear with increasing L-threonine levels in the fermented milk. Further, quantitative real-tune PCR analysis showed that the glyA gene was upregulated in the fermented milk in die presence of L -threonine. Understanding the degradation pathway from direonine to glycine and acetaldehyde can be applied to control and improve acetaldehyde production in fermented products with S. thermophilus as the starter culture.%这项研究以在酸奶发酵过程中产生良好风味Streptococcus thermophilus S13-6为实验菌株,考察了脱脂乳中苏氨酸的浓度对乙醛产量及glyA基因(编码丝氨酸羟甲基转移酶)表达的影响.结果表明,随着脱脂乳中苏氨酸浓度的增加,S13-6茵株的乙醛的产量和glyA基因的表达量明显增加.说明丝氨酸羟甲基转移酶在S13-6菌株的乙醛代谢过程中发挥着重要作用.

  15. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  16. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

  17. Structural and spectral characteristics of the cross-linked dimer derived from electrooxidation of cyclic 1,N2-propanoguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroya; Esaka, Yukihiro; Uno, Bunji

    2011-01-01

    The acetaldehyde-derived cyclic propano adduct of 2'-deoxyguanosine was easily oxidized electrochemically into the cross-linked dimer as an oxidative product. The structural and spectroscopic characteristics of the dimer were investigated by MS, (1)H and (13)C-NMR, UV, and DFT calculations. The dimer formation was inferred from a molecular ionic peak of m/z 705 ([(2M-2H)+H](+), M being the molecular weight of the monomer) on the ESI-MS spectra and the chemical formula as C(28)H(36)N(10)O(12) provided by the high-resolution ESI-MS results. The C2-N5 linkage between the two monomers in the dimer was deduced from the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral results. In addition, the correlations in the 2-dimensional NMR spectra (DQF-COSY and HMBC) were consistently explained by the structure of the C2-N5 cross-linked dimer. UV spectral measurements also support the C2-N5 linking in the dimer formation. The formation of the cross-link dimer as an oxidative lesion of the acetaldehyde-derived cyclic propano adduct of guanosine is expected to interfere with DNA replication and to contribute to acetaldehyde-mediated genotoxicity.

  18. Effects of ADH2 overexpression in Saccharomyces bayanus during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Oscar; García-Martínez, Teresa; Peinado, Rafael A; Mauricio, Juan C

    2008-02-01

    The effect of overexpression of the gene ADH2 on metabolic and biological activity in Saccharomyces bayanus V5 during alcoholic fermentation has been evaluated. This gene is known to encode alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH II). During the biological aging of sherry wines, where yeasts have to grow on ethanol owing to the absence of glucose, this isoenzyme plays a prominent role by converting the ethanol into acetaldehyde and producing NADH in the process. Overexpression of the gene ADH2 during alcoholic fermentation has no effect on the proteomic profile or the net production of some metabolites associated with glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation such as ethanol, acetaldehyde, and glycerol. However, it affects indirectly glucose and ammonium uptakes, cell growth, and intracellular redox potential, which lead to an altered metabolome. The increased contents in acetoin, acetic acid, and L-proline present in the fermentation medium under these conditions can be ascribed to detoxification by removal of excess acetaldehyde and the need to restore and maintain the intracellular redox potential balance.

  19. The influence of the nature of the metal on the performance of cerium oxide supported catalysts in the partial oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, L. V.; Noronha, F. B.

    This work studied the effect of the nature of the metal on the performance of Co/CeO 2, Pd/CeO 2 and Pt/CeO 2 catalysts in the partial oxidation of ethanol. Infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed ethanol and temperature programmed desorption of ethanol were performed in order to establish the reaction mechanism. Catalytic experiments revealed that the product distribution is strongly affected by the nature of the metal. Acetaldehyde was practically the only product formed on a Co/CeO 2 catalyst while methane was also produced on Pt/CeO 2 and Pd/CeO 2 catalysts. These results were explained through a reaction mechanism proposed by the characterization techniques. Co/CeO 2 and Pt/CeO 2 catalysts show mainly ethoxy species at room temperature whereas acetate species is mainly formed on the Pd/CeO 2 catalyst. The ethoxy species can undergo further dehydrogenation and desorb as acetaldehyde. This effect is more significant with the Co/CeO 2 catalyst and could explain the higher selectivity to acetaldehyde observed on supported Co and Pt catalysts.

  20. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  1. Uptake of Organic Vapors by Sulfate Aerosols: Physical and Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L.T.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    While it is known that upper tropospheric sulfate particles contain a significant amount of organic matter, both the source of the organic fraction and its form in solution are unknown. These studies explore how the chemical characteristics of the molecules and surfaces in question affect heterogeneous interactions. The solubilities of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] and ethanol [CH3CH20H] in cold, aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have been measured by Knudsen cell studies. Henry's law solubility coefficients range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) M/atm for acetaldehyde, and from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) M/atm for ethanol under upper tropospheric conditions (210-240 K, 40-80 wt. % H2S04). The multiple solvation pathways (protonation, enolization, etc.) available to these compounds in acidic aqueous environments will be discussed. Preliminary results from the interaction of acetaldehyde with solutions of formaldehyde in sulfuric acid will be presented as well. The physical and chemical processes that affect organic uptake by aqueous aerosols will be explored, with the aim of evaluating organic species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  2. Can Analysis of Acetylene and Its Biodegradation Products in Enceladus Plumes be Used to Detect the Presence of Sub-Surface Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The search for biosignatures of life on Earth includes measurement of the stable isotope fractionation of reactants and products attributed to enzymatic processes and comparison with the often smaller chemical (abiotic) fractionation. We propose that this approach might be applied to study the origin and fate of organic compounds contained in water vapor plumes emanating from Enceladus or other icy bodies, perhaps revealing information about the potential for biology occurring within a sub-surface "habitable" zone. Methanol and C2-hydrocarbons including ethylene, ethane and acetylene (C2H2) have been identified in the plumes of Enceladus. Biological degradation of acetylene proceeds by anaerobic fermentation via acetylene hydratase through acetaldehyde, with a second enzyme (acetaldehyde dismutase) forming acetate and ethanol. We found that incubation of cultures of acetylene-fermenting bacteria exhibit a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with the net removal of C2H2. Consumption of acetylene by both growing and washed-cell cultures of bacteria closely related to Pelobacter acetylenicus (e.g, strain SFB93) was accompanied by a carbon isotopic fractionation of about 2 per mil (KIE = 1.8-2.7 ‰), a result we are examining with other cultures of acetylene fermenters. In addition, we are measuring the carbon isotopic composition of acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetate during fermentation to learn whether these products are fractionated sufficiently, relative to their substrate, to warrant measurement of their isotopic composition in Enceladus (or Europa) plumes to indicate enzymatic activity in liquid environments below the crust of these moons.

  3. Hairpin Ribozyme Genes Curtail Alcohol Drinking: from Rational Design to in vivo Effects in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapag, Amalia; Irrazábal, Thergiory; Lobos-González, Lorena; Muñoz-Brauning, Carlos R; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske

    2016-07-12

    Ribozyme genes were designed to reduce voluntary alcohol drinking in a rat model of alcohol dependence. Acetaldehyde generated from alcohol in the liver is metabolized by the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) such that diminishing ALDH2 activity leads to the aversive effects of blood acetaldehyde upon alcohol intake. A stepwise approach was followed to design genes encoding ribozymes targeted to the rat ALDH2 mRNA. In vitro studies of accessibility to oligonucleotides identified suitable target sites in the mRNA, one of which fulfilled hammerhead and hairpin ribozyme requirements (CGGUC). Ribozyme genes delivered in plasmid constructs were tested in rat cells in culture. While the hairpin ribozyme reduced ALDH2 activity 56% by cleavage and blockade (P < 0.0001), the hammerhead ribozyme elicited minor effects by blockade. The hairpin ribozyme was tested in vivo by adenoviral gene delivery to UChB alcohol drinker rats. Ethanol intake was curtailed 47% for 34 days (P < 0.0001), while blood acetaldehyde more than doubled upon ethanol administration and ALDH2 activity dropped 25% in liver homogenates, not affecting other ALDH isoforms. Thus, hairpin ribozymes targeted to 16 nt in the ALDH2 mRNA provide durable and specific effects in vivo, representing an improvement on previous work and encouraging development of gene therapy for alcoholism.

  4. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  5. Oxidation of bioethanol using zeolite-encapsulated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielby, Jerrik; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng; Kasama, Takeshi; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Kegnaes, Søren

    2014-11-10

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high activity and selectivity for the catalytic gas-phase oxidation of ethanol are demonstrated. The zeolites are modified by a recrystallization process, which creates intraparticle voids and mesopores that facilitate the formation of small and disperse nanoparticles upon simple impregnation. The individual zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98 % selectivity toward acetaldehyde at 200 °C, which (under the given reaction conditions) corresponds to 606 mol acetaldehyde/mol Au hour(-1) .

  6. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Brey, J.J. [Hynergreen Technologies, Av. Buhaira 2, 41018 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H{sub 2} per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming. (author)

  7. Glycosides for testing glycosidases: vinyl, 1-ethoxyethyl, and 1-ethoxybut-3-enyl D-glucopyranosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, H M; Lehmann, J; Wallenfels, K

    1980-12-01

    The reaction of ethyl vinyl ether and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (1) in the presence of Hg(OAc)2 and toluene-p-sulphonic acid as catalysts yielded the acetylated vinyl, 1-ethoxyethyl, and 1-ethoxybut-3-enyl glycosides in varying proportions. Crystalline 1-ethoxybut-3-enyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), vinyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 1-ethoxyethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) were isolated by chromatography. Compound 4 was also prepared by the reaction of 1 with cold acetaldehyde diethyl acetal containing a trace of acetic acid, and its alpha anomer (5) by the reaction of 1 with boiling acetaldehyde diethyl acetal containing a trace of acetic acid. Each deacetylated D-glucoside was cleaved by the corresponding D-glucosidase, to yield D-glucose and either acetaldehyde (from deacetylated 3--5) or but-3-enal (from deacetylated 2).

  8. Variation of Photocatalytic Function of TiO2 Film by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Shinonaga, Togo; Horiguchi, Naoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujita, Masayuki; Abe, Nobuyuki

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is functional ceramics and shows the photocatalytic function by ultraviolet light illumination. This photocatalytic function enables decomposition of organic matter such as bacteria, mold and odors. In our previous study, the TiO2 film was darkened by the femtosecond laser irradiation and electrical resistance of the darkened film was decreased. In this study, we investigated variation of the photocatalytic function of the darkened TiO2 films. The TiO2 film was produced by aerosol beam irradiation. The wavelength, the pulse width and the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser were 775 nm, 150 fs and 1 kHz, respectively. The laser spot was scanned on the whole area of the TiO2 film surface and the laser fluence was changed within the laser fluence regime in which the laser ablation was not caused and topography of the film surface was not varied. The photocatalytic function of the darkened TiO2 films was evaluated in the acetaldehyde decomposition test. In the test, the films in acetaldehyde were illuminated with the UV and visible light sources, respectively. The acetaldehyde concentration was measured every hour during the illumination. The results of the test shows that the film had photocatalytic function by visible light illumination.

  9. Elucidating the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors in mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fallik, Elazar; Porat, Ron

    2011-11-09

    To elucidate the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors, 'Mor' mandarins were exposed to anaerobic atmospheres for 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days to gradually increase juice ethanol and acetaldehyde levels through enhanced fermentation. Exposure to anaerobic atmosphere caused progressive decline in fruit sensory quality, from nearly "good" to "very bad", because of decreased typical mandarin flavor and increased sensation of 'musty' and 'ethanol' off-flavors. GC-MS analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in the contents of 12 aroma volatiles, including the ethanol fermentation metabolites ethanol and acetaldehyde, and several fatty acid and amino acid catabolism derivates, 7 of which were ethyl esters, which suggests that they were esterification products of ethanol and acyl-CoA's derived from fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. These de novo synthesized anaerobiosis-regulated ethyl esters impart 'pungent', 'ethereal', 'waxy', 'musty', and 'fruity' notes. Overall, these results suggest that besides the direct effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, downstream ethanol esterification products may also be involved in causing off-flavor sensation in mandarins.

