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Sample records for acellular pertussis vaccine

  1. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Dore, G; Guiso, N

    2014-11-20

    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough and has been the target of vaccination for over fifty years. The latest strategies include the use of acellular pertussis vaccines that induce specific immunity against few virulence factors amongst which pertactin is included in three and five component acellular pertussis vaccines. Recently, it has been reported that B. pertussis clinical isolates loose the production of this adhesin in regions reaching high vaccine coverage with vaccines targeting this virulence factor. We here demonstrate that isolates not producing pertactin are capable of sustaining longer infection as compared to pertactin producing isolates in an in vivo model of acellular pertussis immunization. Loosing pertactin production might thus provide a selective advantage to these isolates in this background, which could account for the upraise in prevalence of these pertactin deficient isolates in the population.

  2. Perceptions of Tetanus-diphteria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination among Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, In Seon; Seo, Yu Bin; Hong, Kyung-Wook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong; Hong, Soon Choul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of cases of pertussis reported has increased gradually in the last decade. Pertussis vaccination is the most effective strategy for the prevention of infection. Despite the fact that young infants are at the highest risk for pertussis, the rate of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination is presumed to be very low among women of childbearing age in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of women of childbearing age regarding ...

  3. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  4. Waning vaccine immunity in teenagers primed with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine: recent epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sarah L; Frith, Katie; Snelling, Thomas L; Grimwood, Keith; McIntyre, Peter B; Lambert, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    The recent epidemics of pertussis (whooping cough) in parts of the USA and Australia have led to the largest numbers of annual cases reported in over half a century. These epidemics demonstrated a new pattern, with particularly high rates of disease among pre-adolescents and early adolescents. These high rates of pertussis coincided with the first cohorts vaccinated with purely acellular pertussis vaccine, which replaced whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine in the later 1990s in the USA and Australia. Studies undertaken during these epidemics provide new evidence of more rapid waning of acellular pertussis-containing vaccines and longer-term protection from effective wP-containing vaccines. There is evidence that receiving wP as at least the first dose of pertussis-containing vaccine provides greater and more long-lived protection, irrespective of the nature of subsequent doses. This evidence will be reviewed together with the immunobiology associated with both vaccines, and the implications for pertussis control discussed. PMID:25093268

  5. Does tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination interfere with serodiagnosis of pertussis infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lucia C; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Baughman, Andrew L; Martin, Monte D; Talbot, Elizabeth A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tondella, Maria Lucia

    2012-06-01

    An anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was analytically validated for the diagnosis of pertussis at a cutoff of 94 ELISA units (EU)/ml. Little was known about the performance of this ELISA in the diagnosis of adults recently vaccinated with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, which contains PT. The goal of this study was to determine when the assay can be used following Tdap vaccination. A cohort of 102 asymptomatic health care personnel (HCP) vaccinated with Tdap (Adacel; Sanofi Pasteur) were aged 19 to 79 years (median, 47 years) at vaccination. For each HCP, specimens were available for evaluation at 2 to 10 time points (prevaccination to 24 months postvaccination), and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for the cohort were calculated at each time point. Among 97 HCP who responded to vaccination, a mixed-model analysis with prediction and tolerance intervals was performed to estimate the time at which serodiagnosis can be used following vaccination. The GMCs were 8, 21, and 9 EU/ml at prevaccination and 4 and 12 months postvaccination, respectively. Eight (8%) of the 102 HCP reached antibody titers of ≥94 EU/ml during their peak response, but none had these titers by 6 months postvaccination. The calculated prediction and tolerance intervals were vaccination 6 months prior to testing did not confound result interpretation. This seroassay remains a valuable diagnostic tool for adult pertussis.

  6. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant for acellular pertussis vaccine improves the protective response against Bordetella pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Corbel, Michael; Xing, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adjuvant effect of CpG ODN alone or in combination with aluminum hydroxide on the immune response to the three main antigens presented in current acellular pertussis vaccines: pertussis toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin. The development of protection in mice was investigated for the intra-peritoneal and intra-nasal immunisation routes. The results showed that CpG ODN alone, or in combination with aluminum hydroxide, gave enhancement in anti-pertussis toxin, ...

  7. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  8. Purification design and practice for pertactin, the third component of acellular pertussis vaccine, from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenglan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhengjun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Songping; Zhang, Guifeng; Ma, Guanghui; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-07-25

    Development of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) requires purification of several components from Bordetella pertussis. While the components pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) have been successfully purified, the third component, pertactin, proves to be a difficult target due to its very low concentration. In order to solve its purification problem, we performed the surface potential analysis with GRASP2 program. The results demonstrated that there are two major charge patches, one negative and one positive, which are located separately on this linear protein. For this special feature, we designed a dual ion exchange chromatography strategy including an anionic exchange and a cationic exchange process for separation of pertactin from the heat extract of B. pertussis. The initial anionic exchange chromatography concentrated the product from 1.7% to 14.6%, with recovery of 80%. The second cationic exchange chromatography increased the purity to 33%, with recovery of 83%. The final purification was accomplished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding a purity of 96%. The total recovery of the three columns was 61%. Characterization of the purified antigen was performed with CD, intrinsic fluorescence, HP-SEC and western-blot, showing that the purified protein kept its natural conformation and immune-reactivity. The rationally designed process proved to be feasible, and it is suitable for large-scale preparation of the third aPV component pertactin.

  9. Should acellular pertussis vaccine be recommended to healthcare professionals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cassio de Moraes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe recent changes in the epidemiology of pertussis and existing policies regarding recommended and mandatory occupational vaccinations for healthcare professionals (HCPs. The authors carried out an extensive review of references on the PubMed and SciELO databases and the official sites of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Brazilian Ministry of Health, using the keywords pertussis, vaccines and healthcare professionals. Vaccination against pertussis is recommended for HCPs in the United States, Canada, nine European countries, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Costa Rica, Argentina and Uruguay, and in some countries it is compulsory. In Brazil, only one publication discussing the risk of pertussis among HCPs was found. Considering the reemergence of pertussis and the great number of associated hospitalizations and deaths registered in 2011, it is necessary to review public policies regarding HCP pertussis vaccination, particularly among workers in frequent contact with young babies.

  10. Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination of adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidengil, Courtney A; Sandora, Thomas J; Lee, Grace M

    2008-07-01

    Pertussis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and its incidence has been increasing in adolescents and adults over the past two decades. Waning immunity in adolescents and adults may be partially responsible. Adults can suffer significant illness from pertussis and its complications, such as pneumonia, rib fractures and syncope. Moreover, adults serve as a source of disease for infants, who are more vulnerable to severe complications and even death. The economic burden of pertussis is substantial, in terms of both medical and nonmedical costs. Fortunately, the burden of pertussis disease can now be safely and effectively reduced by vaccinating adults with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of vaccination in pregnant women and those over 65 years of age, and also to determine whether further booster doses of Tdap are needed.

  11. T-Cell Responses before and after the Fifth Consecutive Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in 4-Year-Old Dutch Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, Rose-Minke; Hendrikx, Lotte H.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Ozturk, Kemal; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Immunization with acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) induces higher specific antibody levels and fewer adverse reactions than does immunization with the whole-cell vaccine (wP). However, antibody levels in infants induced by both types of pertussis vaccines wane already after 1 year. Therefore, long-t

  12. Lack of association between mannose binding lectin and antibody responses after acellular pertussis vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.

  13. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids......-acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus– Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. Objective To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based cohort study of 378...... seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. Results A total of 7811 children were...

  14. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Schure, Rose-Minke; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; de Greeff, S. C.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 mo

  15. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certiva® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  16. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  17. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy.

  18. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  19. Evaluation of respiratory model employing conventional NIH mice to access the immunity induced by cellular and acellular pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of pertussis cases reported on the last twenty years and the existence of new acellular vaccines reinforce the need of research for experimental models to assure the quality of available pertussis vaccines. In this study, allotments of whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines were tested through the Intranasal Challenge Model (INM using conventional NIH mice. The results have been compared to those achieved by the "Gold standard" Intracerebral Challenge Model (ICM. In contrast to ICM, INM results did not show intralaboratorial variations. Statistical analysis by Anova and Ancova tests revealed that the INM presented reproducibility and allowed identification and separation of different products, including three-component and four-component accellular pertussis vaccines. INM revealed differences between pertussis vaccines. INM provides lower distress to the mice allowing the reduction of mice number including the possibility of using conventional mice (less expensive under non-aseptic environment. Thus, INM may be used as an alternative method of verifying the consistence of allotment production, including acellular pertussis vaccines.

  20. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole- cell pertussis component of Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccines in senegalese infants

    OpenAIRE

    Simondon, François; Yam, A.; Gagnepain, J.Y.; Wassilak, S.; Danve, B; Cadoz, M.

    1996-01-01

    A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 microg glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 microg native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was o...

  1. A randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis (TdaP) vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Jordan, Karina; Uhlving, Hilde Hylland;

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults.......Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults....

  2. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations.

  3. Persistence of antibodies 3 years after booster vaccination of adults with combined acellular pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Wayde; Messier, Marc; Friedland, Leonard R; Wu, Xiangfeng; Howe, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    The duration of protection after vaccination with reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) is not known. Long-term post-vaccination serological data will help to improve understanding of the duration of humoral immunity and guide vaccination policy for the timing of repeat dose administration. The persistence of antibodies to Tdap antigens was measured 3 years after vaccination of adults 19-64 years of age with one of 2 Tdap vaccines (Boostrix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; Tdap-B: or Adacel(®), Sanofi Pasteur; Tdap-A). In both groups, geometric mean concentrations for antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine antigens were decreased at year 3 relative to levels observed 1 month and 1 year following vaccination, but remained higher than pre-vaccination levels. Seroprotection rates for diphtheria and tetanus remained high for both Tdap vaccines (for diphtheria, 96.9% and 97.8% for the Tdap-B and Tdap-A groups, respectively; for tetanus, 98.1% and 99.6%, respectively).

  4. Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccines recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Karen R; Cortese, Margaret M; Iskander, John K; Kretsinger, Katrina; Slade, Barbara A; Brown, Kristin H; Mijalski, Christina M; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Weston, Emily J; Cohn, Amanda C; Srivastava, Pamela U; Moran, John S; Schwartz, Benjamin; Murphy, Trudy V

    2006-03-24

    During spring 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) products formulated for use in adolescents (and, for one product, use in adults) were licensed in the United States (BOOSTRIX, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium [licensed May 3, 2005, for use in persons aged 10-18 years], and ADACEL, sanofi pasteur, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [licensed June 10, 2005, for use in persons aged 11-64 years]). Prelicensure studies demonstrated safety and efficacy against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis when Tdap was administered as a single booster dose to adolescents. To reduce pertussis morbidity in adolescents and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria protection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that: 1) adolescents aged 11-18 years should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP)/ diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccination series (five doses of pediatric DTP/DTaP before the seventh birthday; if the fourth dose was administered on or after the fourth birthday, the fifth dose is not needed) and have not received Td or Tdap. The preferred age for Tdap vaccination is 11-12 years; 2) adolescents aged 11-18 years who received Td, but not Tdap, are encouraged to receive a single dose of Tdap to provide protection against pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series. An interval of at least 5 years between Td and Tdap is encouraged to reduce the risk for local and systemic reactions after Tdap vaccination. However, an interval less than 5 years between Td and Tdap can be used; and 3) vaccine providers should administer Tdap and tetravalent meningococcal conjugate

  5. Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid--Michigan, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housey, Michelle; Zhang, Fan; Miller, Corinne; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; McFadden, Jevon; Garcia, Erika; Potter, Rachel

    2014-09-26

    In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) first recommended the routine administration of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during pregnancy as a strategy to protect infants from pertussis (also known as whooping cough). This recommendation applied to women previously unvaccinated with Tdap and specified the optimal vaccination time as late second or third trimester (after 20 weeks' gestation). By vaccinating pregnant women, infants, who are at highest risk for mortality and morbidity from pertussis, gain passive immunity from maternal antibodies transferred to them in utero. Since this recommendation was made, little has been published on the percentage of women receiving Tdap during pregnancy. In Michigan, Medicaid pays for costs of pregnancy for approximately 40% of births. Infants enrolled in Medicaid are a particularly vulnerable population; in Michigan, their all-cause mortality is higher than that of privately insured infants. To assess vaccination coverage among pregnant women enrolled in a publicly funded insurance program in Michigan, Medicaid administrative claims data and statewide immunization information system data for mothers of infants born during November 2011-February 2013 were analyzed. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that only 14.3% of these women received Tdap during pregnancy, with rates highest (17.6%) among non-Hispanic, non-Arab whites and lowest (6.8%) among Arab women. Vaccination was related to maternal age and gestational age at birth, but not to adequacy of prenatal care. In 2013, recognizing the importance of Tdap for every pregnancy, ACIP revised its guidelines to include a Tdap dose during every pregnancy. Ensuring that all infants receive the protection against pertussis afforded by maternal vaccination will require enhanced efforts to vaccinate pregnant women.

  6. Mortality and morbidity from invasive bacterial infections during a clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storsaeter, J; Olin, P; Renemar, B; Lagergård, T; Norberg, R; Romanus, V; Tiru, M

    1988-09-01

    A double blind placebo-controlled efficacy trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines was conducted in 3801 6- to 11-month-old children. Four vaccinated children died during 7 to 9 months follow-up as a result of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, heroin intoxication with concomitant pneumonia, suspected septicemia, and Neisseria meningitidis Group B septicemia. From the actual death rate in children belonging to the same birth cohort in Sweden that could have been eligible for the trial, one death was expected among vaccinated children. Several investigations were carried out to examine the possibility that the deaths could be causally related to the vaccination. The relative risk for hospitalization due to systemic or respiratory infections was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.20) and 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 1.08) in the vaccine groups as compared with the placebo group. Subsets of the population were studied for signs of immunosuppression. There was no indication of immunoglobulin deficiency or any sign of clinically significant leukopenia or lymphocytosis in vaccine recipients. The results of this analysis provide no evidence for a causal relation between vaccination with the studied acellular pertussis vaccines and altered resistance to invasive disease caused by encapsulated bacteria. The hypothesis that the two variables are related, however, cannot be refuted from these data.

  7. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    vacina é em torno de 6 a 12 anos. As avaliações sobre o impacto econômico do uso rotineiro da vacina em adolescentes evidenciam uma relação custo-benefício positiva. Os resultados do impacto epidemiológico dependem da qualidade do diagnóstico para que os dados reflitam a realidade da doença. CONCLUSÕES: Embora existam algumas questões a serem esclarecidas, a literatura disponível sinaliza a possibilidade para a solução do .ressurgimento. da coqueluche com o uso da vacina dTpa. Talvez a estratégia da utilização de uma dose de reforço na adolescência, substituindo a vacina dupla contra difteria e tétano, seja uma medida a ser prontamente indicada.BACKGROUND: The use of whole-cell pertussis vaccine has led to a significant decline in incidence of the disease among children. This change in the epidemiological profile led to an increased number of cases among teenagers and adults, as a result of loss of immunity to the disease or vaccine after approximately 10 years. An increased number of cases was also observed among non-immunized or partially immunized infants. Licensure of the DTP vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis formulated specifically for patients over 10 years of age (Tdap suggests the possibility of controlling pertussis in the most affected age groups over the past few years. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were collected from MEDLINE. The research was limited to the period between January 1995 and January 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In some countries there are two Tdap vaccines licensed for patients over 10 years of age. One of them contains five immunogenic components of Bordetella pertussis (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2 and 3, and pertactin, and the other contains three components (pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and inactivated pertussis toxin, the latter being the only one licensed in Brazil up to now. Although the composition of the two vaccines differs, studies show that they have

  8. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What the Canadian public knows and wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, B A; MacDougall, D; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-11-27

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in Canada but uptake is low. This study measured the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian adults to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. A survey was undertaken on a geographically representative sample of Canadian adults (n=4023) and 8 focus groups (62 participants) were conducted nationwide. The survey revealed that knowledge about pertussis and Tdap was low (38.3% correct answers). Only 36.0% of respondents reported being aware that all adults were recommended to receive Tdap and only 10.7% reported being immunized; 36.7% did not know whether they had received Tdap. Respondents who were aware of the immunization recommendations were twice as likely to be immunized (16.6% vs. 8.3%; pvaccination with Tdap are not reaching the general public in Canada and an alternative strategy will be required to improve Tdap vaccine uptake.

  9. Whooping cough vaccines: production of virulent B. pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    key words: acellular, fed batch, metabolism, pertussis toxin The production of acellular pertussis in comparison with whole cell pertussis vaccines demands 5 to 25 times the amount of B. pertussis' virulence factors such as pertussis toxin (PT), to produce the same number of vaccine doses. An i

  10. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A.S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influen...

  11. Improving pertussis vaccines by lipopolysaccharide engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory tract disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and 1950s, and later of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in the 1980s and 1990s, led to a

  12. A randomized double-blind trial comparing a two-component acellular to a whole-cell pertussis vaccine in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Simondon, François; Préziosi, M.P.; Yam, A.; Coumba Toure Kane; Chabirand, L.; Iteman, I; Sanden, G.; Mboup, S; Hoffenbach, A.; Knudsen, K.; Guiso, N; Wassilak, S.; Cadoz, M.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial comparing a diphteria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 trough 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly during two visits after vaccination. Fewer serious adverse events were observ...

  13. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners.

  14. Relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in adaptive immunity to Bordetella pertussis: towards the rational design of an improved acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádraig J Ross

    Full Text Available Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa. One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells.

  15. Predictors of tetanus-diphtheria- acellular pertussis vaccination among adults receiving tetanus vaccine in the United States: data from the 2008 national health interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Tracy L; Roetzheim, Richard; Chen, Ren

    2013-04-01

    BACKGROUND . The incidence of pertussis in the United States has been increasing. Adult vaccination is important to reduce disease burden and prevent transmission to infants at high risk of complications. The tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been available in the United States since 2005 and is indicated as a one-time replacement for the routine tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster. However, among adults receiving tetanus vaccination, only about half receive Tdap. PURPOSE . To identify predictors of adult Tdap vaccination among individuals who receive tetanus vaccine. METHODS . National Health Interview Survey data from 2008 were analyzed in 2011. Respondents were 18 to 64 years old, received tetanus vaccination during 2005-2008, and were aware if it contained pertussis. Predictors of Tdap vaccination were identified with multivariate logistic regression using procedures for complex survey methods. RESULTS . Overall, 51.1% of respondents received Tdap. Vaccination was less likely for those 50 to 64 years old compared with those 18 to 24 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.96). Some college education was associated with higher odds of vaccination compared with lower education levels (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.16-2.07). Having 2 to 3 office visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.32-3.06) or 4 to 9 office visits (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.42) in the previous year increased the odds of vaccination compared with no visits. Individuals with functional limitation due to illness had lower odds compared with no limitation (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.91). CONCLUSIONS . In 2008, 51.1% of adult Td vaccinations included pertussis, suggesting continued efforts to remove barriers are needed. Interventions should target older, functionally impaired, and educationally disadvantaged populations.

  16. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadirvaccination would be feasible in the majority of the seronegative patients. In patients with a CD4 count>200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases.

  17. WHO working group on standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines--report of a meeting held on 16-17 March 2006, St. Albans, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, D K L; Corbel, M J; Dobbelaer, R; Knezevic, I

    2007-04-12

    This report reflects the discussion and conclusions of a WHO group of experts from national regulatory authorities, national control laboratories, vaccine industry and other relevant institutions involved in standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines, held on 16-17 March 2006, in St. Albans, UK. Following previous discussions (Bethesda, 2000; Ferney-Voltaire, 2003; Geneva, 2005) and collection of relevant data for quality control, on the one hand, and clinical evaluation of acellular pertussis vaccines, on the other, this meeting was intended to review the scientific basis for the revision of WHO guidelines adopted in 1996 [Guidelines for the production and control of the acellular pertussis component of monovalent or combined vaccines. In: WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation. Forty-seventh report. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 1998 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 878), Annex 2]. The discussion on animal protection models, immunogenicity and toxicity testing was focused on three main aspects: value of the assay for the purpose of licensing and/or lot release; validity criteria and potential optimisation of the assays. The group agreed that establishment of JNIH-3 as a potential International Standard (IS) for modified intra-cerebral challenge assay should be under consideration. It was suggested that the inclusion of a reference vaccine, such as JNIH-3 in the intra-nasal challenge model could improve the standardisation of this assay. It was proposed that the development of stable reference vaccines for immunogenicity testing should be encouraged. Further collection of the data from the countries with established lot release of acellular pertussis vaccines will be undertaken to prepare a solid basis for recommendations on toxicity tests. In the context of recommendations for clinical assessment of new vaccines, the group emphasised the importance of comparability studies with antigens that have already undergone efficacy

  18. Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2012-09-10

    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in Europe and from age 10 years onwards in the US. Compared with infant formulations used for primary vaccination, Tdap contains reduced quantities (10-50%) of all toxoids and antigens, which are adsorbed to either ≤0.39 mg/dose (US licensed formulation) or 0.5 mg/dose (rest-of-world formulation) of aluminium adjuvant. The reduced antigen content is designed to avoid the increasing reactogenicity historically seen with the fourth and fifth doses of infant vaccine. This article reviews the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and reactogenicity of Tdap booster administered to children, adolescents and adults, including those aged ≥65 years. In clinical trials, a single booster dose of Tdap induced seroprotective levels of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in virtually all children and adolescents, and in a high proportion of adults and elderly individuals at approximately 1 month post-vaccination irrespective of their vaccination history. In all age groups, seropositivity rates for antibodies against pertussis antigens were ≥90% (including in unvaccinated adolescents), and booster response rates were high. Tdap was safely co-administered with other common vaccines without significantly affecting the immune responses. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity profiles of booster doses of Tdap were generally similar to those of infant diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine and infant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in children aged 4-6 years, and infant diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in older children. In adolescents and adults, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Tdap were generally similar to those of reduced-antigen diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, reduced-antigen diphtheria

  19. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. PMID:27435387

  20. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  1. Quality of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) antibody response induced by diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/Hib combination vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Philippe A; Goldblatt, David; de Vleeschauwer, Isabel; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie; Pichichero, Michael E; Poolman, Jan T

    2007-10-01

    It has been repeatedly observed that mixing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines with acellular pertussis-containing vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis [DTPa]) resulted in a reduced magnitude of the anti-polyriboseribitolphosphate antibody response compared to that obtained when Hib vaccines were administered separately and not mixed. Nevertheless, the quality and functionality of the immune responses have been shown to be the same. With the purpose of investigating the quality of the anti-Hib immune responses that are elicited under different vaccination regimens, we report here four primary and booster-based pediatric clinical trials in which Hib vaccine was either mixed with DTPa or diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based vaccines or was coadministered. Our results show that avidity maturation of the antibodies was lower when primary vaccination involved DTPa mixed with Hib compared to when DTPa and Hib were coadministered. No such difference was observed between mixed and separately administered Hib when associated with DTPa-hepatitis B virus-inactivated poliovirus or DTPw-based vaccines. All different combinations and regimens elicited the same opsonophagocytic and bactericidal activity as well as the same ability to protect in a passive infant rat protection assay. The functional activity of mixed DTPa-based and Hib vaccines was similar to that of mixed DTPw-based/Hib combinations. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo data as well as postmarketing vaccine effectiveness data attest to the ability of DTPa-based/Hib combination vaccines to effectively prevent Hib-induced disease in children.

  2. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  3. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine

  4. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L. E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.ch; Lee, C.-J.; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  5. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination.

  6. Bordetella pertussis and pertactin-deficient clinical isolates: lessons for pertussis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough in humans, a highly transmissible respiratory disease life threatening for unvaccinated infants. Vaccination strategies were thus introduced worldwide with great success in developed countries reaching high vaccine coverage with efficacious vaccines. In the late 20th/early 21st century, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced whole cell pertussis vaccines but B. pertussis still circulates and evolves in humans, its only known reservoir. The latest transformation of this pathogen, and of its close relative Bordetella parapertussis, is the loss of pertactin production, a virulence factor included in different acellular pertussis vaccines. The real impact of this evolution on acellular pertussis vaccines efficacy and effectiveness should be assessed through standardized surveillance and isolation of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis worldwide.

  7. The role of B. pertussis vaccine antigen gene variants in pertussis resurgence and possible consequences for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, caused by Bordetella pertussis is considered resurgent in a number of countries world-wide, despite continued high level vaccine coverage. Among a number of causes for this that have been proposed, is the emergence of B. pertussis strains expressing variants of the antigens contained in acellular pertussis vaccines; i.e. the evolution of B. pertussis toward vaccine escape. This commentary highlights the contradictory nature of evidence for this but also discusses the importance of understanding the role of B. pertussis adaptation to vaccine-mediated immune selection pressures for vaccine-mediated pertussis control strategies.

  8. Pertussis specific T-cell immunity in Dutch children: Differences after whole-cell versus acellular vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative bacteria of whooping cough. Whooping cough is a highly contagious infection, which is characterized by coughing with whooping and post-tussive vomiting. In particular, infants under 6 months of age who have not been fully vaccinated, are at risk for serious comp

  9. Report on the international workshop on alternatives to the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) for acellular pertussis vaccines: state of the science and the path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbrucker, Richard; Arciniega, Juan; McFarland, Richard; Chapsal, Jean-Michel; Xing, Dorothy; Bache, Christina; Nelson, Sue; Costanzo, Angele; Hoonakker, Marieke; Castiaux, Amélie; Halder, Marlies; Casey, Warren; Johnson, Nelson; Jones, Brett; Doelling, Vivian; Sprankle, Cathy; Rinckel, Lori; Stokes, William

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory authorities require safety and potency testing prior to the release of each production lot of acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines. Currently, the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) is used to evaluate the presence of residual pertussis toxin in aP containing vaccines. However, the testing requires the use of a significant number of mice and results in unrelieved pain and distress. NICEATM, ICCVAM, their partners in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods, and the International Working Group for Alternatives to HIST organized a workshop to discuss recent developments in alternative assays to the HIST, review data from an international collaborative study on non-animal alternative tests that might replace the HIST, and address the path toward global acceptance of this type of method. Currently, there are three potential alternative methods to HIST. Participants agreed that no single in vitro method was sufficiently developed for harmonized validation studies at this time. It is unlikely that any single in vitro method would be applicable to all aP vaccines without modification, due to differences between vaccines. Workshop participants recommended further optimization of cell-based assays under development. Participants agreed that the next international collaborative studies should commence in 2013 based on discussions during this workshop.

  10. In vitro pyrogenicity of the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis components of a trivalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Gunnar; Viitanen, Eila

    2005-05-25

    We have earlier found that a trivalent vaccine, containing antigenic components from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, induced secretion of the endogenous pyrogen interleukin 6 (IL-6) when added to fresh human blood in vitro. The results of the present study showed that the IL-6 secretion was induced by toxoids derived from the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, fresh whole blood from different donors reacted differently to the stimulation. The blood from some donors induced secretion of large concentrations of IL-6, while the blood from other donors induced essentially no IL-6 secretion as a response to stimulation with diphtheria toxoid or a mixture of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Repeated testing over several years using blood from the same donor confirmed a donor-dependency of the reaction. This donor-dependency was only found for the toxoid, since blood from all donors reacted with approximately similar IL-6 production to stimulation by endotoxin from the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, known to be mediated via the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Also, no donor-dependecy was found to highly purified lipoteichoic acid from the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, known to be mediated via TLR-2 and TLR-6. The receptors involved in stimulation by diphtheria toxoid are not known, but may differ from those used by endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid. PMID:15882532

  11. Acellular pertussis booster in adolescents induces Th1 and memory CD8+ T cell immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Rieber

    Full Text Available In a number of countries, whole cell pertussis vaccines (wcP were replaced by acellular vaccines (aP due to an improved reactogenicity profile. Pertussis immunization leads to specific antibody production with the help of CD4(+ T cells. In earlier studies in infants and young children, wcP vaccines selectively induced a Th1 dominated immune response, whereas aP vaccines led to a Th2 biased response. To obtain data on Th1 or Th2 dominance of the immune response in adolescents receiving an aP booster immunization after a wcP or aP primary immunization, we analyzed the concentration of Th1 (IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 cytokines in supernatants of lymphocyte cultures specifically stimulated with pertussis antigens. We also investigated the presence of cytotoxic T cell responses against the facultative intracellular bacterium Bordetella pertussis by quantifying pertussis-specific CD8(+ T cell activation following the aP booster immunization. Here we show that the adolescent aP booster vaccination predominantly leads to a Th1 immune response based on IFNgamma secretion upon stimulation with pertussis antigen, irrespective of a prior whole cell or acellular primary vaccination. The vaccination also induces an increase in peripheral CD8(+CD69(+ activated pertussis-specific memory T cells four weeks after vaccination. The Th1 bias of this immune response could play a role for the decreased local reactogenicity of this adolescent aP booster immunization when compared to the preceding childhood acellular pertussis booster. Pertussis-specific CD8(+ memory T cells may contribute to protection against clinical pertussis.

  12. 无细胞百日咳疫苗特异性毒性检测方法现状及展望%Current status and prospect of specific methods for determination of toxicity of an acellular pertussis vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德菊; 郭林达

    2014-01-01

    百日咳毒素是百日咳杆菌重要的保护性抗原,经化学方法脱毒成为百日咳类毒素后制成的无细胞百日咳疫苗(acellular pertussis vaccine,APV)具有残余毒性和毒性逆转的可能性,所以建立特异性毒性检测方法对于保证APV的安全性是十分必要的.此文就国内外APV特异性毒性检测方法的现状做一综述,并结合近几年国外研究的毒性检测新方法进行展望.%Pertussis toxin (PT) is a major protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis and its detoxified form obtained by a chemical process is an important component of an acellular pertussis vaccine (APV).In view of the possibility of residual toxicity or toxicity reversion of PT in the vaccines,specific tests are required to assure safety of the vaccines.This paper reviews specific methods for determination of toxicity of APV and prospect of new tests in the world.

  13. The Role of the Aceullular Pertussis Vaccine and the Comeback of 'Pertussis Pete'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Conly

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused principally by Bordetella pertussis and less commonly by Bordetella parapertussis (1. Until two decades ago, pertussis in adults was a medical curiosity (2-4, but with the purification of specific Bordetella species antigens, the development of reliable enzyme immunoassays allowing accurate serological diagnosis and better understanding of the duration of immunity from vaccination, it has been clearly demonstrated that B pertussis is a common cause of prolonged cough in adults. Indeed, its incidence has been increasing gradually over the past decade in both adults and adolescents. Given the recognition of the importance of pertussis as a cause of prolonged cough in adults and the advent of the new acellular pertussis vaccines, it is timely to review current concepts of the pathogenesis of pertussis, its epidemiology in adults and the utility of the anticipated impact of the acellular vaccine.

  14. What to do about pertussis vaccines? Linking what we know about pertussis vaccine effectiveness, immunology and disease transmission to create a better vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Shelly; Harvill, Eric T; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite the implementation of immunization programs and high vaccine coverage in most jurisdictions, pertussis is still one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases, suggesting that the current vaccines and immunization schedules have not been sufficiently effective. Several factors are thought to contribute to this. The acellular pertussis vaccine that has been used in many jurisdictions since the 1990s is less effective than the previously used whole-cell vaccine, with immunity waning over time. Both whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines are effective at reducing disease severity but not transmission, resulting in outbreaks in vaccinated cohorts. In this review, we discuss various limitations of the current approaches to protection from pertussis and outline various options for reducing the burden of pertussis on a population level.

  15. 无细胞百日咳疫苗纯化新工艺的建立%Development of a novel procedure for purification of acellular pertussis vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴腾捷; 张斌; 张青; 郑丽华; 瞿爱东

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立适合大规模生产的无细胞百日咳疫苗(Acellular pertussis vaccine,APV)纯化新工艺,使疫苗主要成分的比例稳定可控.方法 复苏百日咳菌种并传代培养,在大罐发酵培养收获前,调整菌液的pH值至弱酸性,再通过离心获得上清液,经超滤浓缩和脱盐处理,使用阳离子交换层析进行目的组分的分离纯化,纯化产物经SDS-PAGE分离并经Western blot鉴定,确定最佳纯化条件.用建立的层析纯化新工艺连续纯化3批APV,检测各项指标,验证该工艺的重复性.结果 收获前菌液pH值调至5.8~6.0,可使疫苗主要保护抗原在上清液中的含量明显提高;采用强阳离子交换层析的方法,从目的蛋白的捕获到多组分的分离提纯可一步完成,各目的蛋白组分的纯度均可达85%以上,回收率可达90%以上;建立的纯化新工艺具有良好的重复性.结论 初步建立了可线性放大、适合APV大规模生产的层析纯化新工艺,为疫苗质量标准的提高奠定了基础.%Objective To develop a novel procedure suitable for large-scale production of acellular pertussis vaccine (APV). Methods Bordetella pertussis strain was resuscitated and subcultured. The pH value of fermentation liquid of B. pertussis was adjusted to weak acidity before harvest. Supernatant was collected after centrifugation, concentrated by ultrafiltration and subjected to desalting, from which the target components were purified by cation exchange chromatog-raphy. The purified protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, based on which the condition for purification was optimized. Three successive batches of APV were purified by the developed procedure and tested for various quality indexes to verify the reproducibility of the procedure. Results Adjusting the pH value of fermentation liquid to 5. 8~6. 0 before harvest increased the content of major protective antigen in supernatant significantly. By strong cation exchange

  16. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years.

  17. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  18. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  19. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  20. Pertussis vaccine in pregnant women: safety and uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flor M Munoz Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, particularly among infants too young to be vaccinated or who are unvaccinated and unprotected by naturally acquired passive antibodies from their mothers. Vaccination of women during pregnancy with an adult formulation of acellular pertussis vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap [tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine] is recommended in several industrialized countries to boost the levels of maternal antibodies that are transferred transplacentally and protect infants during the period of life when they are more likely to succumb to pertussis. Data from clinical and epidemiologic studies are supportive of the safety and effectiveness of maternal immunization with pertussis vaccines. Tdap is safe and well tolerated in pregnant women. Local and systemic reactogenicity is similar to that observed in nonpregnant adults, and no serious adverse events have been attributed to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies elicited by the vaccine are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and studies have consistently found that infants born to vaccinated mothers have significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies than infants of nonvaccinated mothers. Although a correlate of protection against pertussis is unknown, higher concentrations of antibodies are likely to result in protection of young infants. A reduction in infant pertussis has been shown to occur when high vaccine coverage rates are achieved by pregnant women, as reported in the UK vaccination program. Furthermore, as more vaccine programs incorporate Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, prospective and epidemiologic data will be available to continuously assess the safety and efficacy of

  1. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis populations in European countries with different vaccination policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amersfoorth, S C M van; Schouls, L M; Heide, H G J van der; Advani, A; Hallander, H O; Bondeson, K; König, C H W von; Riffelmann, M; Vahrenholz, C; Guiso, N; Caro, V; Njamkepo, E; He, Q; Mertsola, J; Mooi, F R

    2005-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of pertussis vaccines during the last decades, pertussis has remained an endemic disease with frequent epidemic outbreaks. Currently two types of vaccines are used: whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) and recently developed acellular vaccines (ACVs). The long-term aim of our studie

  2. Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim): relevance for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Andrew R; Vaughan, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces two serologically distinct fimbriae, Fim2 and Fim3. Expression of these antigens is governed by the BvgA/S system and by the length of a poly(C) tract in the promoter of each gene. Fim2 and Fim3 are important antigens for whole cell pertussis vaccines as clinical trials have shown an association of anti-fimbriae antibody-mediated agglutination and protection. The current five component acellular pertussis vaccine contains co-purified Fim2/3 and provided good efficacy in clinical trials with the anti-Fim antibody response correlating with protection when pre and post exposure antibody levels were analysed. The predominant serotype of B. pertussis isolates has changed over time in most countries but it is not understood whether this is vaccine-driven or whether serotype is linked to the prevailing predominant genotype. Recent studies have shown that both Fim2 and Fim3 are expressed during infection and that Fim2 is more immunogenic than Fim3 in the acellular vaccine.

  3. Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough, and tetanus vaccine induced recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy in a pediatric patient: Possibly due to pertussis fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra K Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old male patient developed recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy possibly due to first dose of diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough, and tetanus (DPT vaccine used for routine immunization. Postreaction computed tomography (CT scan of brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain, and electroencephalogram were normal. Pertussis fraction of DPT vaccine is responsible for this reaction. It is suggested that acellular pertussis vaccine should be used instead of whole cell vaccine because it is associated with lower frequency of neurological complications, such as seizures, encephalopathy, and hypotensive episodes. However, acellular pertussis-containing vaccines are currently not affordable in most developing countries.

  4. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  5. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Fully Liquid Vaccine Containing Five-Component Pertussis-Diphtheria-Tetanus-Inactivated Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccines Administered at Two, Four, Six and 18 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gold

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada] were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada].

  6. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Fully Liquid Vaccine Containing Five-Component Pertussis-Diphtheria-Tetanus-Inactivated Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccines Administered at Two, Four, Six and 18 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Gold; Luis Barreto; Santiago Ferro; John Thippawong; Roland Guasparini; William Meekison; Margaret Russell; Elaine Mills; Dana Harrison; Pierre Lavigne

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada]) were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada]).METHODS: Infants we...

  7. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis that are only known to infect humans. This severe and acute respiratory disease presents epidemic cycles and became a vaccine-preventable disease in the 1940s/1950s when developed countries introduced vaccination. The first type of vaccine developed against this disease was a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine containing inactivated B. pertussis bacteria. Most developed countries produced their own vaccine and given the pediatric nature of the disease at the time of licensure, infants and toddlers were the primary targets and were thus massively vaccinated. The characterization of few virulence factors produced by B. pertussis enabled the development of second-generation pertussis vaccines called the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. These only contain 1-5 purified, detoxified B. pertussis proteins and were first introduced in Japan around 30 years ago. Australia, Europe and North America introduced aP vaccines approximately 15 years later, which replaced wP vaccines since then.

  8. T- and B-Cell-Mediated Protection Induced by Novel, Live Attenuated Pertussis Vaccine in Mice. Cross Protection against Parapertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Feunou Feunou; Julie Bertout; Camille Locht

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive use of efficacious vaccines, pertussis still ranks among the major causes of childhood mortality worldwide. Two types of pertussis vaccines are currently available, whole-cell, and the more recent acellular vaccines. Because of reduced reactogenicity and comparable efficacy acellular vaccines progressively replace whole-cell vaccines. However, both types require repeated administrations for optimal efficacy. We have recently developed a live attenuated vaccin...

  9. Bordetella pertussis iron regulated proteins as potential vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Hayes, Jimena; Erben, Esteban; Lamberti, Yanina; Principi, Guido; Maschi, Fabricio; Ayala, Miguel; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2013-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough, an illness whose incidence has been increasing over the last decades. Pertussis reemergence despite high vaccination coverage, together with the recent isolation of circulating strains deficient in some of the vaccine antigens, highlight the need for new vaccines. Proteins induced under physiological conditions, such as those required for nutrient acquisition during infection, might represent good targets for better preventive strategies. By mean of serological proteome analysis we identified two novel antigens of B. pertussis potentially involved in iron acquisition during host colonization. We had previously demonstrated that one of them, designated IRP1-3, is protective against pertussis infection in mice. In the present study, we show that the other antigen, named AfuA (BP1605), is a highly antigenic protein, exposed on the bacterial surface, conserved among clinical isolates and expressed during infection. Immunization of mice with the recombinant AfuA induced opsonophagocytic antibodies which could explain the protection against B. pertussis infection conferred by mice immunization with rAfuA. Importantly, we found that the addition of rAfuA and rIRP1-3 proteins to the commercial three pertussis components acellular vaccine significantly increased its protective activity. Taken together, our results point at these two antigens as potential components of a new generation of acellular vaccines.

  10. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... sheet talks about whether exposure to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (or Tdap) vaccine may increase the ...

  11. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination.

  12. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  13. Population dynamics of Bordetella pertussis in Finland and Sweden, neighbouring countries with different vaccination histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Annika; Advani, Abdolreza; Donnelly, Declan; Antila, Mia; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui; Hallander, Hans

    2007-01-15

    Pertussis is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract in humans caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite extensive vaccinations, pertussis has remained endemic and re-emerged. In Finland, a whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used since 1952 with high coverage. In Sweden, whole-cell vaccinations were introduced in 1953 but ceased in 1979, and pertussis vaccinations with acellular vaccines were introduced in 1996. Two epidemic peaks occurred in Sweden in 1999 and 2002 and in Finland in 1999 and 2003. We compared Finnish (N=193) and Swedish (N=455) B. pertussis isolates circulating in 1998-2003 together with vaccine strains used in these neighbouring countries with different vaccination histories. The isolates were analysed by serotyping, genotyping of pertussis toxin S1 subunit and pertactin, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that the sequential epidemics were caused by clonal expansion of a certain B. pertussis strain possibly transmitted from Sweden to Finland. The roles of antigenic variation in immunity-driven evolution of B. pertussis in both countries are discussed.