  10. Probing the molecular basis of substrate specificity, stereospecificity, and catalysis in the class II pyruvate aldolase, BphI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Perrin; Carere, Jason; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2011-05-03

    BphI, a pyruvate-specific class II aldolase found in the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation pathway, catalyzes the reversible C-C bond cleavage of (4S)-hydroxy-2-oxoacids to form pyruvate and an aldehyde. Mutations were introduced into bphI to probe the contribution of active site residues to substrate recognition and catalysis. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme that has similar specificities for acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde, the L87A variant exhibited a 40-fold preference for propionaldehyde over acetaldehyde. The specificity constant of the L89A variant in the aldol addition reaction using pentaldehyde is increased ∼50-fold, making it more catalytically efficient for pentaldehyde utilization compared to the wild-type utilization of the natural substrate, acetaldehyde. Replacement of Tyr-290 with phenylalanine or serine resulted in a loss of stereochemical control as the variants were able to utilize substrates with both R and S configurations at C4 with similar kinetic parameters. Aldol cleavage and pyruvate α-proton exchange activity were undetectable in the R16A variant, supporting the role of Arg-16 in stabilizing a pyruvate enolate intermediate. The pH dependence of the enzyme is consistent with a single deprotonation by a catalytic base with pK(a) values of approximately 7. In H20A and H20S variants, pH profiles show the dependence of enzyme activity on hydroxide concentration. On the basis of these results, a catalytic mechanism is proposed.

  11. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-20

    A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared. Range of Cu dispersion, determined by N{sub 2}O titration, was 19-48% and are among the highest reported in the literature for Cu-based methanol and higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. Kinetics of MeOH and EtOH coupling reactions on Cu/ZnO and K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu promotes alcohol dehydrogenation. Acetaldehyde is a reactive intermediate. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out on K- and Cs-promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The K promoter is more active than Cs for CO conversion, but the Cs promoter activates the C{sub 1} to C{sub 2} step more effectively. Catalysts with high alkali loading resulted in low conversions. Temperature programmed surface reaction studies of MeOH, EtOH, and acetaldehyde on MgO/CeO{sub 2}-based Cu catalysts show evolution of acetone, crotonaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, H2, carbon oxides. Neither EtOH nor acetaldehyde produces propionaldehyde or 1- propanol, suggesting that these C{sub 3} species can only form via reactions involving C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} oxygenate species.

  12. [The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking.

  13. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodríguez, L.; Brey, J. J.; Daza, L.

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 °C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2 per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 °C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming.

  14. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  15. [Bibliographical study of Minamata disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    In 1958, Minamata Disease was suggested to be organic mercury compounds intoxication. This suggestion was based on Hunter and Russel's report on occupational exposure to methylmercury. This report is known to have established the typical symptoms of methyl mercury intoxication. However, it has been widely believed since the official recognition of Minamata Disease (1956) that, at the moment of outbreak, no reports were available on organic mercury formation from inorganic mercury in acetaldehyde production from acetylene, or on organic mercury intoxication among workers in acetaldehyde production from acetylene. However, this was not the case. The formation of organic mercury from inorganic mercury used as a catalyst was reported by Vogt and Nieuwland in 1921. In 1930, Zangger reported several cases of organic mercury intoxication among workers in acetaldehyde production from acetylene. Soon after, Koelsch reported that the cases were methyl- and/or ethylmercury intoxication, and that such cases had been common since 1916. These reports were already available at the time of the Minamata Disease outbreak. However, Zangger's report, the most important of these three was not referred to until 1987, notwithstanding its listing in the references of Kurland et al.. Zangger's report was not referred to not by investigators, but by a lawyer. If these reports had been referred to at the outbreak of Minamata Disease, the number of victims in Minamata would have been minimized, and Minamata Disease in Niigata would have been prevented.

  16. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function by Voltage Dependent Anion Channels in Ethanol Metabolism and the Warburg Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, John J.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. PMID:22172804

  17. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: ozeki@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, 162-1 Shirakata, Toukai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Hirakuri, K.K. [Applied Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Ishizaka, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO{sub 2} films and DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO{sub 2}-coated and the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO{sub 2} coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO{sub 2} film was covered with the DLC film.

  18. Variation of ambient carbonyl levels in urban Beijing between 2005 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentai; Shao, Min; Wang, Ming; Lu, Sihua; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Yudong; Zeng, Limin; Chen, Zhongming; Chang, Chih-Chung; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Carbonyl compounds are important precursors of secondary air pollutants. With the rapid economic development and the implementation of stricter control measures in Beijing, the sources of carbonyls possibly changed. Based on measurement data obtained at an urban site in Beijing between 2005 and 2012, we investigated annual variations in carbonyl levels and sources during these years. In summer, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels decreased significantly at a rate of 9.1%/year and 7.2%/year, respectively, while acetone levels increased at a rate of 4.3%/year. In winter, formaldehyde levels increased and acetaldehyde levels decreased. We also investigated the factors driving the variation in carbonyls levels during summer by determination of emission ratios for carbonyls and their precursors, and calculation of photochemical formation of carbonyls. The relative declines for primary formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were larger than those for secondary formation. This is possibly due to the increasing usage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas which could result in the rise of carbonyl precursor emission ratios. The increase in acetone levels might be related to the rising solvent usage in Beijing during these years. The influences of these sources should be paid more attention in future research.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol: kinetics, mechanisms, and products of Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation in the presence and absence of NOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M D; Wallington, T J; Bjarrum, M; Javadi, M S; Nielsen, O J

    2008-09-04

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol and determine rate constants of k(Cl+3-pentanol) = (2.03 +/- 0.23) x 10 (-10) and k(OH+3-pentanol) = (1.32 +/- 0.15) x 10 (-11) cm (3) molecule (-1) s (-1) in 700 Torr of N 2/O 2 diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. The primary products of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the absence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (26 +/- 2%), propionaldehyde (12 +/- 2%), acetaldehyde (13 +/- 2%) and formaldehyde (2 +/- 1%). The primary products of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the presence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (51 +/- 4%), propionaldehyde (39 +/- 2%), acetaldehyde (44 +/- 4%) and formaldehyde (4 +/- 1%). The primary products of the OH radical initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the presence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (58 +/- 3%), propionaldehyde (28 +/- 2%), and acetaldehyde (37 +/- 2%). In all cases the product yields were independent of oxygen concentration over the partial pressure range 10-700 Torr. The reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with 3-pentanol proceed 26 +/- 2 and 58 +/- 3%, respectively, via attack on the 3-position to give an alpha-hydroxyalkyl radical, which reacts with O 2 to give 3-pentanone. The results are discussed with respect to the literature data and atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol.

  20. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义; 杜家纬

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves ofblack poplar,Populus nigra,showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol,phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%,50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles should modify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  1. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves of black poplar, Populus nigra, showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%, 50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles shouldmodify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.

  2. 羟醛缩合法合成肉桂醛的工艺研究%Research on Synthesis Technology of Cinnamaldehyde by Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海花; 闫顺生

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is synthesized from the reaction of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde with base as the catalyst. The factors affecting the quality and recovery of cinnamaldehyde, such as the catalyst, the temperature, the molar ration of the benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde are analyzed. The results show that at a temperature of 25 ℃ ,catalyst for sodium hydroxide, benzaldehyde : acetaldehyde = 3 : 1 conditions,the yield of the product can reach 76%.%以苯甲醛、乙醛为原料,在碱性条件下用羟醛缩合法合成产物肉桂醛,并分别考察了催化剂、反应温度、两种原料用量比对产物收率的影响。结果表明:在温度为25℃、催化剂为氢氧化钠、苯甲醛:乙醛=3:1的条件下,产品收率能达到76%。

  3. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond.

  4. Regulation of mitochondrial function by voltage dependent anion channels in ethanol metabolism and the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, John J; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N

    2012-06-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism.

  5. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  6. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  7. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  8. Catalysis of acetoin formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, J T; Washabaugh, M W

    1993-12-14

    Catalysis of C(alpha)-proton transfer from 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the steady-state kinetics of the reaction of [1-L]acetaldehyde (L = H, D, or T) to form acetoin and the primary kinetic isotope effects on the reaction. The PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) have different steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects for acetoin formation in the presence and absence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide: pyruvamide activation occurs by stabilization of the acetaldehyde/PDC ternary complex. The magnitudes of primary L(V/K)-type (L = D or T) isotope effects on C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP provide no evidence for significant breakdown of the Swain-Schaad relationship that would indicate partitioning of the putative C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine intermediate between HETDP and products. The substrate concentration dependence of the deuterium primary kinetic isotope effects provides evidence for an intrinsic isotope effect of 4.1 for C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP. A 1.10 +/- 0.02-fold 14C isotope discrimination against [1,2-14C]acetaldehyde in acetoin formation is inconsistent with a stepwise mechanism, in which the addition step occurs after rate-limiting formation of the C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine as a discrete enzyme-bound intermediate, and provides evidence for a concerted reaction mechanism with an important component of carbon-carbon bond formation in the transition state.

  9. Elucidating the Biological Basis for the Reinforcing Actions of Alcohol in the Mesolimbic Dopamine System: The Role of Active Metabolites of Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Deehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of successful pharmacotherapeutics for the treatment of alcoholism is predicated upon understanding the biological action of alcohol. A limitation of the alcohol research field has been examining the effects of alcohol only and ignoring the multiple biological active metabolites of alcohol. The concept that alcohol is a ‘pro-drug’ is not new. Alcohol is readily metabolized to acetaldehyde within the brain. Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive compound that forms a number of condensation products, including salsolinol and iso-salsolinol (acetaldehyde and dopamine. Recent experiments have established that numerous metabolites of ethanol do have direct CNS action, and could, in part or whole, mediate the reinforcing actions of alcohol within the mesolimbic dopamine system. The mesolimbic dopamine system originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and projects to forebrain regions that include the nucleus accumbens (Acb and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is thought to be the neurocircuitry governing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. Within this neurocircuitry there is convincing evidence that; 1 biologically active metabolites of alcohol can directly or indirectly increase the activity of VTA dopamine neurons, 2 alcohol and alcohol metabolites are reinforcing within the mesolimbic dopamine system, 3 inhibiting the alcohol metabolic pathway inhibits the biological consequences of alcohol exposure, 4 alcohol consumption can be reduced by inhibiting/attenuating the alcohol metabolic pathway in the mesolimbic dopamine system, 5 alcohol metabolites can alter neurochemical levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system, and 6 alcohol interacts with alcohol metabolites to enhance the actions of both compounds. The data indicate that there is a positive relationship between alcohol and alcohol metabolites in regulating the biological consequences of consuming alcohol and the potential of alcohol use escalating to

  10. Ethanol oxidation: kinetics of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical + O2 reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Liang, Long; Farrell, John T

    2009-08-06

    Bioethanol is currently a significant gasoline additive and the major blend component of flex-fuel formulations. Ethanol is a high-octane fuel component, and vehicles designed to take advantage of higher octane fuel blends could operate at higher compression ratios than traditional gasoline engines, leading to improved performance and tank-to-wheel efficiency. There are significant uncertainties, however, regarding the mechanism for ethanol autoignition, especially at lower temperatures such as in the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime. We have studied an important chemical process in the autoignition and oxidation of ethanol, reaction of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical with O2(3P), using first principles computational chemistry, variational transition state theory, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM)/master equation simulations. The alpha-hydroxyethyl + O2 association reaction is found to produce an activated alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy adduct with ca. 37 kcal mol(-1) of excess vibrational energy. This activated adduct predominantly proceeds to acetaldehyde + HO(2), with smaller quantities of the enol vinyl alcohol (ethenol), particularly at higher temperatures. The reaction to acetaldehyde + HO2 proceeds with such a low barrier that collision stabilization of C2O3H5 isomers is unimportant, even for high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. The short lifetimes of these radicals precludes the chain-branching addition of a second O2 molecule, responsible for NTC behavior in alkane autoignition. This result helps to explain why ignition delays for ethanol are longer than those for ethane, despite ethanol having a weaker C-C bond energy. Given its relative instability, it is also unlikely that the alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy radical acts as a major acetaldehyde sink in the atmosphere, as has been suggested.

  11. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  12. Concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above a Mediterranean macchia ecosystem in Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Davison

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Emission rates and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs were measured at a Mediterranean coastal site at Castelporziano, approximately 25 km south-west of Rome, between 7 May and 3 June 2007, as part of the ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Concentrations and emission rates were measured using the disjunct eddy covariance method utilizing three different proton transfer reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS for BVOC mixing ratio measurements and sonic anemometers for three-dimensional high-frequency wind measurements. Depending on the measurement period and the instrument, the median volume mixing ratios were 1.6–3.5 ppbv for methanol, 0.4–1.5 ppbv for acetaldehyde, 1.0–2.5 ppbv for acetone, 0.10–0.17 ppbv for isoprene, and 0.18–0.30 ppbv for monoterpenes. A diurnal cycle in mixing ratios was apparent with daytime maxima for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and isoprene. The median fluxes were 370–440 μg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 180–360 μg m−2 h−1 for acetaldehyde, 180–450 μg m−2 h−1 for acetone, 71–290 μg m−2 h−1 for isoprene, and 240–860 μg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes.

  13. Comparison of Carbonyls and BTEX Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend, and Operated without 3-Way Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Naeem Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unregulated emissions such as carbonyls and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes species emanated from a light duty SI (Spark Ignition vehicle E-0 (fuelled on gasoline and E-10 (ethanol-gasoline blend. Meanwhile, the ozone forming potential of these pollutants based on their ozone SR (Specific Reactivity has also been addressed in this study. The experiments were performed on transient as well as steady-state modes in accordance with the standard protocols recommended for light duty vehicle emissions. Carbonyls and BTEX were analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detector and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the predominant components of the carbonyls for E-0 and E-10, respectively. During transient mode, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone, and tolualdehyde pollutants were decreased but, acetaldehyde emissions increased with E-10 as compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were also decreased with E-10, relative to E-0. During the steady-state modes, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone and propionaldehyde were lower, aromatic aldehydes were absent, but acetaldehyde pollutants were higher with E-10 compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were decreased at medium and higher speed modes however, increased at lower speed mode with E-10 as compared to E-0. Total BTEX emissions were maximal at lower speed mode but, least at medium speed mode for both the fuels. SR of the pollutants was higher over transient cycle of operation, compared with steady-state mode. Relative to E-0, E-10 displayed lower SR during both transient as well as steady-state mode.

  14. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-03-17

    Abstract Context: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective: Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods: Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results: For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions: The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.

  15. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively.

  16. Inhalation exposure and health risk levels to BTEX and carbonyl compounds of traffic policeman working in the inner city of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanasiranont, Navaporn; Prueksasit, Tassanee; Morknoy, Daisy

    2017-03-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) are recognized traffic-related air pollutants in urban environments and are the focus of this study. In Bangkok, the BTEX and CC concentrations in both ambient air and personal exposure samples were studied during two periods (April-May and August-September 2014) at four different sampling sites around the Pathumwan District (three intersections and one T-junction). Traffic policemen, representing the high-exposure group for these toxic air pollutants, were observed, and the health risk to these workers was evaluated. Toluene was the predominant aromatic compound in the ambient and personal exposure samples. The maximum average ambient concentration of BTEX was 2968.96 μg/m3. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CCs at all of the sampling sites, with the greatest mean concentrations of these substances being 21.50 μg/m3 and 64.82 μg/m3, respectively. In the personal exposure samples, the highest levels of BTEX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were 2231.85 μg/m3, 10.61 μg/m3, and 16.03 μg/m3, respectively. In terms of risk assessment, benzene posed the greatest cancer risk (at the 95% CI), followed by toluene, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde (1.15E-02, 5.14E-03, 2.84E-04, and 2.52E-04, respectively). Three risk factors were investigated to reduce the total cancer risk levels: reducing the chemical concentration, exposure time and exposure duration. The use of a mask (chemical concentration) was the best way to reduce the risk to traffic police. However, the risk value of benzene (average 1.57E-05) was still higher than an acceptable value when using a mask.

  17. Ethanol Enhances Hepatitis C Virus Replication through Lipid Metabolism and Elevated NADH/NAD+*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seronello, Scott; Ito, Chieri; Wakita, Takaji; Choi, Jinah

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol has been suggested to elevate HCV titer in patients and to increase HCV RNA in replicon cells, suggesting that HCV replication is increased in the presence and absence of the complete viral replication cycle, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we use Huh7 human hepatoma cells that naturally express comparable levels of CYP2E1 as human liver to demonstrate that ethanol, at subtoxic and physiologically relevant concentrations, enhances complete HCV replication. The viral RNA genome replication is affected for both genotypes 2a and 1b. Acetaldehyde, a major product of ethanol metabolism, likewise enhances HCV replication at physiological concentrations. The potentiation of HCV replication by ethanol is suppressed by inhibiting CYP2E1 or aldehyde dehydrogenase and requires an elevated NADH/NAD+ ratio. In addition, acetate, isopropyl alcohol, and concentrations of acetone that occur in diabetics enhance HCV replication with corresponding increases in the NADH/NAD+. Furthermore, inhibiting the host mevalonate pathway with lovastatin or fluvastatin and fatty acid synthesis with 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid or cerulenin significantly attenuates the enhancement of HCV replication by ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, as well as acetate, whereas inhibiting β-oxidation with β-mercaptopropionic acid increases HCV replication. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acetate increase the total intracellular cholesterol content, which is attenuated with lovastatin. In contrast, both endogenous and exogenous ROS suppress the replication of HCV genotype 2a, as previously shown with genotype 1b. Conclusion: Therefore, lipid metabolism and alteration of cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio are likely to play a critical role in the potentiation of HCV replication by ethanol rather than oxidative stress. PMID:19910460

  18. Ethanol as a Prodrug: Brain Metabolism of Ethanol Mediates its Reinforcing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Bustamante, Diego; Gonzalez-Lira, Víctor; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2011-01-01

    Backround While the molecular entity responsible for the rewarding effects of virtually all drugs of abuse is known; that for ethanol remains uncertain. Some lines of evidence suggest that the rewarding effects of alcohol are mediated not by ethanol per se but by acetaldehyde generated by catalase in the brain. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of catalase has not allowed strong conclusions to be drawn about its role on the rewarding properties of ethanol. The present studies determined the effect on voluntary alcohol consumption of two gene vectors; one designed to inhibit catalase synthesis and one designed to synthesize alcohol dehydrogenase, to respectively inhibit or increase brain acetaldehyde synthesis. Methods The lentiviral vectors, which incorporate the genes they carry into the cell genome, were: (i) one encoding a shRNA anticatalase synthesis and (ii) one encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (rADH1). These were stereotaxically microinjected into the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Wistar-derived rats bred for generations for their high alcohol preference (UChB), which were allowed access to an ethanol solution and water. Results Microinjection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector encoding the anticatalase shRNA virtually abolished (-94% p<0.001) the voluntary consumption of alcohol by the rats. Conversely, injection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector coding for alcohol dehydrogenase greatly stimulated (2-3 fold p<0.001) their voluntary ethanol consumption. Conclusions The study strongly suggests that to generate reward and reinforcement, ethanol must be metabolized into acetaldehyde in the brain. Data suggest novel targets for interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol intake. PMID:21332529

  19. Overexpression of stress-related genes enhances cell viability and velum formation in Sherry wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Rincón, Ana María; Benítez, Tahía; Codón, Antonio C

    2013-08-01

    Flor formation and flor endurance have been related to ability by Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts to resist hostile conditions such as oxidative stress and the presence of acetaldehyde and ethanol. Ethanol and acetaldehyde toxicity give rise to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of cell viability. Superoxide dismutases Sod1p and Sod2p and other proteins such as Hsp12p are involved in oxidative stress tolerance. In this study, genes SOD1, SOD2, and HSP12 were overexpressed in flor yeast strains FJF206, FJF414 and B16. In the SOD1 and SOD2 transformant strains superoxide dismutases encoded by genes SOD1 and SOD2 increased their specific activity considerably as a direct result of overexpression of genes SOD1 and SOD2, indirectly, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activities increased too. The HSP12 transformant strains showed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities. These transformant strains showed an increase in intracellular glutathione content, a reduction in peroxidized lipid concentration, and higher resistance to oxidative stress conditions. As a result, flor formation by these strains took place more rapidly than by their parental strains, velum being thicker and with higher percentages of viable cells. In addition, a slight decrease in ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and an increase in acetaldehyde were detected in wines matured under velum formed by transformant strains, as compared to their parental strains. In the industry, velum formed by transformant strains with increased viability may result in acceleration of both metabolism and wine aging, thus reducing time needed for wine maturation.

  20. Spatial distributions of and diurnal variations in low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater, and the controlling factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takedaq@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Katoh, Shinya; Mitsui, Yumi; Nakano, Shinichi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Nakatani, Nobutake [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai-Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We studied the spatial distributions of and the diurnal variations in four low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal, in coastal seawater. The samples were taken from the coastal areas of Hiroshima Bay, the Iyo Nada, and the Bungo Channel, western Japan. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyoxal concentrations were higher in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay than at offshore sampling points in the Iyo Nada and the Bungo Channel. These three compounds were found at much higher concentrations in the surface water than in deeper water layers in Hiroshima Bay. It is noteworthy that propionaldehyde was not detected in any of the seawater samples, the concentrations present being lower than the detection limit (1 nanomole per liter (nM)) of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system we used. Photochemical and biological experiments were performed in the laboratory to help understand the characteristic distributions and fates of the LMW carbonyl compounds. The primary process controlling their fate in the coastal environment appears to be their biological consumption. The direct photo degradation of propionaldehyde, initiated by ultraviolet (UV) absorption, was observed, although formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not degraded by UV irradiation. Our results suggest that the degradation of the LMW carbonyl compounds by photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals is relatively insignificant in the study area. Atmospheric deposition is a possible source of soluble carbonyl compounds in coastal surface seawater, but it may not influence the carbonyl concentrations in offshore waters. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater were determined. • Photochemical productions of LMW carbonyl compounds in seawater were observed. • LMW carbonyl compounds were largely consumed biologically. • Photochemical degradation was relatively insignificant in the study area.

  1. Closing the peroxy acetyl (PA radical budget: observations of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN, and MPAN during BEARPEX 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LaFranchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs, also known as PANs are formed from the oxidation of aldehydes and other oxygenated VOC (oVOC in the presence of NO2. Formation of APNs suppresses NOx (NOx≡NO+NO2 in urban areas and enhances NOx downwind in urban plumes, increasing the rate of ozone production throughout an urban plume. APNs also redistribute NOx on global scales, enhancing NOx and thus ozone production. There are both anthropogenic and biogenic oVOC precursors to APNs, but a detailed evaluation of their chemistry against observations has proven elusive. Here we describe measurements of PAN, PPN, and MPAN along with the majority of chemicals that participate in their production and loss, including OH, HO2, numerous oVOC, and NO2. Observations were made during the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2007 in the outflow of the Sacramento urban plume. These observations are used to evaluate a detailed chemical model of APN ratios and concentrations. We find the ratios of APNs are nearly independent of the loss mechanisms and thus an especially good test of our understanding of their sources. We show that oxidation of methylvinyl ketone, methacrolein, methyl glyoxal, biacetyl and acetaldehyde are all significant sources of the PAN+peroxy acetyl (PA radical reservoir, with methylvinyl ketone (MVK often being the primary non-acetaldehyde source. At high temperatures, oxidation of non-acetaldehyde PA radical sources contributes over 60% to the total PA production rate. An analysis of absolute APN concentrations reveals a missing APN sink that can be resolved by increasing the PA+∑RO2 rate constant by a factor of 3.