  14. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  15. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  16. Side-effects of pertussis toxin, pertussis vaccines and haemoinfluenza type B vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    van Amsterdam JGC; te Biesebeek JD; Kuil A van de; Vleeming W; van der Laan JW; Spruyt B; Wemer J; Wildt DJ de; LEO; LGM

    1997-01-01

    Doel van de studie is de bijwerkingen van vaccins nader te bestuderen ter onderbouwing van voor te stellen richtlijnen. Bedoelde richtlijnen stellen eisen aan het verrichten van pre-klinische veiligheids-farmacologie van vaccins. Dit rapport beschrijft de cardiovasculaire en autonome effecten, die in-vivo worden waargenomen in jonge en volwassen ratten behandeld met hoge doseringen pertussis toxine, cellulair (DKTP-vaccin) en acellulair pertussis vaccin en Haemoinfluenza type b vaccin. Deze e...

  17. The Research Progress on Combined Vaccine of Absorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine%以吸附无细胞百日咳-白喉-破伤风疫苗为基础的联合疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠文

    2014-01-01

    吸附无细胞百日咳疫苗、白喉和破伤风类毒素联合疫苗(Adsorbed Acellular Pertussis Vaccine,Diphtheria Toxoid & Tetanus Toxoid Combined Vaccine,DTaP)已有30多年的使用历史.将DTaP与乙型肝炎疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)、脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗(Inactivated Poliovims Vaccine,IPV)和b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine,Hib)等制备成为联合疫苗使用,可以减少接种剂次,提高受种者的依从性,从而提高疫苗接种率.但是,联合疫苗不是几种疫苗简单地混合,在将DTaP与其他疫苗联合的过程中面临许多技术挑战,如DTaP与Hib联合存在Hib免疫原性降低的问题,DTaP与HepB联合存在免疫程序不统一和HepB免疫持久性的问题,DTaP与IPV联合时,其中的防腐剂柳硫汞会降低IPV的免疫原性的问题等.现就DTaP与这些疫苗联合时所面临的技术挑战、目前的研究进展和未来发展方向作一综述.

  18. Rediscovering Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamy, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by Bordetella (B.) pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a highly contagious airway infection. Especially in infants, pertussis remains a major health concern. Acute infection with B. pertussis can cause severe illness characterized by severe respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, leucocytosis, and death. Over the past years, rising incidence rates of intensive care treatment in young infants were described. Due to several virulence factors (pertussis toxin, tracheal cytotoxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and lipooligosaccharide) that promote bacterial adhesion and invasion, B. pertussis creates a unique niche for colonization within the human respiratory tract. The resulting long-term infection is mainly caused by the ability of B. pertussis to interfere with the host’s innate and adaptive immune system. Although pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, it has persisted in vaccinated populations. Epidemiological data reported a worldwide increase in pertussis incidence among children during the past years. Either acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines or whole-cell vaccines are worldwide used. Recent studies did not detect any differences according to pertussis incidence when comparing the different vaccines used. Most of the currently used aP vaccines protect against acute infections for a period of 6–8 years. The resurgence of pertussis may be due to the lack of herd immunity caused by missing booster immunizations among adolescents and adults, low vaccine coverages in some geographic areas, and genetic changes of different B. pertussis strains. Due to the rising incidence of pertussis, probable solution strategies are discussed. Cocooning strategies (vaccination of close contact persons) and immunizations during pregnancy appear to be an approach to reduce neonatal contagiousness. During the past years, studies focused on the pathway of the immune modulation done by B. pertussis to provide a basis for the

  19. Rediscovering Pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamy, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by Bordetella (B.) pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a highly contagious airway infection. Especially in infants, pertussis remains a major health concern. Acute infection with B. pertussis can cause severe illness characterized by severe respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, leucocytosis, and death. Over the past years, rising incidence rates of intensive care treatment in young infants were described. Due to several virulence factors (pertussis toxin, tracheal cytotoxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and lipooligosaccharide) that promote bacterial adhesion and invasion, B. pertussis creates a unique niche for colonization within the human respiratory tract. The resulting long-term infection is mainly caused by the ability of B. pertussis to interfere with the host's innate and adaptive immune system. Although pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, it has persisted in vaccinated populations. Epidemiological data reported a worldwide increase in pertussis incidence among children during the past years. Either acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines or whole-cell vaccines are worldwide used. Recent studies did not detect any differences according to pertussis incidence when comparing the different vaccines used. Most of the currently used aP vaccines protect against acute infections for a period of 6-8 years. The resurgence of pertussis may be due to the lack of herd immunity caused by missing booster immunizations among adolescents and adults, low vaccine coverages in some geographic areas, and genetic changes of different B. pertussis strains. Due to the rising incidence of pertussis, probable solution strategies are discussed. Cocooning strategies (vaccination of close contact persons) and immunizations during pregnancy appear to be an approach to reduce neonatal contagiousness. During the past years, studies focused on the pathway of the immune modulation done by B. pertussis to provide a basis for the

  20. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R; Skoff, Tami H; Cunningham, Victoria A; Halse, Tanya A; Tondella, M Lucia

    2016-02-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.

  1. Serum IgA responses against pertussis proteins in infected and Dutch wP or aP vaccinated children: an additional role in pertussis diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte H Hendrikx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which induces mucosal IgA antibodies that appear to be relevant in protection. Serum IgA responses are measured after pertussis infection and might provide an additional role in pertussis diagnostics. However, the possible interfering role for pertussis vaccinations in the induction of serum IgA antibodies is largely unknown. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared serum IgA responses in healthy vaccinated children between 1 and 10 years of age with those in children who despite vaccinations recently were infected with Bordetella pertussis. All children have been vaccinated at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months of age with either the Dutch whole-cell pertussis (wP vaccine or an acellular pertussis (aP vaccine and additionally received an aP booster vaccination at 4 years of age. Serum IgA responses to pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous heamagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn were measured with a fluorescent multiplex bead-based immuno-assay. An ELISPOT-assay was used for the detection of IgA-memory B-cells specific to these antigens. Serum IgA levels to all pertussis vaccine antigens were significantly higher in infected children compared with healthy children. High correlations between anti-PT, anti-FHA or anti-Prn IgA and IgG levels were found in infected children and to some degree in wP primed children, but not at all in aP primed children. Highest numbers of IgA-pertussis-specific memory B-cells were observed after infection and generally comparable numbers were found after wP and aP vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insight in the diagnostic role for serum IgA responses against PT in vaccinated children. Since aP vaccines induce high serum IgG levels that interfere with pertussis diagnostics, serum IgA-PT levels will provide an additional diagnostic role. High levels of serum IgA for PT proved specific for recent pertussis infection with reasonable

  2. Bordetella pertussis infection or vaccination substantially protects mice against B. bronchiseptica infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Goebel

    Full Text Available Although B. bronchiseptica efficiently infects a wide range of mammalian hosts and efficiently spreads among them, it is rarely observed in humans. In contrast to the many other hosts of B. bronchiseptica, humans are host to the apparently specialized pathogen B. pertussis, the great majority having immunity due to vaccination, infection or both. Here we explore whether immunity to B. pertussis protects against B. bronchiseptica infection. In a murine model, either infection or vaccination with B. pertussis induced antibodies that recognized antigens of B. bronchiseptica and protected the lower respiratory tract of mice against three phylogenetically disparate strains of B. bronchiseptica that efficiently infect naïve animals. Furthermore, vaccination with purified B. pertussis-derived pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin or the human acellular vaccine, Adacel, conferred similar protection against B. bronchiseptica challenge. These data indicate that individual immunity to B. pertussis affects B. bronchiseptica infection, and suggest that the high levels of herd immunity against B. pertussis in humans could explain the lack of observed B. bronchiseptica transmission. This could also explain the apparent association of B. bronchiseptica infections with an immunocompromised state.

  3. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) are serious bacterial infections. Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all ... It can lead to "locking" of the jaw. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Whooping cough ...

  4. Immunoproteomic Profiling of Bordetella pertussis Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Reveals Broad and Balanced Humoral Immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeven, René H M; van der Maas, Larissa; Tilstra, Wichard; Uittenbogaard, Joost P; Bindels, Tim H E; Kuipers, Betsy; van der Ark, Arno; Pennings, Jeroen L A; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon F A; Metz, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The current resurgence of whooping cough is alarming, and improved pertussis vaccines are thought to offer a solution. Outer membrane vesicle vaccines (omvPV) are potential vaccine candidates, but omvPV-induced humoral responses have not yet been characterized in detail. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigen composition of omvPV and to elucidate the immunogenicity of the individual antigens. Quantitative proteome analysis revealed the complex composition of omvPV. The omvPV immunogenicity profile in mice was compared to those of classic whole cell vaccine (wPV), acellular vaccine (aPV), and pertussis infection. Pertussis-specific antibody levels, antibody isotypes, IgG subclasses, and antigen specificity were determined after vaccination or infection by using a combination of multiplex immunoassays, two-dimensional immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry. The vaccines and infection raised strong antibody responses, but large quantitative and qualitative differences were measured. The highest antibody levels were obtained by omvPV. All IgG subclasses (IgG1/IgG2a/IgG2b/IgG3) were elicited by omvPV and in a lower magnitude by wPV, but not by aPV (IgG1) or infection (IgG2a/b). The majority of omvPV-induced antibodies were directed against Vag8, BrkA, and LPS. The broad and balanced humoral response makes omvPV a promising pertussis vaccine candidate.

  5. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Ten Have, Rimko; van der Maas, Larissa; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-31

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick injuries, and (iii) ensure better protection against pertussis as compared to vaccines containing acellular pertussis antigens. An approach to obtain a hexavalent vaccine might be reconstituting lyophilized polio vaccine (IPV-LYO) with liquid pentavalent vaccine just before intramuscular delivery. The potential limitations of this approach were investigated including thermostability of IPV as measured by D-antigen ELISA and rat potency, the compatibility of fluid and lyophilized IPV in combination with thimerosal and thimerosal containing hexavalent vaccine. The rat potency of polio type 3 in IPV-LYO was 2 to 3-fold lower than standardized on the D-antigen content, suggesting an alteration of the polio type 3 D-antigen particle by lyophilization. Type 1 and 2 had unaffected antigenicity/immunogenicity ratios. Alteration of type 3 D-antigen could be detected by showing reduced thermostability at 45°C compared to type 3 in non-lyophilized liquid controls. Reconstituting IPV-LYO in the presence of thimerosal (TM) resulted in a fast temperature dependent loss of polio type 1-3 D-antigen. The presence of 0.005% TM reduced the D-antigen content by ∼20% (polio type 2/3) and ∼60% (polio type 1) in 6h at 25°C, which are WHO open vial policy conditions. At 37°C, D-antigen was diminished even faster, suggesting that very fast, i.e., immediately after preparation, intramuscular delivery of the conceived hexavalent vaccine would not be a feasible option. Use of the TM-scavenger, l-cysteine, to bind TM (or mercury containing TM degradation products), resulted in a hexavalent vaccine mixture in which polio D-antigen was more stable. PMID:27470209

  6. Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Marieke J; Harris, Simon R; Advani, Abdolreza; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Bottero, Daniela; Bouchez, Valérie; Cassiday, Pamela K; Chiang, Chuen-Sheue; Dalby, Tine; Fry, Norman K; Gaillard, María Emilia; van Gent, Marjolein; Guiso, Nicole; Hallander, Hans O; Harvill, Eric T; He, Qiushui; van der Heide, Han G J; Heuvelman, Kees; Hozbor, Daniela F; Kamachi, Kazunari; Karataev, Gennady I; Lan, Ruiting; Lutyńska, Anna; Maharjan, Ram P; Mertsola, Jussi; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Octavia, Sophie; Preston, Andrew; Quail, Michael A; Sintchenko, Vitali; Stefanelli, Paola; Tondella, M Lucia; Tsang, Raymond S W; Xu, Yinghua; Yao, Shu-Man; Zhang, Shumin; Parkhill, Julian; Mooi, Frits R

    2014-04-22

    Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines (ACVs), waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptation is suggested by antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and by the emergence of strains with increased pertussis toxin production. We applied comparative genomics to a worldwide collection of 343 B. pertussis strains isolated between 1920 and 2010. The global phylogeny showed two deep branches; the largest of these contained 98% of all strains, and its expansion correlated temporally with the first descriptions of pertussis outbreaks in Europe in the 16th century. We found little evidence of recent geographical clustering of the strains within this lineage, suggesting rapid strain flow between countries. We observed that changes in genes encoding proteins implicated in protective immunity that are included in ACVs occurred after the introduction of WCVs but before the switch to ACVs. Furthermore, our analyses consistently suggested that virulence-associated genes and genes coding for surface-exposed proteins were involved in adaptation. However, many of the putative adaptive loci identified have a physiological role, and further studies of these loci may reveal less obvious ways in which B. pertussis and the host interact. This work provides insight into ways in which pathogens may adapt to vaccination and suggests ways to improve pertussis vaccines. IMPORTANCE Whooping cough is mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis, and current vaccines are targeted against this organism. Recently, there have been increasing outbreaks of whooping cough, even where vaccine coverage is high. Analysis of the genomes of 343 B. pertussis

  7. An open-label randomized clinical trial of prophylactic paracetamol coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and hexavalent diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Markus A.; Jürgens, Christine; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate; Gruber, William C.; Baker, Sherryl; Zielen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue with vaccine tolerability, we performed this open-label study on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of paracetamol (acetaminophen, Benuron(R)) in children administered routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) coadministered with hexavalent vaccine (diph...

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Reference Strains 134 and 10536

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Burroughs, Mark; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Rowe, Lori; Tondella, M. Lucia; Williams, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine formulations and vaccination programs against whooping cough (pertussis) vary worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two divergent Bordetella pertussis reference strains used in the production of pertussis vaccines. PMID:27635001

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Reference Strains 134 and 10536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Burroughs, Mark; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Rowe, Lori; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2016-09-15

    Vaccine formulations and vaccination programs against whooping cough (pertussis) vary worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two divergent Bordetella pertussis reference strains used in the production of pertussis vaccines.

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Reference Strains 134 and 10536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Burroughs, Mark; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Rowe, Lori; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine formulations and vaccination programs against whooping cough (pertussis) vary worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two divergent Bordetella pertussis reference strains used in the production of pertussis vaccines. PMID:27635001

  11. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  12. Mouse and pig models for studies of natural and vaccine-induced immunity to Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kingston H G; Gerdts, Volker

    2014-04-01

    The increasing incidence of whooping cough in many developed countries has been linked with waning immunity induced after immunization with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. The rational design of an improved aP vaccine requires a full understanding of the mechanism of protective immunity and preclinical studies in animal models. Infection of mice and pigs with Bordetella pertussis has many features of the infection seen in humans and has already provided valuable information on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses in protection. Recent findings in these models have already indicated that it may be possible to develop an improved aP vaccine based on a formulation that includes a Toll-like receptor agonist as an adjuvant.

  13. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  14. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taw) Thiab Pertussis (Hnoos Ntev) - Hmoob (Hmong) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine English Tshuaj Txhaj Tiv Thaiv Kab ...

  15. An Open-Label, Randomized Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Given Concomitantly with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents 11 to 15 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Mehlsen, Jesper; Vesikari, Timo;

    2015-01-01

    (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine). METHODS: This open-label, randomized, multicenter study enrolled 1054 males and females ages 11-15 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to each group in a 1:1 ratio. Subjects received a 0.5mL dose of 9vHPV vaccine...

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  17. Characterization of the immune response induced by pertussis OMVs-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, D; Gaillard, M E; Zurita, E; Moreno, G; Martinez, D Sabater; Bartel, E; Bravo, S; Carriquiriborde, F; Errea, A; Castuma, C; Rumbo, M; Hozbor, D

    2016-06-14

    For the development of a third generation of pertussis vaccine that could improve the control of the disease, it was proposed that the immune responses induced by the classic whole cell vaccine (wP) or after infection should be used as a reference point. We have recently identified a vaccine candidate based on outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from the disease etiologic agent that have been shown to be safe and protective in mice model of infection. Here we characterized OMVs-mediated immunity and the safety of our new candidate. We also deepen the knowledge of the induced humoral response contribution in pertussis protection. Regarding the safety of the OMVs based vaccine (TdapOMVsBp,) the in vitro whole blood human assay here performed, showed that the low toxicity of OMVs-based vaccine previously detected in mice could be extended to human samples. Stimulation of splenocytes from immunized mice evidenced the presence of IFN-γ and IL-17-producing cells, indicated that OMVs induces both Th1 and Th17 response. Interestingly TdapOMVsBp-raised antibodies such as those induced by wP and commercial acellular vaccines (aP) which contribute to induce protection against Bordetella pertussis infection. As occurs with wP-induced antibodies, the TdapOMVsBp-induced serum antibodies efficiently opsonized B. pertussis. All the data here obtained shows that OMVs based vaccine is able to induce Th1/Th17 and Th2 mixed profile with robust humoral response involved in protection, positioning this candidate among the different possibilities to constitute the third generation of anti-pertussis vaccines.

  18. Importance of (antibody-dependent) complement-mediated serum killing in protection against Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurtsen, Jeroen; Fae, Kellen C; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite being vaccine preventable, pertussis rates have been rising steadily over the last decades, even in areas with high vaccine uptake. Recently, experiments with infant baboons indicated that although vaccination with acellular pertussis vaccines prevented disease, no apparent effect was observed on infection and transmission. One explanation may be that current acellular pertussis vaccines do not induce high levels of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal activity, implying that engineering of vaccines that promote bacterial killing may improve efficacy. Here, we discuss the importance of complement-mediated killing in vaccine-induced protection against B. pertussis. We first examine how B. pertussis may have evolved different complement evasion strategies. Second, we explore the benefits of opsonophagocytic and/or bactericidal killing in vaccine-induced protection and discuss whether or not inclusion of new opsonophagocytic or bactericidal target antigens in pertussis vaccines may benefit efficacy.

  19. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  20. Pertactin negative Bordetella pertussis demonstrates higher fitness under vaccine selection pressure in a mixed infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarchi, Azadeh; Octavia, Sophie; Luu, Laurence Don Wai; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen; McIntyre, Peter; Lan, Ruiting

    2015-11-17

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease in humans caused by Bordetella pertussis. The use of acellular vaccines (ACV) has been associated with the recent resurgence of pertussis in developed countries including Australia despite high vaccination coverage where B. pertussis strains that do not express pertactin (Prn), a key antigenic component of the ACV, have emerged and become prevalent. In this study, we used an in vivo competition assay in mice immunised with ACV and in naïve (control) mice to compare the proportion of colonisation with recent clinical Prn positive and Prn negative B. pertussis strains from Australia. The Prn negative strain colonised the respiratory tract more effectively than the Prn positive strain in immunised mice, out-competing the Prn positive strain by day 3 of infection. However, in control mice, the Prn positive strain out-competed the Prn negative strain. Our findings of greater ability of Prn negative strains to colonise ACV-immunised mice are consistent with reports of selective advantage for these strains in ACV-immunised humans.

  1. Side effects of cellular and acellular DPT vaccine in children aged from 3 months to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmišević Smajil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Both mild and severe local and systemic postvaccination reactions are seen more rarely in infants immunized with DTPa than in those immunized with DTPw vaccine. Material and methods By analysis of medical records and follow-up of patients, the authors searched for sings of adverse effects of DPT vaccines, comparing cellular and acellular vaccines in children aged from three months to five years. The results of investigation were analyzed using X2. Results Out of the total number of 940 applied vaccines, 329 were cellular and 611 were acellular. Body temperature over 38.5oC occurred in 3% of children immunized with cellular DTPw, and vomiting occurred in 0.8% of those immunized with acellular DTPa vaccine. Vomiting occurred (more than five times in 0.9% of children immunized with DPTw and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa. Other undesirable symptoms like swelling, redness and pain in the arm were found in 0.6% of children immunized with DPTw, and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa; prolonged crying (three hours or longer was registered in 0.3% of cases immunized with DPTw, and in 0.16% of immunized with DPTa vaccine. Convulsions and collapse appeared only in 0.3% of children immunized with DPTw. Discussion Our investigation shows that local and generalized undesirable postvaccination reactions occurred in 5.4% of children immunized with DPTw and in 1.64 of children immunized with DPTa. The latest clinical investigations show that acellular pertussis vaccines are successful in prevention of pertussis and that they are quite safe for infants; in our investigations, local and generalized reactions were markedly rare in children immunized with DPTa. Conclusion Undesirable postvaccination reactions after application of acellular DPT vaccines are less frequent than it is described in relevant references. The most frequent postvaccination reactions was raised body temperature (38.5oC. Convulsions and collapses were not

  2. Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  3. Live attenuated B. pertussis as a single-dose nasal vaccine against whooping cough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mielcarek

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is still among the principal causes of death worldwide, and its incidence is increasing even in countries with high vaccine coverage. Although all age groups are susceptible, it is most severe in infants too young to be protected by currently available vaccines. To induce strong protective immunity in neonates, we have developed BPZE1, a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis strain to be given as a single-dose nasal vaccine in early life. BPZE1 was developed by the genetic inactivation or removal of three major toxins. In mice, BPZE1 was highly attenuated, yet able to colonize the respiratory tract and to induce strong protective immunity after a single nasal administration. Protection against B. pertussis was comparable to that induced by two injections of acellular vaccine (aPV in adult mice, but was significantly better than two administrations of aPV in infant mice. Moreover, BPZE1 protected against Bordetella parapertussis infection, whereas aPV did not. BPZE1 is thus an attractive vaccine candidate to protect against whooping cough by nasal, needle-free administration early in life, possibly at birth.

  4. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATEMENT DTaP Vaccine What You Need to Know (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are serious diseases caused by ...

  5. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, ...

  6. Pertactin-negative variants of Bordetella pertussis in New York State: a retrospective analysis, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A; Currenti, Salvatore A; Zansky, Shelley M; Halse, Tanya A

    2014-08-01

    The first report of pertactin-negative variants of Bordetella pertussis in the United States has raised questions about the role of acellular pertussis vaccines in the recent increase of pertussis cases. Our laboratory utilized a sequence-based method to identify mutations in the pertactin gene responsible for these variants and assessed vaccination status from the associated cases.

  7. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased. PMID:9279028

  8. Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... someone with pertussis, do I need to do anything? Yes, it’s recommended that anyone who comes in ... get very sick with pertussis infection. Is there anything I should ask my health care provider before ...

  9. Bordetella pertussis epidemiology and evolution in the light of pertussis resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Katie L; Belcher, Thomas; Preston, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, is resurgent in many countries world-wide. This is linked to switching from the use of whole cell vaccines to acellular vaccines in developed countries. Current evidence suggests that this has resulted in the earlier waning of vaccine-induced immunity, an increase in asymptomatic infection with concomitant increases in transmission and increased selection pressure for Bordetellapertussis variants that are better able to evade vaccine-mediated immunity than older isolates. This review discusses recent findings in B. pertussis epidemiology and evolution in the light of pertussis resurgence, and highlights the important role for genomics-based studies in monitoring B. pertussis adaptation.

  10. Serologic Evidence of Pertussis Infection in Vaccinated Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that the incidence of pertussis-like illnesses is considerably increasing despite the wide coverage of immunization with the whole cell pertussis vaccine. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of pertussis in vaccinated children by measuring anti-pertussis antibodies. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were taken from vaccinated children aged 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 72 months. Anti-pertussis IgG and IgA were measured by ELISA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 725 children were enrolled in the study. Geometric mean titers for IgG that showed a slight decease after 2 months of age and increased distinctly in children aged 72 months. The frequency of the individuals whose IgG was above the determined cut-off (derived from mean+2SD was observed in 1% of the 2, 4, and 6-month-old infants, 6% of the 12 and 18-month-olds and 12% of the 6-year -old children. Positive IgA titers were detected in 5, 9, 6, 23, 11, and 8% of children aged 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 72 months, respectively.Conclusion: Since a considerable percentage of children had high levels of anti-pertussis IgG antibodies (≥2 SD, positive anti-pertussis IgA, and most importantly an increased level of anti-pertussis IgG geometric mean titer at 6 years of age, further investigations regarding the protection provided by the presently used pertussis vaccine seems necessary.

  11. Dynamic models for health economic assessments of pertussis vaccines : what goes around comes around ...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Cao, E.; Westra, T.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite childhood vaccination programs, pertussis remains endemic. To reduce the burden of pertussis, various extended pertussis vaccination strategies have been suggested. The aim of this article is to evaluate dynamic models used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccination. In total, 16 studie

  12. Contribution of pertussis toxin to the pathogenesis of pertussis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonetti, Nicholas H

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is a multisubunit protein toxin secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the bacterial agent of the disease pertussis or whooping cough. PT in detoxified form is a component of all licensed acellular pertussis vaccines, since it is considered to be an important virulence factor for this pathogen. PT inhibits G protein-coupled receptor signaling through Gi proteins in mammalian cells, an activity that has led to its widespread use as a cell biology tool. But how does this activity of PT contribute to pertussis, including the severe respiratory symptoms of this disease? In this minireview, the contribution of PT to the pathogenesis of pertussis disease will be considered based on evidence from both human infections and animal model studies. Although definitive proof of the role of PT in humans is lacking, substantial evidence supports the idea that PT is a major contributor to pertussis pathology, including the severe respiratory symptoms associated with this disease.

  13. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Andrew T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia two acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccines have replaced the use of a whole cell vaccine. Both of the licensed acellular vaccines contain the following three components; pertussis toxoid, pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin and the 69 kDa pertactin adhesin. One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B. pertussis populations by selective pressure for strains possessing variants of these genes, in particular the pertactin gene type. Some publications have suggested that B. pertussis variants may be contributing to a reduced efficacy of the existing vaccines and a concomitant re-emergence of pertussis within vaccinated populations. This study was conducted to survey the pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 types from B. pertussis isolates in Queensland, Australia following the introduction of acellular vaccines. Methods Forty-six B. pertussis isolates recovered from Queensland patients between 1999 and 2003 were examined by both DNA sequencing and LightCycler™ real time PCR to determine their pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 genotypes. Results Pertactin typing showed that 38 isolates possessed the prn1 allele, 3 possessed the prn2 allele and 5 possessed the prn3 allele. All forty-six isolates possessed the pertussis toxin ptxS1A genotype. Amongst the circulating B. pertussis population in Queensland, 82.5% of the recovered clinical isolates therefore possessed the prn1/ptxS1A genotype. Conclusion The results of this study compared to historical research on Queensland isolates suggest that B. pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin variants are not becoming more prevalent in Queensland since the introduction of the acellular vaccines. Current prevalences of pertactin variants are significantly different to that described in a number of other countries

  14. Can vaccine legacy explain the British pertussis resurgence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo, Maria A; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-12-01

    Pertussis incidence has been rising in some countries, including the UK, despite sustained high vaccine coverage. We questioned whether it is possible to explain the resurgence without recourse to complex hypotheses about pathogen evolution, subclinical infections, or trends in surveillance efficiency. In particular, we investigated the possibility that the resurgence is a consequence of the legacy of incomplete pediatric immunization, in the context of cohort structure and age-dependent transmission. We constructed a model of pertussis transmission in England and Wales based on data on age-specific contact rates and historical vaccine coverage estimates. We evaluated the agreement between model-predicted and observed patterns of age-specific pertussis incidence under a variety of assumptions regarding the duration of immunity. Under the assumption that infection-derived immunity is complete and lifelong, and regardless of the duration of vaccine-induced immunity, the model consistently predicts a resurgence of pertussis incidence comparable to that which has been observed. Interestingly, no resurgence is predicted when infection- and vaccine-derived immunities wane at the same rate. These results were qualitatively insensitive to rates of primary vaccine failure. We conclude that the alarming resurgence of pertussis among adults and adolescents in Britain and elsewhere may simply be a legacy of historically inadequate coverage employing imperfect vaccines. Indeed, we argue that the absence of resurgence at this late date would be more surprising. Our analysis shows that careful accounting for age dependence in contact rates and susceptibility is prerequisite to the identification of which features of pertussis epidemiology want additional explanation.

  15. Vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in adult travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews the risk and vaccine recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis for adult travellers. The travel clinic presents a unique opportunity to evaluate whether routine vaccinations are up-to-date. Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis occur worldwide but are more common in low resource countries due to incomplete childhood vaccination coverage, environmental and socio-economic factors. Diphtheria has been reported in travellers without adequate protection. A booster against tetanus and diphtheria is recommended for all adult travellers, regardless of travel destination and duration. The incidence of pertussis in general adult travellers has been poorly studied. Extrapolating from the reported high incidence in travellers to the Hajj, the risk may be more substantial than thought. There are no universal recommendations for pertussis vaccination for adult travellers, and studies are needed to develop evidence based guidelines. Poliomyelitis is well controlled and now only occurs in a small number of countries. Travellers to and from endemic and re-infected countries should be fully vaccinated against poliomyelitis.

  16. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccines - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... vis-statements/dtap.html CDC review information for Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) VIS: Page last reviewed: ...

  17. Bordetella pertussis evolution in the (functional) genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Thomas; Preston, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in many developed countries has risen dramatically in recent years. This has been linked to the use of an acellular pertussis vaccine. In addition, it is thought that B. pertussis is adapting under acellular vaccine mediated immune selection pressure, towards vaccine escape. Genomics-based approaches have revolutionized the ability to resolve the fine structure of the global B. pertussis population and its evolution during the era of vaccination. Here, we discuss the current picture of B. pertussis evolution and diversity in the light of the current resurgence, highlight import questions raised by recent studies in this area and discuss the role that functional genomics can play in addressing current knowledge gaps.

  18. Adaptive immune response to whole cell pertussis vaccine reflects vaccine quality: A possible complementation to the Pertussis Serological Potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; van der Maas, L; Metz, B; Uittenbogaard, J P; van de Waterbeemd, B; van Els, C A C M; van Eden, W; Hendriksen, C F M; Sloots, A; Han, W G H

    2016-08-17

    Whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines are still used in many countries to protect against the respiratory disease pertussis. The potency of whole-cell pertussis vaccine lots is determined by an intracerebral challenge test (the Kendrick test). This test is criticized due to lack of immunological relevance of the read-out after an intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis. The alternative in vivo test, which assesses specific antibody levels in serum after wP vaccination, is the Pertussis Serological Potency test (PSPT). Although the PSPT focuses on a parameter that contributes to protection, the protective immune mechanisms after wP vaccination includes more elements than specific antibody responses only. In this study, additional parameters were investigated, i.e. circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibody specificity and T helper cell responses and it was evaluated whether they can be used as complementary readout parameters in the PSPT to assess wP lot quality. By deliberate manipulation of the vaccine preparation procedure, a panel of high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines were made. The results revealed that these vaccines induced similar IL-6 and IP10 levels in serum 4h after vaccination (innate responses) and similar antibody levels directed against the entire bacterium. In contrast, the induced antibody specificity to distinct wP antigens differed after vaccination with high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines. In addition, the magnitude of wP-induced Th cell responses (Th17, Th1 and Th2) was reduced after vaccination with a wP vaccine of low quality. T cell responses and antibody specificity are therefore correlates of qualitative differences in the investigated vaccines, while the current parameter of the PSPT alone was not sensitive enough to distinguish between vaccines of different qualities. This study demonstrates that assessment of the magnitude of Th cell responses and the antigen specificity of antibodies induced by w

  19. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  20. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, vaccines and cycles of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. This highly contagious respiratory disease occurs through epidemic cycles every 3-5 years and vaccination did not change this frequency. Models suggest that the cyclic increase of susceptibles is linked to demographic differences and different vaccine coverage. However, differences in surveillance of the disease as well as adaptation of the agents of the disease to their human hosts and to vaccine pressure might also play an important role. These parameters are discussed in this review.

  1. Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upper respiratory infection. It is caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacteria. It is a serious disease that can ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25654609 . Long SS. Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  2. A 4-month-old baby presenting with dermal necrotizing granulomatous giant cell reaction at the injection site of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R; Albawardi, Alia; Khan, Navidul Haq; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adjuvants (for example, aluminum salts) are frequently incorporated in licensed vaccines to enhance the host immune response. Such vaccines include the pneumococcal conjugate, combinations of diphtheria–tetanus/acellular pertussis, tetanus– diphtheria/acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, some Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A, and human papillomavirus. These preparations have been associated with complicated local adverse events, especially if administered subcutaneously or...

  3. [Pertussis (Whooping cough)--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.

  4. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing;

    2010-01-01

    %. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  5. Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Odile; Toneatti, Christine; Bernède, Claire; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Petitprez, Karine; Leblond, Annie; Larnaudie, Sylvie; Goujon, Catherine; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Ajana, Faïza; Raccurt, Christian; Beytout, Jean; Chidiac, Christian; Bouhour, Damien; Guillemot, Didier; Guiso, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    In this sero-epidemiological study, we investigated humoral immunity to three vaccine-preventable diseases--tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis--among 331 adults (aged 18-60 years) attending vaccination centres for travellers and who had been vaccinated according to national recommendations in France. Serological results showed that the percentage of subjects with antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus decreases with age. Results also confirmed surveillance data on vaccination in France, with 7.6% of the study population (13.4% of those aged 18-29 years) having recently acquired a pertussis infection. These results confirm the importance of following French recommendations for regular boosters for tetanus and diphtheria among adults. They also indicate the need for better implementation of the current recommendations for pertussis-vaccine boosters in adults.

  6. Attitudes, knowledge and perceptions towards whooping cough and pertussis vaccine in hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Macintyre, C Raina

    2014-02-19

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for adults and children around the world. There has been a rise in pertussis-related deaths in the elderly; pertussis vaccination is not currently routinely recommended in adults, excepting new parents and other adults household members including grandparents and care-givers of young children. Currently, there is lack of clear vaccine recommendations after the age of 50 years. Given the increase in adult pertussis, adult vaccine recommendations are a policy consideration. The study surveyed a convenience sample of patients previously recruited in a case control study designed to examine the burden of influenza with and without AMI in adults aged ≥ 40 years. Our findings showed that only 9.6% had received the pertussis vaccination within the past five years and 79.4% of participants had no knowledge of the pertussis adult booster vaccine, and 30.7% of participants who had regular contact with children under the age of two years in the past 12 months. The results showed that even though there is general acceptance of prevention by vaccines, there is low awareness about pertussis vaccination. This lack of knowledge presents a barrier against pertussis vaccination thus it is imperative that any future adult immunisation policy recommendations around pertussis vaccine include awareness programs in the target population.

  7. A change in vaccine efficacy and duration of protection explains recent rises in pertussis incidence in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gambhir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years the incidence of pertussis in the United States (U.S. has risen steadily, with 2012 seeing the highest case number since 1955. There has also been a shift over the same time period in the age group reporting the largest number of cases (aside from infants, from adolescents to 7-11 year olds. We use epidemiological modelling and a large case incidence dataset to explain the upsurge. We investigate several hypotheses for the upsurge in pertussis cases by fitting a suite of dynamic epidemiological models to incidence data from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS between 1990-2009, as well as incidence data from a variety of sources from 1950-1989. We find that: the best-fitting model is one in which vaccine efficacy and duration of protection of the acellular pertussis (aP vaccine is lower than that of the whole-cell (wP vaccine, (efficacy of the first three doses 80% [95% CI: 78%, 82%] versus 90% [95% CI: 87%, 94%], increasing the rate at which disease is reported to NNDSS is not sufficient to explain the upsurge and 3 2010-2012 disease incidence is predicted well. In this study, we use all available U.S. surveillance data to: 1 fit a set of mathematical models and determine which best explains these data and 2 determine the epidemiological and vaccine-related parameter values of this model. We find evidence of a difference in efficacy and duration of protection between the two vaccine types, wP and aP (aP efficacy and duration lower than wP. Future refinement of the model presented here will allow for an exploration of alternative vaccination strategies such as different age-spacings, further booster doses, and cocooning.

  8. Lower risk of atopic disorders in whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children

    OpenAIRE

    Bernsen, Roos; Jongste, Johan; Wouden, Hans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis study addressed whether whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children have a different risk of atopic disorders compared with children who did not receive this vaccination. Data on vaccination status, atopic disorders and child and family characteristics of the children of 700 families were collected in this retrospective study. A minority of these 700 families refused vaccinations for religious reasons. The relation between pertussis-vaccination status and atopic disorders was an...

  9. Assessment of a mandatory tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination requirement on vaccine uptake over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Consoli, Stephanie A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily; Rutala, William A

    2012-01-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all healthcare personnel who provide direct patient care unless medically contraindicated. Our university hospital made employment conditional upon receipt of Tdap vaccine. Implementation for newly hired employees quickly resulted in complete compliance, but achieving adherence among current workers required setting a termination date for noncompliance.

  10. Diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by Cough Plate Method

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    Syed Habib Bukhari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pertussis or whooping cough is a communicable infection of upper respiratory tract that mainly affects children. Reports regarding resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated children mainly motivated us to document pertussis in the children. The aim of the study was to explore pertussis in vaccinated children using an alternative method for pertussis diagnosis.Materials and methods: A total of 700 clinical samples were collected during study period (2006-2009, from suspected whooping cough cases of Diphtheria-tetanus- whole cell pertussis (DTwP vaccinated children both male and female aged from 6 months to 84 months The classical ‘Cough Plate Method’ instead of Nasopharyngeal Swab was used for sampling to find out its potential in diagnosis of pertussis.Results: Present study reports the presence of pertussis in vaccinated children using Cough Plate Method. The method successfully isolated Bordetella pertussis from suspected patients of pertussis. A total of 28 culture confirmed cases were detected among 700 samples tested. (Total Isolation rate: 4%.The peak incidence age under risk was 48 months. However, pertussis was detected in children aged as young as 6 and 12 months.Conclusion: The ‘Cough plate’ method used for isolation proved successful and simple instead of nasopharyngeal swabs that is difficult to perform and children may be reluctant to this sampling method when tried. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (2 : 68-72

  11. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy.

  12. 吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗相关婴儿血小板减少性紫癜%Thrombocytopenic purpura caused by acellular pertussis,diphtheria,tetanus,inactivated poliomye-litis,haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine in an infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琦; 张亚明

    2015-01-01

    A 88-day-old boy was vaccinated with the acellular pertussis,diphtheria,tetanus, inactivated poliomyelitis,hemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine. Twenty-five days later,scattered red rash occurred on his face,both legs and hip,which had asymmetric distribution and not faded when pressed. His platelet count(PLT)was 18 × 109 / L. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was diagnosed. He was given oral prednisone 5 mg thrice daily. The next day,the PLT was 3 × 109 / L. He was treated with IV infusions of dexamethasone 5 mg,human immunoglobulin 5 g and vitamin C 1 g,then an intravenous injection of vitamin K1 5 mg. Three days later,the purpura basically subsided,the PLT was 290 × 109 / L. Follow up of 1. 5 years showed that his PLT had no abnormal changes.%1例出生后88 d 男婴接种吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和 b 型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗后25 d,面部、双下肢及臀部出现散在暗红色皮疹,不对称分布,压之不褪色,血小板计数(PLT)为18×109/ L。诊断:特发性血小板减少性紫癜。给予泼尼松5 mg 口服,3次/ d。次日复查, PLT 3×109/ L。给予地塞米松5 mg、人免疫球蛋白5 g、维生素 C 1 g 静脉滴注,维生素 K15 mg 静脉注射。3 d 后,患儿紫癜基本消退,PLT 290×109/ L。随访至1.5岁,患儿 PLT 未见异常。

  13. Virulence of pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis isolates from infants, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Hélène; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-03-01

    Bordetella pertussis isolates that do not express pertactin (PRN) are increasing in regions where acellular pertussis vaccines have been used for >7 years. We analyzed data from France and compared clinical symptoms among infants <6 months old infected by PRN-positive or PRN-negative isolates. No major clinical differences were found between the 2 groups.

  14. Desensitization with DTP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine

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    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with DTP vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis is a part of the vaccination calendar offered in childhood. Adverse allergic reactions vary from minimal urticarial reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. In infancy these reactions usually interrupt the vaccination calendar, but immunization in these children should be done. At the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade, a group of 137 children with suspected allergic anaphylactic reaction to DTP, DT, TT and monopertussis vaccine was studied for the last six years. Skin (prick and intradermal tests were performed with corresponding vaccine. If both tests were negative, the vaccine could be given as a single dose of 0.5 ml. If one of these tests were positive desensitization with vaccine could be done (according to the protocol described by Carey and Meltzer. In one group of 52 children three days before desensitization, premedication with antihistamines, was done, whereas in the other group of 52 children premedication was not done. Two (3.8% children in a group of 52 children with premedication had a minor (local reaction after vaccination and 50 children (96.2% had no reaction after vaccination, whereas no children (0% had systemic reaction after desensitization.