  2. The formation of diethyl ether via the reaction of iodoethane with atomic oxygen on the Ag(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. Scott; Barteau, Mark A.; Vohs, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactions of iodoethane (ICH 2CH 3) on clean and oxygen-covered Ag(110) surfaces were investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Iodoethane adsorbs dissociatively at 150 K to produce surface ethyl groups on both clean and oxygen-covered Ag(110) surfaces. The ethyl species couple to form butane on both surfaces, with the desorption peak maximum located between 218 and 238 K, depending on the ethyl coverage. In addition to butane, a number of oxidation products including diethyl ether, ethanol, acetaldehyde, surface acetate, ethylene, carbon dioxide and water were formed on the oxygen-dosed Ag(110) surface. Diethyl ether was the major oxygenate produced at all ethyl:oxygen ratios, and the peak temperature for ether evolution varied from 220 to 266 K depending on the relative coverages of these reactants. The total combustion products, CO 2 and H 2O, were primarily formed at low ethyl coverages in the presence of excess oxygen. The formation of ethylene near 240 K probably involves an oxygen-assisted dehydrogenation pathway since ethylene is not formed from ethyl groups on the clean surface. Acetaldehyde and ethanol evolve coincidentally with a peak centered at 270-280 K, and are attributed to the reactions of surface ethoxide species. The surface acetate which decomposes near 620 K is formed from subsequent reactions of acetaldehyde with oxygen atoms. The addition of ethyl to oxygen to form surface ethoxides was verified by HREELS results. The yields of all products exhibited a strong dependence on the relative coverages of ethyl and oxygen.

  3. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachot, T.; Mueller, M.; Pons, M.N. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique)

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  4. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  5. R\\'eduction de la nuisance olfactive par oxydation photocatalytique

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an interesting alternative for the purification, decontamination and smell abatment of air. In the present work, the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-butanone (MEK : methyl ethyle ketone) is investigated, this low molecular mass product being the source of serious smell pollution. The influence of light and of the pollutant concentration were investigated in an annular photoreactor. As most VOC's, the degradation rate of MEK follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type law. Intermediate products were analysed by GC-MD ; acetaldehyde is the dominant byproduct of the photocatalytic oxidation.

  6. CHANGES IN VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF KRALJEVINA WINES BY CONTROLLED MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana JEROMEL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of malolactic fermentation (MLF on the volatile composition of white wines made from autochtonous grape variety Kraljevina was studied by inoculation with selected lactic acid bacteria. At the end of malolactic fermentation, after the decomposition of the malic acid present in wine the non volatile compounds were analyzed by HPLC, while volatile compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. All wines were also sensory analyzed. Results showed changes in acetaldehyde, some higher alcohols, ethyl esters, free and bound monoterpenes and some organic acids that contribute to enhance the sensory properties and quality of Kraljevina wines that underwent malolactic fermentation.

  7. Fotokatalytisk oxidation för en reducering av lättflyktiga kolväten

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this study photocatalytic oxidation was investigated as a potential treatment method of VOC emissions from industrial plants. This was done by designing an experimental setup and a photocatalytic reactor for screening of photocatalysts (TiO2). The performance of commercial TiO2 and synthesized TiO2 (pure and Ni-doped) for degrading acetaldehyde when exposed to UV-C light was evaluated at fix reaction conditions. Also, procedure of coating TiO2 on aluminum and stainless steel as well as the...

  8. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N

    2016-01-01

    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  9. A Device-Independent Evaluation of Carbonyl Emissions from Heated Electronic Cigarette Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Liao, Jiawen; Matsuo, Toshiki; Ito, Kazuhide; Fowles, Jeff; Shusterman, Dennis; Mendell, Mark; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how the two main electronic (e-) cigarette solvents—propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL)—modulate the formation of toxic volatile carbonyl compounds under precisely controlled temperatures in the absence of nicotine and flavor additives. Methods PG, GL, PG:GL = 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture, and two commercial e-cigarette liquids were vaporized in a stainless steel, tubular reactor in flowing air ranging up to 318°C to simulate e-cigarette vaping. Aerosols were collected and analyzed to quantify the amount of volatile carbonyls produced with each of the five e-liquids. Results Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected at reactor temperatures ≥215°C for both PG and GL. Acrolein was observed only in e-liquids containing GL when reactor temperatures exceeded 270°C. At 318°C, 2.03±0.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.35±0.87 μg of acetaldehyde, and a trace amount of acetone were generated per milligram of PG; at the same temperature, 21.1±3.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.40±0.99 μg of acetaldehyde, and 0.80±0.50 μg of acrolein were detected per milligram of GL. Conclusions We developed a device-independent test method to investigate carbonyl emissions from different e-cigarette liquids under precisely controlled temperatures. PG and GL were identified to be the main sources of toxic carbonyl compounds from e-cigarette use. GL produced much more formaldehyde than PG. Besides formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measurable amounts of acrolein were also detected at ≥270°C but only when GL was present in the e-liquid. At 215°C, the estimated daily exposure to formaldehyde from e-cigarettes, exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) acceptable limits, which emphasized the need to further examine the potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:28076380

  10. A dispersion model approach to the preliminary design of adsorber beds for trace contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, R.; Czayka, M.; Forsythe, R.; Povlis, J.; Yin, K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that a dispersion model for the transport of a gas through a porous medium can be useful in the preliminary design of adsorber beds for the control of trace contaminants. The transmission function is considered, taking into account the transmission of 102-ppm acetaldehyde in helium flowing at various flow rates through an absorber bed. The experiments were conducted at a temperature of 25.0 C. Attention is given to a representation of the experimental breakthrough curve, the volume adsorption capacity, temperature studies, and correlations.

  11. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC; Determinacion de compuestos carbonilicos en aire por HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-07-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Catalytic selective oxidation or oxidative functionalization of methane and ethane to organic oxygenates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Selective oxidation or oxidative functionalization of methane and ethane by both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is presented concerning: (1) selective oxidation of methane and ethane to organic oxygenates by hydrogen peroxide in a water medium in the presence of homogeneous osmium catalysts, (2) selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde over highly dispersed iron and copper heterogeneous catalysts, (3) selective oxidation of ethane to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde over supported molybdenum catalysts, and (4) oxidative carbonylation of methane to methyl acetate over heterogeneous catalysts containing dual sites of rhodium and iron.

  13. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process.

  14. Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2011-12-01

    Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed

  15. Effects of potassium sorbate and Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 on production of ethanol and other volatile organic compounds in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Windle, Michelle; Merrill, Caitlyn

    2015-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect of additives on production of nine silage VOC in corn silage, including compounds thought to contribute to poor air quality or affect feed intake (alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol; esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate; and aldehydes: acetaldehyde, valeraldehyde....... These results provide additional evidence that potassium sorbate is an effective additive for reducing production of ethanol and ethyl esters in corn silage. Combining potassium sorbate with L. plantarum may provide additional benefits, although the persistence of this effect for silages with higher VOC...

  16. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  17. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  18. The effect of alcohol on c-fos gene expression in rat embryo neuroglial%酒精对鼠胚胎神经胶质细胞c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈卫东; 吴德生; 翁贵武; 谢芳莉; 肖帮良; 魏大鹏

    2001-01-01

    Objective This paper is aimed to explore the mechanisms of brain development abnormality induced by alcohol.Methods Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of 19-day rat embryo were exploited and cultured in vitro,and alcohol and its metabolite product (acetaldehyde) were added to DMEMF12 medium.After different exposure times,c-fos expression of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was measured by the immunocytochemistry technique.Results Changes in c-fos gene expression induced by alcohol and acetaldehyde was time and dose dependent.After 1 hr exposure,alcohol and acetaldehyde affected c-fos gene expression in two kinds of neuralglia.C-fos positive expression reached peak value after 2 hr,but recovered after 72 hr and showed special time phase expression.Conclusions Alcohol and acetaldehyde cause abnormal increase of c-fos gene expression in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.This abnormal expression may play an important role in abnormal brain development induced by alcohol.%目的探讨酒精致脑发育异常机制。方法从孕19 d鼠胚胎脑组织分离培养星形、少突胶质细胞体外分别施不同剂量酒精及其代谢产物乙醛,应用免疫细胞化学技术研究二者作用不同时间对星形、少突胶质细胞原癌基因 c-fos 表达影响。结果酒精对星形、少突胶质细胞c-fos表达与时间和剂量有关。各剂量酒精、乙醛作用1 h既可影响两种细胞c-fos 基因表达,2 h表达至峰值,72 h恢复正常呈现特异时相性。结论酒精、乙醛均可致星形、少突胶质细胞c-fos表达增强。c-fos异常表达很可能在酒精所致脑发育异常担当重要作用。

  19. Teores de compostos orgânicos em cachaças produzidas na região norte fluminense - Rio de Janeiro Organic compounds contents in cachaças produced in the northern Rio de Janeiro State - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to quantify some organic compounds in "cachaças" (sugar cane spirit. The ethyl alcohol was quantified by densimetry, after distillation. The acetic acid, methyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol (mixture of 2-methyl-butyl and 3-methyl-butyl, ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography; and the furfural, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural and acrolein by high efficiency liquid chromatography. From the 30 samples analyzed, 63.3% showed non-conformity with national legislation regarding at least one of the analyzed components.

  20. Contribution of carbonyl photochemistry to aging of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mang, Stephen A.; Henricksen, Dana K.; Bateman, Adam P.

    2008-01-01

    in situ by infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A number of additional gas-phase products of SOA photodegradation were observed by gas chromatography, including methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, and I-butene. The absorption spectrum of SOA material collected onto CaF, windows...... of freshly prepared SOA was estimated to be on the order of' 15 L mol(-1) cm(-1) at 300 rim, implying one carbonyl group in every SOA constituent. The absorption by the SOA material slowly increased in the visible and near-UV during storage of SOA in open air in the dark, presumably as a result...

  1. Urban Air Pollution from Ethanol (E85) in the Presence of Aqueous Aerosols and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    This is a study to examine the effect of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on urban air pollution in the presence of aqueous aerosols and fog. In previous work, we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. We used the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, LEEDS University) with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate explicit chemistry. The MCM has over 13,500 organic reactions and 4,600 species. SMVGEAR II is a sparse-matrix Gear solver that reduces the computation time significantly while maintaining any specified accuracy. We found that the average ozone concentrations through the range of temperatures tested could be higher with E85 than with gasoline by up to 8 parts per billion volume (ppbv) at room temperature but much higher at cold temperatures and low sunlight (winter conditions) for a region with a high nitrogen oxide (NOx) to non-methane organic gases (NMOG) ratio. We also found that the solution to chemistry in a 3-D urban airshed model was practical. We now extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of aerosols and fog. We combine the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0 with the MCM 3.1 and gas-particle transfer in box model calculations. CAPRAM treats aqueous phase chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of aerosol

  2. 高产胞外多糖嗜热链球菌混菌培养特性研究%Study on the mixed cultivated properties of high exopolysacchride-producing Streotococcus thermophillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 陈历俊; 王昌禄; 牟光庆; 陈晓璇

    2011-01-01

    探讨高产胞外多糖嗜热链球菌混菌培养的产酸、产香、产黏特性.以发酵酸度、乙醛质量浓度和黏度为综合指标,确定高产胞外多糖的嗜热链球菌(S.t.)、保加利亚乳杆菌(L.b.)、嗜酸乳杆菌(L.a.)混菌最佳培养条件为培养温度42℃,总接菌量体积分数4%,V(S.t.):V(L.b.):V(L.a.)=3:2:1.在此条件下,混菌培养可以显著地提高酸度、乙醛质量浓度、黏度、胞外多糖质量浓度、β-半乳糖苷酶酶活、蛋白酶水解能力(p<0.01).发酵过程中,胞外多糖质量浓度与黏度,β-半乳糖苷酶酶活与酸度.蛋白酶酶活与酸度、乙醛质量浓度的相关性系数很高.%The aim of this research is to study the acidity,acetaldehyde and viscosity of mixed cultivation with high exopolysaccharides-producing Streptococcus thermophilus. The optimal fermentation conditions with mixed cultivation are:42 ℃, inoculation size 4%(v/v), the strains matching ratio of high exopolysaccharides-producing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus is 3:2:1 according to acidity, content of acetaldehyde and viscosity. On this condition, mixed cultivation of Lactic acid bacteria significantly improve acidity,acetaldehyde content,viscosity, exopolysaccharide (EPS), the activity of β-galactosidase and protease (P<0.01).The correlative modulus of EPS and viscosity, the activity of β-galactosidase and acidity, the activity of protease and acidity, acetaldehyde content is high.

  3. Reduction of aldehydes and hydrogen cyanide yields in mainstream cigarette smoke using an amine functionalised ion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Martin G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a well recognized cause of diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Of the more than 5000 identified species in cigarette smoke, at least 150 have toxicological activity. For example, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been assigned as Group 1 and Group 2B carcinogens by IARC, and hydrogen cyanide has been identified as a respiratory and cardiovascular toxicant. Active carbon has been shown to be an effective material for the physical adsorption of many of the smoke volatile species. However, physical adsorption of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and also hydrogen cyanide from smoke is less effective using carbon. Alternative methods for the removal of these species from cigarette smoke are therefore of interest. A macroporous, polystyrene based ion-exchange resin (Diaion®CR20 with surface amine group functionality has been investigated for its ability to react with aldehydes and HCN in an aerosol stream, and thus selectively reduce the yields of these compounds (in particular formaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. Results Resin surface chemistry was characterized using vapour sorption, XPS, TOF-SIMS and 15N NMR. Diaion®CR20 was found to have structural characteristics indicating weak physisorption properties, but sufficient surface functionalities to selectively remove aldehydes and HCN from cigarette smoke. Using 60 mg of Diaion®CR20 in a cigarette cavity filter gave reductions in smoke formaldehyde greater than 50% (estimated to be equivalent to >80% of the formaldehyde present in the smoke vapour phase independent of a range of flow rates. Substantial removal of HCN (>80% and acetaldehyde (>60% was also observed. The performance of Diaion®CR20 was found to be consistent over a test period of 6 months. The overall adsorption for the majority of smoke compounds measured appeared to follow a pseudo-first order approximation to second order

  4. Ultraviolet and radical oxidation of airborne VOC`s. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Albano, M.T.; Schmelzle, J.P.; Fetter, R.O.

    1994-03-18

    Airborne VOC`s reactions initiated by UV radiation at selected wavelengths from 185 to 308 nm have been studied. A simplified chemical kinetic mechanism is proposed incorporating photolysis and radical reactions. The concentration of HCHO and CH{sub 3}OH were predicted as a function of time, radiation wavelength, actinic flux and initial ozone concentration. The gas velocity and HCHO concentration were predicted in a gas stream flowing over a UV bulb. Experiments were conducted in which ethanol vapor and air were irradiated by low-pressure mercury bulbs. Ethanol disappeared in an overall first-order manner and an intermediate species, believed to be acetaldehyde, appeared and then disappeared.

  5. [Endogenous ethanol and its possible participation in the activity of the central nervous system in healthy subjects and alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtsev, R V; Ushakova, M M; Nebarakova, T P; Valentik, Iu V; Ionova, K P

    1987-01-01

    Blood concentrations of endogenous ethanol (EE) reflects the effects of various psychic and medicinal impacts. EE levels in alcoholic patients depend on the severity of alcoholism, emotional status and efficacy of treatment. Actualization of the pathologic craving for alcohol and other types of emotional excitement are attended by reduced EE concentrations whereas the disactualization of the pathological craving for alcohol and relaxation increase the EE levels. Stabilization of alcoholic patients' clinical status is attended by stabilization of EE values. It is suggested that acetaldehyde acts as a modulator of catecholamine levels both in normal subjects and alcoholics ensuring connection between EE levels and the status of the central nervous system.

  6. [Endogenous ethanol in the blood and tissues of rats with hypobaric hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Iu A; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M; Satanovskaia, V I; Liopo, A V; Velichko, M G; Abakumov, G Z

    1989-01-01

    Albino male rats weighing 160-180 g were used to study the effect of short-term hypobaric hypoxia (ascent in an altitude chamber to 2500 m and 5000 m for 1 hr) on endogenous ethanol measured in blood, brain and liver; simultaneously enzymes responsible for ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism were determined. Endogenous ethanol in blood and tissues was found to be a very sensitive marker of hypoxia which was not correlated with lactate, pyruvate, lipid peroxidation or 11-hydroxycorticosteroids. The latter parameters varied in response to severe hypoxia.

  7. Role of Transcription Factors in Steatohepatitis and Hypertension after Ethanol: The Epicenter of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rais A.; Husain, Kazim; Rizvi, Syed A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption induces multi-organ damage, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), pancreatitis and hypertension. Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to acetaldehyde and produces reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. SREBP-1 is activated in the livers of chronic ethanol abusers. An increase in ROS activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) to provide protection to hepatocytes from ethanol toxicity. Under ethanol exposure, due to increased gut permeability, there is release of gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from intestine causing activation of immune response. In addition, the metabolic product, acetaldehyde, modifies the proteins in hepatocyte, which become antigens inviting auto-immune response. LPS activates macrophages, especially the liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells. These Kupffer cells and circulating macrophages secrete various cytokines. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 have been found elevated among chronic alcoholics. In addition to elevation of these cytokines, the peripheral iron (Fe2+) is also mobilized. An increased level of hepatic iron has been observed among alcoholics. Increased ROS, IL-1

  8. The MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline reduces ethanol-induced locomotion and its volitional intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Escrig, Miguel Angel; Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is the co-substrate used by the enzyme catalase to form Compound I (the catalase-H2O2 system), which is the major pathway for the conversion of ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde in the brain. This acetaldehyde has been involved in many of the effects of EtOH. Previous research demonstrated that treatments that change the levels of cerebral H2O2 available to catalase modulate the locomotor-stimulating effects of EtOH and its volitional intake in rodents. However, the source of H2O2 which is used by catalase to form Compound I and mediates the psychoactive actions of EtOH is unknown. One cause of the generation of H2O2 in the brain comes from the deamination of biogenic amines by the activity of MAO-A. Here we explore the consequences of the administration of the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline on EtOH-induced locomotion and voluntary EtOH drinking. For the locomotor activity tests, we injected Swiss (RjOrl) mice intraperitoneally (IP) with clorgyline (0-10mg/kg) and later (0.5-8h) with EtOH (0-3.75 g/kg; IP). Following these treatments, mice were placed in locomotor activity chambers to measure their locomotion. For the drinking experiments, mice of the C57BL/6J strain were injected IP with clorgyline prior to offering them an EtOH (20%) solution following a drinking-in-the-dark procedure. Additional experiments were performed to assess the selectivity of this compound in altering EtOH-stimulated locomotion and EtOH intake. Moreover, we indirectly tested the ability of clorgyline to reduce brain H2O2 levels. We showed that this treatment selectively reduced EtOH-induced locomotion and its self-administration. Moreover, this compound decreased central H2O2 levels available to catalase. We suggest that H2O2 derived from the deamination of biogenic amines by the activity of MAO-A could determine the formation of brain EtOH-derived acetaldehyde. This centrally-formed acetaldehyde within the neurons of the aminergic system could play a role in the

  9. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  10. Isolation of an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in the oxidation of fluoroacetaldehyde to fluoroacetate in Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C D; Moss, S J; O'Hagan, D

    2001-10-01

    Streptomyces cattleya is unusual in that it produces fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine as secondary metabolites. We now report the isolation of an NAD(+)-dependent fluoroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase from S. cattleya that mediates the oxidation of fluoroacetaldehyde to fluoroacetate. This is the first enzyme to be identified that is directly involved in fluorometabolite biosynthesis. Production of the enzyme begins in late exponential growth and continues into the stationary phase. Measurement of kinetic parameters shows that the enzyme has a high affinity for fluoroacetaldehyde and glycoaldehyde, but not acetaldehyde.

  11. Enhanced Acid/Base Catalysis in High Temperature Liquid Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Yang LU; Qi JING; Zhun LI; Lei YUAN; Fei GAO; Xin LIU

    2006-01-01

    Two novel and environmentally benign solvent systems, organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water (HTLW) and NH3-enriched HTLW, were developed, which can enhance the reaction rate of acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW. We investigated the decomposition of fructose in organic acids-enriched HTLW, hydrolysis of cinnamaldehyde and aldol condensation of phenylaldehyde with acetaldehyde in NH3-enriched HTLW. The experimental results demonstrated that organic acids-enriched or NH3-enriched HTLW can greatly accelerate acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW.

  12. 乙醛蛋白加合物在酒精性肝病中的致病作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 吕文芝; 牛俊奇; 王峰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 酒精性肝病(ALD)的发病机制相当复杂.近年来对乙醛蛋白加合物(Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct,APA)的深入研究表明,乙醛蛋白加合物不仅可作为直接毒物,而且可作为抗原诱生免疫反应,产生相应抗体,引起肝细胞炎症、坏死及纤维组织增生.

  13. Desidratação de etanol sobre material nanoestruturado do tipo LaSBA-15 Ethanol dehydration over LaSBA-15 nanostrutured material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo E. Luz Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La-incorporated SBA-15 mesopourous molecular sieves (LaSBA-15 were directly synthesized with aim to convert ethanol to ethylene. The samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, nitrogen sorption and acidity, by thermodesorption of n-buthylamine. The results have indicated that all the samples have showed high ordered mesostructure with a large average pore size, and that the lanthanum incorporation has caused an increase in the acidity of the SBA-15. The LaSBA-15 samples have improved, with low deactivation rate, the conversion of the ethanol to water, ether, acetaldehyde and ethylene. In addition, they have increased the ethylene selectivity.