  15. A Proteomic Characterization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates Associated with a California State Pertussis Outbreak

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    Yulanda M. Williamson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (Bp is the etiologic agent of pertussis (whooping cough, a highly communicable infection. Although pertussis is vaccine preventable, in recent years there has been increased incidence, despite high vaccine coverage. Possible reasons for the rise in cases include the following: Bp strain adaptation, waning vaccine immunity, increased surveillance, and improved clinical diagnostics. A pertussis outbreak impacted California (USA in 2010; children and preadolescents were the most affected but the burden of disease fell mainly on infants. To identify protein biomarkers associated with this pertussis outbreak, we report a whole cellular protein characterization of six Bp isolates plus the pertussis acellular vaccine strain Bp Tohama I (T, utilizing gel-free proteomics-based mass spectrometry (MS. MS/MS tryptic peptide detection and protein database searching combined with western blot analysis revealed three Bp isolates in this study had markedly reduced detection of pertactin (Prn, a subunit of pertussis acellular vaccines. Additionally, antibody affinity capture technologies were implemented using anti-Bp T rabbit polyclonal antisera and whole cellular proteins to identify putative immunogens. Proteome profiling could shed light on pathogenesis and potentially lay the foundation for reduced infection transmission strategies and improved clinical diagnostics.

  16. Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Connie; Octavia, Sophie; Ricafort, Lawrence; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Wood, Nicholas; McIntyre, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Guiso, Nicole; Keil, Anthony D; Lawrence, Andrew; Robson, Jenny; Hogg, Geoff; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-04-01

    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008-2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn). Multiple mechanisms of Prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of Prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing Prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single Prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  17. Immunoproteomic analysis of human serological antibody responses to vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhang Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis (whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis (B.p, continues to be a serious public health threat. Vaccination is the most economical and effective strategy for preventing and controlling pertussis. However, few systematic investigations of actual human immune responses to pertussis vaccines have been performed. Therefore, we utilized a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry to reveal the entire antigenic proteome of whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV targeted by the human immune system as a first step toward evaluating the repertoire of human humoral immune responses against WCV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunoproteomic profiling of total membrane enriched proteins and extracellular proteins of Chinese WCV strain 58003 identified a total of 30 immunoreactive proteins. Seven are known pertussis antigens including Pertactin, Serum resistance protein, chaperonin GroEL and two OMP porins. Sixteen have been documented to be immunogenic in other pathogens but not in B.p, and the immunogenicity of the last seven proteins was found for the first time. Furthermore, by comparison of the human and murine immunoproteomes of B.p, with the exception of four human immunoreactive proteins that were also reactive with mouse immune sera, a unique group of antigens including more than 20 novel immunoreactive proteins that uniquely reacted with human immune serum was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first time that the repertoire of human serum antibody responses against WCV was comprehensively investigated, and a small number of previously unidentified antigens of WCV were also found by means of the classic immunoproteomic strategy. Further research on these newly identified predominant antigens of B.p exclusively against humans will not only remarkably accelerate the development of diagnostic biomarkers and subunit vaccines but also provide detailed insight

  18. Safety of the 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae-derived protein D in the first 2 years of life and immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and control hepatitis A vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Chlibek, Roman; Splino, Miroslav; Kaliskova, Eva; Kohl, Igor; Lommel, Patricia; Schuerman, Lode

    2008-08-18

    This randomized (1:1), double-blind, multicenter study, included 4,968 healthy infants to receive either the 11-valent pneumococcal protein D (PD)-conjugate study vaccine or the hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) (control) at 3, 4, 5, and 12-15 months of age. The three-dose primary course of both vaccines was co-administered with combined hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. The pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine did not impact the immune response of co-administered hexavalent vaccine and the control HAV vaccine induced seropositivity (antibodies >or=15 mIU/mL) in all infants. The incidence of solicited symptoms was higher with the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine, yet similar to that induced by concomitant DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Overall, the reactogenicity and safety profile of the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate vaccine when co-administered with the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine, as well as the immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent vaccine, were consistent with previous reports for the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  19. The effect of pertussis toxin and whole-cell pertussis vaccine on haemodynamics and autonomic responsiveness in the rat depends on route of administration and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, J G; te Biesebeek, J D; van de Kuil, T; van der Laan, J W; Wemer, J; de Wildt, D J; Vleeming, W

    1998-04-01

    Vaccination of children with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis and pertussis vaccine (DTPoP-vaccine) containing the whole-cell pertussis component is known to be associated with manifestation of side-effects such as acute encephalopathy, convulsions and hypotensive-hyporesponsive episodes. In young and adult rats the effects of pertussis toxin and DTPoP-vaccine on haemodynamics and autonomic responsiveness are evaluated following treatment with high dose via different routes of administration (s.c., i.p. and i.v.). The effect of pertussis toxin is dose-dependent (between 1 and 20 micrograms kg-1) and largest responses are observed after i.v. administration. At 20 micrograms kg-1, i.v. pertussis toxin decreases baseline diastolic blood pressure and increases baseline heart rate by 31% and inhibits autonomic responsiveness (salbutamol-induced increase in diastolic blood pressure and arecoline-induced decrease in heart rate). In adult rats DTPoP-vaccine induces generally more prominent effects than in young rats. In adult rats DTPoP-vaccine reduces baseline diastolic blood pressure by 25% while no response is observed in young rats. In adult rats DTPoP inhibits the adrenergic response though less compared to treatment of pertussis toxin. After treatment with DTPoP-vaccine (single or twice) only minor differences are observed between young and adult rats. Present results show that adult rats are more sensitive to pertussis toxin and pertussis vaccine than young rats and that the responses depend on the route of administration.

  20. Pertussis: History of the Disease and Current Prevention Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, E; Karlikowska-Skwarnik, M; Han, S; Nitsch-Osuch, A

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough has been given many names over the centuries. It was first recognized in the Middle Ages and since then various epidemics have been described. Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou isolated Bordetella pertussis, a causative agent for whooping cough, in Paris more than 100 years ago, which created an excellent opportunity to invent a vaccine. In 1914 the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was invented, then in the 1940s it was combined with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids to become DTP and it became widely available. A successive decrease in the incidence of the disease has since been observed. The vaccine has been about 80 % effective in preventing serious disease and death from pertussis. The disadvantage is that the vaccine offers protection for 5-10 years after the last dose of the full vaccination course. The second issue is the question of how to prevent side effects of the whole-cell vaccine. In the 1990s, the acellular vaccine was introduced in the US and gradually replaced the whole-cell vaccine. About 10 years later, a possible failure with the new vaccine has been observed, that is a lack of long-term protection. Nowadays, both vaccines are used, with the acellular vaccine being vastly predominant in most developed countries. Pertussis incidence has increased since the 1980s, but new prevention strategies include booster doses for specific age groups. PMID:27256351

  1. Deciphering the impacts of vaccination and immunity on pertussis epidemiology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Julie C; Cummings, Derek A T; Broutin, Hélène; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-06-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that is currently responsible for nearly 300,000 annual deaths worldwide, primarily in infants in developing countries. Despite sustained high vaccine uptake, a resurgence in pertussis incidence has been reported in a number of countries. This resurgence has led to critical questions regarding the transmission impacts of vaccination and pertussis immunology. We analyzed pertussis incidence in Thailand--both age-stratified and longitudinal aggregate reports--over the past 30 y. To dissect the contributions of waning pertussis immunity and repeat infections to pertussis epidemiology in Thailand following a pronounced increase in vaccine uptake, we used likelihood-based statistical inference methods to evaluate the support for multiple competing transmission models. We found that, in contrast to other settings, there is no evidence for pertussis resurgence in Thailand, with each model examined pointing to a substantial rise in herd immunity over the past 30 y. Using a variety of empirical metrics, we verified our findings by documenting signatures of changing herd immunity over the study period. Importantly, this work leads to the conclusion that repeat infections have played little role in shaping pertussis epidemiology in Thailand. Our results are surprisingly emphatic in support of measurable impact of herd immunity given the uncertainty associated with pertussis epidemiology.

  2. Global population structure and evolution of Bordetella pertussis and their relationship with vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, M.J.; Harris, S.R.; Advani, A.; Arakawa, Y.; Bottero, D.; Bouchez, V.; Cassiday, P.K.; Chiang, C.S.; Dalby, T.; Fry, N.K.; Gaillard, M.E.; Gent, M. van; Guiso, N.; Hallander, H.O.; Harvill, E.T.; He, Q.; Heide, H.G. van der; Heuvelman, K.; Hozbor, D.F.; Kamachi, K.; Karataev, G.I.; Lan, R.; Lutylska, A.; Maharjan, R.P.; Mertsola, J.; Miyamura, T.; Octavia, S.; Preston, A.; Quail, M.A.; Sintchenko, V.; Stefanelli, P.; Tondella, M.L.; Tsang, R.S.; Xu, Y.; Yao, S.M.; Zhang, S.; Parkhill, J.; Mooi, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-ce

  3. Strain variation among Bordetella pertussis isolates in finland, where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Annika; Advani, Abdolreza; Donnelly, Declan; Antila, Mia; Mertsola, Jussi; Hallander, Hans; He, Qiushui

    2005-08-01

    Pertussis is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the introduction of mass vaccination against pertussis in Finland in 1952, pertussis has remained an endemic disease with regular epidemics. To monitor changes in the Finnish B. pertussis population, 101 isolates selected from 1991 to 2003 and 21 isolates selected from 1953 to 1982 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains. The analyses included serotyping of fimbriae (Fim), genotyping of the pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxA) and pertactin (prn), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion of B. pertussis genomic DNA with XbaI restriction enzyme. Strains isolated before 1977 were found to harbor the same ptxA as the strains used in the Finnish whole-cell pertussis vaccine, and strains isolated before 1982 harbored the same prn as the strains used in the Finnish whole-cell pertussis vaccine. All recent isolates, however, represented genotypes distinct from those of the two vaccine strains. A marked shift of predominant serotype from Fim serotype 2 (Fim2) to Fim3 has been observed since the late 1990s. Temporal changes were seen in the genome of B. pertussis by PFGE analysis. Three PFGE profiles (BpSR1, BpSR11, and BpSR147) were distinguished by their prevalence between 1991 and 2003. The yearly emergence of the three profiles was distributed periodically. Our study stresses the importance of the continuous monitoring of emerging strains of B. pertussis and the need to obtain a better understanding of the relationship of the evolution of B. pertussis in vaccinated populations.

  4. Strain Variation among Bordetella pertussis Isolates in Finland, Where the Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Has Been Used for 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Annika; Advani, Abdolreza; Donnelly, Declan; Antila, Mia; Mertsola, Jussi; Hallander, Hans; He, Qiushui

    2005-01-01

    Pertussis is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the introduction of mass vaccination against pertussis in Finland in 1952, pertussis has remained an endemic disease with regular epidemics. To monitor changes in the Finnish B. pertussis population, 101 isolates selected from 1991 to 2003 and 21 isolates selected from 1953 to 1982 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains. The analyses included serotyping of fimbriae (Fim), genotyping of the pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxA) and pertactin (prn), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion of B. pertussis genomic DNA with XbaI restriction enzyme. Strains isolated before 1977 were found to harbor the same ptxA as the strains used in the Finnish whole-cell pertussis vaccine, and strains isolated before 1982 harbored the same prn as the strains used in the Finnish whole-cell pertussis vaccine. All recent isolates, however, represented genotypes distinct from those of the two vaccine strains. A marked shift of predominant serotype from Fim serotype 2 (Fim2) to Fim3 has been observed since the late 1990s. Temporal changes were seen in the genome of B. pertussis by PFGE analysis. Three PFGE profiles (BpSR1, BpSR11, and BpSR147) were distinguished by their prevalence between 1991 and 2003. The yearly emergence of the three profiles was distributed periodically. Our study stresses the importance of the continuous monitoring of emerging strains of B. pertussis and the need to obtain a better understanding of the relationship of the evolution of B. pertussis in vaccinated populations. PMID:16081896

  5. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  6. Sequence Variation of the Pertussis Toxin S1 Subunit Encoding Gene in the Clinical Isolates of Bordetella pertussis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Whooping cough (pertussis is an acute respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis. Pertussis toxin is an important virulence factor of B. pertussis and plays a major role in the immune and inflammatory responses. Likewise, allelic variations in the genes of virulence factors have led to the non-responsiveness of the new strains to both whole-cell and acellular vaccines. Given the importance of pertussis vaccine, we sought to address the lack of fundamental studies on the polymorphisms of the virulence genes of B. pertussis in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the polymorphisms of the pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxS1 gene in the circulating strains and compare them to the vaccine strain. Patients and Methods In this study, 50 strains of B. pertussis isolated from patients with pertussis were investigated in the pertussis reference laboratory of Pasteur institute of Iran. Cultivation, biochemical tests, and the specific antisera were used to confirm B. pertussis. The sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products was performed to determine the ptxS1 alleles, and B. pertussis 134 was studied as the vaccine strain. Results The results showed that all the strains had the dominant allele ptxS1A. There were differences between the alleles of the clinical strains and the vaccine strain. Conclusions In recent years, a significant increase in the incidence of pertussis has been reported worldwide. Our findings regarding the allelic shift of the ptxS1 gene are similar to those reported in many European and American countries showing the difference of the dominant allele of ptxS1 between the circulating isolates and the vaccine strains.

  7. Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin: evaluation as a protective antigen and colonization factor in a mouse respiratory infection model.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, A; Mountzouros, K T; Relman, D.A.; Falkow, S; Cowell, J L

    1990-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell surface protein of Bordetella pertussis which functions as an adhesin for this organism. It is a component of many new acellular pertussis vaccines. The proposed role of FHA in immunity to pertussis is based on animal studies which have produced some conflicting results. To clarify this situation, we reexamined the protective activity of FHA in an adult mouse respiratory infection model. Four-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with one or two doses o...

  8. [Impact of vaccination on the infectious diseases epidemiology: example of pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Several vaccines are now routinely used since fifty years in different developed countries. Their principal impact has been to decrease morbidity and mortality of the infectious diseases they are targeting. One disease, smallpox, is eradicated, poliomyelitis will be soon, diphteria is controlled in several countries but pertussis is still endemic although an efficacious vaccine was used. Why? Pertussis is an example of an infection for which the immunity of the population has changed after th...

  9. Predicting future trends in the burden of pertussis in the 21st century: implications for infant pertussis and the success of maternal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Poolman, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Support is growing for maternal immunization using acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines to prevent severe pertussis disease and deaths among very young, unvaccinated infants. Vaccine effectiveness of maternal immunization is 91% in preventing laboratory-confirmed pertussis in infants aged <3 months. To date, most mothers were primed in childhood with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Soon, the generation of aP-primed individuals will become the new mothers-to-be. The shorter duration of protection afforded by aP vaccines, which is more pronounced with repeated aP boosters, may lead to increased pertussis circulation among aP-primed parents. Maternal Tdap immunization in aP-primed mothers-to-be may become less effective. Additional measures to protect young infants may eventually be needed, along with new vaccines that induce higher quality and more durable responses. PMID:26559122

  10. Lower risk of atopic disorders in whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis study addressed whether whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children have a different risk of atopic disorders compared with children who did not receive this vaccination. Data on vaccination status, atopic disorders and child and family characteristics of the children

  11. Side-effects of pertussis toxin, pertussis vaccines and haemoinfluenza type B vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; te Biesebeek JD; van de Kuil A; Vleeming W; van der Laan JW; Spruyt B; Wemer J; de Wildt DJ; LEO; LGM

    1997-01-01

    Doel van de studie is de bijwerkingen van vaccins nader te bestuderen ter onderbouwing van voor te stellen richtlijnen. Bedoelde richtlijnen stellen eisen aan het verrichten van pre-klinische veiligheids-farmacologie van vaccins. Dit rapport beschrijft de cardiovasculaire en autonome effecten, die

  12. Control of pertussis in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazka, A

    1992-01-01

    Available data indicate that pertussis remains an important disease during infancy and childhood, particularly among those who are inadequately immunized. Over the past 15 years, successful immunization programmes have been implemented in most countries in the world. Some problems have arisen in the industrialized world where pertussis had been well controlled previously. The underlying causes of these problems are apathy and complacency on the part of physicians and parents, negative attitudes to immunization spread by anti-immunization pressure groups and litigation over liability for alleged vaccine-related injures. In developing countries, immunization coverage with primary series of three doses of DPT vaccine in infants exceeds 80%, but there are considerable differences in coverage rates between regions and between and within countries. Failures to reach and maintain high immunization coverage in developing countries are caused by multiple factors including weak management of immunization services, missing opportunities to immunize eligible children and ineffective information and motivation of mothers to return to complete the immunization series. To effectively control pertussis in the world, all countries should use available pertussis vaccines in immunization programmes for children. Since acellular pertussis vaccines are not generally available, the widespread use of DPT vaccine containing the whole-cell pertussis component should be continued. All efforts should be directed to increase or maintain high immunization coverage with DPT immunization at the level of at least 90% in all districts. Surveillance of pertussis morbidity should be strengthened in all countries and ideally, pertussis should be a reportable disease. More information on the present epidemiological pattern of pertussis, especially age distribution of pertussis cases in developing countries, is needed to develop the policy of booster doses of DPT vaccine in children > 1 year.

  13. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; D'Angelo, Denise; Shealy, Kristen H; Singleton, James A; Liang, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2015-05-22

    In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range = 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range = 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range = 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Various Pertussis Vaccination Strategies Primarily Aimed at Protecting Infants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke A.; de Vries, Robin; Tamminga, Johannes J.; Sauboin, Christophe J.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Despite a high rate of vaccine coverage through the Dutch national immunization program, the incidence of pertussis remains high in the Netherlands and the risk of infection continues. Because pertussis is most severe in unimmunized i

  15. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing;

    2010-01-01

    We measured IgA and IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in sera from 203 1-year-old children who had received one to three doses of a monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine. Ten children (5%) had IgA antibody to PT indicating recent infection; seven of these children...... had received three doses of vaccine. PT IgA responders did not have significantly longer coughing episodes than PT IgA non-responders. Since an IgA antibody response occurs in only approximately 50% of infected children, the actual infection rate in our cohort is estimated to approximately 10......%. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  16. Differences in the genomic content of Bordetella pertussis isolates before and after introduction of pertussis vaccines in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallonen, Teemu; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Kirsi; Elomaa, Annika; Lutyńska, Anna; Fry, Norman K; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2011-12-01

    Resurgence of pertussis has been observed in many countries with high vaccination coverage and clonal expansion of certain Bordetella pertussis strains has been associated with recent epidemics in Europe. It is known that vaccinations have selected strains which are different from those used for vaccine production. However, little is known about the differences in genomic content of strains circulating before the vaccination was introduced. In this study, we compared the genomes of 39 vaccine strains and old clinical isolates (isolated 1941-1984) collected from Finland (n = 5), Poland (n = 14), Serbia (n = 10) and the UK (n = 10). The analysis included genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). Compared to the strain Tohama I, the European isolates analyzed have lost three major regions of difference (RD3, 5 and 29). However, difference in frequency of the absent RDs 3 (BP0910A-BP0934), 5 (BP1135-BP1141) or 29 (BP1225) was observed among isolates from the four countries. Of the isolates with absent RD5, half had also a duplicated region in the genome. All four RDs (RD22 (BB0535-BB0541), 23 (BB0916-BB0921), 24 (BB1140-BB1158) and 26 (BB4880-BB4888)) absent in Tohama I were present in majority of the tested isolates. Results obtained from PFGE analysis correlated well with those of CGH. Recently a novel pertussis toxin promoter allele (ptxP3) was described. Isolates with ptxP3 have replaced resident ptxP1 isolates in the countries where this was investigated. When the recent isolates, collected in 2000-2004, selected from the four countries were examined, the ptxP3 allele was found in all countries except Poland. Our result indicates that at least three clusters of B. pertussis circulated in Europe in pre- and early vaccine era and their genomes were distinct from that of the reference strain Tohama I. Although progressive gene loss occurs in B. pertussis population with time, difference in frequency of the lost

  17. 吸附无细胞百白破、灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性%A surveillance of safety of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine containing a polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦基; 钱晓华; 王春艳; 施雪华; 区志莲; 鲁依力

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察吸附无细胞百白破、灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗(Diphtheria-tetanusacellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine containing a polyribosyl-ribitolphosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate,DTacP-IPV//PRP ~T)的不良反应发生情况,以评价其安全性.方法 采用知情自愿原则,在虹口区4个街道选择100名出生60 ~ 74 d符合检测要求的婴儿,分别于2、3、4月龄接种五联疫苗,并进行4次现场和3次电话访视,记录不良反应的发生情况.结果 接种五联疫苗后,不良反应发生率前3位为轻度异常哭闹(25.8%)、轻度触痛(23.8%)和轻度食欲下降(23.2%),随着接种剂次增加,局部发红、肿胀的严重程度升高,而呕吐、嗜睡、食欲下降、易激惹的严重程度下降.结论 五联疫苗具有良好的安全性,严重不良反应的发生率较低.受主观影响较大的不良反应报告偏多,在日后的接种工作中需注意后续剂次接种后局部不良反应的发生情况,以减轻局部症状.

  18. Protecting Newborns Against Pertussis: Treatment and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Abdulbaset M; Liang, Yan; Kilgore, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    Pertussis is a potentially severe respiratory disease, which affects all age groups from young infants to older adults and is responsible for an estimated 195,000 deaths occurred globally in 2008. Active research is ongoing to better understand the pathogenesis, immunology, and diagnosis of pertussis. For diagnosis, molecular assays (e.g., polymerase chain reaction) for detection of Bordetella pertussis have become more widely available and support improved outbreak detection. In children, pertussis vaccines have been incorporated into routine immunization schedules and deployed for pertussis outbreak control. Lower levels of vaccine coverage are now being observed in communities where vaccine hesitancy is rising. Additionally, recognition that newborn babies are at risk of pertussis in the USA and UK has led to recommendations to immunize pregnant women. Among adolescents and older adults in the USA, Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines are recommended, but substantial individual- and system-level barriers exist that will make achieving national Healthy People 2020 targets for immunization challenging. Current antimicrobial regimens for pertussis are focused on reducing the severity of disease, reducing rates of sequelae, and minimizing transmission of infection to susceptible individuals. Continued surveillance for pertussis will be important to identify opportunities for reducing young infants' exposure and reducing the impact of outbreaks among school-aged children. Laboratory-based surveillance for newly emerging strains of B. pertussis will be important to identify strains that may evade protection elicited by currently available vaccines. Efforts to develop new-generation pertussis vaccines should be considered now in anticipation of vaccine development programs, which may require ten or more years to deliver a licensed vaccine. PMID:26542059

  19. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  20. Pyrexia after diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waight, P. A.; Pollock, T M; Miller, E.; Coleman, E M

    1983-01-01

    The temperatures of 587 children were taken before and after diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) or diphtheria/tetanus (DT) vaccine. Only slight temperature increases were found but these were notably more frequent after plain than adsorbed DTP vaccine preparations and the frequency increased with each successive dose.

  1. Assessment of Serologic Immunity to Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis After Treatment of Korean Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Nak-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack-Ki; Kang, Jin Han

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients. A total of 146 children with either malignancy in remission after cessation of therapy or bone marrow failure were recruited. All children had received routine immunization including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination before diagnosis of cancer. The serologic immunity...

  2. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the effect of vaccination on the evolution of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinghua; Liu, Bin; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksila, Kirsi; Tan, Yajun; Feng, Lu; Kallonen, Teemu; Wang, Lichan; Peng, Ding; He, Qiushui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shumin

    2015-08-18

    Herd immunity can potentially induce a change of circulating viruses. However, it remains largely unknown that how bacterial pathogens adapt to vaccination. In this study, Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, was selected as an example to explore possible effect of vaccination on the bacterial pathogen. We sequenced and analysed the complete genomes of 40 B. pertussis strains from Finland and China, as well as 11 previously sequenced strains from the Netherlands, where different vaccination strategies have been used over the past 50 years. The results showed that the molecular clock moved at different rates in these countries and in distinct periods, which suggested that evolution of the B. pertussis population was closely associated with the country vaccination coverage. Comparative whole-genome analyses indicated that evolution in this human-restricted pathogen was mainly characterised by ongoing genetic shift and gene loss. Furthermore, 116 SNPs were specifically detected in currently circulating ptxP3-containing strains. The finding might explain the successful emergence of this lineage and its spread worldwide. Collectively, our results suggest that the immune pressure of vaccination is one major driving force for the evolution of B. pertussis, which facilitates further exploration of the pathogenicity of B. pertussis.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of next-generation vaccines: The case of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Wenzel, Natasha S; Scarpino, Samuel V; Althouse, Benjamin M; Atkins, Katherine E; Galvani, Alison P; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2016-06-17

    Despite steady vaccination coverage rates, pertussis incidence in the United States has continued to rise. This public health challenge has motivated calls for the development of a new vaccine with greater efficacy and duration of protection. Any next-generation vaccine would likely come at a higher cost, and must provide sufficient health benefits beyond those provided by the current vaccine in order to be deemed cost-effective. Using an age-structured transmission model of pertussis, we quantified the health and economic benefits of a next-generation vaccine that would enhance either the efficacy or duration of protection of the childhood series, the duration of the adult booster, or a combination. We developed a metric, the maximum cost-effective price increase (MCPI), to compare the potential value of such improvements. The MCPI estimates the per-dose price increase that would maintain the cost-effectiveness of pertussis vaccination. We evaluated the MCPI across a range of potential single and combined improvements to the pertussis vaccine. As an upper bound, we found that a next-generation vaccine which could achieve perfect efficacy for the childhood series would permit an MCPI of $18 per dose (95% CI: $12-$31). Pertussis vaccine improvements that extend the duration of protection to an average of 75 years would allow for an MCPI of $22 per dose for the childhood series (CI: $10-$33) or $12 for the adult booster (CI: $4-$18). Despite the short duration of the adult booster, improvements to the childhood series could be more valuable than improvements to the adult booster. Combining improvements in both efficacy and duration, a childhood series with perfect efficacy and average duration of 75 years would permit an MCPI of $39 per dose, the highest of any scenario evaluated. Our results highlight the utility of the MCPI metric in evaluating potential vaccines or other interventions when prices are unknown. PMID:27087151

  4. Waning and aging of cellular immunity to Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Twillert, Inonge; Han, Wanda G H; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2015-11-01

    While it is clear that the maintenance of Bordetella pertussis-specific immunity evoked both after vaccination and infection is insufficient, it is unknown at which pace waning occurs and which threshold levels of sustained functional memory B and T cells are required to provide long-term protection. Longevity of human cellular immunity to B. pertussis has been studied less extensively than serology, but is suggested to be key for the observed differences between the duration of protection induced by acellular vaccination and whole cell vaccination or infection. The induction and maintenance of levels of protective memory B and T cells may alter with age, associated with changes of the immune system throughout life and with accumulating exposures to circulating B. pertussis or vaccine doses. This is relevant since pertussis affects all age groups. This review summarizes current knowledge on the waning patterns of human cellular immune responses to B. pertussis as addressed in diverse vaccination and infection settings and in various age groups. Knowledge on the effectiveness and flaws in human B. pertussis-specific cellular immunity ultimately will advance the improvement of pertussis vaccination strategies.

  5. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  6. Using age-stratified incidence data to examine the transmission consequences of pertussis vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Blackwood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination. Our analyses demonstrate decreases in incidence across all ages with increased vaccine uptake – an observation that is at odds with pertussis case notification data in a number of other countries. To explore whether these observations are consistent with a rise in herd immunity and a reduction in bacterial transmission, we analyze an age-structured model that incorporates contrasting hypotheses concerning the immunological and transmission consequences of vaccines. Our results lead us to conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the combined reduction in incidence and the shift to older age groups in the Thailand data is vaccine-induced herd immunity.

  7. Genomic content of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in areas of intensive children vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to analyse the evolution of Bordetella pertussis population and the influence of herd immunity in different areas of the world where newborns and infants are highly vaccinated. METHODOLOGY: The analysis was performed using DNA microarray on 15 isolates, PCR on 111 isolates as well as GS-FLX sequencing technology on 3 isolates and the B. pertussis reference strain, Tohama I. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our analyses demonstrate that the current circulating isolates are continuing to lose genetic material as compared to isolates circulating during the pre-vaccine era whatever the area of the world considered. The lost genetic material does not seem to be important for virulence. Our study confirms that the use of whole cell vaccines has led to the control of isolates that were similar to vaccine strains. GS-FLX sequencing technology shows that current isolates did not acquire any additional material when compared with vaccine strains or with isolates of the pre-vaccine era and that the sequenced strain Tohama I is not representative of the isolates. Furthermore, this technology allowed us to observe that the number of Insertion Sequence elements contained in the genome of the isolates is temporally increasing or varying between isolates. CONCLUSIONS: B. pertussis adaptation to humans is still in progress by losing genetic material via Insertion Sequence elements. Furthermore, recent isolates did not acquire any additional material when compared with vaccine strains or with isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Herd immunity, following intensive vaccination of infants and children with whole cell vaccines, has controlled isolates similar to the vaccine strains without modifying significantly the virulence of the isolates. With the replacement of whole cell vaccines by subunit vaccines, containing only few bacterial antigens targeting the virulence of the bacterium, one could hypothesize the circulation of isolates

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of the acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus,inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine):a meta-analysis%吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思思; 王栋芳; 钟朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine in comparison with commercially available DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus conjugate and IPV monovalent vaccine. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on DTaP-IPV/Hib were retrieved by searching interna-tional and national databases. The pooled mean difference and relative risk and 95% CI were assessed by meta analysis with RevMan 5.0 software. Results Totally 6 studies were included for the final analysis. The seroprotection/seroconversion level of the Anti-PT (RR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.14, 0.48) in combination vaccine was higher. The antibody titer levels of Anti-PT (WMD=21.11, 95%CI:9.36, 32.86), Anti-polio type1 (WMD=59.15, 95%CI:2.81, 115.48), Anti-polio type 3 (WMD=169.82, 95%CI:75.33, 264.30) were higher respectively. But the antibody titer level of Anti-PRP (WMD=-3.58, 95%CI:-5.52,-1.64) in the com-bination vaccine group was lower. Redness (RR=0.82, 95%CI:0.72, 0.93) and Tenderness (RR=0.45, 95%CI:0.30, 0.65) were lower in the combination vaccine. Swelling (RR=2.03, 95%CI:1.02, 4.01) was more common in the patients given the combina-tion vaccine. Conclusions This study supports the conclusion that the DTaP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine is equivalent to the separate injections based on similar antibody responses to the vaccine antigens, effectiveness and safety after primary doses.%目的:评价吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合()DTaP-IPV/Hib)五联疫苗与吸附无细胞百白破联合(DTaP)疫苗、b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Hib)疫苗、灭活脊髓灰质炎(IPV)疫苗的免疫原性和安全性。方法检索国内外发表的有关DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗与DTaP、Hib、IPV疫苗的随机对照试验(RCTs)文献,采用meta分析方法,利用RevMan 5.0软件评价DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性。结果最终纳入6篇英

  9. Pertussis booster vaccine for adolescents and young adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Carvalho Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to assess different strategies of pertussis booster vaccination in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: A dynamic stationary age-dependent compartmental model with waning immunity was developed. The "Who Acquires Infection from Whom" matrix was used to modeling age-dependent transmission rates. There were tested different strategies including vaccine boosters to the current vaccination schedule and three of them were reported: (i 35% coverage at age 12, or (ii 70% coverage at age 12, and (iii 35% coverage at age 12 and 70% coverage at age 20 at the same time. RESULTS: The strategy (i achieved a 59% reduction of pertussis occurrence and a 53% reduction in infants while strategy (ii produced 76% and 63% reduction and strategy (iii 62% and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pertussis booster vaccination at age 12 proved to be the best strategy among those tested in this study as it achieves the highest overall reduction and the greatest impact among infants who are more susceptible to pertussis complications.

  10. Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Protects against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease via an IL-17-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Devika; Schnoeller, Corinna; Roux, Xavier; Openshaw, Peter J.; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Locht, Camille; Raze, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: We attenuated virulent Bordetella pertussis by genetically eliminating or detoxifying three major toxins. This strain, named BPZE1, is being developed as a possible live nasal vaccine for the prevention of whooping cough. It is immunogenic and safe when given intranasally in adult volunteers.

  11. Modelling the impact of extended vaccination strategies on the epidemiology of pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Vries, R.; Le, H.H.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal pertussis booster vaccination strategy for The Netherlands. A realistic age-structured deterministic model was designed. Assuming a steady-state situation and correcting for underreporting, the model was calibrated using notification data from the

  12. Update on pertussis and pertussis immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yun Hong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory tract disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection. The clinical manifestation of this infection can be severe enough to cause death. Although pertussis has been supposed to be a vaccine-preventable disease ever since the widespread vaccination of children against pertussis was started, since the 1990s, cases of pertussis and related fatalities are on the rise, especially in countries with high vaccination coverage. In Korea, there have been no deaths due to pertussis since 1990, and the vaccination rate continues to be approximately 94%. However, the number of pertussis cases reported to the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention has tended to increase in the 2000s, and in 2009, there was an obvious increase in the number of pertussis cases reported. This review aims to present the latest information about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pertussis.

  13. Construction of Bordetella pertussis strains with enhanced production of genetically-inactivated Pertussis Toxin and Pertactin by unmarked allelic exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buasri Wasin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acellular Pertussis vaccines against whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis present a much-improved safety profile compared to the original vaccine of killed whole cells. The principal antigen of acellular Pertussis vaccine, Pertussis Toxin (PT, must be chemically inactivated to obtain the corresponding toxoid (PTd. This process, however, results in extensive denaturation of the antigen. The development of acellular Pertussis vaccines containing PTd or recombinant PT (rPT with inactivated S1, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA, and Pertactin (PRN has shown that the yield of PRN was limiting, whereas FHA was overproduced. To improve antigen yields and process economics, we have constructed strains of Bordetella pertussis that produce enhanced levels of both rPT and PRN. Results Three recombinant strains of Bordetella pertussis were obtained by homologous recombination using an allelic exchange vector, pSS4245. In the first construct, the segment encoding PT subunit S1 was replaced by two mutations (R9K and E129G that removed PT toxicity and Bp-WWC strain was obtained. In the second construct, a second copy of the whole cluster of PT structural genes containing the above mutations was inserted elsewhere into the chromosome of Bp-WWC and the Bp-WWD strain was obtained. This strain generated increased amounts of rPT (3.77 ± 0.53 μg/mL compared to Bp-WWC (2.61 ± 0.16 μg/mL and wild type strain (2.2 μg/mL. In the third construct, a second copy of the prn gene was inserted into the chromosome of Bp-WWD to obtain Bp-WWE. Strain Bp-WWE produced PRN at 4.18 ± 1.02 μg/mL in the cell extract which was about two-fold higher than Bp-WWC (2.48 ± 0.10 μg/mL and Bp-WWD (2.31 ± 0.17 μg/mL. Purified PTd from Bp-WWD at 0.8-1.6 μg/well did not show any toxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell whereas purified PT from WT demonstrated a cell clustering endpoint at 2.6 pg/well. Conclusions We have constructed Bordetella

  14. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Immunity in Indian Adults and Immunogenicity of Td Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Raut, Sidram K.; Dhorje, Sanjay P.; Barde, Prajakt J.; Girish Koli; Jadhav, Suresh S.

    2011-01-01

    Rise of diphtheria cases in adults is a cause of concern worldwide. Pertussis is also now affecting adults. We assessed serum levels of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis antibodies in 62 adults in Pune, India, who had missed their primary immunization. All adults were then given three doses of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months. All adults were immune to tetanus but 78% had long-term protection. For diphtheria, 88% were protected but only 9% had long term immunity. Only 60%...

  15. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

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    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  16. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

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    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  17. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide structures of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates from pre- and post-vaccine era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitar-Nehme, Sami; Basheer, Soorej M; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Guiso, Nicole; Caroff, Martine

    2013-08-30

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and major constituents of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bordetella pertussis LPS were the only major antigens, of this agent of whooping-cough, that were not yet analyzed on isolates from the pre- and post-vaccination era. We compared here the LPS structures of four clinical isolates with that of the vaccine strain BP 1414. All physico-chemical analyses, including SDS-PAGE, TLC, and different MALDI mass spectrometry approaches were convergent. They helped demonstrating that, on the contrary to some other B. pertussis major antigens, no modification occurred in the dodecasaccharide core structure, as well as in the whole LPS molecules. These results are rendering these major antigens good potential vaccine components. Molecular modeling of this conserved LPS structure also confirmed the conclusions of previous experiments leading to the production of anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies and defining the main epitopes of these major antigens.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Tdap vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years in the prevention of pertussis in the US: a dynamic model of disease transmission.

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    Lisa J McGarry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP advised that all adults aged ≥65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap, expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ≥65 to "baseline" practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 4-6 years, and one dose of Tdap at 11-64 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. METHODS: We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ≥65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. RESULTS: For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective and $44.8 million (payer perspective. From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative

  19. Impact of vaccination and birth rate on the epidemiology of pertussis: a comparative study in 64 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutin, H; Viboud, C; Grenfell, B T; Miller, M A; Rohani, P

    2010-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis infection remains an important public health problem worldwide despite decades of routine vaccination. A key indicator of the impact of vaccination programmes is the inter-epidemic period, which is expected to increase with vaccine uptake if there is significant herd immunity. Based on empirical data from 64 countries across the five continents over the past 30-70 years, we document the observed relationship between the average inter-epidemic period, birth rate and vaccine coverage. We then use a mathematical model to explore the range of scenarios for duration of immunity and transmission resulting from repeat infections that are consistent with empirical evidence. Estimates of pertussis periodicity ranged between 2 and 4.6 years, with a strong association with susceptible recruitment rate, defined as birth rate × (1 - vaccine coverage). Periodicity increased by 1.27 years on average after the introduction of national vaccination programmes (95% CI: 1.13, 1.41 years), indicative of increased herd immunity. Mathematical models suggest that the observed patterns of pertussis periodicity are equally consistent with loss of immunity that is not as rapid as currently thought, or with negligible transmission generated by repeat infections. We conclude that both vaccine coverage and birth rate drive pertussis periodicity globally and that vaccination induces strong herd immunity effects. A better understanding of the role of repeat infections in pertussis transmission is critical to refine existing control strategies.

  20. Primary Immunization with a Triple Diphtheria-Tetanus-Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccine in Iranian Infants: An Analysis of Antibody Response

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    Zarei Saeed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Universal vaccination of neonates and children against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has had a tremendous impact on the control of these infectious diseases worldwide. Immunization by the triple diphtheria, tetanus and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. Periodic assessment of immunogenicity of this vaccine is an important aspect of successful mass vaccination programs. The present study was performed to assess the antibody response against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis in a group of Iranian infants vaccinated with a local DTwP vaccine. In this prospective study, 330 infants received primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with DTwP vaccine manufactured by Razi Institute of Iran. Blood samples were taken 2-4 weeks after the third dose to assess seroprotection and geometric mean titers (GMT of specific antibodies. Among the 283 infants who completed the vaccination course, 98.2% and 100% developed antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus, respectively. The GMT of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, were 2.09 IU/ml, 2.08 IU/ml and 8.73 EU/ml, respectively. Comparison of the results obtained from this study with those from previous studies performed in other countries revealed a similar GMT and protection rates for diphtheria and tetanus components. In the absence of well-established serological criteria, judgment about protection rate against pertussis has not been possible. A prospective vaccination study using the local DTwP vaccine in parallel to a WHO approved standard vaccine, could enable assessment of immunogenicity of the pertussis component.

  1. Pertussis Immunization for Adolescents: What Are We Waiting for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Halperin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization against pertussis (whooping cough has been part of the routine childhood immunization program for over 50 years. Until 1997, a whole cell pertussis vaccine was used, most often combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; in some jurisdictions it was combined with inactivated poliovirus vaccine and later with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib-conjugate vaccine. Vaccine doses were given at two, four, six and 18 months of age, and again at four to six years of age. Use of the whole cell vaccine in children seven years of age and older was not recommended because "the incidence and severity of the disease greatly decrease with age, and because adverse reactions are (may be more common in older children and adults..." (1-3. Over a one-year period in 1997/98, all provinces in Canada began using an acellular pertussis vaccine, again combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and Hib-conjugate vaccine. In 1999, an acellular pertussis vaccine that was combined with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP (Adacel, Aventis Pasteur, Canada was licensed for use in individuals 12 to 54 years of age in Canada. In Germany, a similar adolescent and adult TdaP was licensed in 2000 (Boostrix, SmithKline Beecham, Belgium. With the availability of a TdaP product in Canada, should routine universal immunization against pertussis be provided for all adolescents and adults? Some of the key issues to be considered when answering this question are addressed in the questions and answers that follow. The focus of the present paper is on the adolescent population; however, similar issues about adult immunization need to be addressed by internal medicine and family practice practitioners.