  14. 乙醇及其代谢产物对新生大鼠原代培养心房肌细胞乙酰胆碱敏感型钾通道Kir3.1蛋白表达的影响%Effect of ethanol and its metabolites on acetylcholine-sensitive K+ channel Kir3.1 protein expression of neonatal rat primary atrial cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵渊源; 孙婧菡; 胡军; 柏妮; 于波

    2015-01-01

    目的 明确乙醇及其代谢产物乙醛对新生SD大鼠原代心房肌细胞乙酰胆碱敏感型钾通道Kir3.1蛋白表达的影响,并探讨该通道及乙醛在急性乙醇中毒引发心律失常的过程中所发挥的效应.方法 采用胰蛋白酶及Ⅱ型胶原酶提取并培养150只新生SD大鼠原代心房肌细胞,并采用免疫荧光法进行肌钙蛋白Ⅰ鉴定.采用细胞计数套件-8(CCK-8)法分别测定200 ~ 800 mmol/L乙醇及50~ 500 μmol/L乙醛处理24 h后细胞的生存率,以确定导致新生SD大鼠原代心房肌细胞凋亡所需的乙醛及乙醇浓度.建立以最大非凋亡浓度(200 mmol/L)的乙醇处理24h及相应剂量(100 μmol/L)乙醛处理24 h的新生SD大鼠原代心房肌细胞模型.采用Western blot法检测乙醇处理组、乙醛处理组及对照组心房肌细胞Kir3.1蛋白的表达情况,并对结果进行统计学分析.结果 (1)成功培养新生SD大鼠原代心房肌细胞,细胞免疫荧光鉴定所培养细胞为心肌细胞,且90%以上细胞肌钙蛋白Ⅰ染色阳性.(2) CCK-8法测定显示400 mmol/L以上的乙醇处理组的心肌细胞生存率明显低于对照组(P<0.05),而200 mmol/L及以下的乙醇处理组心肌细胞生存率与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);400 μmol/L以上的乙醛处理组的心肌细胞生存率明显低予对照组(P<0.05),而350 μmol/L及以下的乙醛处理组心肌细胞生存率与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(3)Western blot检测显示200 mmol/L乙醇及100 μmol/L的乙醛处理24h的新生SD大鼠原代房心肌细胞Kir3.1蛋白表达分别高于对照组(44.52±23.07)%及(45.04±22.01)% (P <0.01),而乙醇组与乙醛组之间Kir3.1蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 急性乙醇及乙醛处理均能够明显上调乙酰胆碱敏感型钾通道Kir3.1蛋白的表达.%Objective To identify the effect of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde on acetylcholine-sensitive K

  15. Acetylene as a substrate in the development of primordial bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, C.W.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The fermentation of atmospheric acetylene by anaerobic bacteria is proposed as the basis of a primordial heterotrophic food chain. The accumulation of fermentation products (acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetate and hydrogen) would create niches for sulfate-respiring bacteria as well as methanogens. Formation of acetylene-free environments in soils and sediments would also alter the function of nitrogenase from detoxification to nitrogen-fixation. The possibility of an acetylene-based anaerobic food chain in Jovian-type atmospheres is discussed. ?? 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  17. The effect of C-OH functionality on the surface chemistry of biomass-derived molecules: ethanol chemistry on Rh(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, B; Olus Ozbek, M; Niemantsverdriet, J W Hans; Weststrate, C J Kees-Jan

    2016-11-21

    The adsorption and decomposition of ethanol on Rh(100) was studied as a model reaction to understand the role of C-OH functionalities in the surface chemistry of biomass-derived molecules. A combination of experimental surface science and computational techniques was used: (i) temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS), reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), work function measurements (Kelvin Probe - KP), and density functional theory (DFT). Ethanol produces ethoxy (CH3CH2O) species via O-H bond breaking upon adsorption at 100 K. Ethoxy decomposition proceeds differently depending on the surface coverage. At low coverage, the decomposition of ethoxy species occurs viaβ-C-H cleavage, which leads to an oxometallacycle (OMC) intermediate. Decomposition of the OMC scissions (at 180-320 K) ultimately produces CO, H2 and surface carbon. At high coverage, along with the pathway observed in the low coverage case, a second pathway occurs around 140-200 K, which produces an acetaldehyde intermediate viaα-C-H cleavage. Further decomposition of acetaldehyde produces CH4, CO, H2 and surface carbon. However, even at high coverage this is a minor pathway, and methane selectivity is 10% at saturation coverage. The results suggests that biomass-derived oxygenates, which contain an alkyl group, react on the Rh(100) surface to produce synthesis gas (CO and H2), surface carbon and small hydrocarbons due to the high dehydrogenation and C-C bond scission activity of Rh(100).

  18. The activity of class I, II, III and IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The brain being highly sensitive to the action of alcohol is potentially susceptible to its carcinogenic effects. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the main enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism, which leads to the generation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Human brain tissue contains various ADH isoenzymes and possess also ALDH activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity for ethanol metabolism measured by ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity in cancer tissues and healthy brain cells. The samples were taken from 62 brain cancer patients (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. The total activity of ADH, and activity of class I ADH were significantly higher in cancer cells than in healthy tissues. The other tested classes of ADH and ALDH did not show statistically significant differences of activity in cancer and in normal cells. Analysis of the enzymes activity did not show significant differences depending on the location of the tumor. The differences in the activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase, and class I isoenzyme between cancer tissues and healthy brain cells might be a factor for metabolic changes and disturbances in low mature cancer cells and additionally might be a reason for higher level of acetaldehyde which can intensify the carcinogenesis.

  19. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-11-01

    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  20. Solvent-derived protons in catalysis by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    Catalysis of proton transfer to thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the solvent discrimination tritium isotope effect, (kH/kT)disc, on the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The fractionation factors for TDP C(2)-L (phi C(2) = 0.98 +/- 0.06) and HETDP C(alpha)-L (phi C(alpha) = 1.01 +/- 0.07) (L = H or D) do not contribute significantly to observed enzymic isotopic discrimination. The value of (kH/kT)disc = 1.0 for reprotonation of TDP C(2)-L under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) is consistent with C(2)-hydron transfer via a catalytic group (phi = 1) equilibrated with solvent. [1-L]Acetaldehyde formation under transient steady-state ([E] or = 1.2) provides significant intramolecular catalysis in the enzyme-bound coenzyme.

  1. Trace gas detection from fermentation processes in apples; an intercomparison study between proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry and laser photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamfa, E. I.; Steeghs, M. M. L.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2004-12-01

    A custom-built proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instrument was used to monitor the emission of various compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, acids, acetates and C-6 compounds) related to fermentation, aroma and flavour, released by four apple cultivars (Elstar, Jonaglod, Granny Smith and Pink Lady) under short anaerobic (24 h) and post-anaerobic conditions. The novel feature of our instrument is the new design of the collisional dissociation chamber, which separates the high pressure in the drift tube (2 mbar) from the high vacuum pressure in the detection region (10-6 mbar). The geometry of this chamber was changed and a second turbo pump was added to reduce the influence of collisional loss of ions, background signals and cluster ions, which facilitates the interpretation of the mass spectra and increases the signal intensity at the mass of the original protonated compound. With this system, detection limits of similar magnitude to the ones reported in literature are reached. An intercomparison study between PTR-MS and a CO laser-based photoacoustic trace gas detector is presented. The alcoholic fermentation products (acetaldehyde and ethanol) from young rice plants were simultaneously monitored by both methods. A very good agreement was observed for acetaldehyde production. The photoacoustic detector showed about two times lower ethanol concentration as compared to PTR-MS, caused by memory effects due to sticking of compounds to the walls of the nylon tube used to transport the trace gases to the detector.

  2. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Alcoholic Fermentation and Qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-na; LIU Meng-chen; ZHU Shu-hua; ZHOU Jie; WANG Ming-lin

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on alcoholic fermentation and the qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube during storage, and explores the action mechanisms of browning and softening of fruits to provide theoretical proofs for using NO in the storage of Chinese Winter Jujube. Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were fumigated with different concentrations of NO gas (0, 10, 20, 30 μL L-1) under anaerobic conditions and stored at 22 ± 1 ℃ and 4 ± 1 ℃. The changes in appearance qualities, the contents of pyruvate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated. The contents of pyruvate, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were significantly reduced, and the peak of pyruvate content was delayed by 20 μL L-1 NO. The activities of ADH and LDH in 20 μL L-1 NO treated fruits were also significantly inhibited. However, the alcoholic fermentation and softening of Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were promoted by 30 μL L-1 NO during storage. The results indicated that 20 μL L-1 NO could mitigate the injury of ethanol on Chinese Winter Jujube and effectively delay the browning and softening of fruits during storage.

  3. TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units.

  4. The Oxidative Fermentation of Ethanol in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Is a Two-Step Pathway Catalyzed by a Single Enzyme: Alcohol-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ADHa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a N2-fixing bacterium endophyte from sugar cane. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid of this organism takes place in the periplasmic space, and this reaction is catalyzed by two membrane-bound enzymes complexes: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH. We present strong evidence showing that the well-known membrane-bound Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHa of Ga. diazotrophicus is indeed a double function enzyme, which is able to use primary alcohols (C2–C6 and its respective aldehydes as alternate substrates. Moreover, the enzyme utilizes ethanol as a substrate in a reaction mechanism where this is subjected to a two-step oxidation process to produce acetic acid without releasing the acetaldehyde intermediary to the media. Moreover, we propose a mechanism that, under physiological conditions, might permit a massive conversion of ethanol to acetic acid, as usually occurs in the acetic acid bacteria, but without the transient accumulation of the highly toxic acetaldehyde.

  5. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  6. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skryplonek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bac- teria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Material and methods. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lac- tobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Results. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all sam- ples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Conclusions. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk pow- der or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa O; Gross, Eric R; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-08-27

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R(2) = 0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde- and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was even beneficial when given after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic, cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance.

  8. Propene metathesis over silica-supported tungsten oxide catalyst-catalyst induction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basrur, A.G.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vyas, S.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India))

    1991-01-01

    The propene metathesis reaction was studied from the point of view of elucidating the mechanism of catalyst induction and establishing conditions for maximum activity. Instrumental techniques such as ESR, IR, and TPD were used to study the various aspects. During catalyst induction, trace quantities of acetone and acetaldehyde were detected in the product stream, indicating that lattice oxygen from tungsten oxide might be responsible for these products. Induction appeared to proceed via two steps since pretreatment of the catalyst with nitrogen and hydrogen yielded a decreased amount of acetone in the latter case whereas acetaldehyde remained unaffected. ESR studies indicated some interaction between tungsten oxide and silica at the catalyst preparatory stage as well as stabilization of reduced tungsten species on the catalyst after its use and regeneration. Catalyst activity appeared to depend on conditions of pretreatment. Change in nitrogen pretreatment temperature from 500 to 600{sup o}C resulted in transition from strong to negligible external mass transfer behavior of the catalyst. TPD studies in this context showed possible loss of lattice oxygen from tungsten oxide under the above-mentioned conditions of catalyst pretreatment. ESR studies indicated the reduction of WO{sub 3} to a nonstoichiometric oxidation state. Hence catalytic activity appears to be related to the nonstoichiometric state of tungsten oxide, which may be WO{sub 2.9} (as deduced from the blue-violet color of the used catalyst).

  9. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits.

  10. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  11. Measurement of airborne carbonyls using an automated sampling and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Mauro; McLaren, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Based upon the well established method of derivitization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, an instrument was developed for ambient measurement of carbonyls with significantly improved temporal resolution and detection limits through automation, direct injection, and continuous use of a single microsilica DNPH cartridge. Kinetic experiments indicate that the derivitization reaction on the cartridge is fast enough for continuous measurements with 50 min air sampling. Reaction efficiencies measured on the cartridge were 100% for the carbonyls tested, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone, and benzaldehyde. Transmission of the carbonyls through an ozone scrubber (KI) were in the range of 97-101%. Blank levels and detection limits were lower than those obtainable with conventional DNPH methods by an order of magnitude or greater. Mixing ratio detection limits of carbonyls in ambient air were 38-73 ppt for a 50 min air sample (2.5 L). The instrument made continuous measurements of carbonyls on a 2 h cycle over a period of 10 days during a field study in southwestern Ontario. Median mixing ratios were 0.58 ppb formaldehyde; 0.29 ppb acetaldehyde; 1.14 ppb acetone; and 0.45 ppb glyoxal. Glyoxal shows a significant correlation with ozone and zero intercept, consistent with a secondary source and minor direct source to the atmosphere. The method should easily be extendable to the detection of other low molecular weight carbonyls that have been previously reported using the DNPH technique.

  12. Visible light photocatalytic activity induced by Rh(III) modification on the surface of BiOCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinli; Wu, Xin; Huang, Caijin, E-mail: cjhuang@fzu.edu.cn; Fan, Wenjie; Qiu, Xiaoqing, E-mail: qiuxq@fzu.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Rh(III) clusters were deposited on the BiOCl microflowers as an efficient modifier. • The Rh(III)-BiOCl samples show an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The Rh(III) clusters server as the redox reaction centers for the multi-electron reduction of O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Using impregnation technique, a small amount of Rh(III) clusters has been grafted on the BiOCl microflowers. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy distribution X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities are investigated by the decomposition of gaseous acetaldehyde under irradiation of visible light. The bare BiOCl microflowers exhibit the limited visible light photocatalytic activity because of its wide band gap. After surface modification of Rh(III) clusters, the Rh(III)-BiOCl samples show an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the decomposition gaseous acetaldehyde under visible light irradiation. It is found that the Rh(III) clusters play an important role for the visible light absorption, probably through the electron transfer between Rh(III) clusters and the BiOCl, as well as the redox reaction centers for the multi-electron reduction of O{sub 2}.

  13. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  14. Treatment with activated carbon and other adsorbents as an effective method for removal of volatile compounds in agricultural distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Jusel, Tomaš

    2017-01-20

    This study investigates the effect of treatment with activated carbon and other adsorbents on the chemical composition and organoleptics of a barley malt-based agricultural distillate. Contact with activated carbon is one of the methods by which the quality of raw distillates and spirit beverages can be improved. Samples placed in contact with 1 g activated carbon (SpiritFerm) per 100 ml distillate with ethanol content of 50% v v(-1) for 1 h showed the largest reductions in the concentrations of most volatile compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, esters). Increasing the dose of adsorbent to over 1 g 100 ml(-1) did not improve the purity of the agricultural distillate significantly. Of the tested compounds, acetaldehyde and methanol showed the lowest adsorption on activated carbon. The lowest concentrations of these congeners (expressed in mg l(-1) alcohol 100% v v(-1)) were measured in solutions with ethanol contents of 70-80% v v(-1), while solutions with an alcoholic strength by volume of 40% did not show statistically significant decreases in these compounds in relation the control sample. The reductions in volatile compounds were compared with those for other adsorbents based on silica or activated carbon and silica. An interesting alternative to activated carbon was found to be an adsorbent prepared from activated carbon and silica (Spiricol). Treatment with this adsorbent produced distillate with the lowest concentrations of acetaldehyde and isovaleraldehyde, and led to the greatest improvement in its organoleptics.

  15. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis and its relevance for increased IAA levels in infected tissue and host tumour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Gavin; Heinze, Bernadette; Schirawski, Jan; Buettner, Hermann; Kahmann, Regine; Basse, Christoph W

    2008-05-01

    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the smut fungus Ustilago maydis is characterized by excessive host tumour formation. U. maydis is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) efficiently from tryptophan. To assess a possible connection to the induction of host tumours, we investigated the pathways leading to fungal IAA biosynthesis. Besides the previously identified iad1 gene, we identified a second indole-3-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene, iad2. Deltaiad1Deltaiad2 mutants were blocked in the conversion of both indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptamine to IAA, although the reduction in IAA formation from tryptophan was not significantly different from Deltaiad1 mutants. To assess an influence of indole-3-pyruvic acid on IAA formation, we deleted the aromatic amino acid aminotransferase genes tam1 and tam2 in Deltaiad1Deltaiad2 mutants. This revealed a further reduction in IAA levels by five- and tenfold in mutant strains harbouring theDeltatam1 andDeltatam1Deltatam2 deletions, respectively. This illustrates that indole-3-pyruvic acid serves as an efficient precursor for IAA formation in U. maydis. Interestingly, the rise in host IAA levels upon U. maydis infection was significantly reduced in tissue infected with Deltaiad1Deltaiad2Deltatam1 orDeltaiad1Deltaiad2Deltatam1Deltatam2 mutants, whereas induction of tumours was not compromised. Together, these results indicate that fungal IAA production critically contributes to IAA levels in infected tissue, but this is apparently not important for triggering host tumour formation.

  16. Kinetics of organic molecules in pulsed plasmas of nitrogen or N2/O2 mixtures at near atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquiers, S.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Magne, L.

    2013-12-01

    In plasmas of atmospheric gases, the kinetics of some aliphatic organic molecules belonging to the hydrocarbons (propene, propane), aldehydes (acetaldehyde) and ketones (acetone) families were studied using a photo-triggered discharge (homogeneous plasma). It was shown that quenchings of N2 metastable states, A\\,^{3}\\Sigma_{u}^{+} and the group of singlets a'\\,^{1}\\Sigma_{u}^{-} , a 1Πg and w 1Δu, are important processes for the decomposition of such molecules. It plays a fundamental role in the nitrogen plasma, but it is also present in air. At low temperature, the oxidation reactions by the oxygen atom or by the hydroxyl radical are not always sufficiently effective to induce an increase of the molecule decomposition when oxygen is added to the nitrogen/organic mixture. For most cases, quenching processes appear purely dissociative. However, recent results obtained for propene lead to the conclusion that a non-dissociative exit route could exist. The quenching of the singlet states induces a break of the double bound C = O for the acetaldehyde and acetone molecules. Some kinetic analogies appear between filamentary and homogeneous plasmas, which could be very useful to get a comprehensive understanding of the physico-chemical processes in dielectric barriers or corona discharges used for various applications.

  17. Endogenous formation of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3- carboxylic acid in man as the possible causative substance of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with ingestion of L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, J; Yamamoto, K; Ogawa, Y; Ueno, Y; Mizoi, Y; Tatsuno, Y

    1991-01-01

    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) is now thought to be a possible causative substance of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with ingestion of L-tryptophan. In the present study a factor affecting endogenous formation of MTCA in 32 healthy men is studied. Urinary excretions of MTCA and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TCCA) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection after administration of a high or low protein diet as well as peroral tryptophan (0.5 g) or ethanol (0.4 g/kg). Blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were determined by gas chromatography after ethanol consumption. Both, the high protein diet and tryptophan resulted in a significant rise of urinary TCCA. In contrast, ethanol intake caused increased excretion of MTCA, though a relationship between blood acetaldehyde level and urinary excretion of MTCA was not shown. We showed for the first time that an elevation of urinary excretion of MTCA following ethanol consumption in man without ingestion of L-tryptophan tablets implicated eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.

  18. Comparing the catalytic oxidation of ethanol at the solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces over size-controlled Pt nanoparticles: striking differences in kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapi, Andras; Liu, Fudong; Cai, Xiaojun; Thompson, Christopher M; Wang, Hailiang; An, Kwangjin; Krier, James M; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-12

    Pt nanoparticles with controlled size (2, 4, and 6 nm) are synthesized and tested in ethanol oxidation by molecular oxygen at 60 °C to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide both in the gas and liquid phases. The turnover frequency of the reaction is ∼80 times faster, and the activation energy is ∼5 times higher at the gas-solid interface compared to the liquid-solid interface. The catalytic activity is highly dependent on the size of the Pt nanoparticles; however, the selectivity is not size sensitive. Acetaldehyde is the main product in both media, while twice as much carbon dioxide was observed in the gas phase compared to the liquid phase. Added water boosts the reaction in the liquid phase; however, it acts as an inhibitor in the gas phase. The more water vapor was added, the more carbon dioxide was formed in the gas phase, while the selectivity was not affected by the concentration of the water in the liquid phase. The differences in the reaction kinetics of the solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces can be attributed to the molecular orientation deviation of the ethanol molecules on the Pt surface in the gas and liquid phases as evidenced by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

  19. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  20. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  1. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  2. Ambient measurements of aromatic and oxidized VOCs by PTR-MS and GC-MS: intercomparison between four instruments in a boreal forest in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS allow real-time measurements of various atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC. By taking parallel measurements in ambient conditions, two PTR-MSs and two GC-MSs were studied for their ability to measure methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene. The measurements were conducted at a rural boreal forest site in southern Finland between 13 April and 14 May 2012. This paper presents correlations and possible biases between the concentrations measured using the four instruments. This paper presents correlations and possible biases between the concentrations measured using the four instruments. A very good correlation was found for benzene and acetone measurements between all instruments (the mean R value was 0.88 for both compounds, while for acetaldehyde and toluene the correlation was weaker (with a mean R value of 0.50 and 0.62, respectively. For some compounds, notably for methane, there were considerable systematic differences in the mixing ratios measured by the different instruments, despite the very good correlation between the instruments (mean R = 0.90. The systematic difference arises as a difference in the linear regression slope between measurements conducted between instruments, rather than as an offset. This mismatch indicates that the systematic uncertainty in the sensitivity of a given instrument can lead to an uncertainty of 50–100% in the methanol emissions measured by commonly used methods.

  3. [Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Atmospheric Carbonyls During the 2014 Beijing APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-lang; Tan, Ji-hua; Guo, Song-jun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin

    2016-03-15

    Pollution characteristic and variation trend of atmospheric carbonyls were investigated in November during the 2014 Beijing APEC. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were the dominant carbonyls, accounting for 82.66% of total carbonyls, and especially, formaldehyde accounted for 40.12% of total carbonyls. Atmospheric concentrations of total carbonyls decreased by around 64.10% after the clean air policy was carried out during the Beijing APEC, and the variation trend of carbonyls showed a similar pattern to those of other pollutants like PM₂.₅ during the APEC. Strong correlations (R² of 0.67-0.98) were observed among formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and total carbonyls during and after the APEC, indicating that they had similar sources; however, poor correlations (R² of -0.11-0.42 and 0.16-0.94, respectively) were observed before the APEC, implying different emission sources for ambient carbonyls. The calculated ratios of C1/C2, C2/C3 and OC/EC indicated that both vehicles and coal emissions were responsible for atmospheric carbonyls before the APEC, and emissions from coal burning were the major contributor to atmospheric carbonyls during and after the APEC, especially after the APEC.

  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles.

  5. Low Temperature and H2 Selective Catalysts for Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Wang, Yong; King, David L.; Platon, Alex; Chin, Ya-Huei

    2006-04-01

    Supported Rh catalysts have been developed for selective H2 production at low temperatures. Ethanol dehydration is favorable over either acidic or basic supports such as γ-Al2O3 and MgAl2O4, while ethanol dehydrogenation is more favorable over neutral supports. A series of CeO2-ZrO2 supports with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios were prepared by a co-precipitation method and Rh was impregnated on the as-synthesized support to achieve a strong metal to support interaction (SMSI). 2%Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst exhibited the highest H2 yield at 450oC among the various supported Rh catalysts evaluated in this study. This is mainly due to a favored reaction pathway via ethanol dehydrogenation to form the acetaldehyde intermediate, and both the strong interaction between Rh and Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 and the high oxygen storage capacity of Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 which favors oxidation of acetaldehyde decomposition products

  6. The structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II at 2.7 A resolution: implications for retinal specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, A L; Newcomer, M E

    1999-05-11

    Retinoic acid, a hormonally active form of vitamin A, is produced in vivo in a two step process: retinol is oxidized to retinal and retinal is oxidized to retinoic acid. Retinal dehydrogenase type II (RalDH2) catalyzes this last step in the production of retinoic acid in the early embryo, possibly producing this putative morphogen to initiate pattern formation. The enzyme is also found in the adult animal, where it is expressed in the testis, lung, and brain among other tissues. The crystal structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II cocrystallized with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has been determined at 2.7 A resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structure of a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) as a model. Unlike what has been described for the structures of two aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the metabolism of acetaldehyde, the substrate access channel is not a preformed cavity into which acetaldehyde can readily diffuse. Retinal dehydrogenase appears to utilize a disordered loop in the substrate access channel to discriminate between retinaldehyde and short-chain aldehydes.

  7. Acetylene as fast food: Implications for development of life on anoxic primordial earth and in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Acetylene occurs, by photolysis of methane, in the atmospheres of jovian planets and Titan. In contrast, acetylene is only a trace component of Earth's current atmosphere. Nonetheless, a methane-rich atmosphere has been hypothesized for early Earth; this atmosphere would also have been rich in acetylene. This poses a paradox, because acetylene is a potent inhibitor of many key anaerobic microbial processes, including methanogenesis, anaerobic methane oxidation, nitrogen fixation, and hydrogen oxidation. Fermentation of acetylene was discovered 25 years ago, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on acetylene by virtue of acetylene hydratase, which results in the formation of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde subsequently dismutates to ethanol and acetate (plus some hydrogen). However, acetylene hydratase is specific for acetylene and does not react with any analogous compounds. We hypothesize that microbes with acetylene hydratase played a key role in the evolution of Earth's early biosphere by exploiting an available source of carbon from the atmosphere and in so doing formed protective niches that allowed for other microbial processes to flourish. Furthermore, the presence of acetylene in the atmosphere of a planet or planetoid could possibly represent evidence for an extraterrestrial anaerobic ecosystem. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  8. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  9. Ethylene Glycol Adsorption and Reaction over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of ethylene glycol with well-ordered CeO{sub x}(111) thin film surfaces. Ethylene glycol initially adsorbs on fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) and reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) through the formation of one C-O-Ce bond and then forms a second alkoxy bond after annealing. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) both recombination of ethylene glycol and water desorption occur at low temperature leaving stable -OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O- (ethylenedioxy) intermediates and oxygen vacancies on the surface. This ethylenedioxy intermediate goes through C-C bond scission to produce formate species which then react to produce CO and CO{sub 2}. The formation of water results in the reduction of the ceria. On a reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) surface the reaction selectivity shifts toward a dehydration process. The ethylenedioxy intermediate decomposes by breaking a C-O bond and converts into an enolate species. Similar to the reaction of acetaldehyde on reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111), the enolate reacts to produce acetaldehyde, acetylene, and ethylene. The loss of O from ethylene glycol leads to a small amount of oxidation of the reduced ceria.