  2. Seroprevalence of pertussis in the Gambia : evidence for continued circulation of bordetella pertussis despite high vaccination rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Susana; van der Sande, Marianne; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Mendy, Maimuna; Sanneh, Bakary; Barry Jallow, Fatou; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona; van Gageldonk, Pieter; Mooi, Frits; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis can cause severe respiratory disease and death in children. In recent years, large outbreaks have occurred in high-income countries; however, little is known about pertussis incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We evaluated antibody responses to pertussis toxin

  3. Evolution of French Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis isolates: increase of Bordetellae not expressing pertactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Paris, A-S; Brun, D; Dore, G; Njamkepo, E; Guillot, S; Guiso, N

    2012-09-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis are closely related bacterial agents of whooping cough. Whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine was introduced in France in 1959. Acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine was introduced in 1998 as an adolescent booster and was rapidly generalized to the whole population, changing herd immunity by specifically targeting the virulence of the bacteria. We performed a temporal analysis of all French B. pertussis and B. parapertussis isolates collected since 2000 under aP vaccine pressure, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), genotyping and detection of expression of virulence factors. Particular isolates were selected according to their different phenotype and PFGE type and their characteristics were analysed using the murine model of respiratory infection and in vitro cell cytotoxic assay. Since the introduction of the aP vaccines there has been a steady increase in the number of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis isolates collected that are lacking expression of pertactin. These isolates seem to be as virulent as those expressing all virulence factors according to animal and cellular models of infection. Whereas wP vaccine-induced immunity led to a monomorphic population of B. pertussis, aP vaccine-induced immunity enabled the number of circulating B. pertussis and B. parapertussis isolates not expressing virulence factors to increase, sustaining our previous hypothesis.

  4. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Hallander, H O; Advani, A; Guiso, N; Wirsing von Kőnig, C H; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Fry, N K; Pierard, D; Detemmerman, L; Zavadilova, J; Fabianova, K; Logan, C; Habington, A; Byrne, M; Lutyńska, A; Mosiej, E; Pelaz, C; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Economopoulou, A; He, Q; Mooi, F R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens has been found between vaccine strains and circulating strains. In this work, 466 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in the period 1998-2012 from 13 European countries were characterised by multi-locus antigen sequence typing (MAST) of the pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) and of the genes coding for proteins used in the ACVs: pertussis toxin (Ptx), pertactin (Prn), type 2 fimbriae (Fim2) and type 3 fimbriae (Fim3). Isolates were further characterised by fimbrial serotyping, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed a very similar B. pertussis population for 12 countries using ACVs, while Poland, which uses a WCV, was quite distinct, suggesting that ACVs and WCVs select for different B. pertussis populations. This study forms a baseline for future studies on the effect of vaccination programmes on B. pertussis populations.

  5. Study on Toxicity Reduction and Potency Induction in Whole-cell Pertussis Vaccine by Developing a New Optimal Inactivation Condition Processed on Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, Naser; Razzaghi-Abyane, Mehdi; Nofeli, Mojtaba; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background Whooping cough is caused by Bordetella pertussis, and it remains a public health concern. Whole-cell pertussis vaccines have been commonly employed for expanded immunization. There is no doubt of the efficacy of whole cell pertussis vaccine, but it is necessary to improve the vaccine to decrease its toxicity. Objectives In this study, an inactivation process of dealing with pertussis bacteria is optimized in order to decrease the bacteria content in human doses of vaccines and reduce the vaccine’s toxicity. Materials and Methods The bacterial suspensions of pertussis strains 509 and 134 were divided into 21 sample parts from F1 to F21 and inactivated under different conditions. The inactivated suspensions of both strains were tested for opacity, non-viability, agglutination, purity, and sterility; the same formulation samples that passed quality tests were then pooled together. The pool of inactivated suspensions were analyzed for sterility, agglutination, opacity, specific toxicity, and potency. Results The harvest of both bacterial strains showed purity. The opacity of various samples were lost under different treatment conditions by heat from 8% to 12%, formaldehyde 6% to 8%, glutaraldehyde 6% to 8%, and thimerosal 5% to 8%. Tests on suspensions after inactivation and on pooled suspensions showed inactivation conditions not degraded agglutinins of both strains. The samples of F2, F4, F8, F12, F15, and F17 passed the toxicity test. The potency (ED50) of these samples showed following order F17 > F12 > F8 > F15, F4 > F2, and F17 revealed higher potency compared to other formulations. Conclusions It can be concluded that F17 showed desirable outcomes in the toxicity test and good immunogenicity with a low bacterial number content. Consequently, lower adverse effects and good immunogenicity are foreseeable for vaccine preparation with this method. PMID:27679704

  6. Experimental Study of Interference Between Pertussis Antigens and Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine

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    H. Mirehamsy

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available An interference is observed between whooping-cough antigens and Salk polioc vaccine even if the two components are mixed immediately before use. The phenomenon is more evident when flUlid antigens are injected. Pertussis soluble antigen, which gives a good serological response in rabbits, when used alone or combined with DT, is inactivated in the presence of Salk polio vacc:ne

  7. Old Disease and New Challenges: Major Obstacles of Current Strategies in the Prevention of Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context Universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis has partially controlled the burden of the disease and its transmission. However, according to recent data, the epidemiology of this vaccine-preventable disease has changed. Now, younger infants, adolescents, and adults are at greater risk of infection. This article has studied the interaction between the various factors involved in the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the major obstacles faced by the current strategies in its prevention. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, the most recently published sources of information on pertussis control measures, consisting of textbooks and articles, have been reviewed. We focused on the more recent data about the changing epidemiology or pertussis in Scopus through the use of the MeSH-term words [pertussis] or [whooping cough] and [epidemiology] or [outbreak] or [resurgence], but our search was not restricted to this particular strategy; we also tried to find all of the most recent available data in the general field through other means. Results Primary and booster doses of the pertussis vaccine seem to partially control transmission of the disease, but despite the different preventive strategies available, pertussis continues to cause mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups. Conclusions Adding booster doses of acellular pertussis vaccine to the current national immunization practices with whole-cell vaccines for young adults and pregnant women seems to be a good option for controlling mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups such as very young infants.

  8. Old Disease and New Challenges: Major Obstacles of Current Strategies in the Prevention of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Karimi, Abdollah; Amanati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context Universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis has partially controlled the burden of the disease and its transmission. However, according to recent data, the epidemiology of this vaccine-preventable disease has changed. Now, younger infants, adolescents, and adults are at greater risk of infection. This article has studied the interaction between the various factors involved in the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the major obstacles faced by the current strategies in its prevention. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, the most recently published sources of information on pertussis control measures, consisting of textbooks and articles, have been reviewed. We focused on the more recent data about the changing epidemiology or pertussis in Scopus through the use of the MeSH-term words [pertussis] or [whooping cough] and [epidemiology] or [outbreak] or [resurgence], but our search was not restricted to this particular strategy; we also tried to find all of the most recent available data in the general field through other means. Results Primary and booster doses of the pertussis vaccine seem to partially control transmission of the disease, but despite the different preventive strategies available, pertussis continues to cause mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups. Conclusions Adding booster doses of acellular pertussis vaccine to the current national immunization practices with whole-cell vaccines for young adults and pregnant women seems to be a good option for controlling mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups such as very young infants. PMID:27729960

  9. Leukocyte transcript alterations in West-African girls following a booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orntoft, Nikolaj W; Thorsen, Kasper; Benn, Christine S;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Observational studies from low-income countries have shown that the vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) is associated with excess female mortality due to infectious diseases. Methods. To investigate possible changes in gene expression after DTP vaccination, we...... identified a group of nine comparable West African girls, from a biobank of 356 children, who were due to receive DTP booster vaccine at age 18 months. As a pilot experiment we extracted RNA from blood samples before, and 6 weeks after, vaccination to analyze the coding transcriptome in leukocytes using...... expression microarrays, and ended up with information from eight girls. The data was further analyzed using dedicated array pathway and network software. We aimed to study whether DTP vaccination introduced a systematic alteration in the immune system in girls. Results. We found very few transcripts to alter...

  10. Proteomics-identified Bvg-activated autotransporters protect against bordetella pertussis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Daan; Gouw, Daan de; de Jonge, Marien I; Jonge, Marien I de; Hermans, Peter W M; Wessels, Hans J C T; Zomer, Aldert; Berends, Alinda; Pratt, Catherine; Berbers, Guy A; Mooi, Frits R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease of humans caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis has re-emerged globally. Causes for the re-emergence of pertussis include limited duration of protection conferred by acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptations involve antigenic divergence with vaccine strains, the emergence of strains which show enhanced in vitro expression of a number of virulence-associated genes and of strains that do not express pertactin, an important aP component. Clearly, the identification of more effective B. pertussis vaccine antigens is of utmost importance. To identify novel antigens, we used proteomics to identify B. pertussis proteins regulated by the master virulence regulatory system BvgAS in vitro. Five candidates proteins were selected and it was confirmed that they were also expressed in the lungs of naïve mice seven days after infection. The five proteins were expressed in recombinant form, adjuvanted with alum and used to immunize mice as stand-alone antigens. Subsequent respiratory challenge showed that immunization with the autotransporters Vag8 and SphB1 significantly reduced bacterial load in the lungs. Whilst these antigens induced strong opsonizing antibody responses, we found that none of the tested alum-adjuvanted vaccines - including a three-component aP - reduced bacterial load in the nasopharynx, suggesting that alternative immunological responses may be required for efficient bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx.

  11. Cross-reactions in IgM ELISA tests to Legionella pneumophila sg1 and Bordetella pertussis among children suspected of legionellosis; potential impact of vaccination against pertussis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Katarzyna Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary evaluation of IgM cross-reaction in sera collected from children hospitalized because of suspected legionellosis. Sera with positive IgM results to L. pneumophila sgs1-7, B. pertussis or with simultaneous detection of IgM antibodies to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and B. pertussis, or IgM to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and M. pneumoniae in routine tests, were selected. In total, an adapted pre-absorption test was used for the serological confirmation of legionellosis in the sera of 19 children suspected of legionellosis, and also in 3 adult persons with confirmed Legionnaires' disease. Sera were pre-absorbed with antigens of L. pneumophila sg1, B. pertussis or both, and tested by ELISA tests. The reduction of IgM antibody level by pre-absorption with antigen/antigens was determined. Reduction of anti-Lpsgs1-7 IgM by pre-absorption with L.pneumophila sg1 antigen ranged from 1.5 to 80, and reduction of anti-Bp IgM by pre-absorption with B. pertussis ranged from 2.0 to 23.8. Reduction by both antigens varied depending on the age of the patients: among children tests. As a preliminary, we posed a hypothesis of a potential impact of an anti-pertussis vaccination on the results obtained in anti-L. pneumophila ELISA IgM tests among young children.

  12. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks

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    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  13. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis Strain VA-190 Isolated from a Vaccinated 10-Year-Old Patient with Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C.; Turner, Lauren; Nguyen, Bryan; Kang, June; Neville, Carly

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420. PMID:27634997

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis Strain VA-190 Isolated from a Vaccinated 10-Year-Old Patient with Whooping Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C; Turner, Lauren; Nguyen, Bryan; Kang, June; Neville, Carly; Temple, Louise

    2016-09-15

    The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Bordetella pertussis Strain VA-190 Isolated from a Vaccinated 10-Year-Old Patient with Whooping Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C; Turner, Lauren; Nguyen, Bryan; Kang, June; Neville, Carly; Temple, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420. PMID:27634997

  17. Short Term Reactogenicity of a Triple Diphtheria-Tetanus-Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccine in Iranian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zarei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP has long been applied in Iran using whole cell vac­cine. Despite the role of whole cell DTP (DTwP vaccine in reduction of mortality as a result of disastrous diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, serious local and systemic complications have been attributed to these vaccines. This study was performed to determine the complications of DTwP vaccine in infants attending some of the health centers of Te­hran in 2006-2007."nMethods:  In this prospective study, 330 infants were injected with DTwP vaccine manufactured by Razi Institute of Iran. All subjects received DTwP vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age following the national vaccination schedule of Iran. Re­actogenicity was assessed by the parents for 7 days post-vaccination using diary cards."nResults: Of the 279 infants who completed the vaccination study, pain was the most frequent local reaction after the pri­mary vaccination (68.1-75.3%. The mean diameters of the redness and swelling at first day post-vaccination were 2.81±6.91 and 2.60±7.93 mm in the first dose, 2.40±6.25 and 1.94±5.74 mm in the second dose and 2.24±5.66 and 2.16±6.03 in the third dose, respectively. Fever (axillary temperature >37.5° C was the most frequently reported systemic re­action during the pri­mary vaccination (53.8-58.8%. All systemic reactions observed after each dose were either reduced or completely disap­peared during a week."nConclusion: The high incident of complications observed following vaccination with this cellular triple vaccine may be re­lated to the formulation or the bacterial cell fragments used in vaccine production.

  18. Diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine(TDAP) in pregnancy: prevention of whooping cough in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Vera; Loio, Marisa; Ribeiro, Nelson Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Atualmente observa-se uma reemergência de tosse convulsa em países com elevadas coberturas vacinais, incluindo Portugal. Os lactentes com menos de três meses de idade constituem o grupo mais vulnerável. Novas estratégias vacinais têm sido propostas, entre as quais a vacinação no ter- ceiro trimestre de gravidez. No entanto, a sua implementação é ainda limitada, existindo dúvidas quanto à sua eficácia e segurança. Objectivo: Rever a evidência quanto à eficácia e segurança da vac...

  19. Cross-reactions in IgM ELISA tests to Legionella pneumophila sg1 and Bordetella pertussis among children suspected of legionellosis; potential impact of vaccination against pertussis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary evaluation of IgM cross-reaction in sera collected from children hospitalized because of suspected legionellosis. Sera with positive IgM results to L. pneumophila sgs1-7, B. pertussis or with simultaneous detection of IgM antibodies to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and B. pertussis, or IgM to L. pneumophila sgs1-7 and M. pneumoniae in routine tests, were selected. In total, an adapted pre-absorption test was used for the serological confirmation of legionellosis in the sera of 19 children suspected of legionellosis, and also in 3 adult persons with confirmed Legionnaires’ disease. Sera were pre-absorbed with antigens of L. pneumophila sg1, B. pertussis or both, and tested by ELISA tests. The reduction of IgM antibody level by pre-absorption with antigen/antigens was determined. Reduction of anti-Lpsgs1-7 IgM by pre-absorption with L.pneumophila sg1 antigen ranged from 1.5 to 80, and reduction of anti-Bp IgM by pre-absorption with B. pertussis ranged from 2.0 to 23.8. Reduction by both antigens varied depending on the age of the patients: among children <4 yrs.old, the reduction of anti-B. pertussis IgM by both antigens was higher than for B. pertussis antigen alone. Based on the high difference (≥ 2 times) between reduction by L.pneumophila sg1 and by B. pertussis antigen, legionellosis was confirmed in 8/19 children. The majority of them also indicated IgM positive/borderline results for B. pertussis or M.pneumoniae in routine ELISA tests. As a preliminary, we posed a hypothesis of a potential impact of an anti-pertussis vaccination on the results obtained in anti-L. pneumophila ELISA IgM tests among young children. PMID:26557032

  20. Pertussis as health care workers infectious disease – The clinical case with a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kuchar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the changing epidemiological situation of pertussis observed in recent years, with a focus on the shift of cases from young children to older age groups, teenagers and adults. Whooping cough may affect healthcare workers who belong to a high-risk group and cause hospital infections. We present a case report of pertussis in a nurse and the recommended prophylactic measures in healthcare workers. The current definition and diagnosis of pertussis is also discussed. The clinical course of pertussis can be significantly alleviated and highly non-specific, with no typical coughing and vomiting in people vaccinated against whooping cough a few years earlier. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough lasting more than fourteen days. Improvement of the epidemiological situation requires, besides immunization of infants, regular and universal booster immunization for adolescents and adults. Vaccinations for health care workers of neonatal and pediatric wards are recommended in the National Program of Immunization for 2013. It seems that booster vaccination of health care workers with a triple vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (dTpa of the reduced quantity of antigens, particularly of health workers caring for infants, children and the elderly, may be the most effective way to reduce the risk of pertussis transmission in the health care environment. Med Pr 2013;64(5:731–739

  1. Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative North American region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina; Halperin, Scott; Cherry, James D; Edwards, Kathryn; Englund, Janet A; Glezen, Paul; Greenberg, David; Rothstein, Edward; Skowronski, Danuta

    2005-05-01

    In North America, children currently receive 5 doses of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine between the ages of 2 months and 6 years. Although this schedule has reduced the incidence of childhood pertussis, it has not led to the development of herd immunity in the total population, largely because pertussis immunity wanes with time. The time course over which immunity wanes is uncertain; however, high pertussis antibody titers in adolescents and adults indicate unrecognized infection in these groups. There is evidence that this group serves as a source of infection for young infants who are not fully immunized. Therefore, of the potential strategies reviewed by the North American Global Pertussis Initiative group, universal adolescent immunization would in theory reduce the risk of pertussis in this age group and may reduce transmission to young infants. However, because immunity probably wanes at the same rate in adolescents and children, the burden of disease will likely shift to older age groups, including young adults (parents of vulnerable infants). Therefore the ideal would be immunization of adolescents and adults, particularly those who are in contact with young infants. Adolescent immunization is already recommended in Austria, France, Germany and Canada, and participants in the Global Pertussis Initiative recommend that this strategy be implemented across North America with a view to eventually extending immunization to include adults. The final decision to implement such a strategy will depend on pertussis surveillance studies and analysis of the effectiveness and tolerability of adolescent and adult pertussis immunization as well as program considerations related to feasibility and economics.

  2. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara;

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male...

  3. Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Delma J; Heininger, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious vaccine-preventable cough illness that continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world. The majority of human illness is caused by Bordetella pertussis, and some is caused by Bordetella parapertussis. Bordetella is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, aerobic coccobacillus. In the past several years, even countries with high immunization rates in early childhood have experienced rises in pertussis cases. Reasons for the resurgence of reported pertussis may include molecular changes in the organism and increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities, as well as lessened vaccine efficacy and waning immunity. The most morbidity and mortality with pertussis infection is seen in infants too young to benefit from immunization. Severe infection requiring hospitalization, including in an intensive care setting, is mostly seen in those under 3 months of age. As a result, research and public health actions have been aimed at better understanding and reducing the spread of Bordetella pertussis. Studies comparing the cost benefit of cocooning strategies versus immunization of pregnant women have been favorable towards immunizing pregnant women. This strategy is expected to prevent a larger number of pertussis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in infants <1 year old while also being cost-effective. Studies have demonstrated that the source of infection in infants usually is a family member. Efforts to immunize children and adults, in particular pregnant women, need to remain strong.

  4. Production and characterization of recombinant pertactin, fimbriae 2 and fimbriae 3 from Bordetella pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Qiming

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough in humans. Pertactin (Prn, fimbriae 2 (Fim2 and fimbriae 3 (Fim3 of B. pertussis are important virulence factors and immunogens which have been included in some acellular pertussis vaccines. In this present study, we cloned, expressed and purified Prn, Fim2 and Fim3, respectively. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three recombinant proteins (rPrn, rFim2 and rFim3 were investigated in mouse model. Results Three recombinant proteins with amount of 12 to 25 mg/L were produced. Compared to the control mice only immunized with adjuvant, serum IgG antibody responses were significantly induced in the mice immunized with rPrn, rFim2 or rFim3 (P P B. pertussis (P Conclusions We have developed an efficient method to produce large amounts of rPrn, rFim2, and rFim3 from B. pertussis. The three recombinant proteins induced both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Immunization with rPrn also conferred protection against pertussis in mouse infection models. Our results indicated that the recombinant proteins still retain their immunological properties and highlighted the potential of the recombinant proteins for the future development of the B. pertussis vaccines.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of adolescent pertussis vaccination for the Netherlands: using an individual-based dynamic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin de Vries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread immunization programs, a clear increase in pertussis incidence is apparent in many developed countries during the last decades. Consequently, additional immunization strategies are considered to reduce the burden of disease. The aim of this study is to design an individual-based stochastic dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in the population in order to predict the epidemiologic and economic consequences of the implementation of universal booster vaccination programs. Using this framework, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal adolescent pertussis booster vaccination at the age of 12 years in the Netherlands. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a discrete event simulation (DES model to predict the epidemiological and economic consequences of implementing universal adolescent booster vaccination. We used national age-specific notification data over the period 1996-2000--corrected for underreporting--to calibrate the model assuming a steady state situation. Subsequently, booster vaccination was introduced. Input parameters of the model were derived from literature, national data sources (e.g. costing data, incidence and hospitalization data and expert opinions. As there is no consensus on the duration of immunity acquired by natural infection, we considered two scenarios for this duration of protection (i.e. 8 and 15 years. In both scenarios, total pertussis incidence decreased as a result of adolescent vaccination. From a societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness was estimated at €4418/QALY (range: 3205-6364 € per QALY and €6371/QALY (range: 4139-9549 € per QALY for the 8- and 15-year protection scenarios, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the outcomes are most sensitive to the quality of life weights used for pertussis disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge we designed the first individual-based dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in

  6. Factors associated with vaccination for hepatitis B, pertussis, seasonal and pandemic influenza among French general practitioners: a 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Massin, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Verger, Pierre

    2013-08-20

    Our objectives were to describe the vaccine coverage (VC(1)) for some occupational vaccines (hepatitis B, pertussis, seasonal and pandemic influenza) among French General Practitioners (GPs(2)) and to study the factors associated with being vaccinated for each of these four diseases. We surveyed a representative national sample of 1431 self-employed GPs in France. Self-reported VC was 76.9% for 2009/10 seasonal influenza, 73.0% for hepatitis B, 63.9% for pertussis and 60.8% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. The factors associated with reporting being vaccinated were quite different from one vaccine to another. For some or all four vaccines, we found a significant positive association (pexercise (e.g. homoeopathy), no use of Internet at the practice, Continuing Medical Education sessions, discussing the benefits and risks of vaccination with the patients and performing prevention investigations for oneself (lipid profile). Being vaccinated for one vaccine also increased the VC for some or all three other studied vaccines. All these findings argue for public health campaigns using messages adapted to each vaccine. PMID:23806242

  7. The effect of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination on parasitaemia in an experimental murine malaria model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Hein-Kristensen, Line; Hempel, Casper;

    2011-01-01

    infectious diseases when given with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The immunological effects of combining the 2 treatments are unknown. Methods: We studied the effect of treating C57BL/6 mice with VAS and DTP, 1 week prior to infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. The progression of disease...

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism associated with the response to whole-cell pertussis vaccination in children from the KOALA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banus, Sander; Bottema, Renske W. B.; Siezen, Christine L. E.; Vandebriel, Rob J.; Reimerink, Johan; Mommers, Monique; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hoebee, Barbara; Thijs, Carel; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kimman, Tjeerd G.; Stelma, Foekje F.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4 and the pertussis toxin-specific immunoglobulin G response after whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccination in 515 1-year-old children from the KOALA study. A lower titer was associated with the minor allele of

  9. [PERSISTENCE OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS BACTERIA AND A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF ITS FORMATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataev, G I; Sinyashina, L N; Medkova, A Yu; Semin, E G

    2015-01-01

    A growth of pertussis morbidity is observed in many countries of the world against the background of mass vaccindtion. Forms of the disease course have changed. Atypical forms of pertussis occur predominately in adolescents and adults. Asymptomatic carriage of the causative agent has been established. Infection of infants with. BordetelIa pertussis bacteria in more than 90% of cases occurs from parents and relatives. A prolonged persistence of the causative agent has been identified. Morbidity increase in developed countries is associated with the use of acellular vaccines, that do not protect from the infection, but reduce severity of the disease. A change of genotypes of the circulating bacteria strains is observed ubiquitously. Formation of a persistent form of B. pertussis is possible due to a reversible integration of IS-elements into bvgAS operon and other virulence genes. The results of studies of invasion and survival of B. pertussis bacteria in eukaryotic cells, a change in B. pertussis bacteria population after experimental infection of laboratory mice and monkeys are presented, accumulation of avirulent insertion Bvg mutants of B. pertussis was detected. The data obtained are in accordance with the results of analysis of causative agent population in patients with typical and atypical forms of pertussis in humans. More than 50% of the population of B. pertussis bacteria in practically healthy carriers was shown to be presented by avirulent insertion Bvg mutants. B. pertussis virulence reducing as a result of inactivation of single or several virulence genes probably provide long-term persistence of bacteria in host organism and formation of apparently healthy vehicles. Follow-up studies on that front would help to formulate new attitudes to preventive measures of pertussis and lead to development of fundamentally new pharmaceuticals (vaccines) preventing formation of bacterial persistence.

  10. [PERSISTENCE OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS BACTERIA AND A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF ITS FORMATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataev, G I; Sinyashina, L N; Medkova, A Yu; Semin, E G

    2015-01-01

    A growth of pertussis morbidity is observed in many countries of the world against the background of mass vaccindtion. Forms of the disease course have changed. Atypical forms of pertussis occur predominately in adolescents and adults. Asymptomatic carriage of the causative agent has been established. Infection of infants with. BordetelIa pertussis bacteria in more than 90% of cases occurs from parents and relatives. A prolonged persistence of the causative agent has been identified. Morbidity increase in developed countries is associated with the use of acellular vaccines, that do not protect from the infection, but reduce severity of the disease. A change of genotypes of the circulating bacteria strains is observed ubiquitously. Formation of a persistent form of B. pertussis is possible due to a reversible integration of IS-elements into bvgAS operon and other virulence genes. The results of studies of invasion and survival of B. pertussis bacteria in eukaryotic cells, a change in B. pertussis bacteria population after experimental infection of laboratory mice and monkeys are presented, accumulation of avirulent insertion Bvg mutants of B. pertussis was detected. The data obtained are in accordance with the results of analysis of causative agent population in patients with typical and atypical forms of pertussis in humans. More than 50% of the population of B. pertussis bacteria in practically healthy carriers was shown to be presented by avirulent insertion Bvg mutants. B. pertussis virulence reducing as a result of inactivation of single or several virulence genes probably provide long-term persistence of bacteria in host organism and formation of apparently healthy vehicles. Follow-up studies on that front would help to formulate new attitudes to preventive measures of pertussis and lead to development of fundamentally new pharmaceuticals (vaccines) preventing formation of bacterial persistence. PMID:26951000

  11. Bordetella pertussis isolates in Finland: Serotype and fimbrial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertsola Jussi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans. It produces several virulence factors, of which the fimbriae are considered adhesins and elicit immune responses in the host. B. pertussis has three distinct serotypes Fim2, Fim3 or Fim2,3. Generally, B. pertussis Fim2 strains predominate in unvaccinated populations, whereas Fim3 strains are often isolated in vaccinated populations. In Finland, pertussis vaccination was introduced in 1952. The whole-cell vaccine contained two strains, 18530 (Fim3 since 1962 and strain 1772 (Fim2,3 added in 1976. After that the vaccine has remained the same until 2005 when the whole-cell vaccine was replaced by the acellular vaccine containing pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. Our aims were to study serotypes of Finnish B. pertussis isolates from 1974 to 2006 in a population with > 90% vaccination coverage and fimbrial expression of the isolates during infection. Serotyping was done by agglutination and serotype-specific antibody responses were determined by blocking ELISA. Results Altogether, 1,109 isolates were serotyped. Before 1976, serotype distributions of Fim2, Fim3 and Fim2,3 were 67%, 19% and 10%, respectively. From 1976 to 1998, 94% of the isolates were Fim2 serotype. Since 1999, the frequency of Fim3 strains started to increase and reached 83% during a nationwide epidemic in 2003. A significant increase in level of serum IgG antibodies against purified fimbriae was observed between paired sera of 37 patients. The patients infected by Fim3 strains had antibodies which blocked the binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fim3 but not to Fim2. Moreover, about one third of the Fim2 strain infected patients developed antibodies capable of blocking of binding of both anti-Fim2 and Fim3 monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion Despite extensive vaccinations in Finland, B. pertussis Fim2 strains were the most common serotype. Emergence of Fim3 strains started in 1999 and

  12. Pertussis in the Era of New Strains of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Emily; Long, Sarah S

    2015-12-01

    Despite implementation of a successful vaccination program, pertussis remains a significant health problem. Although the incidence of pertussis in the United States is reduced by approximately 80% compared with incidence before the introduction of vaccination in the 1940s, deaths still occur and the unrecognized disease burden remains high, with 1 million Bordetella pertussis infections annually in the United States estimated by serologic surveys. Reasons for the resurgence and current prevalence of pertussis may be multifactorial and include waning vaccine-induced protection as well as lower vaccine effectiveness, failure to vaccinate, and changes in the organism itself.

  13. Safety of Adsorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Inactivated Poliovirus-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Combination Vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) for Infants' Primary Vaccination at 2, 3, 4 Months of Age%吸附无细胞百日咳-白喉-破伤风-灭活脊髓灰质炎-b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌联合疫苗在2、3、4月龄婴儿中用于基础免疫的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓冬; 黄卓英; 李智; 郭翔; 刘捷宸; 牟文; 陆红梅; 钱晓华

    2014-01-01

    目的 监测接种吸附无细胞百日咳-白喉-破伤风-灭活脊髓灰质炎-b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌联合疫苗(Absorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertusis-Inactivated Poliovirus-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Combined Vaccine,DTaP-IPV-Hib)后的不良反应,评价DTaP-IPV-Hib上市后在目标人群中使用的安全性.方法 以市售的DTaP-IPV-Hib作为研究疫苗,在上海市选择300名出生后60~74d的婴儿,采用主动监测的方法观察其在2月龄、3月龄、4月龄接种后的不良反应.结果 接种DTaP-IPV-Hib后0~7d,注射部位不良反应发生率为39.1%(349/892),其中严重程度3级的发生率为1.1% (10/892);全身不良反应发生率56.1%(500/892),其中严重程度3级的发生率为2.5%(22/892).随着接种剂次的增加,注射部位红斑和肿胀的报告发生率显著增加,呕吐、异常哭闹、嗜睡、食欲下降和易激惹等全身反应的报告发生率显著下降.结论 2、3、4月龄婴儿接种DTaP-IPV-Hib有良好的安全性.

  14. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  15. In vitro innate immune cell based models to assess whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine quality: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; Hendriksen, C F M; van Els, C A C M; Vandebriel, R J; Sloots, A; Han, W G H

    2015-03-01

    Lot release testing of vaccines is primarily based on animal models that are costly, time-consuming and sometimes of questionable relevance. In order to reduce animal use, functional in vitro assays are being explored as an alternative approach for the current lot release testing paradigm. In this study, we present an evaluation of APC platforms assessing innate immune activation by whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines. Primary monocytes, monocyte-derived DC (moDC) and human monocyte/DC cell lines (MonoMac6 and MUTZ-3) were compared for their capacity to respond to wP vaccines of varying quality. To produce such vaccines, the production process of wP was manipulated, resulting in wP vaccines covering a range of in vivo potencies. The responses of MUTZ-3 cells and primary monocytes to these vaccines were marginal and these models were therefore considered inappropriate. Importantly, moDC and MonoMac6 cells responded to the wP vaccines and discriminated between vaccines of varying quality, although slight variations in the responses to wP vaccines of similar quality were also observed. This study provides a proof of principle for the use of in vitro APC platforms as part of a new strategy to assess wP vaccine lot consistency, though careful standardisation of assay conditions is necessary.

  16. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  17. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  18. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin;

    2012-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....

  19. Plasticity of fimbrial genotype and serotype within populations of Bordetella pertussis: analysis by paired flow cytometry and genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Thomas E; Pratt, Catherine B; Sealey, Katie; Preston, Andrew; Fry, Norman K; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2014-09-01

    The fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis are required for colonization of the human respiratory tract. Two serologically distinct fimbrial subunits, Fim2 and Fim3, considered important vaccine components for many years, are included in the Sanofi Pasteur 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine, and the World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of strains expressing both fimbrial serotypes in whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Each of the fimbrial major subunit genes, fim2, fim3, and fimX, has a promoter poly(C) tract upstream of its -10 box. Such monotonic DNA elements are susceptible to changes in length via slipped-strand mispairing in vitro and in vivo, which potentially causes on/off switching of genes at every cell division. Here, we have described intra-culture variability in poly(C) tract lengths and the resulting fimbrial phenotypes in 22 recent UK B. pertussis isolates. Owing to the highly plastic nature of fimbrial promoters, we used the same cultures for both genome sequencing and flow cytometry. Individual cultures of B. pertussis contained multiple fimbrial serotypes and multiple different fimbrial promoter poly(C) tract lengths, which supports earlier serological evidence that B. pertussis expresses both serotypes during infection.

  20. Expression and purification of the Bordella Pertussis toxin S1 subunit mutant in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao L. Zhang; Quan M. Zou

    2007-01-01

    Bordella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough.Traditional vaccines against this disease are inherently reactogenic, thus research is currentlly focussed on the production of less reactive,acellular vaccines.Expression of candidate antigens for these vaccines in Escherichia coli would be preferable. Pertussis toxin S1 subunit plays a critical role in the bacterium-host interplay.The mutant(rS1) containing two key amino acids substitution(Arg9-Lys/Glu129-Gly)is nontoxin and immunogenic and while retaining the protective epitopes. In this study, the immunoprotective S1 fragment of pertussis toxin fusion was verified by restriction endonuclease analysis and Western immunoblotting. Escherichia coli carrying the recombinant plasmid(pQE-rS1)produced a 26 kDa protein that was recognized by antibodies specific to the S1. Expressed rS1 in E. coli was purified from the inclusion bodies. The N-terminal 6 histidines could easily be captured by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Then, the rS1 of interest was purified to 92% homogeneity. Antisera generated against the purified S1 mutant protein recognized the native toxin indicating that some, if not all, of the native epitope were conserved. Thus, this vaccine preparation is potentially applicable for the production of novel vaccines against B. pertussis infection.

  1. Development of live attenuated Bordetella pertussis strains expressing the universal influenza vaccine candidate M2e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Lim, Annabelle; Ow, Stephanie T L; Phoon, Meng Chee; Locht, Camille; Chow, Vincent T; Alonso, Sylvie

    2011-07-26

    The attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1 vaccine strain represents an attractive platform for the delivery of heterologous vaccine candidates via the nasal route. The filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) has been used to secrete or expose the foreign antigens at the bacterial surface. In this study, one, two and three copies of the Cys-containing ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) from influenza A virus were genetically fused to full length FHA and expressed in BPZE1. The secretion efficacy of the FHA-(M2e)(1,2,3) chimera in the extracellular milieu and the ability of the recombinant bacteria to colonize the mouse lungs inversely correlated with the number of M2e copies fused to FHA. Nevertheless FHA-(M2e)(3)-producing bacteria (BPLR3) triggered the highest systemic anti-M2e antibody response upon nasal administration to BALB/c mice. Nasal immunization with BPLR3 bacteria resulted in a significant reduction in the viral loads upon challenge with H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus, but did not improve the survival rate compared to BPZE1-immunized mice. Furthermore, since previous work reported that disulfide bond formation in Cys-containing passenger antigens affects the secretion efficacy of the FHA chimera, the dsbA gene encoding a periplasmic disulfide isomerase was deleted in the FHA-(M2e)(3)-producing strain. Despite improving significantly the secretion efficacy of the FHA-(M2e)(3) chimera, the dsbA deletion did not result in higher anti-M2e antibody titers in mice, due to impaired bacterial fitness and colonization ability.

  2. Risk of sudden infant death syndrome after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M R; Ray, W A; Livengood, J R; Schaffner, W

    1988-09-01

    To evaluate recent immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) as a possible risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we studied the rates of SIDS after the administration of DTP vaccine in a cohort of 129,834 children who were born in four urban Tennessee counties during the period from 1974 through 1984. All the children received at least one DTP immunization in the first year of life at county health-department clinics or from Medicaid providers. Computerized immunization records from these sources were linked with Tennessee birth and death certificates to establish the cohort, ascertain the timing of immunization, and identify cases of SIDS. These children represented 42 percent of the births in the four counties. Among these children, 204 deaths occurred at the ages of 29 to 365 days; 109 deaths were classified as due to SIDS. We estimated the risk of SIDS according to the length of time, up to 30 days, since DTP immunization and compared it with the risk 31 days or more after immunization to calculate the relative risk. With control for age, the relative risk from 0 to 3 days after DTP immunization was 0.18 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.8); from 4 to 7 days, 0.17 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.7); from 8 to 14 days, 0.75 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.5); and from 15 to 30 days, 1.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.6). A multivariate analysis in which we controlled for age, sex, race, year, birth weight, and Medicaid enrollment, produced similar results. We conclude that in this large population of children there was no increase in the risk of SIDS after immunization with the DTP vaccine.

  3. Caspase-1-independent interleukin-1β is required for clearance of Bordetella pertussis infections and whole-cell vaccine-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, David E; Muse, Sarah J; Kirimanjeswara, Girish S; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-01-01

    Whooping cough remains a significant disease worldwide and its re-emergence in highly vaccinated populations has been attributed to a combination of imperfect vaccines and evolution of the pathogen. The focus of this study was to examine the role of IL-1α/β and the inflammasome in generation of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) response, which is required for the clearance of Bordetella pertussis. We show that IL-1β but not IL-1α is required for mediating the clearance of B. pertussis from the lungs of mice. We further found that IL-1β and IL-1R deficient mice, compared to wild-type, have similar but more persistent levels of inflammation, characterized by immune cell infiltration, with significantly increased IFNγ and a normal IL-17A response during B. pertussis infection. Contrary to expectations, the cleavage of precursor IL-1β to its mature form did not require caspase-1 during primary infections within the lung despite being required by bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to live bacteria. We also found that the caspase-1 inflammasome was not required for protective immunity against a B. pertussis challenge following vaccination with heat-killed whole cell B. pertussis, despite IL-1R signaling being required. These findings demonstrate that caspase-1-independent host factors are involved in the processing of protective IL-1β responses that are critical for bacterial clearance and vaccine-mediated immunity.

  4. Caspase-1-independent interleukin-1β is required for clearance of Bordetella pertussis infections and whole-cell vaccine-mediated immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Place

    Full Text Available Whooping cough remains a significant disease worldwide and its re-emergence in highly vaccinated populations has been attributed to a combination of imperfect vaccines and evolution of the pathogen. The focus of this study was to examine the role of IL-1α/β and the inflammasome in generation of the interleukin-1 (IL-1 response, which is required for the clearance of Bordetella pertussis. We show that IL-1β but not IL-1α is required for mediating the clearance of B. pertussis from the lungs of mice. We further found that IL-1β and IL-1R deficient mice, compared to wild-type, have similar but more persistent levels of inflammation, characterized by immune cell infiltration, with significantly increased IFNγ and a normal IL-17A response during B. pertussis infection. Contrary to expectations, the cleavage of precursor IL-1β to its mature form did not require caspase-1 during primary infections within the lung despite being required by bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to live bacteria. We also found that the caspase-1 inflammasome was not required for protective immunity against a B. pertussis challenge following vaccination with heat-killed whole cell B. pertussis, despite IL-1R signaling being required. These findings demonstrate that caspase-1-independent host factors are involved in the processing of protective IL-1β responses that are critical for bacterial clearance and vaccine-mediated immunity.

  5. Vaccine-Mediated Activation of Human TLR4 Is Affected by Modulation of Culture Conditions during Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marieke E.; Verhagen, Lisa M.; Pupo, Elder; de Haan, Alex; Metz, Bernard; Hendriksen, Coenraad F. M.; Han, Wanda G. H.; Sloots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    The potency of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines is still determined by an intracerebral mouse protection test. To allow development of suitable in vitro alternatives to this test, insight into relevant parameters to monitor the consistency of vaccine quality is essential. To this end, a panel of experimental wP vaccines of varying quality was prepared by sulfate-mediated suppression of the BvgASR master virulence regulatory system of Bordetella pertussis during cultivation. This system regulates the transcription of a range of virulence proteins, many of which are considered important for the induction of effective host immunity. The protein compositions and in vivo potencies of the vaccines were BvgASR dependent, with the vaccine containing the highest amount of virulence proteins having the highest in vivo potency. Here, the capacities of these vaccines to stimulate human Toll-like receptors (hTLR) 2 and 4 and the role these receptors play in wP vaccine-mediated activation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro were studied. Prolonged BvgASR suppression was associated with a decreased capacity of vaccines to activate hTLR4. In contrast, no significant differences in hTLR2 activation were observed. Similarly, vaccine-induced activation of MonoMac-6 and monocyte-derived dendritic cells was strongest with the highest potency vaccine. Blocking of TLR2 and TLR4 showed that differences in antigen-presenting cell activation could be largely attributed to vaccine-dependent variation in hTLR4 signalling. Interestingly, this BvgASR-dependent decrease in hTLR4 activation coincided with a reduction in GlcN-modified lipopolysaccharides in these vaccines. Accordingly, expression of the lgmA-C genes, required for this glucosamine modification, was significantly reduced in bacteria exposed to sulfate. Together, these findings demonstrate that the BvgASR status of bacteria during wP vaccine preparation is critical for their hTLR4 activation capacity and suggest that including

  6. Vaccine-Mediated Activation of Human TLR4 Is Affected by Modulation of Culture Conditions during Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marieke E; Verhagen, Lisa M; Pupo, Elder; de Haan, Alex; Metz, Bernard; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Han, Wanda G H; Sloots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    The potency of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines is still determined by an intracerebral mouse protection test. To allow development of suitable in vitro alternatives to this test, insight into relevant parameters to monitor the consistency of vaccine quality is essential. To this end, a panel of experimental wP vaccines of varying quality was prepared by sulfate-mediated suppression of the BvgASR master virulence regulatory system of Bordetella pertussis during cultivation. This system regulates the transcription of a range of virulence proteins, many of which are considered important for the induction of effective host immunity. The protein compositions and in vivo potencies of the vaccines were BvgASR dependent, with the vaccine containing the highest amount of virulence proteins having the highest in vivo potency. Here, the capacities of these vaccines to stimulate human Toll-like receptors (hTLR) 2 and 4 and the role these receptors play in wP vaccine-mediated activation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro were studied. Prolonged BvgASR suppression was associated with a decreased capacity of vaccines to activate hTLR4. In contrast, no significant differences in hTLR2 activation were observed. Similarly, vaccine-induced activation of MonoMac-6 and monocyte-derived dendritic cells was strongest with the highest potency vaccine. Blocking of TLR2 and TLR4 showed that differences in antigen-presenting cell activation could be largely attributed to vaccine-dependent variation in hTLR4 signalling. Interestingly, this BvgASR-dependent decrease in hTLR4 activation coincided with a reduction in GlcN-modified lipopolysaccharides in these vaccines. Accordingly, expression of the lgmA-C genes, required for this glucosamine modification, was significantly reduced in bacteria exposed to sulfate. Together, these findings demonstrate that the BvgASR status of bacteria during wP vaccine preparation is critical for their hTLR4 activation capacity and suggest that including

  7. Stability of EIA kits for determination of pertussis antigens and their application in the production process of pertussis vaccine%检测百日咳抗原的系列酶免疫测定试剂盒的稳定性及其在百日咳疫苗生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘殊男; 张霖阳; 王玲; 夏德菊; 王宇星; 肖詹蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的 评估检测百日咳毒素(pertussis toxin,PT)、丝状血凝素(filamentous haemagglutinin,FHA)和黏着素(pertactin,Prn)的3种酶免疫测定试剂盒的稳定性及其在无细胞百日咳疫苗(acellular pertussis vaccine,aPV)生产质量控制中的应用.方法 对3种酶免疫测定试剂盒进行热加速试验(37℃放置3 d)和长期稳定性试验(4℃放置6月),根据试剂盒的标准曲线相关系数、最高浓度标准品与阴性对照的吸光度值之比(P/N)值、质控品回收率评估试剂盒的稳定性.将3种试剂盒用于aPV生产的发酵、纯化、吸附阶段的PT、FHA、Prn定量检测,以确定3种试剂盒对aPV生产质量控制的可行性.结果 3种酶免疫测定试剂盒的37℃热加速试验和4℃长期稳定性试验的各项质量参数均符合相关要求.采用试剂盒定量各生产阶段的百日咳抗原含量显示:百日咳杆菌的发酵终点在第42~46 h;各3批PT、FHA和Prn组分液的纯化回收率分别为49.24%、56.12%和63.65%,68.75%、55.60%和49.76%、75.73%、60.63%和50.10%.采用单独吸附的铝佐剂抗原吸附率高于采用混合吸附,但单独和混合吸附方式制备的疫苗的效力无差异.结论 检测PT、FHA和Prn的3种酶免疫测定试剂盒具有良好的稳定性,可用于aPV生产的质量控制.%Objective To evaluate the stability of 3 kinds of EIA kits for detecting pertussis toxin (PT),filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn) and their application in the quality control of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) production.Methods The stability of EIA kits were evaluated by heat accelerated test (37 ℃ for 3 days) and long-term stability test (4 ℃ for 6 months),using the correlation coefficient of standard curve,the P/N value and the recovery of the quality control material.The contents of PT,FHA and Prn in the fermentation,purification and adsorption stages during the production process of aPV were detected by these 3 kinds

  8. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and infection . Q: Do pertussis vaccines protect from serious disease? A: If you've been vaccinated and get ... of any age can catch this very contagious disease. But if you've been vaccinated, your infection is usually less serious. If you or your child develops a cold ...

  9. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA prime-protein boost strategy to enhance efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-tian LI; Yong-zhang ZHU; Jia-you CHU; Ke DONG; Ping HE; Chun-yan FENG; Bao-yu HU; Shu-min ZHANG; Xiao-kui GUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine. The strategy is co-injection with cytokine plasmids as prime, and boosted with purified homologous proteins. Method: A recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine containing the pertussis toxin subunit 1 (PTS1), fragments of the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) gene and pertactin (PRN) gene encoding filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin were constructed. Balb/c mice were immunized with several DNA vaccines and antigen-specific antibodies anti-PTSl, anti-PRN, anti-FHA, cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-oc, and spleno-cyte-proliferation assay were used to describe immune responses. Results: The recombinant DNA vaccine could elicit similar immune responses in mice as that of separate plasmids encoding the 3 fragments, respectively. Mice immunized with DNA and boosted with the corresponding protein elicited more antibodies than those that received DNA as boost. In particular, when the mice were co-immunized with murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plasmids and boosted with proteins, all 4 cytokines and the 3 antigen-specific antibodies were significantly increased compared to the pVAXl group. Anti-PTSl, anti-FHA, IL-4 and TNF-α elicited in the colony stimulating factor (CSF) prime-protein boost group showed significant increase compared to all the other groups. Conclusion: This prime and boost strategy has proven to be very useful in improving the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines against pertussis.

  10. Colonization of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that differ by pulsed field gel electrophoresis types in the lungs of naïve mice or mice immunized with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine used in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Maciej; Zawadka, Monika; Mosiej, Ewa; Rabczenko, Daniel; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Guiso, Nicole; Lutyńska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the elimination of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that differ according to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotypes and genes encoding virulence factors from the lungs of naïve mice or mice immunized with commercial diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine used in Poland. When a mixture of four isolates, given in equal proportions and harboring different PFGE profiles, serotypes, and alleles encoding virulence factors, was used to infect non-immunized mice, a single isolate, characterized by PFGE type IVγ, Fim2 phenotype and ptxA1-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-ptxP1-ptxC1-fim3-1 alleles, was found to be significantly predominant compared to the others. This PFGE profile is commonly found in B. pertussis isolates circulating in some European countries since the late 1990s, confirming its high fitness. The Polish commercial whole-cell pertussis vaccine induced an immunity effective at eliminating the B. pertussis isolates from the lungs. However, the elimination of the isolate harboring PFGE type C profile, Fim2,3 phenotype and ptxA1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-1-ptxP1-ptxC1-fim3-1 alleles was delayed as compared to the others, suggesting phenotypic differences with the other isolates and vaccine strains. Nevertheless, the same isolate, when challenged into mice in the defined mixture of strains, lost the competition with the others, as measured by lung colonization efficiency. This PFGE profile represents 15 % of the isolates circulating in Poland between 2001 and 2012.

  11. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  12. Better colonisation of newly emerged Bordetella pertussis in the co-infection mouse model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarchi, Azadeh; Octavia, Sophie; Luu, Laurence Don Wai; Tay, Chin Yen; Sintchenko, Vitali; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen; McIntyre, Peter; Lan, Ruiting

    2016-07-25

    Molecular epidemiological data indicates that the resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in populations with high vaccine coverage is associated with genomic adaptation of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of the disease, to vaccine selection pressure. We have previously shown that in the period after the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine (ACV), the majority of circulating strains in Australia switched to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (carrying ptxP3/prn2), replacing SNP cluster II (carrying ptxP1/prn3). In this study, we carried out an in vivo competition assay using a mouse model infected with SNP cluster I and II B. pertussis strains from Australia. We found that the SNP cluster I strain colonised better than the SNP cluster II strain, in both naïve and immunised mice, suggesting that SNP cluster I strains had better fitness regardless of immunisation status of the host, consistent with SNP cluster I strains replacing SNP cluster II. Nevertheless, we found that ACV enhanced clearance of both SNP cluster I and II strains from the mouse respiratory tract.

  13. Association of interacting genes in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway and the antibody response to pertussis vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd G Kimman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway through TLR4 may be important in the induction of protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis with TLR4-mediated activation of dendritic and B cells, induction of cytokine expression, and reversal of tolerance as crucial steps. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes of the TLR4 pathway and their interaction are associated with the response to whole-cell vaccine (WCV pertussis vaccination in 490 one-year-old children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed associations of 75 haplotype-tagging SNPs in genes in the TLR4 signaling pathway with pertussis toxin (PT-IgG titers. We found significant associations between the PT-IgG titer and SNPs in CD14, TLR4, TOLLIP, TIRAP, IRAK3, IRAK4, TICAM1, and TNFRSF4 in one or more of the analyses. The strongest evidence for association was found for two SNPs (rs5744034 and rs5743894 in TOLLIP that were almost completely in linkage disequilibrium, provided statistically significant associations in all tests with the lowest p-values, and displayed a dominant mode of inheritance. However, none of these single gene associations would withstand correction for multiple testing. In addition, Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Analysis, an approach that does not need correction for multiple testing, showed significant and strong two and three locus interactions between SNPs in TOLLIP (rs4963060, TLR4 (rs6478317 and IRAK1 (rs1059703. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified significant interactions between genes in the TLR pathway in the induction of vaccine-induced immunity. These interactions underline that these genes are functionally related and together form a true biological relationship in a protein-protein interaction network. Practically all our findings may be explained by genetic variation in directly or indirectly interacting proteins at the extra- and intracytoplasmic sites of the cell

  14. Epidemiology, reemergence of pertussis and vaccine development in Latin America: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez-Bolaños

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis o tosferina es una enfermedad bacteriana aguda del tracto respiratorio, causada principalmente por Bordetella pertussis y en menor medida por Bordetella parapertussis. Bordetella pertussis ocupa el quinto lugar en la lista de muertes atribuidas a enfermedades prevenibles por vacunas en niños menores de cinco años en todo el mundo. Se ha reportado que provoca morbilidad y mortalidad significativa, tanto en países desarrollados como en países en desarrollo. La enfermedad es más severa en niños pequeños, pero su prevalencia ha sido observada en todo el mundo en todos los grupos de edad, aún después del desarrollo de vacunas a partir de células completas contra pertussis en los años cuarenta del pasado siglo. Desde la última década ha sido reportada una re-emergencia de pertussis en muchos países desarrollados, incluidos aquellos con una elevada cobertura de vacunación por años. Varios factores pudieran provocar la re-emergencia de pertussis, por ejemplo, una mayor conciencia del problema, un mejor diagnóstico mediante la implementación de técnicas de PCR, disminución de la cobertura de vacunación, la utilización de vacunas de baja protección, baja inmunidad inducida por vacunas y adaptación del patógeno. Este trabajo revisa el estado actual de la epidemiología y la re-emergencia de la enfermedad en América Latina y enfoca la situación actual en Cuba, para dar un panorama de la aplicación de estrategias novedosas en el desarrollo de vacunas futuras, así como medidas generales, recomendadas para el tratamiento de la enfermedad.

  15. Prevalence and molecular characterization of pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, L C; Queenan, A M; Cassiday, P K; Lynch, A S; Harrison, M J; Shang, W; Williams, M M; Bowden, K E; Burgos-Rivera, B; Qin, X; Messonnier, N; Tondella, M L

    2014-02-01

    Pertussis has shown a striking resurgence in the United States, with a return to record numbers of reported cases as last observed in the 1950s. Bordetella pertussis isolates lacking pertactin, a key antigen component of the acellular pertussis vaccine, have been observed, suggesting that B. pertussis is losing pertactin in response to vaccine immunity. Screening of 1,300 isolates from outbreak and surveillance studies (historical isolates collected from 1935 up to 2009, isolates from the 2010 California pertussis outbreak, U.S. isolates from routine surveillance between 2010-2012, and isolates from the 2012 Washington pertussis outbreak) by conventional PCR and later by Western blotting and prn sequencing analyses ultimately identified 306 pertactin-deficient isolates. Of these pertactin-deficient strains, 276 were identified as having an IS481 in the prn gene (prnIS481 positive). The first prnIS481-positive isolate was found in 1994, and the next prnIS481-positive isolates were not detected until 2010. The prevalence of pertactin-deficient isolates increased substantially to more than 50% of collected isolates in 2012. Sequence analysis of pertactin-deficient isolates revealed various types of mutations in the prn gene, including two deletions, single nucleotide substitutions resulting in a stop codon, an inversion in the promoter, and a single nucleotide insertion resulting in a frameshift mutation. All but one mutation type were found in prn2 alleles. CDC 013 was a predominant pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile in the pertactin-positive isolates (203/994) but was found in only 5% (16/306) of the pertactin-deficient isolates. Interestingly, PFGE profiles CDC 002 and CDC 237 represented 55% (167/306) of the identified pertactin-deficient isolates. These results indicate that there has been a recent dramatic increase in pertactin-deficient B. pertussis isolates throughout the United States.

  16. Direct molecular typing of Bordetella pertussis from nasopharyngeal specimens in China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Q; Wang, X; Liu, Y; Luan, Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y; Liu, X; Ma, C; Li, H; Wang, Z; He, Q

    2016-07-01

    Data on the molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis are limited in developing countries where whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCVs) have been used. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of circulating B. pertussis in China by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. DNA extracts of 122 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPs) positive for B. pertussis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (targeting IS481 and ptx-Pr) from 2012 to 2013 were used for typing using the multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and also by PCR-based multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. pertussis virulence genes (ptxP, prn, and fim3). One hundred and eight DNA extracts (89 %) generated a complete MLVA type (MT). Among the 18 MTs obtained, MT55 (52 %) and MT104 (13 %) were the most common. MT27, which is linked to the ptxP3 allele and is prevalent in many developed countries using acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs), was only found in 7 (6 %) DNA extracts. Eighty-seven DNA extracts (71 %) produced a complete multiantigen sequence typing (MAST) type. Of them, 77 (89 %) had the ptxP1/prn1/fim3-1 allele profile. Four DNA extracts (5 %) had the ptxP3/prn2/fim3-2 profile and 3 (4 %) had the ptxP3/prn1/fim3-2 allele profile. These seven DNA extracts also harbored MT27. Our result shows that B. pertussis circulating in China was different from those found in countries where ACVs have been in use, supporting the notion that selection pressure induced by WCVs and ACVs on the bacterial population differs.

  17. Tracking Pertussis and Evaluating Control Measures through Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoff, Tami H; Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26291475

  18. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain 134 employed indigenous technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Shivanandappa

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The B. pertussis HLT could be purified through two phase with G50 and DEAE, cost effective techniques, the G50 purification has reduced the bioburden problems during DEAE purification and at the same time the quality of the product was high.

  19. Differential effect of TLR2 and TLR4 on the immune response after immunization with a vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis or Bordetella pertussis.

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    Floris Fransen

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis and Bordetella pertussis are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans. N. meningitidis outer membrane vesicle (OMV vaccines and whole cell pertussis vaccines have been successfully used in humans to control infections with these pathogens. The mechanisms behind their effectiveness are poorly defined. Here we investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and TLR4 in the induction of immune responses in mice after immunization with these vaccines. Innate and adaptive immune responses were compared between wild type mice and mice deficient in TLR2, TLR4, or TRIF. TRIF-deficient and TLR4-deficient mice showed impaired immunity after immunization. In contrast, immune responses were not lower in TLR2-/- mice but tended even to be higher after immunization. Together our data demonstrate that TLR4 activation contributes to the immunogenicity of the N. meningitidis OMV vaccine and the whole cell pertussis vaccine, but that TLR2 activation is not required.

  20. Systems vaccinology : molecular signatures of immunity to Bordetella pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeven, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide resurgence of whooping cough (pertussis), even in highly vaccinated populations, demands improved pertussis vaccines. In this thesis a systems vaccinology approach is applied to deepen knowledge of the immune responses evoked by different pertussis vaccines and compare this with a Bord

  1. Immunogenicity of live attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1 producing the universal influenza vaccine candidate M2e.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kammoun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intranasal delivery of vaccines directed against respiratory pathogens is an attractive alternative to parenteral administration. However, using this delivery route for inactivated vaccines usually requires the use of potent mucosal adjuvants, and no such adjuvant has yet been approved for human use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine, called BPZE1, and show here that it can be used to present the universal influenza virus epitope M2e to the mouse respiratory tract to prime for protective immunity against viral challenge. Three copies of M2e were genetically fused to the N-terminal domain of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and produced in recombinant BPZE1 derivatives in the presence or absence of endogenous full-length FHA. Only in the absence of FHA intranasal administration of the recombinant BPZE1 derivative induced antibody responses to M2e and effectively primed BALB/c mice for protection against influenza virus-induced mortality and reduced the viral load after challenge. Strong M2e-specific antibody responses and protection were observed after a single nasal administration with the recombinant BPZE1 derivative, followed by a single administration of M2e linked to a virus-like particle without adjuvant, whereas priming alone with the vaccine strain did not protect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using recombinant FHA-3M2e-producing BPZE1 derivatives for priming and the universal influenza M2e peptide linked to virus-like particles for boosting may constitute a promising approach for needle-free and adjuvant-free nasal vaccination against influenza.

  2. Tdap vaccine attitudes and utilization among pregnant women from a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Sarah E; Sevick, Carter; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Sara; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-04-01

    Infants infected with Bordatella pertussis experience high morbidity and significant mortality. Vaccinating pregnant mothers with the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is a recommended strategy for preventing infant pertussis. This is especially important for mothers living in poverty and from racial and ethnic minority populations as these groups are at increased risk of having a pertussis-affected infant. Using the Health Belief Model as a framework, we surveyed a convenience sample of pregnant mothers representing these high-risk populations to understand factors associated with Tdap vaccine uptake during their pregnancy. Among the 316 mothers surveyed, 82% had gotten or planned to get Tdap that same day even though 63% of the sample had concerns about the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy. Perceived benefits and norms were the Health Belief Model constructs most consistently associated with Tdap vaccination. Although 32% of women reported prior Tdap vaccine receipt, this factor was not associated with Tdap vaccination during the current pregnancy, contrasting studies of vaccination done in non-pregnant populations. Important variations in attitudes were apparent, with Spanish-speaking women significantly more likely to have concerns about the vaccine's safety and efficacy than English-speaking women. This study indicates that among this high-risk population acceptance of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is high. However, our results suggest that it may be important to modify information conveyed about the safety and importance of Tdap during pregnancy based on individual level factors such as language or acculturation. PMID:26430729

  3. Combination of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA with whole cell pertussis vaccine increases protection against pneumococcal challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor S Oliveira

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of respiratory acute infections around the world. In Latin America, approximately 20,000 children under 5 years of age die of pneumococcal diseases annually. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA is among the best-characterized pneumococcal antigens that confer protection in animal models of pneumococcal infections and, as such, is a good alternative for the currently available conjugated vaccines. Efficient immune responses directed to PspA in animal models have already been described. Nevertheless, few low cost adjuvants for a subunit pneumococcal vaccine have been proposed to date. Here, we have tested the adjuvant properties of the whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine (wP that is currently part of the DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine administrated to children in several countries, as an adjuvant to PspA. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice with a combination of PspA5 and wP or wP(low--a new generation vaccine that contains low levels of B. pertussis LPS--conferred protection against a respiratory lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Both PspA5-wP and PspA5-wP(low vaccines induced high levels of systemic and mucosal antibodies against PspA5, with similar profile, indicating no essential requirement for B. pertussis LPS in the adjuvant properties of wP. Accordingly, nasal immunization of C3H/HeJ mice with PspA5-wP conferred protection against the pneumococcal challenge, thus ruling out a role for TLR4 responses in the adjuvant activity and the protection mechanisms triggered by the vaccines. The high levels of anti-PspA5 antibodies correlated with increased cross-reactivity against PspAs from different clades and also reflected in cross-protection. In addition, passive immunization experiments indicated that antibodies played an important role in protection in this model. Finally, subcutaneous immunization with a combination of PspA5 with DTP(low protected mice against challenge with two

  4. Pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekura, R.D.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Functional Studies of Pertussis Toxin Substrates; Effect of Pertussis Toxin on the Hormonal Responsiveness of Different Tissues; Extracellular Adenylate Cyclase of Bordetella pertussis; and GTP-Regulatory Proteins are Introcellular Messagers: A Model for Hormone Action.

  5. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  6. Investigations into the emergence of pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates in six European countries, 1996 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddeman, A; van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Bart, M J; Advani, A; Hallander, H O; Wirsing von Konig, C H; Riffelman, M; Storsaeter, J; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Krogfelt, K A; Fry, N K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; He, Q; Mooi, F

    2014-08-21

    Pathogen adaptation has been proposed to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis. A striking recent example is the emergence of isolates deficient in the vaccine component pertactin (Prn). This study explores the emergence of such Prn-deficient isolates in six European countries. During 2007 to 2009, 0/83 isolates from the Netherlands, 0/18 from the United Kingdom, 0/17 Finland, 0/23 Denmark, 4/99 Sweden and 5/20 from Norway of the isolates collected were Prn-deficient. In the Netherlands and Sweden, respectively 4/146 and 1/8 were observed in a later period (2010–12). The Prn-deficient isolates were genetically diverse and different mutations were found to inactivate the prn gene. These are indications that Prn-deficiency is subject to positive selective pressure. We hypothesise that the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines has affected the balance between ‘costs and benefits’ of Prn production by Bordetella pertussis to the extent that isolates that do not produce Prn are able to expand. The absence of Prn-deficient isolates in some countries may point to ways to prevent or delay the spread of Prn-deficient strains. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, trends in the European B. pertussis population should be monitored continuously.

  7. Costs and effectiveness of extended vaccination strategies against pertussis and pneumococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, Mark Hermannes

    2013-01-01

    Omdat het Nederlandse Rijksvaccinatieprogramma al intensief is en de gezondheidszorg kampt met gelimiteerde budgetten, zijn de mogelijkheden voor opname van nieuwe vaccins in het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma beperkt. Naast vele andere factoren, hebben doelmatigheidsuitkomsten een groot effect op de besl

  8. Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, C.

    1990-11-14

    Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

  9. Human dendritic cell maturation and cytokine secretion upon stimulation with Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Violette; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Alonso, Sylvie; Versheure, Virginie; Mascart, Françoise; Locht, Camille

    2014-07-01

    In addition to antibodies, Th1-type T cell responses are also important for long-lasting protection against pertussis. However, upon immunization with the current acellular vaccines, many children fail to induce Th1-type responses, potentially due to immunomodulatory effects of some vaccine antigens, such as filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). We therefore analysed the ability of FHA to modulate immune functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). FHA was purified from pertussis toxin (PTX)-deficient or from PTX- and adenylate cyclase-deficient Bordetella pertussis strains, and residual endotoxin was neutralized with polymyxin B. FHA from both strains induced phenotypic maturation of human MDDC and cytokine secretion (IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6). To identify the FHA domains responsible for MDDC immunomodulation, MDDC were stimulated with FHA containing a Gly→Ala substitution at its RGD site (FHA-RAD) or with an 80-kDa N-terminal moiety of FHA (Fha44), containing its heparin-binding site. Whereas FHA-RAD induced maturation and cytokine production comparable to those of FHA, Fha44 did not induce IL-10 production, but maturated MDDC at least partially. Nevertheless, Fha44 induced the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6 by MDDC, albeit at lower levels than FHA. Thus, FHA can modulate MDDC responses in multiple ways, and IL-10 induction can be dissociated from the induction of other cytokines.

  10. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  11. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  12. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  13. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  14. What do Parents Learn by Reading a DPT Vaccine Information Form?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gold

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Information forms are commonly used to inform parents about childhood vaccination. This study assessed the knowledge of mothers about pertussis and pertussis vaccine before and after reading a form about diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (dpt vaccine.

  15. Interaction of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with human TLR2: identification of the TLR2-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Zeerleder, Sacha; Mahdavi, Marzieh; van Mierlo, Gerard; Solati, Shabnam; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Aarden, Leucien; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-02-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a major adhesion and virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and also a main component of acellular pertussis vaccines. Interaction of FHA with different receptors on human epithelial and immune cells facilitates entrance and colonization of bacteria as well as immunomodulation of the host immune response. Three overlapping segments of the FHA gene were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector and the recombinant proteins were purified. These recombinant fragments along with the native FHA protein were employed to assess their potential Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulatory effects and to localize the TLR binding region. TLR stimulation was monitored by applying HEK293-Blue cell lines cotransfected with TLR2, 4, or 5 and a NF-κB reporter gene. Culture supernatants were checked for secretion of the reporter gene product and IL-8 as indicators of TLR stimulation. Native FHA was found to strongly stimulate TLR2, but not TLR4 or TLR5 transfected cells. Among recombinant FHA fragments only the fragment spanning amino acid residues 1544-1917 was able to exhibit the TLR2 stimulating property of FHA. Interaction of FHA with TLR2 suggests its involvement in induction of the innate immune system against Bordetella pertussis. The TLR2-binding domain of FHA may contribute to immunoprotection against pertussis infection.

  16. Induction and maintenance of Bordetella pertussis specific immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenger, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pertussis, also referred to as whooping cough, is a serious respiratory disease mainly caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The disease is most severe in neonates and children under the age of 1. Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, pertussis was an import

  17. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  18. Pertussis: the return of a bad penny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, R D; Shoaf, B; Weiner, T I

    1993-08-01

    We describe two related cases of pertussis infection ("whooping cough"). This disease entity was almost completely eradicated through successful mass immunization programs. In the past decade it has demonstrated a steady rise in incidence. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and current vaccines for pertussis infection are reviewed.

  19. Differentially expressed genes in Bordetella pertussis strains belonging to a lineage which recently spread globally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gouw, Daan; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J; Zomer, Aldert; Heuvelman, Kees; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Mooi, Frits R

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promo

  20. The Bordetella pertussis protein Pertactin: role in immunity and immune evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease of the respiratory tract which is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Before widespread introduction of vaccination against pertussis, almost every child contracted pertussis. The disease is most severe in neonates and children under the age of 1. Intr

  1. Photolabeling of Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Rappuoli, R.; Collier, R.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation was shown to induce efficient transfer of radiolabel from nicotinamide-labeled NAD to a recombinant protein (C180 peptide) containing the catalytic region of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin. Incorporation of label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was efficient (0.5 to 0.6 mol/mol of protein) relative to incorporation from (32P-adenylate)NAD (0.2 mol/mol of protein). Label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was specifically associated with Glu-129. Replacement of Glu-129 with glycine or aspartic acid made the protein refractory to photolabeling with (3H-nicotinamide)NAD, whereas replacement of a nearby glutamic acid, Glu-139, with serine did not. Photolabeling of the C180 peptide with NAD is similar to that observed with diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the nicotinamide portion of NAD is transferred to Glu-148 and Glu-553, respectively, in the two toxins. These results implicate Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit as an active-site residue and a potentially important site for genetic modification of pertussis toxin for development of an acellular vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Adolescent Pertussis Vaccination for The Netherlands : Using an Individual-Based Dynamic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Schellekens, Joop F P; Versteegh, Florens G A; Westra, Tjalke A; Roord, John J; Postma, Maarten J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite widespread immunization programs, a clear increase in pertussis incidence is apparent in many developed countries during the last decades. Consequently, additional immunization strategies are considered to reduce the burden of disease. The aim of this study is to design an indivi

  3. Bordetella pertussis isolates from Argentinean whooping cough patients display enhanced biofilm formation capacity compared to Tohama I reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eArnal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines since the 1950´s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  4. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I; Serra, Diego O; Mooi, Frits R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  5. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I.; Serra, Diego O.; Mooi, Frits R.; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M.

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host. PMID:26696973

  6. A retrospective study of acute pertussis in Hasan Sadikin Hospital–Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Mostly patients were admitted on paroxysmal phase when no more active B. pertussis could be found from nasopharyngeal secret. A rigorous history taking particularly excessive cough, posttussive vomitting, and pertussis vaccination status need to be taken into account.

  7. c-di-GMP enhances protective innate immunity in a murine model of pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Elahi

    Full Text Available Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the respiratory tract. Innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes contain specific pathogen-recognition molecules which induce the production of cytokines and subsequently activate the adaptive immune response. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that stimulates innate immunity and regulates biofilm formation, motility and virulence in a diverse range of bacterial species with potent immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, c-di-GMP was used to enhance the innate immune response against pertussis, a respiratory infection mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Intranasal treatment with c-di-GMP resulted in the induction of robust innate immune responses to infection with B. pertussis characterized by enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The immune responses were associated with an earlier and more vigorous expression of Th1-type cytokines, as well as an increase in the induction of nitric oxide in the lungs of treated animals, resulting in significant reduction of bacterial numbers in the lungs of infected mice. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is a potent innate immune stimulatory molecule that can be used to enhance protection against bacterial respiratory infections. In addition, our data suggest that priming of the innate immune system by c-di-GMP could further skew the immune response towards a Th1 type phenotype during subsequent infection. Thus, our data suggest that c-di-GMP might be useful as an adjuvant for the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccine to mount a more protective Th1 phenotype immune response, and also in other systems where a Th1 type immune response is required.

  8. Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin itself does not trigger anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 production by human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Hasan, Shakir; Faé, Kellen; Holubova, Jana; Geurtsen, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Martin; Wiertsema, Selma; Osicka, Radim; Poolman, Jan; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is an important adhesin of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis and is contained in most acellular pertussis vaccines. Recently, FHA was proposed to exert an immunomodulatory activity through induction of tolerogenic IL-10 secretion from dendritic cells. We have re-evaluated the cytokine-inducing activity of FHA, placing specific emphasis on the role of the residual endotoxin contamination of FHA preparations. We show that endotoxin depletion did not affect the capacity of FHA to bind primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, while it abrogated the capacity of FHA to elicit TNF-α and IL-10 secretion and strongly reduced its capacity to trigger IL-6 production. The levels of cytokines induced by the different FHA preparations correlated with their residual contents of B. pertussis endotoxin. Moreover, FHA failed to trigger cytokine secretion in the presence of antibodies that block TLR2 and/or TLR4 signaling. The TLR2 signaling capacity appeared to be linked to the presence of endotoxin-associated components in FHA preparations and not to the FHA protein itself. These results show that the endotoxin-depleted FHA protein does not induce cytokine release from human dendritic cells.

  9. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Curtis, C Robinette; MacNeil, Jessica; Markowitz, Lauri E; Singleton, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention. PMID:27561081

  10. Genetic diversity and population dynamics of Bordetella pertussis in China between 1950-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinghua; Zhang, Liu; Tan, Yajun; Wang, Lichan; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-11-17

    Pertussis is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Although pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1960s, pertussis is still an endemic disease in China. To better understand the genetic diversity of the Chinese B. pertussis population, we characterized 115 clinical isolates obtained in China during 1950-2007 using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Forty-six different B. pertussis MLVA profiles (MTs) were identified, of which 13 were new MTs. Analysis using a minimum-spanning tree showed that distinct MTs were prevalent during different periods, suggesting that a dynamic change in B. pertussis MTs occurred over time in China. The predominant MTs in recent isolates from China were different from those of many developed countries. A decreasing trend in genetic diversity of the B. pertussis population was observed following the introduction of pertussis vaccines. Similar to the pertactin 2 (prn2) allele, the novel pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP3) allele first emerged in 2000, but unlike trends elsewhere, ptxP1 remained predominant among the isolates, further reflecting the unique temporal trends in the B. pertussis population in China. Our results suggest that temporal changes in the B. pertussis population may be closely associated with vaccination coverage and the vaccine types used. These data may lead to an improved understanding of the virulence mechanism of B. pertussis and facilitate new strategies for controlling this infectious disease.

  11. A retrospective study of acute pertussis in Hasan Sadikin Hospital-Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira; Evelyn Phangkawira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the representation of pertussis diagnosis in children. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed on pediatric pertussis and pertussis-like syndrome registry for children <14 years of age documented from October 2008 to December 2014 in Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Indonesia. Demographic data, signs and symptoms at presentation, case definition (probable, confirmed), possible pertussis contact, pertussis vaccination status, results of Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) culture, complications, and outcome were recorded. Results:Sixty-one probable and two confirmed pertussis were documented. Male and female ratio was 1:1, mostly presented with shortness of breath, 24 (38%) subjects had posttussive vomiting, 10 (16%) had whooping-cough. Ten patients (16%) were reported to have adult possible pertussis contact. Only 2 infants had previous pertussis vaccination. All subjects presented in the second week of illness were all diagnosed as bronchopneumonia but two. The mean age was 6 months, ranging from 0−50 months. One subject required mechanical ventilation. B. pertussis culture was performed only in 35 (56%) subjects but positive only in two. There were no fatal cases, 55 (87%) including the subject who need mechanical ventilation had good outcome. Conclusions: Mostly patients were admitted on paroxysmal phase when no more active B. pertussis could be found from nasopharyngeal secret. A rigorous history taking particularly excessive cough, posttussive vomitting, and pertussis vaccination status need to be taken into account.

  12. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  13. Absence of Bordetella pertussis Among Infants Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis in Finland, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korppi, Matti; Kivistö, Juho; Koponen, Petri; Lehtinen, Pasi; Remes, Sami; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Piedra, Pedro A; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A; Jartti, Tuomas

    2016-02-01

    In 169 Finnish infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age Bordetella pertussis and 16 viruses. Respiratory viruses were detected in 89% (71% with respiratory syncytial virus), but no infant had B. pertussis. The latter finding may reflect a positive effect from the broadening of the Finnish pertussis vaccination program in 2005.

  14. Competition, coinfection and strain replacement in models of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Emily J; Ayabina, Diepreye; Trotter, Caroline L; Turner, Katherine M E; Colijn, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an important respiratory infection causing considerable infant mortality worldwide. Recently, incidence has risen in countries with strong vaccine programmes and there are concerns about antigenic shift resulting in vaccine evasion. Interactions between pertussis and non-vaccine-preventable strains will play an important role in the evolution and population dynamics of pertussis. In particular, if we are to understand the role strain replacement plays in vaccinated settings, it will be essential to understand how strains or variants of pertussis interact. Here we explore under what conditions we would expect strain replacement to be of concern in pertussis. We develop a dynamic transmission model that allows for coinfection between Bordetella pertussis (the main causative agent of pertussis) and a strain or variant unaffected by the vaccine. We incorporate both neutrality (in the sense of ecological/population genetic neutrality) and immunity into the model, leaving the specificity of the immune response flexible. We find that strain replacement may be considerable when immunity is non-specific. This is in contrast to previous findings where neutrality was not considered. We conclude that the extent to which models reflect ecological neutrality can have a large impact on conclusions regarding strain replacement. This will likely have onward consequences for estimates of vaccine efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

  15. Bordetella pertussis: why is it still circulating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causal agent of whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is life-threatening in infants under the age of three months and may also be very severe in pregnant women and seniors. This disease can be prevented by vaccination but it remains a public health problem in many developed and developing countries.(1) So, why is B. pertussis still circulating? We need to consider several aspects of this vaccine-preventable disease when answering this question: (i) the history of the disease and the historical context in which the vaccine was developed; (ii) the type of vaccine used; (iii) the vaccination strategy and coverage; (iv) the disease surveillance after the introduction of generalized vaccination and (v) the surveillance for the causal agent of the disease.

  16. Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Salemi, Simonetta; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries. PMID:26606466

  17. The potential role of subclinical Bordetella Pertussis colonization in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Keith; Glazer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    It is established that (1) subclinical Bordetella pertussis colonization of the nasopharynx persists in highly vaccinated populations, and (2) B. pertussis toxin is a potent adjuvant that, when co-administered with neural antigens, induces neuropathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the principle animal model of multiple sclerosis. Building on these observations with supporting epidemiologic and biologic evidence, we propose that, contrary to conventional wisdom that subclinical pertussis infections are innocuous to hosts, B. pertussis colonization is an important cause of multiple sclerosis.

  18. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  19. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children. PMID:25321068

  20. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:26313471

  1. Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2014-15 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Calhoun, Kayla; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Meador, Seth; Tippins, Ashley; Greby, Stacie M; Dietz, Vance

    2015-08-28

    State and local jurisdictions require children to be vaccinated before starting school to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. State vaccination requirements, which include school vaccination and exemption laws and health department regulations, permit medical exemptions for students with a medical contraindication to receiving a vaccine or vaccine component and may allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons or philosophic beliefs. To monitor state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among children attending kindergarten, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption estimates in 46 states and DC that reported the number of children with at least one exemption among kindergartners during the 2014-15 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.0% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 94.2% for the local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among the 39 states and DC with a 2-dose requirement. The median percentage of any exemptions† was 1.7%. Although statewide vaccination coverage among kindergartners was high during the 2014-15 school year, geographic pockets of low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can place children at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Appropriate school vaccination coverage assessments can help immunization programs identify clusters of low coverage and develop partnerships with schools and communities to ensure that children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

  2. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

  3. Seroprevalence of pertussis in Senegal: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Gaayeb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP. Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab response against pertussis toxin (PT. A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs.

  4. Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Whooping Cough (Pertussis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Print A A A Text Size What's ... the Doctor en español La tos ferina Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the respiratory system ...

  5. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough 2 (Pertussis)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    This podcast encourages everyone to get vaccinated against whooping cough (pertussis), especially those who will have close contact with an infant.  Created: 9/16/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  6. Paediatric surveillance of pertussis in 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker HE de; Neppelenbroek SN; Schellekens JFP; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Conyn- van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LIS

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the severity of pertussis in hospitalised cases. Methods: In 1998, hospitalisation data were collected through paediatric surveillance. Results: From 115 hospitalisation admissions collected, 55% of the patients were younger than 3 months of age and not vaccinated; 12

  7. Persistence at one year of age of antigen-induced cellular immune responses in preterm infants vaccinated against whooping cough: comparison of three different vaccines and effect of a booster dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Françoise; Dirix, Violette; Verscheure, Virginie; Damis, Eliane; Vermeylen, Danièle; Locht, Camille; Mascart, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Due to their high risk of developing severe Bordetella pertussis (Bp) infections, it is recommended to immunize preterm infants at their chronological age. However, little is known about the persistence of their specific immune responses, especially of the cellular responses recognized to play a role in protection. We compared here the cellular immune responses to two major antigens of Bp between three groups of one year-old children born prematurely, who received for their primary vaccination respectively the whole cell vaccine Tetracoq(®) (TC), the acellular vaccine Tetravac(®) (TV), or the acellular vaccine Infanrix-hexa(®) (IR). Whereas most children had still detectable IFN-γ responses at one year of age, they were lower in the IR-vaccinated children compared to the two other groups. In contrast, both the TV- and the IR-vaccinated children displayed higher Th2-type immune responses, resulting in higher antigen-specific IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios in TC- than in TV- or IR-vaccinated children. The IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio of mitogen-induced cytokines was also lower in IR- compared to TC- or TV-vaccinated children. No major differences in the immune responses were noted after the booster compared to the pre-booster responses for each vaccine. The IR-vaccinated children had a persistently low specific Th1-type immune response associated with high specific Th2-type immune responses, resulting in lower antigen-specific IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios compared to the two other groups. We conclude that antigen-specific cellular immune responses persisted in one year-old children born prematurely and vaccinated during infancy at their chronological age, that a booster dose did not significantly boost the cellular immune responses, and that the Th1/Th2 balance of the immune responses is modulated by the different vaccines.