  10. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organics present in gas and liquid phases using Pt-TiO2/Zeolite (H-ZSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppolian, B; Mine, Shinya; Horiuchi, Yu; Bianchi, C L; Matsuoka, M; Dionysiou, D D; Anpo, M

    2016-06-01

    TiO2-encapsulated H-ZSM photocatalysts were prepared by physical mixing of TiO2 and zeolites. Pt was immobilized on the surface of the TiO2-encapsulated zeolite (H-ZSM) catalysts by a simple photochemical reduction method. Different weight ratios of both TiO2 and Pt were hybridized with H-ZSM and the catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts was investigated for 2-propanol oxidation in liquid phase and acetaldehyde in gas phase reaction. Around 5-10 wt% TiO2-encapsulated H-ZSM catalysts was found to be optimal amount for the effective oxidation of the organics. Prior to light irradiation, Pt-TiO2-H-ZSM showed considerable amount of catalytic degradation of 2-propanol in the dark, forming acetone as an intermediate. In this study, Pt has played a major and important role on the total oxidation of 2-propanol as well as acetaldehyde. As a result, no residual organics were present in the pores of the zeolites. The catalysts could be reused more than three times without losing their catalytic activity in both phases. The Pt-TiO2-H-ZSM photocatalysts could overcome the problem of strong adsorption of organics in the zeolite pores (after the reaction). Thus, Pt-TiO2-H-ZSM can be used as a potential catalyst for both liquid and gas phase oxidation of organic pollutants.

  11. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey.

  12. Asian flushing: genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Sun S; You, Kwang Soo; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; Kim, Minjin; Hayman, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use can lead to a cascade of problems such as increased chances of risky behavior and negative health consequences, including alcoholic liver disease and upper gastric and liver cancer. Ethanol is metabolized mainly by 2 major enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Genetic variations of genes encoding the 2 enzymes are very common among East Asians but relatively rare for most other populations. Facial flushing and other physical discomforts after alcohol drinking triggered by accumulation of acetaldehyde through defective genes for ADH and ALDH have been reported. Approximately 40% of East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) show facial flushing after drinking alcohol, known as "Asian flush," which is characterized by adverse reactions on alcohol drinking in individuals possessing the fasting metabolizing alleles for ADH, ADH1B*2, and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for ALDH and ALDH2*2. Alcoholism is determined not only by the genetic deficiency but also by behaviors that involve complex interactions between genetic and sociocultural factors. The purpose of this article was to provide nurses with the most current information about genetic and sociocultural influences on alcoholism and alcohol-related health problems specifically for East Asians and implications of this knowledge to nursing practice. The physiological phenomenon of genes and genetics in relation to alcohol metabolism in this special population is emphasized.

  13. The Products of the Thermal Decomposition of CH3CHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Osborn, David L.; Daily, John W.; Stanton, John F.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2011-04-06

    We have used a heated 2 cm x 1 mm SiC microtubular (mu tubular) reactor to decompose acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + DELTA --> products. Thermal decomposition is followed at pressures of 75 - 150 Torr and at temperatures up to 1700 K, conditions that correspond to residence times of roughly 50 - 100 mu sec in the mu tubular reactor. The acetaldehyde decomposition products are identified by two independent techniques: VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy after isolation in a cryogenic matrix. Besides CH3CHO, we have studied three isotopologues, CH3CDO, CD3CHO, and CD3CDO. We have identified the thermal decomposition products CH3(PIMS), CO (IR, PIMS), H (PIMS), H2 (PIMS), CH2CO (IR, PIMS), CH2=CHOH (IR, PIMS), H2O (IR, PIMS), and HC=CH (IR, PIMS). Plausible evidence has been found to support the idea that there are at least three different thermal decomposition pathways for CH3CHO: Radical decomposition: CH3CHO + DELTA --> CH3 + [HCO] --> CH3 + H + CO Elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> H2 + CH2=C=O. Isomerization/elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> [CH2=CH-OH] --> HC=CH + H2O. Both PIMS and IR spectroscopy show compelling evidence for the participation of vinylidene, CH2=C:, as an intermediate in the decomposition of vinyl alchohol: CH2=CH-OH + DELTA --> [CH2=C:] + H2O --> HC=CH + H2O.

  14. Glu504Lys Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene and the Risk of Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. The Glu504Lys single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of ALDH2 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the East Asian populations, causes defect in the enzyme activity of ALDH2, leading to alterations in acetaldehyde metabolism and alcohol-induced “flushing” syndrome. Evidence suggests that ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP is a potential candidate genetic risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP and the development of these chronic diseases appears to be affected by the interaction between the SNP and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption as well as by the presence of other genetic variations.

  15. Pollution survey of carbonyl compounds in train air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao; ZHU Lizhong

    2007-01-01

    The train iS an important vehicle in China,but its air quality has important impacts on passengers' health.In this work,pollution from carbonyl compounds was measured in the air of six trains.The obiectives of this work were to investigate carbonyl compound levels in selected air from trains,identify their emission sources,and assess the intake of carbonyl compounds for passengers.The methods for sampling and analyzing 10 carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde,acetaldehyde,acrolein,acetone,propionalde hyde,crotonaldehyde,butyraldehyde,benzaldehyde,cyclo hexanone,and valeraldehyde in indoor air were proposed with the sampling efficiency,recovery,and detection limit being 92%-100%,91%-104%,and 0.26-0.82 ng/m3,respec tively.It was indicated that the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds were 0.159-0.2828 mg/m3 with the average concentration of 0.2330 mg/m3.The average concen trations of formaldehyde.acetaldehyde and acetone were 0.0922,0.0499,and 0.0580 mg/m3,accounting for 42.6%,21.4%.and 24.9% of the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds,respectively.The carbonyl compounds probably came from woodwork and cigarette smoking.The intake of carbonyl compounds for the passengers was approximately 0.043-0.076 mg/h.The carbonyl compounds in train air could be harmful to human health.

  16. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of bio-oil and related model aldehydes with RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Li, W.; Lu, Q.; Zhu, X. [Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-12-15

    A homogeneous RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} catalyst was prepared for the hydrogenation of bio-oil to improve its stability and fuel quality. Experiments were first performed on three model aldehydes of acetaldehyde, furfural and vanillin selected to represent the linear aldehydes, oxygen heterocyclic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes in bio-oil. The results demonstrated the high hydrogenation capability of this homogeneous catalyst under mild conditions (55-90 C, 1.3-3.3 MPa). The highest conversion of the three model aldehydes was over 90 %. Furfural and acetaldehyde were singly converted to furfuryl alcohol and ethanol after hydrogenation, while vanillin was mainly converted to vanillin alcohol, together with a small amount of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol. Further experiments were conducted on a bio-oil fraction extracted by ethyl acetate and on the whole bio-oil at 70 C and 3.3 MPa. Most of the aldehydes were transformed to the corresponding alcohols, and some ketones and compounds with C-C double bond were converted to more stable compounds. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Acetylene as Fast Food: Implications for Development of Life on Anoxic Primordial Earth and in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-02-01

    Acetylene occurs, by photolysis of methane, in the atmospheres of jovian planets and Titan. In contrast, acetylene is only a trace component of Earth's current atmosphere. Nonetheless, a methane-rich atmosphere has been hypothesized for early Earth; this atmosphere would also have been rich in acetylene. This poses a paradox, because acetylene is a potent inhibitor of many key anaerobic microbial processes, including methanogenesis, anaerobic methane oxidation, nitrogen fixation, and hydrogen oxidation. Fermentation of acetylene was discovered 25 years ago, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on acetylene by virtue of acetylene hydratase, which results in the formation of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde subsequently dismutates to ethanol and acetate (plus some hydrogen). However, acetylene hydratase is specific for acetylene and does not react with any analogous compounds. We hypothesize that microbes with acetylene hydratase played a key role in the evolution of Earth's early biosphere by exploiting an available source of carbon from the atmosphere and in so doing formed protective niches that allowed for other microbial processes to flourish. Furthermore, the presence of acetylene in the atmosphere of a planet or planetoid could possibly represent evidence for an extraterrestrial anaerobic ecosystem.

  18. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A `virtual' disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC device was tested with field measurements of biogenic VOC fluxes at a subalpine forest site in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S.A. A PTR-MS instrument was used as the VOC sensor. Daily peak emission fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were around 1.5, 1, 0.8 and 0.4 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. High pass filtering due to long sampling lines was investigated in laboratory experiments, and suggested that VOC losses in PTFA lines are generally governed by diffusion laws. Memory effects and surface reactions did not seem to play a dominant role. Model estimates of MBO fluxes compared well with measured fluxes. The results also suggest that latent heat and sensible heat fluxes are reasonably well correlated with VOC fluxes and could be used to predict variations in VOC emissions. The release of MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde resulted in significant change of tropospheric oxidant levels and a 10--40% increase in ozone levels, as inferred from a photochemical box model. We conclude that vDEC with a PTR-MS instrument is a versatile tool for simultaneous field analysis of multiple VOC fluxes.

  19. Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae--their ecology, genetics and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-10-15

    The aging of certain white wines is dependent on the presence of yeast strains that develop a biofilm on the wine surface after the alcoholic fermentation. These strains belong to the genus Saccharomyces and are called flor yeasts. These strains possess distinctive characteristics compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting strain. The most important one is their capacity to form a biofilm on the air-liquid interface of the wine. The major gene involved in this phenotype is FLO11, however other genes are also involved in velum formation by these yeast and will be detailed. Other striking features presented in this review are their aneuploidy, and their mitochondrial DNA polymorphism which seems to reflect adaptive evolution of the yeast to a stressful environment where acetaldehyde and ethanol are present at elevated concentration. The biofilm assures access to oxygen and therefore permits continued growth on non-fermentable ethanol. This specific metabolism explains the peculiar organoleptic profile of these wines, especially their content in acetaldehyde and sotolon. This review deals with these different specificities of flor yeasts and will also underline the existing gaps regarding these astonishing yeasts.

  20. Gaseous aliphatic aldehydes in Chinese incense smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.M.; Wang, L.H. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China))

    1994-09-01

    Aliphatic aldehydes were found during the combustion of materials. Tobacco smoke contains aldehydes. Fire fighters were exposed to aldehydes when they conducted firefighting. Aldehydes in ambient air come mainly from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and from photochemical reaction. Most aldehydes in ambient air are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde were found in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Burning Chinese incense for worshipping deities is a Chinese daily routine. It was suspected to be a factor causing nasopharynegeal cancer. Epidemiological studies correlated it with the high risk of childhood brain tumor and the high risk of childhood leukemia. Ames test identified the mutagenic effect of the smoke from burning Chinese incense. The smoke had bee proved to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic aldehydes. Suspicion about formaldehyde and other alphatic aldehydes was evoked, when a survey of indoor air pollution was conducted in Taipei city. This study determined the presence of aliphatic aldehydes in the smoke from burning Chinese incense under a controlled atmosphere. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.