  8. Development, theoretical framework, and evaluation of a parent and teacher-delivered intervention on adolescent vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Herbert, Natasha L; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2014-07-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention. PMID:24440920

  9. A randomised controlled study with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines in combination with regular DT-IPV vaccine and a new poliomyelitis (IPV vero) component in children 4 years of age in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbers GAM; Lafeber AB; Labadie J; Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Bolscher DJA; Plantinga AD; LVO; Stichting Thuiszorg Oost-Veluwe

    1999-01-01

    In deze veldproef is de immunogeniteit en de reactogeniteit van 3 verschillende ACVAs en WCV van het RIVM onderzocht, gecombineerd met DTP toegediend als booster bij 4-jarige kinderen. Bij deze kinderen is tevens de immuunrespons op IPVvero (geproduceerd op Vero cellen) vergeleken met het reguliere

  10. The epidemiology of pertussis and pertussis immunization in the United Kingdom and the United States: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J D

    1984-02-01

    Pertussis is a common serious illness of childhood that can be controlled by immunization. It is a unique disease in that it is clinically manifested more often in females than in males. In the 20th century the mortality from pertussis has decreased steadily in both the United Kingdom and the United States. This decline in death rate was well underway prior to the introduction of pertussis vaccine but was accelerated after vaccine use became widespread. In recent years the case fatality rate in the United States has been considerably greater than that in the United Kingdom. One obvious reason for this difference is the difference in age-specific attack rates in the two nations. Available data also suggest that recent pertussis deaths in infants in England and Wales may frequently be reported as due to respiratory diseases other than pertussis. Although it is frequently suggested by some observers, there is no evidence that the incidence of pertussis was declining prior to the widespread use of vaccine. All available evidence indicates that pertussis vaccine use in both the United Kingdom and the United States was responsible for a drastic reduction in the magnitude of both endemic and epidemic pertussis. Decreased utilization of pertussis vaccine in England and Wales beginning in 1975 resulted in two major epidemics of pertussis in 1977-1979 and 1982-1983. Moderate local and systemic reactions commonly occur following pertussis immunization. These reactions appear to be less common and less severe in the United Kingdom than in the United States, but in contrast to recent studies in the United States, there are no recent quantitative studies in the United Kingdom. There are virtually no data available in the United States on the incidence of serious neurologic disease resulting from pertussis immunization. In contrast, the recently published findings of the NCES, a case-control study of national scope, have allowed attributable risk estimates of serious neurologic

  11. Research on the safety of the absorbed diphtheria, tetanus,and acellular pertusis combined vaccine(DTaP)%吸附无细胞百白破联合疫苗安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌罗亚; 陈海平; 戚小华; 杨云铠; 陈恩富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of the absorbed diphtheria,tetanus and acellular pertusis combined vaccine(DTaP),and provide the evidence for decision-making on National Immunization Program (NIP).Methods There were 3235 aged 3-5 months healthy children and 3198 aged 18-24 months healthy children in four counties in Zhejiang Province selected to immunize the DTaP according to the schedule of NIP.Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) for each vaccinated child was observed.Results The incidence rates of AEFI for three primary doses and one boost dose were 6.28%,6.39%,6.26% and 14.57%,respectively.There was no statistical difference among the rates of 3 primary doses vaccinated children,and the rate of one boost dose vaccinated children was significant higher than the average rate(6.31% ) of basic vaccinated children ( x2 =1049,P < 0.01 ).Most of the AEFI happened in 30 minutes after vaccinated.The main clinical character were fever,tetter and pain.Most of the AEFI were mild.There were not any rare,sever AEFI or new AEFI detected.Conclusions The reported AEFIs for DTaP were mild in this study.DTaP have a good immunization safety.%目的 研究吸附无细胞百白破联合疫苗在人群中应用的安全性,为评价纳入国家免疫规划疫苗安全性提供依据.方法 在浙江省4个县(市、区)选择3~5月龄的初免儿童3235人,18~24月龄加强免疫儿童3198名,按照免疫程序接种本次研究观察的无细胞百白破疫苗,进行接种后安全性观察.结果 初免儿童3剂次基础免疫总不良反应发生率分别为6.28%、6.39%、6.26%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.05,P> 0.05).基础免疫平均不良反应发生率为6.31%,与加强免疫的总体不良反应发生率14.57%比较差异有统计学意义( x2=1049,P<0.01).大部分不良反应发生在接种后30 min内.全身不良反应以发热和皮疹为主,局部反应以注射处触痛为主.各剂次不良反应发生程度均以轻度和

  12. An Infant with Benign Isolated Abducens Palsy After Vaccination

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    Celebi Kocaoglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign isolated abducens palsy is a self-improving clinical entity characterized by esotropia and diplopia led by the deficiency of abduction, and accompanied by no other neurological findings. The entity may occur after experiencing minor fever episodes, viral infection. The pathophysiological mechanism of cellular injury remains unclear. Hypotheses involve damage arising from autoimmune mediation or direct viral invasion causing demyelination, localized arteritis or genetic predisposition, which could increase susceptibility to such nerve palsies. Diagnosed with benign isolated abducens palsy, a 19-month-old girl infant admitted to our outpatient clinic with an acute onset of esotropia in the right eye developing two weeks after the vaccination of diphtheria, acellular pertussis, tetanus, inactivated polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IP-Hib was presented in this report.

  13. ADVERSE EVENTS POST-DTAP AND DTwP VACCINATION IN THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Librada; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a prospective study to compare the development of fever (axillary T ≥ 37.9 °C) within 4 hours of vaccination, determine the proportion of children who develop high fever (T ≥ 39°C) and evaluate parental days missed from work due to their children's vaccination with either the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. The results of this study can help physicians and parents decide whether to have their child vaccinated with the DTwP or more expensive DTaP vaccine. We studied 140 healthy Thai children aged 2 months to 6 years from December 2011 to March 2012 who presented for vaccination. Parents recorded their child's temperature, local and systemic adverse reactions and missed days from work due to these adverse events on a diary card. Of the 140 participants, 72 received the DTwP vaccine and 68 received the DTaP vaccine. The median (IQR) age was 4 (2-6) months and the median weight was 7.1 (5.6-8.7) kg. Twenty children developed fever (axillary T ≥ 37.9°C) within 4 hours following vaccination, 17 (23.6%) had received the DTwP vaccine and 3 (4.4%) had received the DTaP vaccine (p = 0.040). One child (1.4%) who had received the DTwP vaccine and none who received the DTaP vaccine developed high fever (T ≥ 39°C) within 4 hours of vaccination (p = 0.329). Parents of two children who received the DTwP vaccine and one child who received the DTaP vaccine missed work following vaccination (p = 0.059). In conclusion, children who received the DTwP vaccines were more likely to have early post-vaccination fever and higher fever but there was no significant difference between the two groups in parental days lost from work.

  14. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these

  15. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  16. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

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    Birgit Wagner

    Full Text Available In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32, Linz (n = 63 and Graz (n = 15 by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (n = 77, by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin gene (n = 110, and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR (n = 110 to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB, a fimbrial adhesin (fimD, tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA, and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS. Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517. The major part of the samples (93% displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  17. Is pertussis actually reemerging? Insights from an individual-based model

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    Cláudia Torres Codeço

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a spatially explicit, individual-based model developed to simulate the dynamics of pertussis in a small population. With this simulation approach, complex epidemic systems can be built using information on parasite population structure (strain diversity, virulence diversity, etc., human population structure (individual risk, age structure, interaction matrices, immune response, etc., as well as mechanisms of evolution and learning. We parameterized our model to describe pertussis in an age-structured community. Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite wide-scale vaccination in many countries, this disease is reemerging throughout the world in both adults and children. Emergence has been explained by many factors: wane of vaccine and natural immunity, increase of asymptomatic carriers, and/or natural selection of non-vaccine strains. Here, we model these hypotheses and analyze their potential impact on the observed increase of pertussis notification.

  18. Is pertussis actually reemerging? Insights from an individual-based model

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    Codeço Cláudia Torres

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a spatially explicit, individual-based model developed to simulate the dynamics of pertussis in a small population. With this simulation approach, complex epidemic systems can be built using information on parasite population structure (strain diversity, virulence diversity, etc., human population structure (individual risk, age structure, interaction matrices, immune response, etc., as well as mechanisms of evolution and learning. We parameterized our model to describe pertussis in an age-structured community. Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite wide-scale vaccination in many countries, this disease is reemerging throughout the world in both adults and children. Emergence has been explained by many factors: wane of vaccine and natural immunity, increase of asymptomatic carriers, and/or natural selection of non-vaccine strains. Here, we model these hypotheses and analyze their potential impact on the observed increase of pertussis notification.

  19. Bordetella pertussis attachment to respiratory epithelial cells can be impaired by fimbriae-specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, ME; Hellwig, SMM; Vidakovics, MLAP; Berbers, GAM; van de Winkel, JGJ

    2006-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis attachment to host cells is a crucial step in colonization. In this study, we investigated the specificity of antibodies, induced either by vaccination or infection, capable of reducing bacterial adherence to respiratory epithelial cells. Both sera and purified anti-B. pertussis

  20. Severe infantile Bordetella pertussis pneumonia in monozygotic twins with a congenital C3 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.A.J.; Westra, D.; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Walk, T.L.M.; Warris, A.; Kar, N.C.A.J. van de

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease that still remains a serious infection in neonates and young infants. We describe two young infants, monozygotic twins, with a severe B. pertussis pneumonia of whom one needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Diagnostic work

  1. Infectious Disease Report: Bordetella pertussis Infection in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Abraham; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Janz, Tyler; Greene, John N

    2016-04-01

    We illustrate 2 cases of pneumonia associated with Bordetella pertussis infection in 72-year-old and 61-year-old patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or myelosuppressive therapy are at increased risk. The infection was detected and the 2 patients had good outcomes following azithromycin treatment. Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a contagious respiratory illness that has become a public health challenge due to decreased immunity of the pertussis vaccine. Therefore, it is critical to recognize pertussis early in the course of the disease.

  2. PENETAPAN STANDAR NASIONAL DARI VAKSIN DPT: Penetapan Standar Nasional Vaksin Pertussis

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    Muljanti Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To check the potency of DPT vaccine, standard preparations of the components, namely Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine, and Adsorbed Tetanus Toxoid are necessary. Since WHO International Standard Preparations are distributed only in limited amounts, WHO has suggested that each member country shold develop a National Standard, which is to be matched with International Standard Preparations. An Indonesian National Standard of DPT vaccine (lot 1 has been prepared and lyophilized at the National Institute of Health in Tokyo. The potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine was determined by Active Mouse Protection Test (AMPT. After several experiments, the potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine has been decided of being 12 IU/ml. Using the same standard preparations, namely the National Standards, it is hoped that from a lot of DPT vaccine, similar results of potency could be achieved when determined by Government Vaccine Quality Control laboratory and the Manufacturer's laboratory.

  3. Whooping cough in Pakistan: Bordetella pertussis vs Bordetella parapertussis in 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Habib; Said, Fahad; Syed, Muhammad A; Mughal, Amjad; Kazi, Yasmeen F; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R

    2011-10-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute respiratory disease mainly affecting infants and children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The aim of this study was to investigate the share of Bordetella species from potential whooping cough cases during 2005-2009. Eight hundred and two samples from suspected pertussis cases were collected, mainly from 2 provinces of Pakistan. Bacterial culture, identification, DNA extraction and routinely used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using IS1001, IS1002 and IS481 were used to identify the Bordetella species. The results were unexpected, because all of the isolates collected from the different cities were identified as B. parapertussis (7.4%); B. pertussis was not isolated from any sample. However, PCR results indicated the presence of a small percentage (0.6%) of B. pertussis among the total cases studied. This study suggests that vaccines to protect against both B. pertussis and B. parapertussis should be considered.

  4. Characterization of two Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates from patients with pertussis-like symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiorella Orellana-Peralta; Michelle Jacinto; Maria J Pons; Cludia Gomes; Carlos Bada; Isabel Reyes; Juana del Valle Mendoza; Joaquim Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To characterize two Achromobacter xylosoxidans recovered from 2 patients diagnosed with pertussis during a Bordetella pertussis surveillance program. Methods:Nasopharyngeal swabs from 2 children under 1 year of age with clinical suspicion of pertussis were analyzed by culture and PCR. Results:Two Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8, closely related to Bordetella spp. were recovered from 2 patients diagnosed of pertussis, both carrying the ptxA gene and IS418 the pertussis toxin encoding gene. Subsequently, antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk-diffusion method and by PCR. Conclusions:Although more detailed studies are needed, the present data highlight the possibility that Achromobacter xylosoxidans, closely related Bordetella pertussis microorganisms and not covered under the vaccine umbrella, might also result in cases of whooping cough. Thereby further surveillance is necessary to determine the extension and relevance of their pathogenic role in order to discriminate their real public health implication.

  5. Characterization of two Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates from patients with pertussis-like symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiorella; Orellana-Peralta; Michelle; Jacinto; Maria; J.Pons; Cláudia; Gomes; Carlos; Bada; Isabel; Reyes; Juana; del; Valle; Mendoza; Joaquim; Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To characterize two Achromobaeter xylosoxidans recovered from 2 patients diagnosed with pertussis during a Bordetella pertussis surveillance program.Methods:Nasopharyngeal swabs from 2 children under 1 year of age with clinical suspicion of pertussis were analyzed by culture and PCR.Results:Two Achromobaeter xylosoxidans A8,closely related to Bordetella spp.were recovered from 2 patients diagnosed of pertussis,both carrying the ptxA gene and IS418 the pertussis toxin encoding gene.Subsequently,antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk-diffusion method and by PCR.Conclusions:Although more detailed studies are needed,the present data highlight the possibility that Achromobaeter xylosoxidans.closely related Bordetella pertussis microorganisms and not covered under the vaccine umbrella,might also result in cases of whooping cough.Thereby further surveillance is necessary to determine the extension and relevance of their pathogenic role in order to discriminate their real public health implication.

  6. Pertussis-like syndrome or pertussis: a delay diagnosis

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    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent reports of pertussis epidemiology from Asia, Africa and South America have been limited, but the World Health Organization estimates indicate that these regions have the highest disease burden. Difficulty in estimating the prevalence of pertussis is due to lack of access to diagnostic methods, misdiagnoses, under-reporting, and different countries’ reporting criteria. A syndrome characterized by severe episodes of coughing resembling whooping cough (pertussis has also been defined as pertussis-like syndrome. Objective To report eleven cases of pertussis or pertussis-like syndrome in the pediatric ward of Hasan Sadikin Hospital. Methods This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing medical records from 2008–2010. Characteristics of 11 pertussis-like syndrome patients were documented including age, gender, history of pertussis immunization, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, initial diagnosis, treatment and clinical response. Isolation of Bordetella pertussis using Bordet-Gengou agar was also noted. Pertussis diagnoses were grouped based on two classifications: probable and confirmed. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with pertussis-like syndrome, including 5 boys and 6 girls. Mmost subjects were less than 6 months of age. Only one subject had received previous pertussis immunization. Dyspnea, paroxysmal cough, and fever were the most common symptoms. All were initially diagnosed to have had severe bacterial pneumonia, and later changed to probable pertussis. Three subjects exhibited post-tussive vomiting and cyanosis, while none had apneic symptoms. All B. pertussis isolations yielded negative results. Ampicillin or cephalosporin was initially administered. Patients receiving subsequent clarithromycin showed good clinical responses. Conclusion All infants were likely considered to have pertussis, as most had no pertussis immunizations. However, B. pertussis isolation was unsuccessful in all cases. As

  7. 白喉-破伤风-无细胞百日咳-b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌联合疫苗对中国婴儿安全性和免疫原性的研究%Safety and Immunogenicity of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Accellular Pertussis Plus Hemophilus Influenza Type b Combined Vaccine (DTaP-Hib) to Chinese Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳萍; 陈晓玲; 黄莉荣; Gunasekaran Ramakrishnan; 李荣成; 赵雷; 唐海文; Olivier Van Der Meeren; Hans L Bock; 张庶民; 叶强; 侯启明; 李亚男; 李红; 徐颖华; 马霄; 刘幼平

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价白喉-破伤风-无细胞百日咳-b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌联合疫苗(Diphtheria,Tetanus,Acellular Pertussis and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Combined Vaccine;DTaP-Hib),对中国婴儿的安全性和免疫原性.方法 通过一项安全性研究(研究A)和一项安全性及免疫原性研究(研究B),评价DTaP-Hib联合疫苗接种于3、4、5月龄婴儿的安全性及免疫原性,并与DTaP联合疫苗及Hib疫苗(DTaP+Hib)同时分别接种进行比较.结果 共690名健康婴儿接受了DTaP-Hib联合疫苗或DTaP联合疫苗与Hib疫苗分别同时接种的基础免疫.DTaP-Hib联合疫苗的耐受性与DTaP联合疫苗+Hib疫苗分别接种一致,两组局部及全身不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义.在接种DTaP-Hib联合疫苗的受试者中,至少有97.5%在基础免疫后一个月产生了针对白喉、破伤风、Hib的血清学保护性抗体,以及对无细胞百日咳抗原的免疫应答.按照预先制订的标准,DTaP-Hib联合疫苗的免疫应答与DTaP联合疫苗+Hib疫苗分别接种免疫应答应的差异无统计学意义.结论 DTaP-Hib联合疫苗接种后可获得预期的安全性和免疫原性.临床试验注册国家食品药品监督管理局<药物临床批件)2003L03331.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in the twin cities of Pakistan

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    Fahad Said

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bordetella pertussis is the cause of whooping cough occurring mainly in children. The prevalence of this disease has been reduced largely due to worldwide mass vaccination with DTP vaccine. However, the immunity produced by the vaccination wanes by the passage of time. Still this disease kills around 2-4 million children annually. Adults may be a source of infection for infants and children. Furthermore, Bordetella pertussis has also been found to be associated with cases of persistent cough in adults in many countries. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the exposure of the adult population to the Bordetella pertussis by detecting IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: We performed Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in multiethnic twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad using a commercially available ELISA kit to have a picture of epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Pakistan. We targeted adults of age between 18-45 years (mean age 29.64 years. Results: The results of our study show a high percentage of seropositivity to Bordetella pertussis (89 percent, which indicates higher exposure to this organism and risk of infection to infants, children, adolescents and adults. Conclusion: A high percentage of seropositive individuals are alarming to health care professionals as well as policy makers. Bordetella pertussis infections may be associated with their atypical manifestation in Pakistan. Adult vaccination with DTP is recommended to reduce the risk of infection in infants and children through adult reservoirs.

  9. Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in the twin cities of Pakistan

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    Muhammad Ali Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bordetella pertussis is the cause of whooping cough occurring mainly in children. The prevalence of this disease has been reduced largely due to worldwide mass vaccination with DTP vaccine. However, the immunity produced by the vaccination wanes by the passage of time. Still this disease kills around 2-4 million children annually. Adults may be a source of infection for infants and children. Furthermore, Bordetella pertussis has also been found to be associated with cases of persistent cough in adults in many countries. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the exposure of the adult population to the Bordetella pertussis by detecting IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: We performed Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in multiethnic twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad using a commercially available ELISA kit to have a picture of epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Pakistan. We targeted adults of age between 18-45 years (mean age 29.64 years. Results: The results of our study show a high percentage of seropositivity to Bordetella pertussis (89 percent, which indicates higher exposure to this organism and risk of infection to infants, children, adolescents and adults. Conclusion: A high percentage of seropositive individuals are alarming to health care professionals as well as policy makers. Bordetella pertussis infections may be associated with their atypical manifestation in Pakistan. Adult vaccination with DTP is recommended to reduce the risk of infection in infants and children through adult reservoirs.

  10. Pertussis: clinical and bacteriological diagnosis of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano Penagos Mario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ertussis is an endemic disease in our population. Every 3 to 4 years, pertussis has an epidemic pattern even in countries with good health conditions. Antipertussis vaccine first dose is adminis- tered at the age of 2 months; a second and third dose are given at 4 and 6 months of age. This vaccine has an 8 to 10 year protective effect, for which reason it is suggested that pregnant women in the third trimester should be vaccinated in order to prevent pertussis in newborns. It should also be administered to older people to avoid turning them into asymptomatic carriers. Clinic manifestations are easily identifiable due to respiratory symptoms, especially to the particular characteristics of the cough. The diagnosis is supported by the presence of leukocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes and by certain thoracic radiologic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed with a positive culture for Bordetella pertussis or with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In a non complicated clinic course macrolides are still the best therapeutic choice. Nonetheless clinic observation is highly recom- mended in order to avoid complications. Redefinition of vaccine programs against Bordetella pertussis in Mexican population is recommended and also to notify the presence of the disease to the corresponding health authorities.

  11. Pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis strains in Canada: characterization of a dozen isolates based on a survey of 224 samples collected in different parts of the country over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond S.W. Tsang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: As reported elsewhere, pertactin-negative B. pertussis has emerged in Canada in recent years, notably in 2012. This coincided with an increase in pertussis activity in Canada. A further systematic study with a larger geographical representative sample is required to determine how these vaccine-negative strains may contribute to the overall changing epidemiology of pertussis in Canada.

  12. 无细胞百白破b型流感嗜血杆菌联合疫苗的研制%Preparation of Acellular Pertussis,Diphtheria,Tetanus and Haemophilus influenza Type b Combined Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵凡; 郑海发; 尹姗姗

    2008-01-01

    目的 研制无细胞百白破b型流感嗜血杆菌联合疫苗(DTaP/Hib).方法 按不同抗原配比配制3组联合疫苗,分别检测疫苗的效价及安全性,从中选择最佳配比配制3批联合疫苗,并用相应批原液,按相同配比配制3批DTaP和3批Hib疫苗作为对照,检测联合疫苗中抗原的相容性.结果 3组配比的联合疫苗效价及安全性均达到三部(2005版)要求,联合疫苗中以每毫升含AcP 18 μg PN、D 25Lf、T 7Lf和Hib多糖抗原20 μg为最佳配比.动物实验证明联合疫苗各抗原间不存在免疫干扰.结论 已成功研制4种抗原配比合理的DTaP/Hib联合疫苗.

  13. Phase variation and microevolution at homopolymeric tracts in Bordetella pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Craig A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is a highly clonal pathogen of the respiratory tract. Its lack of genetic diversity, relative to many bacterial pathogens, could limit its ability to adapt to a hostile and changing host environment. This limitation might be overcome by phase variation, as observed for other mucosal pathogens. One of the most common mechanisms of phase variation is reversible expansion or contraction of homopolymeric tracts (HPTs. Results The genomes of B. pertussis and the two closely related species, B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis, were screened for homopolymeric tracts longer than expected on the basis of chance, given their nucleotide compositions. Sixty-nine such HPTs were found in total among the three genomes, 74% of which were polymorphic among the three species. Nine HPTs were genotyped in a collection of 90 geographically and temporally diverse B. pertussis strains using the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction (PCR/LDR assay. Six HPTs were polymorphic in this collection of B. pertussis strains. Of note, one of these polymorphic HPTs was found in the fimX promoter, where a single base insertion variant was present in seven strains, all of which were isolated prior to introduction of the pertussis vaccine. Transcript abundance of fimX was found to be 3.8-fold lower in strains carrying the longer allele. HPTs in three other genes, tcfA, bapC, and BP3651, varied widely in composition across the strain collection and displayed allelic polymorphism within single cultures. Conclusion Allelic polymorphism at homopolymeric tracts is common within the B. pertussis genome. Phase variability may be an important mechanism in B. pertussis for evasion of the immune system and adaptation to different niches in the human host. High sensitivity and specificity make the PCR/LDR assay a powerful tool for investigating allelic variation at HPTs. Using this method

  14. Pertussis: Disease Villain!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about pertussis, or whooping cough-what it is and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  15. The contribution of PCR testing to influenza and pertussis notifications in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, M C; Ware, R S; Lambert, S B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza and pertussis are the two most common vaccine-preventable infections notified in Australia. We assessed the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis in influenza and pertussis cases notified to the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). There were a total of 2 10 786 notified influenza cases (2001-2013) and 2 55 866 notified pertussis cases (1991-2013). After 1 January 2007, the majority of influenza and pertussis notifications were PCR-based (80·5% and 59·6%, respectively). Before 31 December 2006, PCR-based notifications were limited (29·1% and 11·7%, respectively). By 2013, PCR-based notifications had largely replaced all other diagnostic methods, with the exception of serology-based notifications in pertussis cases in adults aged ⩾ 25 years. PMID:26112983

  16. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal

  17. Loss of multi-epitope specificity in memory CD4(+ T cell responses to B. pertussis with age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda G H Han

    Full Text Available Pertussis is still occurring in highly vaccinated populations, affecting individuals of all ages. Long-lived Th1 CD4(+ T cells are essential for protective immunity against pertussis. For better understanding of the limited immunological memory to Bordetella pertussis, we used a panel of Pertactin and Pertussis toxin specific peptides to interrogate CD4(+ T cell responses at the epitope level in a unique cohort of symptomatic pertussis patients of different ages, at various time intervals after infection. Our study showed that pertussis epitope-specific T cell responses contained Th1 and Th2 components irrespective of the epitope studied, time after infection, or age. In contrast, the breadth of the pertussis-directed CD4(+ T cell response seemed dependent on age and closeness to infection. Multi-epitope specificity long-term after infection was lost in older age groups. Detailed knowledge on pertussis specific immune mechanisms and their insufficiencies is important for understanding resurgence of pertussis in highly vaccinated populations.

  18. A cocktail of humanized anti-pertussis toxin antibodies limits disease in murine and baboon models of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annalee W; Wagner, Ellen K; Laber, Joshua R; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Harvill, Eric T; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Padlan, Eduardo A; Bristol, Andy; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis rates are rising in industrialized countries and remain high worldwide. With no specific therapeutics to treat disease, pertussis continues to cause considerable infant morbidity and mortality. The pertussis toxin is a major contributor to disease, responsible for local and systemic effects including leukocytosis and immunosuppression. We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the Bordetella pertussis-induced rise in white blood cell counts and decreased bacterial colonization. When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated, but not untreated control animals, experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell counts and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. These preliminary findings support further investigation into the use of these antibodies to treat human neonatal pertussis in conjunction with antibiotics and supportive care.

  19. Changes to the varicella and pertussis immunisation schedule in Germany 2009: Background, rationale and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese-Posselt, Miriam; Hellenbrand, Wiebke

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) modified its recommendations for varicella and pertussis vaccination, based on newly available data on disease epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness (VE) and safety, and an evaluation of the feasibility of the recommended immunisation strategy. The recommendation for varicella vaccine now includes a routine two-dose schedule with the administration of the first dose at the age of 11 to 14 months and the second dose at t...

  20. Estimated incidence of pertussis in people aged <50 years in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chang; Balderston McGuiness, Catherine; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Kainan; Buck, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of pertussis vaccination in the United States (US) in the 1940s has greatly reduced its burden. However, the incidence of pertussis is difficult to quantify, as many cases are not laboratory-confirmed or reported, particularly in adults. This study estimated pertussis incidence in a commercially insured US population aged models; (3) using the fraction of cough illness (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3, 786.2, 466.0, 466.1, 487.1) attributed to laboratory-confirmed pertussis, estimated by time series linear regression models. Method 1 gave a projected annual incidence of diagnosed pertussis of 9/100,000, which was highest in those aged <1 year. Method 2 gave an average annual projected incidence of 21/100,000. Method 3 gave an overall regression-estimated weighted annual incidence of pertussis of 649/100,000, approximately 58–93 times higher than method 1 depending on the year. These estimations, which are consistent with considerable underreporting of pertussis in people aged <50 years and provide further evidence that the majority of cases go undetected, especially with increasing age, may aid in the development of public health programs to reduce pertussis burden. PMID:27246119

  1. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C; Hoffman, Casandra L; Gonyar, Laura A; Hewlett, Erik L

    2015-12-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10-14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28-35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors.

  2. Pertussis: A Review of Disease Epidemiology Worldwide and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gabutti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis continues to be a relevant public-health issue. The high coverage rates achieved have decreased the spread of the pathogen, but the waning of immunity implies a relevant role of adolescents and adults in the infective dynamics as they may represent a significant source of infection for unvaccinated or incompletely immunized newborns. The passive surveillance system is affected by many limitations. The underestimation of pertussis in adolescents, young adults and adults is mainly related to the atypical clinical characteristics of cases and the lack of lab confirmation. The real epidemiological impact of pertussis is not always perceived, anyway, the unavailability of comprehensive data should not hamper the adoption of active prophylactic interventions aimed at preventing the impact of waning immunity on pertussis. To avoid an increase of the mean age of acquisition of the infection, a booster dose of low-antigen content combined vaccine should be adopted in adolescents and adults. A decreased risk of infection in newborns can be achieved with the cocoon strategy, although the debate on this aspect is still open and enhanced surveillance and further studies are needed to fine-tune the pertussis prevention strategy.

  3. Development and Validation of ELISA Assays for Determination of Serum Antibody against Pertussis Toxin, Filamentous Hemagglutinin, Pertactin of Bordetella Pertussis%百日咳毒素丝状血凝素和百日咳黏附素血清抗体检测方法的建立及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖华; 骆鹏; 王丽婵; 卫辰; 侯启明; 张庶民

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立定量检测抗百日咳毒素抗体(Antibody to Pertussis Toxin,Anti-PT)、抗丝状血凝素抗体(Antibody to Filamentous Haemagglutinin,Anti-FHA)和抗百日咳黏附素抗体(Antibody to Pertactin,Anti-Prn)的酶联免疫吸附试验(Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay,ELISA)方法.方法 分别应用纯化的百日咳毒素(PT)、丝状血凝素(FHA)和百日咳黏附素(Prn)作为包被抗原,百日咳血清抗体国际参考品为标准品,建立定量检测Anti-PT、Anti-FHA、Anti-Prn的ELISA方法.结果 建立了三种定量检测ELISA方法,并进行方法学验证.结果 显示,定量检测Anti-PT的ELISA方法的最低检测限度为1.31IU/ml(国际单位/毫升),批内和批间变异系数(Coefficient of Variability,CV)分别为9.99%和11.55%,回收率为97.19%;检测Anti-FHA方法的最低检测限度为1.02IU/ml,批内和批间CV分别为11.01%和12.76%,回收率为101.20%;检测Anti-Prn方法的最低检测限度为0.511U/ml,批内和批间CV分别为9.00%和11.18%,回收率为107.83%.用建立的ELISA方法与国外同类方法对30份血清样本进行分析,检测结果差异无统计学意义.应用上述建立的三种ELISA方法,检测分析了三组份无细胞百日咳疫苗(Acellular Pertussis Vaccine,aP)基础免疫后免疫原性.结论 所建立的百日咳血清抗体检测ELISA方法,准确度高和重复性好,无需特殊仪器,适合于一般实验室开展,可用于接种aP后血清学效果观察和百日咳流行病学研究.%Objective To develop three Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA ) methods for quantitative determination of IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin(Prn)in human serum, respectively. Method Purified PT, FHA and Prn and international reference pertussis serum were used as coating antigen and standard for development of three ELISA assays. Results Three ELJSA assays had been established for determining anti-PT, FHA and Prn antibody, respectively

  4. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  5. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Audrey J; van der Lee, Saskia; Mohangoo, Archena; van Gent, Marjolein; van der Ark, Arno; van de Waterbeemd, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx) promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  6. Population diversity among Bordetella pertussis isolates, United States, 1935-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Amber J; Boney, Kathryn O; Martin, Stacey W; Skoff, Tami H; Tondella, M Lucia; Tatti, Kathleen M

    2012-08-01

    Since the 1980s, pertussis notifications in the United States have been increasing. To determine the types of Bordetella pertussis responsible for these increases, we divided 661 B. pertussis isolates collected in the United States during 1935-2009 into 8 periods related to the introduction of novel vaccines or changes in vaccination schedule. B. pertussis diversity was highest from 1970-1990 (94%) but declined to ≈ 70% after 1991 and has remained constant. During 2006-2009, 81.6% of the strains encoded multilocus sequence type prn2-ptxP3-ptxS1A-fim3B, and 64% were multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis type 27. US trends were consistent with those seen internationally; emergence and predominance of the fim3B allele was the only molecular characteristic associated with the increase in pertussis notifications. Changes in the vaccine composition and schedule were not the direct selection pressures that resulted in the allele changes present in the current B. pertussis population.

  7. Differential expression of type III effector BteA protein due to IS481 insertion in Bordetella pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ja Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the last three decades, strains of Bordetella pertussis in circulation have shifted from the vaccine-type to the nonvaccine-type in many countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of the strains was performed to identify protein(s involved in the type shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Proteomic analysis identified one differentially expressed protein in the B. pertussis strains: the type III cytotoxic effector protein BteA, which is responsible for host cell death in Bordetella bronchiseptica infections. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the prominent expression of BteA protein in the nonvaccine-type strains but not in the vaccine-type strains. Sequence analysis of the vaccine-type strains revealed an IS481 insertion in the 5' untranslated region of bteA, -136 bp upstream of the bteA start codon. A high level of bteA transcripts from the IS481 promoter was detected in the vaccine-type strains, indicating that the transcript might be an untranslatable form. Furthermore, BteA mutant studies demonstrated that BteA expression in the vaccine-type strains is down-regulated by the IS481 insertion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The cytotoxic effector BteA protein is expressed at higher levels in B. pertussis nonvaccine-type strains than in vaccine-type strains. This type-dependent expression is due to an insertion of IS481 in B. pertussis clinical strains, suggesting that augmented expression of BteA protein might play a key role in the type shift of B. pertussis.

  8. Eventos adversos pós-vacina contra a difteria, coqueluche e tétano e fatores associados à sua gravidade Adverse events following diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccinations and factors associated with severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ramos Martin de Freitas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os eventos adversos pós-vacina contra a difteria, coqueluche e tétano (EAPV-DPT e os fatores associados à sua gravidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com componente descritivo e analítico, abrangendo os eventos adversos pós-vacina DPT notificados no Estado de São Paulo, de 1984 a 2001, entre crianças menores de sete anos de idade. A definição de caso foi a adotada pela vigilância de EAPV-DPT; os dados obtidos foram originados da vigilância passiva desses eventos. No cálculo das taxas, o numerador foram os EAPV e o denominador o número de doses aplicadas. A associação entre a gravidade dos EAPV-DPT e as exposições de interesse foi investigada pelas estimativas não ajustadas e ajustadas da odds ratio, com os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança, usando regressão logística não condicional. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se 10.059 EAPV-DPT relativos a 6.266 crianças, apresentando um ou mais EAPV, 29,5% foram internadas e em 68,2% houve contra-indicação das doses subseqüentes de DPT. Cerca de 75% dos eventos ocorreram nas primeiras seis horas após a aplicação da vacina. Os eventos mais freqüentes foram: febreOBJECTIVE: To analyze adverse events following vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (AEFV-DPT and to investigate factors associated with event severity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a descriptive and analytical component covering AEFV-DPT that were notified in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1984 and 2001, among children less than seven years old. Cases were defined as used in AEFV-DPT surveillance; the data source was AEFV-DPT passive surveillance. In calculating the rates, the numerator was the number of AEFV-DPT and as denominator was the number of doses applied. The association between severity of AEFV-DPT and the exposures of interest was investigated by means of non-adjusted and adjusted estimates of odds ratios, with their respective 95

  9. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  10. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal poverty level had lower estimated coverage for almost all of the vaccinations assessed, compared with children living at or above the poverty level. Significant variation in coverage by state¶ was observed for several vaccinations, including HepB birth dose

  11. Comparative genomic profiling of Dutch clinical Bordetella pertussis isolates using DNA microarrays: Identification of genes absent from epidemic strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gent Marjolein

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in humans, is re-emerging in many countries despite vaccination. Several studies have shown that significant shifts have occurred in the B. pertussis population resulting in antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and suggesting pathogen adaptation. In the Netherlands, the resurgence of pertussis is associated with the rise of B. pertussis strains with an altered promoter region for pertussis toxin (ptxP3. Results We used Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to characterize the ptxP3 strains associated with the Dutch epidemic. For CGH analysis, we developed an oligonucleotide (70-mers microarray consisting of 3,581 oligonucleotides representing 94% of the gene repertoire of the B. pertussis strain Tohama I. Nine different MLST profiles and 38 different MLVA types were found in the period 1993 to 2004. Forty-three Dutch clinical isolates were analyzed with CGH, 98 genes were found to be absent in at least one of the B. pertussis strains tested, these genes were clustered in 8 distinct regions of difference. Conclusion The presented MLST, MLVA and CGH-analysis identified distinctive characteristics of ptxP3 B. pertussis strains -the most prominent of which was a genomic deletion removing about 23,000 bp. We propose a model for the emergence of ptxP3 strains.

  12. Comparison of nasopharyngeal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological test for diagnosis of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Yildirim, Inci; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Seçmeer, Gülten; Gür, Deniz; Kara, Ateş

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study, which was designed to compare nasopharyngeal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology in the diagnosis of pertussis, covered 35 children aged between 0 and 16 who were admitted to Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital between 1 March 2005 and 31 August 2006 with coughing for 7 days or longer, paroxysmal cough of any duration, or cough with inspiratory whoop and/or vomiting (or apnea) after coughs. The demographic data and vaccination history of the patients were recorded. During the initial examination, samples were taken from the posterior nasopharynx for Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) culture and PCR analysis. In order to determine antibody positivity and antibody levels against B. pertussis antigens, serum samples were taken during the initial examination (acute phase) and two weeks later (convalescent phase). In the first serum sample, immunoglobulin M (IgM) was determined against pertussis toxin. In the first and second samples, IgA and IgG antibodies were evaluated against pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. Culture yielded negative results in all of the patients. PCR was positive in two cases (5.7%). In the PCR-positive patients, IgM, IgA and IgG type anti-pertussis antibodies were found to be positive in the first serum samples, and IgA and IgG antibodies were found to be positive in the second serum samples. Therefore, it was considered that serology could be as sensitive as PCR when type IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies were found to be positive against a minimum of two antigens of B. pertussis. In conclusion, both PCR and serologic tests--if evaluating all types of antibodies to a minimum of two antigens of B. pertussis obtained in both acute and convalescent sera--could be more sensitive than culture in the diagnosis of pertussis.

  13. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  14. Feasibility Study of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' GSK2202083A Vaccine in Healthy Infants at 3, 5 and 11 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    Haemophilus Influenzae Type b; Poliomyelitis; Hepatitis B; Serogroup C Meningococcal Diseases; Diphtheria; Pertussis; Diphtheria-Tetanus-aPertussis-Hepatitis B-Poliomyelitis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b-Neisseria Meningitidis Vaccines; Tetanus

  15. The seroepidemiology of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against pertussis toxin in China: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pertussis is a reported vaccine-preventable respiratory disease in China. Because the routine laboratory methods for diagnosis are not in use, the reported cases are mainly in infants with classical paroxysmal cough and the true incidence related to pertussis is most likely under estimated. In China, however, few studies have attempted to address this issue. The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the incidence rates using the method of sero-epidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT among healthy populations in China. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 1313 healthy individuals aged 0 to 95 years in Guangdong province of China throughout September 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT were determined by commercial ELISA kits. Subjects with concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL were indicated to have recent Bordetella pertussis infection, if they have not received a booster dose of pertussis vaccine within one year. Results Of the 1313 study subjects, 117 (8.91% were found to have anti-PT antibodies higher than 30 IU/mL. The estimated incidence of recent infection was thus 9395 per 100,000 for individuals older than 7 years. Peaks of the estimated incidence rate of recent infection were found to be 11561 per 100,000 in age group of 41–50 years and 11428 per 100,000 in the group aged 13–19 years. Conclusions Our study indicated that B.pertussis infections are considerablely common, particularly in adolescents and adults in China. The study also stresses the importance of laboratory diagnosis for pertussis and employment of booster dose of pertussis vaccine in adolescents and adults in this country.

  16. Nineteen cases of persistent pruritic nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after injection of commonly used aluminium-adsorbed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Björkelund, Cecilia; Trollfors, Birger

    2005-11-01

    Rare cases of persistent pruritic nodules, sometimes associated with aluminium (Al) allergy, have been reported after the use of several Al adsorbed vaccines. During vaccine trials in the 1990s a high incidence of pruritic nodules (645 cases/76,000 recipients), in 77% associated with Al allergy, was observed after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus / acellular pertussis (DT/aP) vaccines from a single producer. In the present report 19 children with pruritic nodules after vaccination with Al hydroxide-adsorbed DTaP/polio+Hib (Infanrix, Pentavac) are described. The children had intensely itching nodules at the injection site, often aggravated during upper respiratory tract infections, and local skin alterations. So far, the symptoms have persisted for up to 7 years. The median time between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 1 month. 16 children were epicutaneously tested for Al, all with positive reactions indicating delayed hypersensitivity to Al. The condition is not commonly known but is important to recognise, as the child and the family may suffer considerably. Future vaccinations with Al-adsorbed vaccines may cause aggravation of the symptoms and the Al allergy. Al-containing skin products, such as antiperspirants, may cause contact dermatitis. Nodules may be mistaken for tumours. Even though the incidence of itching nodules and Al allergy after administration of Infanrix, Pentavac and other Al-adsorbed vaccines is probably low, research to replace Al adjuvants seems appropriate. We conclude that intensely itching subcutaneous nodules, lasting for many years, and hypersensitivity to aluminium may occur after DTaP/polio+Hib vaccination of infants.

  17. Adverse events following vaccination in the French armed forces: An overview of surveillance conducted from 2002 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, A; Haus-Cheymol, R; Bouaiti, E A; Decam, C; Simon, F; Mérens, A; Spiegel, A; Meynard, J B; Deparis, X; Migliani, R

    2012-06-14

    French military personnel are subject to a compulsory vaccination schedule. The aim of this study was to describe vaccine adverse events (VAE) reported from 2002 to 2010 in armed forces. VAE are routinely surveyed by the military Centre for epidemiology and public health. For each case, military practitioners fill a notification form, providing patient characteristics, clinical information and vaccines administered. For this study, VAE following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination were excluded. Among the 473 cases retained, 442 (93%) corresponded to non-severe VAE,including local, regional and systemic events, while 31 corresponded to severe VAE, with two leading to significant disability. The global VAE reporting rate (RR) was 14.0 per 100,000 injections. While stationary from 2002 to 2008, the RR increased from 2009. The most important observations were a marked increase of VAE attributed to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine from 2005 to 2008, a high RR observed with the inactivated diphtheria-tetanus (toxoids)-poliovirus vaccine combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (dTap-IPV) from 2008 and an increase in RR for seasonal influenza vaccine VAE in 2009. Our RR for severe VAE (1.1 VAEper 100,000) appears comparable with rates observed among United States civilians and military personnel. The increase observed from 2009 could be partly explained by the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic which increased practitioner awareness towards VAE. In conclusion, the tolerance of the vaccines used in French armed forces appears acceptable.

  18. Changes in genetic diversity of the Bordetella pertussis population in Serbia between 1953 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plješa Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass vaccination has significantly reduced the incidence of pertussis, however, the disease is re-emerging, even in some countries with high vaccination coverage. In Serbia, whole cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in 1957. To monitor changes in bacterial population, 77 isolates collected from 1953 to 2011 were studied. The methods included serotyping of fimbriae (Fim, genotyping of pertactin (prn and pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxA. A shift from ptxA2 to ptxA1 has been observed in isolates since the late of 1960s. In the period 1961-1979, the genotype ptxA1 became as common as genotype ptxA2. After that, during the period 1980-1989, the predominant ptx genotype was ptxA1. The reappearance of the ptxA2 allele followed an addition of the two strains harboring ptxA1 in the vaccine in 1985. The allele prn1 was predominant among the Serbian isolates, though prn3 and prn11 have been detected since 1981. The prn2 allele was only found in one strain isolated in 1984, two of the four strains isolated in 2000 and in three isolated strains from 2011. Serotype Fim2.3 disappeared before 1980 and serotype Fim2 became predominant thereafter. The results of this study indicate that the B. pertussis population in Serbia is different from other vaccinated populations and that this difference may be related to the vaccine used.

  19. 百日咳杆菌黏着素的纯化及生物学特性研究%Study on purification and biological characteristics of pertactin from Bordetella pertussis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 肖詹蓉; 叶娟; 韩俊杰; 孙翔宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立从天然百日咳杆菌中提纯百日咳杆菌黏着素( pertactin,PRN)的方法,研究PRN的生物学特性并确定PRN在无细胞百日咳疫苗中的作用.方法 百日咳杆菌CS株于发酵罐培养后,经热浸提、硫酸铵分级沉淀及离子交换层析得到纯化PRN,根据《中华人民共和国药典》2005年版三部的要求,对纯化PRN进行纯度检测及生物学特性研究.结果 各项检测显示,纯化PRN的纯度在95%以上,其相对分子质量和等电点与标准PRN一致.纯化PRN对小鼠具有保护效力,且其保护效力随PRN免疫浓度的增加而增强.未检出纯化PRN的特异性毒性和异常毒性.结论 建立了从天然百日咳杆菌中提纯PRN的方法,而且纯化PRN具有免疫原性和保护效力.%Objective To establish a method for purifying pertactin from Bordetella pertussis,study its biological characteristics and confirm its role in acellular pertussis vaccine.Methods Bordetella pertussis CS strain was cultured in a fermenter,and purified pertactin was obtained by hot lixiviation,ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography.Purity and biological characteristics of the purified pertactin were studied according to requirements of Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2005 Volume Ⅲ.Results The purity of the purified pertactin was above 95%,relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of the purified pertactin were identical with those of standard pertactin.Protective potency of the purified pertactin was observed in mice and enhanced with increase of its concentrations.No specific and abnormal toxicities were detected.Conclusions The method for purifying pertactin from Bordetella pertussis is established,and purified pertactin has immunogenicity and protective potency.

  20. Differentially expressed genes in Bordetella pertussis strains belonging to a lineage which recently spread globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Daan; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J; Zomer, Aldert; Heuvelman, Kees; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Mooi, Frits R

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which is associated with higher levels of pertussis toxin (Ptx) production. Within 10 to 20 years, ptxP3 strains have nearly completely replaced the previously dominant ptxP1 strains resulting in a worldwide selective sweep. In order to identify B. pertussis genes associated with the selective sweep, we compared the expression of genes in ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains that are under control of the Bordetella master virulence regulatory locus (bvgASR). The BvgAS proteins comprise a two component sensory transduction system which is regulated by temperature, nicotinic acid and sulfate. By increasing the sulfate concentration, it is possible to change the phase of B. pertussis from virulent to avirulent. Until recently, the only distinctive phenotype of ptxP3 strains was a higher Ptx production. Here we identify additional phenotypic differences between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains which may have contributed to its global spread by comparing global transcriptional responses under sulfate-modulating conditions. We show that ptxP3 strains are less sensitive to sulfate-mediated gene suppression, resulting in an increased production of the vaccine antigens pertactin (Prn) and Ptx and a number of other virulence genes, including a type III secretion toxin, Vag8, a protein involved in complement resistance, and lpxE involved in lipid A modification. Furthermore, enhanced expression of the vaccine antigens Ptx and Prn by ptxP3 strains was confirmed at the protein level. Identification of genes differentially expressed between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains may elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination and allow the improvement of pertussis vaccines by identifying novel

  1. Differentially expressed genes in Bordetella pertussis strains belonging to a lineage which recently spread globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan de Gouw

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which is associated with higher levels of pertussis toxin (Ptx production. Within 10 to 20 years, ptxP3 strains have nearly completely replaced the previously dominant ptxP1 strains resulting in a worldwide selective sweep. In order to identify B. pertussis genes associated with the selective sweep, we compared the expression of genes in ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains that are under control of the Bordetella master virulence regulatory locus (bvgASR. The BvgAS proteins comprise a two component sensory transduction system which is regulated by temperature, nicotinic acid and sulfate. By increasing the sulfate concentration, it is possible to change the phase of B. pertussis from virulent to avirulent. Until recently, the only distinctive phenotype of ptxP3 strains was a higher Ptx production. Here we identify additional phenotypic differences between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains which may have contributed to its global spread by comparing global transcriptional responses under sulfate-modulating conditions. We show that ptxP3 strains are less sensitive to sulfate-mediated gene suppression, resulting in an increased production of the vaccine antigens pertactin (Prn and Ptx and a number of other virulence genes, including a type III secretion toxin, Vag8, a protein involved in complement resistance, and lpxE involved in lipid A modification. Furthermore, enhanced expression of the vaccine antigens Ptx and Prn by ptxP3 strains was confirmed at the protein level. Identification of genes differentially expressed between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains may elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination and allow the improvement of pertussis vaccines by

  2. Purification of pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin%百日咳毒素、丝状血凝素和黏附素的纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田阳; 史秋明; 隋礼丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and purify the pertussis toxin (PT),filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) of acellular pertussis vaccine by using a novel chromatography medium.Methods The pH value and conductivity of fermentation liquid of PT and FHA were adjusted,based on which PT was purified by Capto SP ImpRes and Capto MMC chromatography,while FHA by Capto SP ImpRes chromatography.The purified samples were identified by 4% ~12% NuPAGE and analyzed for purity by ImageQ and for protein mass spectrum by LC-MASS (Thermo LTQ Velas).PT and FHA were analyzed quantitatively by BiaCore T200,and calucated for recovery rates at various steps.Results The purities of PT,FHA and PRN reached more than 95%.The total recovery rates of PT and FHA were about 30%.LCMASS showed high homologies of bands of the three components on electrophoretic profile to those in databank.Conclusion The PT,FHA and PRN components of acellular pertusis vaccine were purified effectively by novel chromatography media,while the antigen purities increased,and the time for production was shortened remarkably.%目的 采用新型层析介质对无细胞百日咳疫苗百日咳毒素(pertussis toxin,PT)、丝状血凝素(filamen-tous hemagglutinin,FHA)和黏附素(pertactin,PRN)3组分进行分离纯化.方法 调整PT和FHA发酵液上清的pH值和电导后,PT经Capto SP ImpRes和Capto MMC进行两步层析,FHA经Capto SP ImpRes进行一步层析;PRN热处理原液经Capto Adhere和Capto SP ImpRes进行两步层析.纯化产物经4%~12% NuPAGE进行鉴定,ImageQ分析纯度;LC-MASS(Thermo LTQ Velas)进行蛋白质的质谱检测;PT和FHA经BiaCore T200进行定量分析,并计算各步回收率.结果 纯化后,无细胞百日咳疫苗3组分纯度均达95%以上;PT和FHA的总回收率均在30%左右;电泳图谱上的各组分条带经LC-MASS鉴定,均与Uniprot Bordetella pertussis数据库数据高度同源.结论 采用新型层析介质有效纯化了无细胞百

  3. Pertussis prevalence and its determinants among children with persistent cough in urban Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kayina

    Full Text Available We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control.In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ELISA serology tests.Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12-18 and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16-24 by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30% had a coughing household member and 316 (70% did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24-41.44. Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member.

  4. Pertussis Prevalence and Its Determinants among Children with Persistent Cough in Urban Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayina, Vincent; Kyobe, Samuel; Katabazi, Fred A.; Kigozi, Edgar; Okee, Moses; Odongkara, Beatrice; Babikako, Harriet M.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.; Musoke, Philippa M.; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA serology tests. Results Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12–18)) and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16–24)) by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30%) had a coughing household member and 316 (70%) did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR) 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24–41.44)). Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member. PMID:25874411

  5. 77 FR 52333 - International Workshop on Alternatives to the Murine Histamine Sensitization Test (HIST) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., were developed in response to public concern with some common side effects (e.g., fever, swelling at...) for Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: State of the Science and the Path Forward AGENCY: Division of the... Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: State of the Science and the Path Forward.'' This workshop, the third in...

  6. Drug: D05356 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05356 Drug Adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus combined vaccine (JP16) ...rified pertussis-tetanus combined vaccine (JP16) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Immunological Agents V...accines Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (DTaP) D05356 Adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus combined vaccine (JP16) PubChem: 17398290 ...

  7. Immune boosting explains regime-shifts in prevaccine-era pertussis dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie S Lavine

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying episodic outbreaks of infectious diseases is one of mathematical epidemiology's major goals. Historic records are an invaluable source of information in this enterprise. Pertussis (whooping cough is a re-emerging infection whose intermittent bouts of large multiannual epidemics interspersed between periods of smaller-amplitude cycles remain an enigma. It has been suggested that recent increases in pertussis incidence and shifts in the age-distribution of cases may be due to diminished natural immune boosting. Here we show that a model that incorporates this mechanism can account for a unique set of pre-vaccine-era data from Copenhagen. Under this model, immune boosting induces transient bursts of large amplitude outbreaks. In the face of mass vaccination, the boosting model predicts larger and more frequent outbreaks than do models with permanent or passively-waning immunity. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining immune memory for pertussis epidemiology.

  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis We provide this video in a variety of ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  9. Pertussis outbreak in Papua New Guinea: the challenges of response in a remote geo-topographical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lagani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A large outbreak of pertussis was detected during March 2011 in Goilala, a remote district of the Central Province in Papua New Guinea, characterized by rugged topography with no road access from the provincial headquarters. This outbreak investigation highlights the difficulties in reporting and responding to outbreaks in these settings.Method: The suspected pertussis cases, reported by health workers from the Ononge health centre area, were investigated and confirmed for the presence of Bordetella pertussis DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Results: There were 205 suspected pertussis cases, with a case-fatality rate (CFR of 3%. All cases were unvaccinated. The Central Province conducted a response vaccination programme providing 65% of children less than five years of age with diphtheria–pertussis-tetanus-HepB-Hib vaccine at a cost of US$ 12.62 per child.Discussion: The incurred cost of vaccination in response to this outbreak was much higher than the US$ 3.80 per child for routine outreach patrol. To prevent further outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in these areas, local health centres must ensure routine vaccination is strengthened through the “Reaching Every District” initiative of the National Department of Health.

  10. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles... Pregnant? Help Protect Your Baby from Whooping Cough frame support disabled and/or not supported in ... disease. Also available on YouTube. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Learn more about whooping cough vaccination during pregnancy... ...

  11. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  12. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure F Pittet

    Full Text Available Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old, formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+. No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+ was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  13. Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms of Pertussis Toxin Subunit S2 (PtxB Affect Protein Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott H Millen

    Full Text Available Whooping cough due to Bordetella pertussis is increasing in incidence, in part due to accumulation of mutations which increase bacterial fitness in highly vaccinated populations. Polymorphisms in the pertussis toxin, ptxA and ptxB genes, and the pertactin, prn genes of clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis collected in Cincinnati from 1989 through 2005 were examined. While the ptxA and prn genotypes were variable, all 48 strains had the ptxB2 genotype; ptxB1 encodes glycine at amino acid 18 of the S2 subunit of pertussis toxin, while ptxB2 encodes serine. We investigated antigenic and functional differences of PtxB1 and PtxB2. The S2 protein was not very immunogenic. Only a few vaccinated or individuals infected with B. pertussis developed antibody responses to the S2 subunit, and these sera recognized both polymorphic forms equally well. Amino acid 18 of S2 is in a glycan binding domain, and the PtxB forms displayed differences in receptor recognition and toxicity. PtxB1 bound better to the glycoprotein, fetuin, and Jurkat T cells in vitro, but the two forms were equally effective at promoting CHO cell clustering. To investigate in vivo activity of Ptx, one μg of Ptx was administered to DDY mice and blood was collected on 4 days after injection. PtxB2 was more effective at promoting lymphocytosis in mice.

  14. 78 FR 4147 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Affordable Care Act, pertussis, polio eradication, global vaccination, and HPV vaccine coverage. The meeting... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Services (HHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold...

  15. Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, evolved from a distinct, human-associated lineage of B. bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri A Diavatopoulos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, B. bronchiseptica, B. parapertussis(hu, and B. parapertussis(ov are closely related respiratory pathogens that infect mammalian species. B. pertussis and B. parapertussis(hu are exclusively human pathogens and cause whooping cough, or pertussis, a disease that has resurged despite vaccination. Although it most often infects animals, infrequently B. bronchiseptica is isolated from humans, and these infections are thought to be zoonotic. B. pertussis and B. parapertussis(hu are assumed to have evolved from a B. bronchiseptica-like ancestor independently. To determine the phylogenetic relationships among these species, housekeeping and virulence genes were sequenced, comparative genomic hybridizations were performed using DNA microarrays, and the distribution of insertion sequence elements was determined, using a collection of 132 strains. This multifaceted approach distinguished four complexes, representing B. pertussis, B. parapertussis(hu, and two distinct B. bronchiseptica subpopulations, designated complexes I and IV. Of the two B. bronchiseptica complexes, complex IV was more closely related to B. pertussis. Of interest, while only 32% of the complex I strains were isolated from humans, 80% of the complex IV strains were human isolates. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified the absence of the pertussis toxin locus and dermonecrotic toxin gene, as well as a polymorphic lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus, as associated with adaptation of complex IV strains to the human host. Lipopolysaccharide structural diversity among these strains was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Thus, complex IV strains may comprise a human-associated lineage of B. bronchiseptica from which B. pertussis evolved. These findings will facilitate the study of pathogen host-adaptation. Our results shed light on the origins of the disease pertussis and suggest that the association of B. pertussis with humans may be more ancient than

  16. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  17. Changes in the genomic content of circulating Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from the Netherlands, Sweden, Japan and Australia: adaptive evolution or drift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Lee Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of human whooping cough (pertussis and is particularly severe in infants. Despite worldwide vaccinations, whooping cough remains a public health problem. A significant increase in the incidence of whooping cough has been observed in many countries since the 1990s. Several reasons for the re-emergence of this highly contagious disease have been suggested. A particularly intriguing possibility is based on evidence indicating that pathogen adaptation may play a role in this process. In an attempt to gain insight into the genomic make-up of B. pertussis over the last 60 years, we used an oligonucleotide DNA microarray to compare the genomic contents of a collection of 171 strains of B. pertussis isolates from different countries. Results The CGH microarray analysis estimated the core genome of B. pertussis, to consist of 3,281 CDSs that are conserved among all B. pertussis strains, and represent 84.8% of all CDSs found in the 171 B. pertussis strains. A total of 64 regions of difference consisting of one or more contiguous CDSs were identified among the variable genes. CGH data also revealed that the genome size of B. pertussis strains is decreasing progressively over the past 60 years. Phylogenetic analysis of microarray data generated a minimum spanning tree that depicted the phylogenetic structure of the strains. B. pertussis strains with the same gene content were found in several different countries. However, geographic specificity of the B. pertussis strains was not observed. The gene content was determined to highly correlate with the ptxP-type of the strains. Conclusions An overview of genomic contents of a large collection of isolates from different countries allowed us to derive a core genome and a phylogenetic structure of B. pertussis. Our results show that B. pertussis is a dynamic organism that continues to evolve.

  18. Comparative genomics of Bordetella pertussis reveals progressive gene loss in Finnish strains.

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    Eriikka Heikkinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical isolates in Finland. To better understand genome evolution in B. pertussis circulating in the immunized population, we developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray for comparative genomic analysis of Finnish strains isolated during the period of 50 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The microarray consisted of 3,582 oligonucleotides (70-mer and covered 94% of 3,816 ORFs of Tohama I, the strain of which the genome has been sequenced. Twenty isolates from 1953 to 2004 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains and two international reference strains. The isolates were selected according to their characteristics, e.g. the year and place of isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Genomic DNA of the tested strains, along with reference DNA of Tohama I strain, was labelled and hybridized. The absence of genes as established with microarrays, was confirmed by PCR. Compared with the Tohama I strain, Finnish isolates lost 7 (8.6 kb to 49 (55.3 kb genes, clustered in one to four distinct loci. The number of lost genes increased with time, and one third of lost genes had functions related to inorganic ion transport and metabolism, or energy production and conversion. All four loci of lost genes were flanked by the insertion sequence element IS481. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the progressive gene loss occurred in Finnish B. pertussis strains isolated during a period of 50 years and confirmed that B. pertussis is dynamic and is continuously evolving, suggesting that the bacterium may use gene loss as one strategy to adapt to highly immunized populations.

  19. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... During Trip After Your Trip CDC-TV Videos Travel to the Olympics ... Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow ...

  20. Compliance with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlyn, S; Rahman, A K; Nielsen, B H;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with non-compliance with having second vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis in a treatment centre in Dhaka to determine which children were most at risk of not completing immunisation. DESIGN: Cohort study of infants given first dose...... of the vaccine and followed up six weeks later to ascertain compliance with having second dose. Factors associated with non-compliance were evaluated. SETTING: Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 136 unimmunised children aged 6 weeks to 23...... months who lived within reach of the treatment centre. At time of the six week follow up 16 of the children could not be traced and seven had died. INTERVENTIONS: All children received their first dose of the vaccine. In each case health education workers had informed the mother about the value...

  1. Genome Structural Diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Two Recent U.S. Whooping Cough Statewide Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Katherine E; Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Cassiday, Pamela K; Sammons, Scott; Knipe, Kristen; Rowe, Lori A; Loparev, Vladimir; Sheth, Mili; Weening, Keeley; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    During 2010 and 2012, California and Vermont, respectively, experienced statewide epidemics of pertussis with differences seen in the demographic affected, case clinical presentation, and molecular epidemiology of the circulating strains. To overcome limitations of the current molecular typing methods for pertussis, we utilized whole-genome sequencing to gain a broader understanding of how current circulating strains are causing large epidemics. Through the use of combined next-generation sequencing technologies, this study compared de novo, single-contig genome assemblies from 31 out of 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected during two separate pertussis statewide epidemics and 2 resequenced vaccine strains. Final genome architecture assemblies were verified with whole-genome optical mapping. Sixteen distinct genome rearrangement profiles were observed in epidemic isolate genomes, all of which were distinct from the genome structures of the two resequenced vaccine strains. These rearrangements appear to be mediated by repetitive sequence elements, such as high-copy-number mobile genetic elements and rRNA operons. Additionally, novel and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 10 virulence-related genes in the epidemic isolates. Whole-genome variation analysis identified state-specific variants, and coding regions bearing nonsynonymous mutations were classified into functional annotated orthologous groups. Comprehensive studies on whole genomes are needed to understand the resurgence of pertussis and develop novel tools to better characterize the molecular epidemiology of evolving B. pertussis populations. IMPORTANCE Pertussis, or whooping cough, is the most poorly controlled vaccine-preventable bacterial disease in the United States, which has experienced a resurgence for more than a decade. Once viewed as a monomorphic pathogen, B. pertussis strains circulating during epidemics exhibit diversity visible on a genome structural

  2. Genome Structural Diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Two Recent U.S. Whooping Cough Statewide Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Katherine E; Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Cassiday, Pamela K; Sammons, Scott; Knipe, Kristen; Rowe, Lori A; Loparev, Vladimir; Sheth, Mili; Weening, Keeley; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    During 2010 and 2012, California and Vermont, respectively, experienced statewide epidemics of pertussis with differences seen in the demographic affected, case clinical presentation, and molecular epidemiology of the circulating strains. To overcome limitations of the current molecular typing methods for pertussis, we utilized whole-genome sequencing to gain a broader understanding of how current circulating strains are causing large epidemics. Through the use of combined next-generation sequencing technologies, this study compared de novo, single-contig genome assemblies from 31 out of 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected during two separate pertussis statewide epidemics and 2 resequenced vaccine strains. Final genome architecture assemblies were verified with whole-genome optical mapping. Sixteen distinct genome rearrangement profiles were observed in epidemic isolate genomes, all of which were distinct from the genome structures of the two resequenced vaccine strains. These rearrangements appear to be mediated by repetitive sequence elements, such as high-copy-number mobile genetic elements and rRNA operons. Additionally, novel and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 10 virulence-related genes in the epidemic isolates. Whole-genome variation analysis identified state-specific variants, and coding regions bearing nonsynonymous mutations were classified into functional annotated orthologous groups. Comprehensive studies on whole genomes are needed to understand the resurgence of pertussis and develop novel tools to better characterize the molecular epidemiology of evolving B. pertussis populations. IMPORTANCE Pertussis, or whooping cough, is the most poorly controlled vaccine-preventable bacterial disease in the United States, which has experienced a resurgence for more than a decade. Once viewed as a monomorphic pathogen, B. pertussis strains circulating during epidemics exhibit diversity visible on a genome structural

  3. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able to pro

  4. Immunological Signatures after Bordetella pertussis Infection Demonstrate Importance of Pulmonary Innate Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Jolanda; van der Maas, Larissa; Tilstra, Wichard; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Han, Wanda G. H.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van Riet, Elly; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Metz, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B. pertussis challenge. Pre-existing systemic memory Th1/Th17 cells, memory B-cells, and mucosal IgA specific for Ptx, Vag8, Fim2/3 were detected in the protected mice 56 days after an experimental infection. In addition, pre-existing high activity and reactivation of pulmonary innate cells such as alveolar macrophages, M-cells and goblet cells was detected. The pro-inflammatory responses in the lungs and serum, and neutrophil recruitment in the spleen upon an infectious challenge of unprotected mice were absent in protected mice. Instead, fast pulmonary immune responses in protected mice led to efficient bacterial clearance and harbored potential new gene markers that contribute to immunity against B. pertussis. These responses comprised of innate makers, such as Clca3, Retlna, Glycam1, Gp2, and Umod, next to adaptive markers, such as CCR6+ B-cells, CCR6+ Th17 cells and CXCR6+ T-cells as demonstrated by transcriptome analysis. In conclusion, besides effective Th1/Th17 and mucosal IgA responses, the primary infection-induced immunity benefits from activation of pulmonary resident innate immune cells, achieved by local pathogen-recognition. These molecular signatures of primary infection-induced immunity provided potential markers to improve vaccine-induced immunity against B. pertussis. PMID:27711188

  5. EVALUASI SEROLOGIS DARI IMUNISASI PERTUSSIS DENGAN VAKSIN DPT 2 DAN 3 DOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the serological response against pertussis after completion of both 2 and 3 doses of DPT vaccination. The study has been carried out retrospectively among 766 children under 3 years of age in Tulang-an District, Sidoarjo, East Java. The antibody titres against pertussis were measured by micro agglutination test. The results showed that the percentage of children having antibody titre of 1 : 80 or more, at 1—5 months post vaccination were 80.9% and 88.3% for 2 and 3 doses, respectively. The results do not differ significantly. This insignificance was maintained up to 17 months of the post-vaccination period.

  6. Complete genome sequence of a clinical Bordetella pertussis isolate from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gabriel N Andrade

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence in the number of pertussis cases in Brazil and around the world. Here, the genome of a clinical Bordetella pertussis strain (Bz181 that was recently isolated in Brazil is reported. Analysis of the virulence-associated genes defining the pre- and post-vaccination lineages revealed the presence of the prn2-ptxS1A-fim3B-ptxP3 allelic profile in Bz181, which is characteristic of the current pandemic lineage. A putative metallo-β-lactamase gene presenting all of the conserved zinc-binding motifs that characterise the catalytic site was identified, in addition to a multidrug efflux pump of the RND family that could confer resistance to erythromycin, which is the antibiotic of choice for treating pertussis disease.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a clinical Bordetella pertussis isolate from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Bruno Gabriel N; Marin, Michel F Abanto; Cambuy, Diego Duque; Fonseca, Erica Lourenço; Souza, Nadjla Ferreira; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2014-11-01

    There has been a resurgence in the number of pertussis cases in Brazil and around the world. Here, the genome of a clinical Bordetella pertussis strain (Bz181) that was recently isolated in Brazil is reported. Analysis of the virulence-associated genes defining the pre- and post-vaccination lineages revealed the presence of the prn2-ptxS1A-fim3B-ptxP3 allelic profile in Bz181, which is characteristic of the current pandemic lineage. A putative metallo-β-lactamase gene presenting all of the conserved zinc-binding motifs that characterise the catalytic site was identified, in addition to a multidrug efflux pump of the RND family that could confer resistance to erythromycin, which is the antibiotic of choice for treating pertussis disease.

  8. Immune interference on conjugate vaccines by carrier proteins or co-administrated vaccines%载体蛋白及多种疫苗同时接种对结合疫苗的免疫干扰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱为

    2012-01-01

    多种多糖-蛋白结合疫苗被开发成功,用于预防b型流感嗜血杆菌、脑膜炎球菌和肺炎链球菌感染,为婴幼儿健康提供了保障.常用的载体蛋白是破伤风类毒素、白喉类毒素和白喉类毒素突变体CRM197.在临床研究中观察到,相同载体或不同载体结合疫苗同时接种,或者与DTP/HBV/IPV等疫苗同时接种时,会干扰对某些抗原的免疫应答,其中可能有多种机制在起作用.随着更多的结合疫苗有望进入婴幼儿期基础免疫程序和无细胞百日咳疫苗(aP)逐渐代替全细胞百日咳疫苗(wP),如何选择合适的或者新的载体蛋白和佐剂、谨慎设计临床研究方案和接种程序等问题日益受到关注.%Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines are developed successfully to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b,Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococus pnuemoniae infections,especially for infants.The most commonly used carrier proteins are tetanus toxoid,diphtheria toxoid,and diphtheria toxin variant CRM197.In clinical trials,immune interference has been observed when conjugate vaccines with the same or different carrier proteins were co-administrated,or the conjugate vaccines were immunized concurrently with DTP/HBV/IPV.Several mechanisms may work together.As more conjugate vaccines are expected to be included into the childhood primary immunization schedule,and whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP) is replaced by acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) gradually,the problemns,including how to choose suitable carrier proteins and adjuvants,carefully designing the clinical trial and immunization schedule,attract more people's attention.

  9. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  10. Acellularization-induced changes in tensile properties are organ specific

    OpenAIRE

    Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Prietzel, Torsten; Aust, Gabriela; Boldt, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Keil, Isabel; Koch, Holger; Möbius, Robert; Scheidt, Holger A.; Wagner, Martin F. X.; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens. Materials and methods: Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for...

  11. Use of an Acellular Regenerative Tissue Matrix Over Chronic Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, D. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Bioengineered skin grafts, including acellular dermal matrices, may be effective in treating lower extremity and trunk wounds that are not responsive to traditional wound management. Acellular dermal wound matrix is derived from human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) tissue and provides a scaffold that supports cellular repopulation and revascularization. The major structural components of the dermis are retained during processing, and a single application has been shown to h...

  12. Structure of Bordetella pertussis peptidoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkening, W.J.; Nogami, W.; Martin, S.A.; Rosenthal, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    Bordetella pertussis Tohama phases I and III were grown to the late-exponential phase in liquid medium containing (/sup 3/H)diaminopimelic acid and treated by a hot (96/sup 0/C) sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction procedure. Washed sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residue from phases I and III consisted of complexes containing protein (ca. 40%) and peptidoglycan (60/sup 6/). Subsequent treatment with proteinase K yielded purified peptidoglycan which contained N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid in molar ratios of 1:1:2:1:1 and <2% protein. Radiochemical analyses indicated that /sup 3/H added in diaminopimelic acid was present in peptidoglycan-protein complexes and purified peptidoglycan as diaminopimelic acid exclusively and that pertussis peptidoglycan was not O acetylated, consistent with it being degraded completely by hen egg white lysozyme. Muramidase-derived disaccharide peptide monomers and peptide-cross-linked dimers and higher oligomers were isolated by molecular-sieve chromatography; from the distribution of these peptidoglycan fragments, the extent of peptide cross-linking of both phase I and III peptidoglycan was calculated to be ca. 48%. Unambiguous determination of the structure of muramidase-derived pepidoglycan fragments by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry indicated that the pertussis peptidoglycan monomer fraction was surprisingly homogeneous, consisting of >95% N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-glutamyl-diaminopimelyl-alanine.

  13. Epizootic pertussis focus of hamadryad baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Medkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an adequate experimental animal model makes difficult study of immunity against whooping cough and its pathogenesis. Experimental whooping cough reported by us earlier in pubescent non-human primates of the Old World was accompanied by specific clinical and laboratory marks in the absence of cough. The possibility of pertussis modelling while experimental whooping cough in impuberal hamadryad baboons was investigated. In the process of selection of monkeys for the further studies for perfecting of experimental model for pertussis research unexpectedly were detected specific pertussis antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons.The aim of the study: revealing of source of infection and transmission of pertussis to hamadryad baboons and investigation of response of antibody-positive impuberal hamadryad baboons to secondary contagion by B. pertussis bacteria while experimental infection.Results. 18 veterinary checked, somatically healthy hamadryad baboons of various gender managed in two neighboring cages. Specific pertussis IgM and IgG antibodies were found in blood serum of all the animals and one of the monkey keepers. By real-time PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs of the monkey keeper and three 7- and 9-month-old hamadryad baboons were registered single B. pertussis genom equivalents. Seropositive impuberal hamadryad baboons were experimentally challenged by virulent B. pertussis 475 strain. Quantity of B. pertussis genom equivalents and percentage of IgM and IgG antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons after experimental infection were detected. These results were comparable with such received after secondary experimental challenge of monkeys by B. pertussis. Humoral immuneresponse was characterized by booster effect and rapid B. pertussis elimination.Conclusion. The case of transmission of B.pertussis bacteria to hamadryad baboons by natural contagion and epizootic focus of pertussis in apery conditions

  14. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe allergic reaction. Anthrax is a very serious disease, and the risk of serious harm from the vaccine is extremely small. Mild ... from DTaP vaccine? Getting diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis disease is much ... of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. The risk ...

  15. Estimating the role of casual contact from the community in transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Charles

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of pertussis transmission due to casual contact using demographic and clinical data from a study of 95 infant pertussis cases and their close contacts enrolled at 14 hospitals in France, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. between February 2003 and September 2004. A complete case analysis was conducted as well as multiple imputation (MI to account for missing data for participants and close contacts who did not participate. By considering all possible close contacts, the MI analysis estimated 66% of source cases were close contacts, implying the minimum attributable proportion of infant cases due to transmission from casual contact with community members was 34% (95% CI = 24%, 44%. Estimates from the complete case analysis were comparable but less precise. Results were sensitive to changes in the operational definition of a source case, which broadened the range of MI point estimates of transmission from casual community contact to 20%–47%. We conclude that casual contact appears to be responsible for a substantial proportion of pertussis transmission to young infants. Medical subject headings (MeSH: multiple imputation, pertussis, transmission, casual contact, sensitivity analysis, missing data, community.

  16. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K

    1994-01-01

    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity...

  17. Pertussis serological potency test as an alternatively to the intracerebral mouse protection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, A; van Straaten-van de Kappelle, I; Hendriksen, C; van de Donk, H

    1996-01-01

    The current potency test for pertussis vaccines, the intracerebral protection test (MPT), is still the only mandatory laboratory model available. This test, however, is a valid, but inhumane and imprecise test and therefore a good candidate for replacement. Recently we have developed the Pertussis Serological Potency Test (PSPT) as an alternative for the MPT. The PSPT is based on in vitro assessment of the humoral immune response against the whole range of surface -antigens of B. pertussis in mice after immunisation with Whole Cell Vaccine (WCV). We have demonstrated a relationship between the mean pertussis antibody concentration at the day of challenge and the proportion of surviving mice at each vaccine dose in the MPT (R = 0.91). The PSPT is a model in which mice (20-24 g) are immunised i.p. with graded doses of vaccine and bled after four weeks. Sera are titrated in a whole cell ELISA and potency based on the vaccine dose-dependent antibody response is estimated by means of a parallel line analysis. In an in-house validation study 13 WCVs were tested in the PSPT and MPT. Homogeneity of both tests was proven by means of the chi-square test; potencies were significantly similar (p = 0.95). Compared to the MPT, the PSPT is more reproducible as is indicated by its smaller 95% confidence intervals. Moreover, by using the PSPT the animal distress can be reduced to an acceptable level and the PSPT also results in a reduction of more than 25% in use of mice. Additional experiments showed that estimation of WCV-potency in the PSPT based on specific antibody responses against protective antigens (PT, FHA, 69- and 92-kDa OMPS) was not possible or did not correlate with protection in MPT. Sera obtained from the PSPT showed a correlation between pertussis antibody levels and complement-mediated killing by pertussis antibodies in in vitro assays. In conclusion, the PSPT is a promising substitute for the MPT though further validation and additional studies on functional

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Tdap in the prevention of pertussis in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J McGarry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health benefits and costs of combined reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap immunization among adults ≥65 years have not been evaluated. In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP recommended expanding Tdap vaccination (one single dose to include adults ≥65 years not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Our study estimated the health and economic outcomes of one-time replacement of the decennial tetanus and diphtheria (Td booster with Tdap in the 10% of individuals aged 65 years assumed eligible each year compared with a baseline scenario of continued Td vaccination. METHODS: We constructed a model evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of adults aged 65 with Tdap, by calculating pertussis cases averted due to direct vaccine effects only. Results are presented from societal and payer perspectives for a range of pertussis incidences (25-200 cases per 100,000, due to the uncertainty in estimating true annual incidence. Cases averted were accrued throughout the patient 's lifetime, and a probability tree used to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs (US$ 2010 for each case. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs lost to acute disease were calculated by multiplying cases of mild/moderate/severe pertussis by the associated health-state disutility; QALY losses due to death and long-term sequelae were also considered. Incremental costs and QALYs were summed over the cohort to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Scenario analyses evaluated the effect of alternative plausible parameter estimates on results. RESULTS: At incidence levels of 25, 100, 200 cases/100,000, vaccinating adults aged 65 years costs an additional $336,000, $63,000 and $17,000/QALY gained, respectively. Vaccination has a cost-effectiveness ratio less than $50,000/QALY if pertussis incidence is >116 cases/100,000 from societal and payer perspectives. Results were robust to scenario

  19. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  20. Children with pertussis inform the investigation of other pertussis cases among contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community. Methods At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A. Results Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases. Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51 were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51. Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276 of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107 were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107 were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107 of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107. Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis. Conclusion Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.

  1. A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonsire Fernández; Chovel, Mario Landys; Hernández, Niurka Gutiérrez; González, Lorena Corcho; Blanco, Amaya; Hernández, Daily Serrano; Medina, Mildrey Fariñas; Tito, Maydelis Álvarez; Quiñoy, José Luis Pérez

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT) were used as controls. Animals immunized with DT-PLBp, PLBp alone, and DTP showed total reduction of CFU in lungs 7 days after intranasal challenge. Likewise, formulations DT-PLBp, DTP, and DT elicited antibody levels ≥2 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, considered protective when neutralization tests are used. Overall, results showed that combination of PLBp with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids did not affect the immunogenicity of each antigen alone.

  2. A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonsire Fernández; Chovel, Mario Landys; Hernández, Niurka Gutiérrez; González, Lorena Corcho; Blanco, Amaya; Hernández, Daily Serrano; Medina, Mildrey Fariñas; Tito, Maydelis Álvarez; Quiñoy, José Luis Pérez

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT) were used as controls. Animals immunized with DT-PLBp, PLBp alone, and DTP showed total reduction of CFU in lungs 7 days after intranasal challenge. Likewise, formulations DT-PLBp, DTP, and DT elicited antibody levels ≥2 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, considered protective when neutralization tests are used. Overall, results showed that combination of PLBp with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids did not affect the immunogenicity of each antigen alone. PMID:27489808

  3. A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT) were used as controls. Animals immunized with DT-PLBp, PLBp alone, and DTP showed total reduction of CFU in lungs 7 days after intranasal challenge. Likewise, formulations DT-PLBp, DTP, and DT elicited antibody levels ≥2 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, considered protective when neutralization tests are used. Overall, results showed that combination of PLBp with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids did not affect the immunogenicity of each antigen alone. PMID:27489808

  4. Incidence and reproduction numbers of pertussis: estimates from serological and social contact data in five European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite large-scale vaccination programmes, pertussis has remained endemic in all European countries and has been on the rise in many countries in the last decade. One of the reasons that have been discussed for the failure of vaccination to eliminate the disease is continued circulation of the pathogen Bordetella pertussis by mostly asymptomatic and mild infections in adolescents and adults. To understand the impact of asymptomatic and undiagnosed infection on the transmission dynamics of pertussis we analysed serological data from five European countries in combination with information about social contact patterns from five of those countries to estimate incidence and reproduction numbers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared two different methods for estimating incidence from individual data on IgG pertussis toxin (PT titres. One method combines the cross-sectional surveys of titres with longitudinal information about the distribution of amplitude and decay rate of titres in a back-calculation approach. The second method uses age-dependent contact matrices and cross-sectional surveys of IgG PT titres to estimate a next generation matrix for pertussis transmission among age groups. The next generation approach allows for computation of basic reproduction numbers for five European countries. Our main findings are that the seroincidence of infections as estimated with the first method in all countries lies between 1% and 6% per annum with a peak in the adolescent age groups and a second lower peak in young adults. The incidence of infections as estimated by the second method lies slightly lower with ranges between 1% and 4% per annum. There is a remarkably good agreement of the results obtained with the two methods. The basic reproduction numbers are similar across countries at around 5.5. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with currently used vaccines cannot prevent continued circulation and reinfection with pertussis, but has shifted the bulk

  5. Pertussis seroprevalence in adults, post-partum women and umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, Aurelia; Manonelles, Gabriela; Hozbor, Daniela; Lara, Claudia; Huespe, Miguel; Mazzeo, Silvina; Canle, Oscar; Galas, Marcelo; López, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that affects people of all ages. Young adults who have lost their immunity to pertussis are the major source of infection in infants. Given the steady increase of pertussis cases, new prevention strategies are required. Objective. To assess pertussis seroprevalence in adult blood donors, post-partum women, and umbilical cords. Metod. Measurement of total titers of anti-Bordetella spp. (Bordetella) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples from 103 donors, 101 post-partum women and 100 umbilical cords were analyzed. Titers <80 were considered of low impact against the disease. The assessment included transplacental transfer of antibodies and the umbilical cord/maternal ratio of antibody titers. Results. Donors mean age was: 28 ± 6 years old. Mediananti-Bordetella titers: 320; interquartile range (IQR):160-320; 10% had titers <80. Post-partum women mean age was: 26 ± 6 years old. Median anti-Bordetella titers:160 (IQR:80-320), with titers significantly lower than in female donors (p= 0.00002). Titers <80 were found in 30% of post-partum women. Median anti-Bordetella titers in umbilical cords: 160 (IQR: 80-160). Titers <80 were more frequently found in umbilical cords than in mothers (44% versus 30%, p= 0.04). Transplacental transfer was 0.83. Umbilical cord titers were equal to maternal titers in 54% of cases, lower in 37%, and higher only in 8%. Conclusion. Titers of anti-Bordetella antibodies in post-partum women were significantly lower than in female blood donors. Titers <80 were found in 30% of post-partum women and 44% of umbilical cords. These data may account for the high rates of pertussis in young infants who have not yet completed their vaccination schedule.

  6. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  7. Clinico-Epidemiological And Microbiological Evolution Of Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Babachenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data, which manifests the increasing part of vaccinated children and children older, then 7 years, among the hospital patients with whooping cough in Saint-Petersburg during 1990-2006 yy. The researchers have described the dynamics of dominating serotype changes among the hospital patients from 1.2.3. between 1990-2000 up to 1.0.3. between 2002-2006 and molecular-genetic characteristics of 13 strains of B. рertussis. Analysis of the clinical picture of the disease among 138 children, producing strains of B. рertussis of serotypes 1.2.3. and 1.2.0. (93 children or strains of B. рertussis of serotypes 1.0.3. (45 children showed that biological strains mutability of B. рertussis causes changes in severity and clinical course of рertussis infection, without effecting the clinical picture of the disease. Strains of B. рertussis of serotypes 1.0.3., IVb EFPP-group (during electrophoresis in pulsating gel, pertussis toxin A, pertactin 2 are associated with less severe illness forms (by 2,5 times, as well as specific complications (breath-holding and pertussis encephalopathy.

  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One family's struggles with pertussis We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos ...

  9. FastStats: Whooping Cough or Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Whooping Cough or Pertussis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... the U.S. Morbidity Reported number of new whooping cough cases: 28,639 (2013) Source: Health, United States, ...

  10. Detection of Bordetella pertussis from Clinical Samples by Culture and End-Point PCR in Malaysian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Xue Ting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In vaccinating countries, infants, adolescents, and adults are relevant patients groups. A total of 707 clinical specimens were received from major hospitals in Malaysia in year 2011. These specimens were cultured on Regan-Lowe charcoal agar and subjected to end-point PCR, which amplified the repetitive insertion sequence IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter gene. Out of these specimens, 275 were positive: 4 by culture only, 6 by both end-point PCR and culture, and 265 by end-point PCR only. The majority of the positive cases were from ≤3 months old patients (77.1% (. There was no significant association between type of samples collected and end-point PCR results (. Our study showed that the end-point PCR technique was able to pick up more positive cases compared to culture method.

  11. 百日咳流行病学研究进展%Update on bordetella pertussis epidemiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉芳(综述); 陆敏(审校)

    2014-01-01

    百日咳主要是由百日咳杆菌、副百日咳杆菌引起的一种传染性强的急性呼吸系统疾病,人群普遍易患,小婴儿病情最重。尽管疫苗覆盖率较高,但是全球百日咳仍未完全根除。相反,过去20年,全球百日咳的发病率较之前升高,出现局部地区小流行,称百日咳再现,因此有必要对国内外百日咳发病现状做出评估,为更好地监测和控制百日咳提供依据。该文对百日咳的流行病学变化及其相关原因分析和免疫策略作一综述。%Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system,which is mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. It can occur at any age,but is most serious in young infants. Despite widespread use of vaccination, pertussis has not been eliminated. On the contrary, increased incidence rates have been reported worldwide during the last two decades,also called reemergence of pertussis. So it is necessary to evaluate current state on pertussis research,in order to better provide basis for mo-nitoring and control pertussis. This paper reviews the pertussis epidemiological changes and the related cause analysis and immunization strategy.

  12. Studying Bordetella pertussis populations by use of SNPeX, a simple high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddeman, Anne; Witteveen, Sandra; Bart, Marieke J; van Gent, Marjolein; van der Heide, Han G J; Heuvelman, Kees J; Schouls, Leo M; Mooi, Frits R

    2015-03-01

    Large outbreaks of pertussis occur despite vaccination. A first step in the analyses of outbreaks is strain typing. However, the typing of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, is problematic because the available assays are insufficiently discriminatory, not unequivocal, time-consuming, and/or costly. Here, we describe a single nucleotide primer extension assay for the study of B. pertussis populations, SNPeX (single nucleotide primer extension), which addresses these problems. The assay is based on the incorporation of fluorescently labeled dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) at the 3' end of allele-specific poly(A)-tailed primers and subsequent analysis with a capillary DNA analyzer. Each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer has a specific length, and as a result, up to 20 SNPs can be determined in one SNPeX reaction. Importantly, PCR amplification of target DNA is not required. We selected 38 SNPeX targets from the whole-genome sequencing data of 74 B. pertussis strains collected from across the world. The SNPeX-based phylogenetic trees preserved the general tree topology of B. pertussis populations based on whole-genome sequencing, with a minor loss of details. We envisage a strategy whereby SNP types (SnpTs) are quickly identified with the SNPeX assay during an outbreak, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a limited number of isolates representing predominant SnpTs and the incorporation of novel SNPs in the SNPeX assay. The flexibility of the SNPeX assay allows the method to evolve along with the pathogen, making it a promising method for studying outbreaks of B. pertussis and other pathogens.

  13. Prokaryotic expression of pertactin of Bordetella pertussis and preparation of its monoclonal antibody%百日咳黏附素的原核表达及其单克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖华; 张华捷; 谭亚军; 吴丽洁; 王丽婵; 侯启明; 张庶民

    2012-01-01

    目的 原核表达百日咳黏附素(Pertactin,Prn),并制备抗Prn单克隆抗体.方法 从无细胞百日咳疫苗生产菌株CS株基因组DNA中克隆Prn基因,插入表达载体pQE-30中,构建重组表达质粒pQE-30-Prn,转化E.coli M15,IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组Prn蛋白经阳、阴离子交换层析纯化后,采用Western blot和ELISA法鉴定重组Prn蛋白的反应原性.以纯化的重组Prn蛋白为免疫原,利用杂交瘤技术制备单克隆抗体,并对制各的单抗进行鉴定.结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切和测序鉴定构建正确;表达的重组Prn蛋白相对分子质量约为69 000,主要以包涵体形式表达;纯化的重组Prn蛋白的纯度达95%以上,产量可达25 mg/L,能与不同来源的抗Prn-Ab血清特异性结合.获得2株分泌抗Prn单抗的杂交瘤细胞株,分泌的单抗均为IgG1类,轻链类型均为κ,效价均达1∶105以上,并能特异性识别Prn蛋白,而与百日咳杆菌其他抗原蛋白无交叉反应.结论 原核表达、纯化了重组Prn蛋白,并制备了2株效价高、特异性强的单抗,为无细胞百日咳疫苗的质量控制及百日咳杆菌致病机制的研究提供了材料.%Objective To express the pertactin (Prn) of Bordetella pertussis in prokaryotic cells and prepare the monoclonal antibody (McAb) against Prn. Methods Prn gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of CS strain for production of acellular pertussis vaccine and inserted into expression vector pQE-30. The constructed recombinanl plasmtd pQE-30-Prn was transformed to E. colt M15 for expression under induction of IPTG. The expressed recombinant protein was purified by anion and cation exchange chro-matography, and identified for reactogenicity by Western blot and ELISA. McAb was prepared by hybridoma technique using the purified Pm protein as immunogen and identified- Results Restriction analysis and sequencing proved thai Tecombinan! plasmid pQE-30-Prn was constructed correctly. The expressed Prn protein

  14. Pertussis Syndrome. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis-like syndrome and whooping cough-like illness are the terms used to refer to the indistinguishable signs and symptoms of whooping cough in the absence of laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the bacteria that causes it. Although there are no reported cases in Cuba, it is important to keep paying attention to the most representative symptoms of this disease, since there has recently been a resurgence of whooping cough in the world. Therefore, it is relevant to present the case of a patient with a two-week history of upper respiratory symptoms and dry cough. These symptoms intensified, so she attended the emergency service of her health area.

  15. [Vaccination by the pharmacist: practical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, J

    2012-11-01

    It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558

  16. Evaluation of the Side Effects of Triple Vaccine in Yazd in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    AR Zare; Ayatollahi, J

    2006-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis during infancy and childhood has been a routine practice in Iran. Considering the role of triple vaccine in reduction of mortality as a result of disastrous diseases such as diphteria, tetanus, and pertussis. We have little information on the incidence of its complications in Yazd. This study was performed to determine the complications of triple vaccine in the health centers of Yazd in 2005. Methods: The descript...

  17. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  18. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  19. Correlation of Real Time PCR Cycle Threshold Cut-Off with Bordetella pertussis Clinical Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis testing performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is interpreted based on a cycle threshold (Ct value. At Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL, a Ct value <36 is reported as positive, and Ct values ≥36 and <40 are reported as indeterminate. PHOL reported indeterminate results to physicians and public health units until May 2012, after which these results were only reported to physicians. We investigated the association between Ct value and disease symptom and severity to examine the significance of indeterminate results clinically, epidemiologically and for public health reporting. B. pertussis positive and indeterminate RT-PCR results were linked to pertussis cases reported in the provincial Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS, using deterministic linkage. Patients with positive RT-PCR results had a lower median age of 10.8 years compared to 12.0 years for patients with indeterminate results (p = 0.24. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower Ct values than non-hospitalized patients (median Ct values of 20.7 vs. 31.6, p<0.001. The proportion of patients reporting the most indicative symptoms of pertussis did not differ between patients with positive vs. indeterminate RT-PCR results. Taking the most indicative symptoms of pertussis as the gold-standard, the positive predictive value of the RT-PCR test was 68.1%. RT-PCR test results should be interpreted in the context of the clinical symptoms, age, vaccination status, prevalence, and other factors. Further information on interpretation of indeterminate RT-PCR results may be needed, and the utility of reporting to public health practitioners should be re-evaluated.

  20. Vaccines for Teens (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-25

    CDC recommends children aged 11 to 12 get three vaccines to protect from meningitis; cancers caused by human papillomavirus infections; and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. This podcast discusses vaccination of adolescents.  Created: 8/25/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/25/2016.

  1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Europe from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Abdolreza; Hallander, Hans O; Dalby, Tine; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Guiso, Nicole; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; von Könnig, Carl Heinz Wirsing; Riffelmann, Marion; Mooi, Frits R; Sandven, Per; Lutynska, Anna; Fry, Norman K; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2013-02-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates were collected during three periods, i.e., 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), and 2007 to 2009 (n = 140), from nine countries with distinct vaccination programs, i.e., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed according to standardized recommendations for epidemiological typing of B. pertussis. There were 81 different PFGE profiles, five of which (BpSR3, BpSR5, BpSR10, BpSR11, and BpSR12) were observed in 61% of the 396 isolates and shown to be predominant in almost all countries. The major profile, BpSR11, showed a decreasing trend from 25% to 30% in 1998 to 2005 to 13% in 2007 to 2009, and there were increases in BpSR3 and BpSR10 from 0% and 8% to 21% and 22%, respectively. One difference between these profiles is that BpSR11 contains isolates harboring the fim3-2 allele and BpSR3 and BpSR10 contain isolates harboring the fim3-1 allele. The total proportion of the five predominant profiles increased from 44% in 1998 to 2001 to 63% in 2004 to 2005 to 70% in 2007 to 2009. In conclusion, common PFGE profiles were identified in B. pertussis populations circulating in European countries with different vaccination programs and different vaccine coverages. These prevalent isolates contain the novel pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3 allele. However, there is evidence for diversifying selection between ptxP3 strains characterized by distinct PFGE profiles. This work shows that, even within a relatively short time span of 10 years, successful isolates which spread through Europe and cause large shifts in B. pertussis populations may emerge.

  2. Antigenic and genetic characterization of Bordetella pertussis recovered from Quebec, Canada, 2002-2014: detection of a genetic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuel, Michelle; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Whyte, Kathleen; Hayden, Kristy; De Serres, Gaston; Brousseau, Nicholas; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2016-05-01

    Despite vaccination, cyclical peaks of Bordetella pertussis incidence rates are still observed in Canada and other developed countries, making pertussis one of the most prevalent vaccine preventable bacterial diseases. In the postacellular vaccine era, evolution of bacterial strains has resulted in strains with altered vaccine antigens. Previous Canadian studies have focused on isolates mainly from the provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with only small numbers of isolates from other provinces. Therefore, in this study, we examined a larger sample (n = 52) of isolates from Quebec, Canada, between 2002 and 2014. Isolates were characterized by serotype, sequence type, and prevalence of pertactin deficiency. The Quebec isolates shared characteristics similar to other Canadian isolates and to isolates circulating globally. Although pertactin-deficient isolates were not present, a significant shift in sequence type was observed in more recent years. This study highlights the importance of continually monitoring disease-causing isolates to track evolutionary trends and gain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of pertussis in Canada.

  3. [Serological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults with prolonged cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Cemile; Çöplü, Nilay; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Bilekli, Selen; Demirci, Nilgün Yılmaz; Biber, Çiğdem; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Esen, Berrin; Çöplü, Lütfi

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) IgG levels from single serum samples were measured by an in-house ELISA test which was standardized and shown to be efficient previously. Anti-PT IgG antibody levels of ≥ 100 EU/ml were considered as acute/recent infection with B.pertussis. In our study, 9.7% (52/538) of the patients had high levels of anti-PT IgG (≥ 100 EU/ml) and among those patients 43 (43/52; 82.7%) also had high (≥ 100 EU/ml) anti-FHA IgG levels. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, education level, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) vaccination history, smoking history or average daily cigarette consumption (p> 0.05) between the cases with high antibody levels (n= 52). When the symptoms and the presence of cases with high antibody levels were evaluated, it was detected that no one parameter was significantly different from others, except that 24.1% of the cases with inspiratory whooping had high anti-PT levels. There was also no statistically significant difference between high anti-PT levels ≥ 100 EU/ml and the patients with risk factors [smoking (21/200; 10.5%), presence of disease that cause chronic cough and/or drug usage (19/171; %11.1), and whole factors which cause chronic cough (32/306; %10.5)] and without risk factors (p= 0.581; p= 0.357; p= 0

  4. [Serological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults with prolonged cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Cemile; Çöplü, Nilay; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Bilekli, Selen; Demirci, Nilgün Yılmaz; Biber, Çiğdem; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Esen, Berrin; Çöplü, Lütfi

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) IgG levels from single serum samples were measured by an in-house ELISA test which was standardized and shown to be efficient previously. Anti-PT IgG antibody levels of ≥ 100 EU/ml were considered as acute/recent infection with B.pertussis. In our study, 9.7% (52/538) of the patients had high levels of anti-PT IgG (≥ 100 EU/ml) and among those patients 43 (43/52; 82.7%) also had high (≥ 100 EU/ml) anti-FHA IgG levels. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, education level, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) vaccination history, smoking history or average daily cigarette consumption (p> 0.05) between the cases with high antibody levels (n= 52). When the symptoms and the presence of cases with high antibody levels were evaluated, it was detected that no one parameter was significantly different from others, except that 24.1% of the cases with inspiratory whooping had high anti-PT levels. There was also no statistically significant difference between high anti-PT levels ≥ 100 EU/ml and the patients with risk factors [smoking (21/200; 10.5%), presence of disease that cause chronic cough and/or drug usage (19/171; %11.1), and whole factors which cause chronic cough (32/306; %10.5)] and without risk factors (p= 0.581; p= 0.357; p= 0

  5. A Novel IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant Vag8 fusion protein for the accurate and early diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Nao; Gotoh, Kensei; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Nakamura, Yukitsugu; Haga, Kiyohito; Yamazaki, Makoto; Gondaira, Fumio; Okada, Kenji; Miyaji, Yusuke; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2016-05-01

    An ELISA that measures anti-PT IgG antibody has been used widely for the serodiagnosis of pertussis; however, the IgG-based ELISA is inadequate for patients during the acute phase of the disease because of the slow response of anti-PT IgG antibodies. To solve this problem, we developed a novel IgM-capture ELISA that measures serum anti-Bordetella pertussis Vag8 IgM levels for the accurate and early diagnosis of pertussis. First, we confirmed that Vag8 was highly expressed in all B. pertussis isolates tested (n = 30), but little or none in other Bordetella species, and that DTaP vaccines did not induce anti-Vag8 IgG antibodies in mice (i.e. the antibody level could be unaffected by the vaccination). To determine the immune response to Vag8 in B. pertussis infection, anti-Vag8 IgM levels were compared between 38 patients (acute phase of pertussis) and 29 healthy individuals using the anti-Vag8 IgM-capture ELISA. The results revealed that the anti-Vag8 IgM levels were significantly higher in the patients compared with the healthy individuals (P < 0.001). ROC analysis also showed that the anti-Vag8 IgM-capture ELISA has higher diagnostic accuracy (AUC, 0.92) than a commercial anti-PT IgG ELISA kit. Moreover, it was shown that anti-Vag8 IgM antibodies were induced earlier than anti-PT IgG antibodies on sequential patients' sera. These data indicate that our novel anti-Vag8 IgM-capture ELISA is a potentially useful tool for making the accurate and early diagnosis of B. pertussis infection.

  6. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in a single tube reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, Sophie; Levi, Michael H; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    Pertussis is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the fastidious bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which may infect unvaccinated, previously vaccinated children, and adults in whom immunity has waned. Infants are at a particular risk for severe disease and complications. Bordetella parapertussis may cause a similar illness, however the symptoms are less severe and of shorter duration. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease and early diagnosis is essential. Studies have shown that PCR is 2-4 times more likely than culture to detect Bordetella pertussis. We developed a multiplex, real-time PCR assay using analyte-specific reagent (ASR) primers and probes dispensed in a convenient lyophilized bead format that targeted the multi-copy insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001 of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, respectively. These specific ASRs were used in conjunction with Cepheid Smartmix. Included in the ASRs is a competitive internal control to evaluate the performance of the PCR reaction. After DNA extraction, amplification and detection were done on the Smart Cycler System, which performs integrated amplification and detection automatically in a single step. Specificity of the assay was confirmed using multiple distinct bacterial strains. Sensitivity of the assay and extraction efficiency were evaluated on DNA isolated from pure bacterial cultures and on spiked respiratory specimens. We also spiked different swab types and transport media to evaluate for interfering substances. To assess accuracy, we studied different patient specimen types received from two outside laboratories that used similar or different methods to detect B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay for B. pertussis were 90% and 96%, respectively, and for B. parapertussis 71% (only 7 positive specimens were available for testing) and 100%, respectively. Our assay was found to be a valid method for the simultaneous detection of B. pertussis and B

  7. Vaccination rates in a multicultural population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.F.; Diepenmaat, A.C.M.; Pel, J.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To establish whether there are social or cultural groups of children in Amsterdam with relatively low vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and poliomyelitis (DPTP), and for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). METHODS: All of the 57,382 children aged between 5 and 12 years an

  8. Successful breast reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix can be recommended in healthy non-smoking patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Arffmann, Susanne;

    2013-01-01

    We present Scandinavia's first series of immediate alloplastic breast reconstructions with an acellular dermal matrix.......We present Scandinavia's first series of immediate alloplastic breast reconstructions with an acellular dermal matrix....

  9. Sequence variation in virulence-related genes of Bordetella pertussis isolates from Poland in the period 1959-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, E; Zawadka, M; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Augustynowicz, E; Piekarska, K; Lutyńska, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Poland since 1959. Sequence analysis of ptxA, ptxC, prn, tcfA, fim2, fim3 and ptxP for 175 clinical isolates and currently and previously used vaccine strains was performed. Clinical isolates from the period 1995-2013 were found to be different to three currently used vaccine strains harbouring the allelic combination ptxA2-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1, seen frequently in Poland in the early pertussis vaccination period but not found after 1995. Generally, among B. pertussis isolates from the period 2000-2013, two genotypes predominated, ptxA1-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-2-fim3-1 and ptxA1-ptxC1-ptxP1-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1, with frequencies of 45% and 32.5%, respectively. The isolates harbouring ptxA1-ptxC2-ptxP3-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxA1-ptxC2-ptxP3-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-fim3-1 profiles, currently highly prevalent within other European Union (EU) countries, were rarely found in Poland, as they circulated in the period 2000-2013 with frequencies of 10% and 5%, respectively. We hypothesise that several previous changes of strain composition in whole-cell pertussis vaccine produced locally and used since 1960 in Poland resulted in a more diverse immune pressure in the population, resulting in different prevalence of alleles compared to elsewhere.

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Rotator Cuff Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph; Mirzayan, Raffy

    2016-01-01

    The success of rotator cuff repair (RCR) surgery can be measured clinically (validated outcome scores, range of motion) as well as structurally (re-tear rates using imaging studies). Regardless of repair type or technique, most studies have shown that patients do well clinically. However, multiple studies have also shown that structurally, the failure rate can be very high. A variety of factors, including poor tendon quality, age over 63 years, smoking, advanced fatty infiltration into the muscle, and the inability of the tendon to heal to bone, have been implicated as the cause of the high re-tear rate in RCRs. The suture-tendon interface is felt to be the weakest link in the RCR construct, and suture pullout through the tendon is believed to be the most common method of failure. This review of the published literature seeks to determine if there is support for augmentation of RCR with acellular dermal matrices to strengthen the suture-tendon interface and reduce the re-tear rate. PMID:27552454

  11. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito;

    2012-01-01

    who had diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine as their last vaccine (3680 children, adjusted MRR=1.29 (0.52; 3.22), p=0.04 for interaction). Conclusion The effect of VAS differed by most recent vaccination, being beneficial after measles vaccine but not after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.......Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status...... 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios...

  12. Construction and preliminary immunobiological characterization of a novel, non-reverting, intranasal live attenuated whooping cough vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford-Nairns, Renee; Daggard, Grant; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2012-06-01

    We describe the construction and immunobiological properties of a novel whooping cough vaccine candidate, in which the aroQ gene, encoding 3-dehydroquinase, was deleted by insertional inactivation using the kanamycin resistance gene cassette and allelic exchange using a Bordetella suicide vector. The aroQ B. pertussis mutant required supplementation of media to grow but failed to grow on an unsupplemented medium. The aroQ B. pertussis mutant was undetectable in the trachea and lungs of mice at days 6 and 12 post-infection, respectively. Antigen-specific antibody isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a, were produced, and cell-mediated immunity [CMI], using interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma as indirect indicators, was induced in mice vaccinated with the aroQ B. pertussis vaccine candidate, which were substantially enhanced upon second exposure to virulent B. pertussis. Interleukin- 12 was also produced in the aroQ B. pertussis-vaccinated mice. On the other hand, neither IgG2a nor CMI-indicator cytokines were produced in DTaP-vaccinated mice, although the CMI-indicator cytokines became detectable post-challenge with virulent B. pertussis. Intranasal immunization with one dose of the aroQ B. pertussis mutant protected vaccinated mice against an intranasal challenge infection, with no pathogen being detected in the lungs of immunized mice by day 7 post-challenge. B. pertussis aroQ thus constitutes a safe, non-reverting, metabolite-deficient vaccine candidate that induces both humoral and cellmediated immune responses with potential for use as a single-dose vaccine in adolescents and adults, in the first instance, with a view to disrupting the transmission cycle of whooping cough to infants and the community.

  13. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  14. D-alanine modification of a protease-susceptible outer membrane component by the Bordetella pertussis dra locus promotes resistance to antimicrobial peptides and polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neetu Kumra; Ganguly, Tridib; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Nelson, Kimberly J; Dubey, Purnima; Poole, Leslie B; Deora, Rajendar

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, a highly contagious disease of the human respiratory tract. Despite very high vaccine coverage, pertussis has reemerged as a serious threat in the United States and many developing countries. Thus, it is important to pursue research to discover unknown pathogenic mechanisms of B. pertussis. We have investigated a previously uncharacterized locus in B. pertussis, the dra locus, which is homologous to the dlt operons of Gram-positive bacteria. The absence of the dra locus resulted in increased sensitivity to the killing action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and human phagocytes. Compared to the wild-type cells, the mutant cells bound higher levels of cationic proteins and peptides, suggesting that dra contributes to AMP resistance by decreasing the electronegativity of the cell surface. The presence of dra led to the incorporation of d-alanine into an outer membrane component that is susceptible to proteinase K cleavage. We conclude that dra encodes a virulence-associated determinant and contributes to the immune resistance of B. pertussis. With these findings, we have identified a new mechanism of surface modification in B. pertussis which may also be relevant in other Gram-negative pathogens.

  15. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  16. Recent trends of antigenic variation in Bordetella pertussis isolates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Lee, Jin; Sung, Hwa Young; Yu, Jae Yon; Kim, Seong Han; Park, Mi Sun; Jung, Sang-Oun

    2014-03-01

    Pertussis is a representative vaccine-preventable disease. However, there have been recent outbreaks in countries where even higher vaccination against the disease. One reason is the emergence of antigenic variants, which are different to vaccine type. In Korea, reported cases have rapidly increased since 2009. Therefore, we analyzed genotype of strains isolated in 2011-2012 by multilocus sequence typing method. As expected, the genotype profiles of tested genes dramatically changed. The major sequence type changed from ST1 to ST2, and new sequence type (ST8) appeared. In the minimum spanning tree, recent isolates belonging to the ACC-I-ST3 subgroup were detected that were composed of ST2, ST3, and ST6. In particular, the ST2 frequency increased to 81%. The novel ST8 was linked to the increased frequency of ST2. In addition, toxic strains carrying the ptxP3 promoter type were confirmed. This ptxP3 type emerged from 2009 and its frequency had increased to 100% in 2012. Based on these results, it can be inferred that the genotypic changes in the currently circulating strains are strongly associated with the recent increasing of pertussis in Korea. Therefore, the surveillance system should be strengthened, and genetic characterization of the isolates should be expanded to the whole genome sequence level.

  17. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  18. Abdominal wall repair with human acellular dermal autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel E. Genders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Repair of abdominal wall defects in the presence of contamination or infection is a significant problem. The loss of tissue warrants enforcement of the abdominal wall, preferably by autologous material. However, autologous repair often requires extensive surgery. This paper presents a review of available literature of placement of an acellular human dermis to repair an abdominal fascia defect, in contaminated as well as in non-contaminated surgical fields. It is illustrated with a case report that describes the successful reconstruction of an infected abdominal wall defect with a human acellular dermis allograft. A systematic literature review was undertaken with searches performed in the Pubmed and Cochrane databases for the period up till March 2009, using the search terms Alloderm [Substance Name], Hernia [Mesh] and the key words acellular dermis, acellular dermal matrix, human acellular dermal allograft and abdominal wall defect. To assess methodological quality, each article was subjected to a modification of the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS according to Slim et al. Two items from the original index were not included because none of the studies selected had an unbiased assessment of the study end points and in none of the studies was a prospective calculation of the study size performed. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Data were extracted regarding study design, number of patients, surgical technique, followup period, contaminated or non-contaminated area of the fascia defect, mortality and morbidity (hemorrhage, seroma, wound dehiscence, infection of the operative procedure, the longterm results (removal of the graft, reherniation and bulging and level of evidencey. A total of 169 short-term complications and 151 longterm complications occurred after 643 surgical procedures reconstructing both contaminated and clean abdominal wall defects by implantation of an HADA. Human acellular dermal allograft

  19. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  20. The potential of adjuvants to improve immune responses against TdaP vaccines: A preclinical evaluation of MF59 and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Galletti, Bruno; D'Oro, Ugo; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Seubert, Anja; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-08-15

    The successful approach of combining diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens into a single vaccine has become a cornerstone of immunization programs. Yet, even if vaccination coverage is high, a resurgence of pertussis has been reported in many countries suggesting current vaccines may not provide adequate protection. To induce better tailored and more durable immune responses against pertussis vaccines different approaches have been proposed, including the use of novel adjuvants. Licensed aP vaccines contain aluminum salts, which mainly stimulate humoral immune responses and might not be ideal for protecting against Bordetella pertussis infection. Adjuvants inducing more balanced T-helper profiles or even Th1-prone responses might be more adequate. In this study, two adjuvants already approved for human use have been tested: MF59 emulsion and the combination of aluminum hydroxide with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist MPLA. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in a mouse model using a TdaP vaccine containing three B. pertussis antigens: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) The physico-chemical compatibility of TdaP antigens with the proposed adjuvants, together with a quicker onset and changed quality of the antibody responses, fully supports the replacement of aluminum salts with a new adjuvant to enhance aP vaccines immunogenicity. PMID:26149936

  1. Vaccines as a trigger for myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, H; Tanay, A

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines are considered to be among the greatest medical discoveries, credited with the virtual eradication of some diseases and the consequent improved survival and quality of life of the at-risk population. With that, vaccines are among the environmental factors implicated as triggers for the development of inflammatory myopathies. The sporadic reports on vaccine-induced inflammatory myopathies include cases of hepatitis B virus, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, polio, diphtheria, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, combination of diphtheria with scarlet fever and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus with polio vaccines. However, a significant increase in the incidence of dermatomyositis or polymyositis after any massive vaccination campaign has not been reported in the literature. In study patients with inflammatory myopathies, no recent immunization was recorded in any of the patients. Moreover, after the 1976 mass flu vaccination, no increase in the incidence of inflammatory myopathies was observed. Although rare, macrophagic myofasciitis has been reported following vaccination and is attributed to the aluminium hydroxide used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to identify potential environmental factors, including vaccines, as potential triggers for inflammatory myopathies.

  2. Assessing vaccine data recording in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio de Oliveira Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vaccines represent an important advancement for improving the general health of a population. The effective recording of vaccine data is a factor for the definition of its supply chain. This study investigated vaccine data recording relatively to data collected from vaccination rooms and data obtained from a government-developed Internet platform. Methods: The monthly recorded total number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine doses administered in a medium-sized city of the Southeast region of Brazil was collected for the period January/2006 through December/2010 from two sources: City level (directly from vaccination rooms, the study "gold standard", and Federal level (from an Internet platform developed by the country government. Data from these sources were compared using descriptive statistics and the Percentage error. Results: The data values made available by the Internet platform differed from those obtained from the vaccination rooms, with a Percentage error relatively to the actual values in the range [-0.48; 0.39]. Concordant values were observed only in one among the sixty analyzed months (1.66%. Conclusions: A frequent and large difference between the number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine doses administered in the two levels was detected.

  3. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services...... and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...

  4. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  5. Pertussis -- a case finding study amongst returnees from Op Herrick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N K; Bricknell, M C M; Holden, G R; McWilliam, C

    2007-06-01

    We present a case finding study of serologically confirmed Pertussis amongst BFG-based returnees from Op HERRICK. The role of Pertussis in the aetiology of the commonplace "Kabul Cough" is discussed. It is recommended that enhanced health surveillance for Pertussis takes place both during and after future deployments to Afghanistan, to prevent the potential onward transmission of a potentially fatal illness to unimmunised children.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of the DTP/HB /Hib combination vaccine: phase I study

    OpenAIRE

    Kusnandi Rusmil; Eddy Fadlyana; Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar; Hadyana

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the introduction of hepatitis B (HB) and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. A new diptheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP)/hepatitis B/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed. Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a new combination DTP/HB/Hib liquid vaccine in infants. Methods An open-label, uncontrolled, prospective intervention phase I study w...

  7. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cherubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  8. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...... this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12...... and 24 months of age. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected...

  9. Critical Pertussis in a Young Infant Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis may likely be misdiagnosed in its initial or catarrhal phase as a common respiratory infection. The earlier diagnosis of pertussis really depends on the capability of the medical professional especially in the first line public health services. The lack of awareness in diagnosis of severe pertussis as one of the causes of severe respiratory problems may likely misdiagnose pertussis as respiratory failure or even septic shock. In fact, pertussis may manifest as a critical pertussis which can be fatal due to the respiratory failure that require pediatric intensive care unit using mechanical ventilation. We reported a confirmed pertussis case of a 7-weeks-old female infant referred to our tertiary hospital with gasping leading to respiratory failure and septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation, aggressive fluid therapy, and antibiotics. Pertussis was diagnosed late during the course of illness when the patient was hospitalized. Improvement was noted after administering macrolide which gave a good response. Bordetella pertussis isolation from Bordet-Gengou media culture yielded positive result.

  10. Infección por Bordetella pertussis: Una causa emergente de tos prolongada en adolescentes y adultos Bordetella pertussis infection: An emerging cause of prolonged cough illness in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO OSSES A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La tos convulsiva o coqueluche está siendo reconocida cada vez con mayor frecuencia como causa de tos prolongada en adolescentes y adultos. La vacunación sistemática de la población pediátrica ha determinado un cambio en el perfl epidemiológico de la enfermedad, aumentando su prevalencia en la población adulta. Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 45 años, fumadora, enfermera de unidad de hemodiálisis, que consulta por malestar general y tos seca de seis semanas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax era normal y la inmunofuorescencia directa de hisopado nasofaríngeo fue positiva para Bordetella pertussis. A propósito de este caso clínico, revisamos las principales causas de tos crónica: asma bronquial, enfermedad rinosinusal y refujo gastroesofágico; el cuadro clínico, evaluación diagnóstica y tratamiento de la infección por B. pertussis en población adulta.Whooping cough is increasingly recognized as a cause of prolonged cough illness in adolescents and adults. Systematic vaccination has changed its epidemiology, with the majority of cases now primarily affecting adolescents and adults. A 45-year-old female, active smoker, nurse, who works in a dialysis service, presented with a 6-week history of bothersome cough and malaise. Thorax x-ray was normal and direct immunofuorescence of nasopharyngeal swab was positive for Bordetella pertussis. This case illustrates pertussis infection in adulthood. We review the main causes of chronic cough in adults: asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and gastroesophageal refux; the clinical features, prevalence, diagnostic tools, and management of adult patients with B. pertussis infection to increase awareness of this highly contagious disease.

  11. Bordetella pertussis naturally occurring isolates with altered lipooligosaccharide structure fail to fully mature human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J M; Schuijt, Tim J; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A C M; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Han, Wanda G H; Pinelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones.

  12. Anthrax Spores Make an Essential Contribution to Vaccine Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Brossier, Fabien; Levy, Martine; Mock, Michèle

    2002-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. Septicemia and toxemia rapidly lead to death in infected mammal hosts. Currently used acellular vaccines against anthrax consist of protective antigen (PA), one of the anthrax toxin components. However, in experimental animals such vaccines are less protective than live attenuated strains. Here we demonstrate that the addition of formaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS) of B. anthracis to PA elicits total protectio...

  13. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs.

  14. Attitudes of Dutch general practitioners towards vaccinating the elderly : less is more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, Renske; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; de Melker, Hester E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many European countries, vaccinations are offered to the elderly. Expanding the programme to include routine vaccination against pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis, for example, could reduce disease burden amongst the growing population of persons aged 50 years and old

  15. Air conditioning a vaccine laboratory. [Connaught Medical Research Laboratory, Toronto, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross J.

    1976-05-01

    In 1974, the new Bacterial Vaccine Building of Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, Canada, was opened to produce such vaccines as pertussis, typhoid, paratyphoids, and cholera and such toxoids as staphylococcus, diphtheria, and tetanus. It also produces other medicinal products. The layout of the complex and the air conditioning system necessary in all zones are described and schematically shown. (MCW)

  16. A comparative study of acellular nerve xenografts and allografts in repairing rat facial nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Xiao, Hongxi; Liu, Huawei; Niu, Yu; Yan, Rongzeng; Hu, Min

    2015-10-01

    Acellular nerves are composed of a basal lamina tube, which retains sufficient bioactivity to promote axon regeneration, thereby repairing peripheral nerve gaps. However, the clinical application of acellular allografts has been restricted due to its limited availability. To investigate whether xenografts, a substitute to allograft acellular nerves in abundant supply, could efficiently promote nerve regeneration, rabbit and rat acellular nerve grafts were used to reconstruct 1 cm defects in Wistar rat facial nerves. Autologous peroneal nerve grafts served as a positive control group. A total of 12 weeks following the surgical procedure, the axon number, myelinated axon number, myelin sheath thickness, and nerve conduction velocity of the rabbit and rat‑derived acellular nerve grafts were similar, whereas the fiber diameter of the rabbit‑derived acellular xenografts decreased, as compared with those of rat‑derived acellular allografts. Autografts exerted superior effects on nerve regeneration; however, no significant difference was observed between the axon number in the autograft group, as compared with the two acellular groups. These results suggested that autografts perform better than acellular nerve grafts, and chemically extracted acellular allografts and xenografts have similar effects on the regeneration of short facial nerve defects. PMID:26239906

  17. 牛奶过敏儿童接受百白破疫苗免疫接种的不良反应分析%Analysis of the adverse reaction to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines among the children with cow's milk allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟; 刘光辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查牛奶过敏患儿及无牛奶过敏的过敏性疾病患儿,接受百白破疫苗(DPTs)免疫接种的不良反应情况,为免疫接种提供参考意见.方法 收集2008年1月至2012年10月在我科就诊的2 ~84月龄的牛奶过敏患儿(试验组),相同年龄的无牛奶过敏的过敏体质患儿(对照组).所有患儿通过询问病史、牛奶皮肤点刺试验、血清牛奶特异性IgE检测和(或)牛奶口服激发试验来证实是否有牛奶过敏.通过现场调查问卷及电话问卷随访的方式调查患儿过敏性疾病病史、用药史及使用百白破疫苗的情况,观察两组患儿不良反应发生率的差异有无统计学意义.结果 试验组240例患儿中有43例出现不良反应,发生率为17.9%,其中33例(13.8%)为非变态反应性不良反应,20例(8.3%)为变态反应性不良反应;对照组663例患儿中有103例出现不良反应,发生率为15.3%,其中92例(13.9%)为非变态性不良反应,53例(8.0%)为变态性不良反应;两组间变态性、非变态性及总的不良反应发生率的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).所有不良反应均为轻度反应,予以对症处理即可缓解,不需要其他特殊处理或住院治疗.结论 牛奶过敏不增加百白破疫苗免疫接种的不良反应发生率.%Objective To analyses the adverse reaction of the children with and without cow's milk allergy after the diphtheria,tetanus,and pertussis' (DPTs)vaccination.Methods We had observed infants and young children with cow's milk allergy from 2 to 84 months old(experimental group),and infants and young children of the same age who were atopic but had not cow's milk allergy(control group)from January 2008 to October 2012.All of the cow's milk allergy children were confirmed by the medical history,milk skin prick test,serum milk specific IgE detection and/or milk oral provocation tests.We used the field survey and telephone follow-up to obtain the history of allergic

  18. Assessment of antibody level and avidity against Bordetella pertussis in a cohort of Egyptian individuals aged 1-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M; Eissa, Somiaa A; Wahby, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis specific antibodies were studied with respect to quality and quantity in a cohort of apparently healthy Egyptian children and adolescents, with their age range between 1 and 18 years, in an attempt to get a close and clear insight into the current humoral immunization status in this specified group and to try find a relation between the antibody levels and their avidities in eradication of this devastating infectious disease. Our results showed that avidity increase was most marked in young school children (6-8 years) where it seemed to reach a plateau in older children and adolescents. Antibody titer was highest in toddlers (1-2 years) and young school children (6-8 years) groups, most probably following vaccination and/or booster doses. Among children aged 1-5 years, 28% had highly avid and 50% had high titer antibodies, whereas in adolescents aged 13-18 years, 70% had highly avid antibodies and only 30% had high titer antibodies. The results clearly demonstrated that while levels of anti-Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antibodies wane with growing age, the avidity seems to increase, to a plateau, irrespective of further antigen exposure in a pattern showing complete independence of avidity on concentration. The present study draws attention to the importance of avidity measurements, together with conventional ELISAs, for evaluating immunity against pertussis. Being based on a limited sample size, it could open doors for larger-scale surveys to be possible indicators for the need and timing of booster vaccination doses among Egyptians.

  19. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  20. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed.

  1. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft com...

  2. A NEW APPROACH TO BACTERIAL VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENBERG, L

    1963-08-31

    Immunizing antigens against only 10 bacterial diseases-cholera, diphtheria, paratyphoid, pertussis, plague, scarlet fever, staphylococcal disease, tetanus, tuberculosis and typhoid-have been licensed for sale in Canada and the United States. Convincing evidence of efficacy is available for only four of these-diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and pertussis and typhoid vaccines.The principles which determine the efficacy of different immunizing antigens are not always the same. Toxoids, for example, stimulate the formation of antitoxin-producing mechanisms which can neutralize toxins produced by invading organisms, thereby rendering them harmless. Conversely, vaccines stimulate the formation of antibacterial mechanisms which stop the growth of organisms before they can produce disease.Use of enzyme-lysed vaccines for prevention of staphylococcal disease represents a new approach in vaccine research. Animal tests have shown lysed vaccines to be 10 to 100 times less toxic, and about eight times more effective, than whole bacterial vaccines. Studies with lysed vaccines for other diseases are now in progress.

  3. Acellular dermal matrices: Use in reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Macadam, Sheina A; Lennox, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) were first described for use in breast surgery in 2001. Since this initial report, ADMs have become an increasingly common component of implant-based breast procedures. ADMs have shown promise for use in both aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery; however, concerns about their use remain because of the significant costs associated with these products. The present article reviews the history of ADM use in breast surgery and the outcomes reported to date. ...

  4. Biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve after acellular treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xin-long; SUN Xiao-lei; YANG Zhao; LI Xiu-lan; MA Jian-xiong; ZHANG Yang; YUAN Zhen-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve injury causes a high rate of disability and a huge economic burden,and is currently one of the serious health problems in the world.The use of nerve grafts plays a vital role in repairing nerve defects.Acellular nerve grafts have been widely used in many experimental models as a peripheral nerve substitute.The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of acellular nerve grafts.Methods Thirty-four fresh sciatic nerves were obtained from 17 adult male Wistar rats (age of 3 months) and randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control group,nerve segments underwent no treatment and were put in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and stored at 4℃ until further use; physical method group,nerve segments were frozen at -196℃ and then thawed at 37℃; and chemical method group,nerve segments were chemically extracted with the detergents Triton X-200,sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10) and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16).After the acellularization process was completed,the structural changes of in the sciatic nerves in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy,then biomechanical properties were tested using a mechanical apparatus (Endura TEC ELF 3200,Bose,Boston,USA).Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effects of acellularization,demyelination,and integrity of nerve fiber tube of the chemical method were better than that of the physical method.Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve grafts treated with the chemical method resulted in some decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load,ultimate stress,ultimate strain,and mechanical work to fracture) compared with normal control nerves,but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusion Nerve treated with the chemical method may be more appropriate for use in implantation than nerve treated with the physical method.

  5. Bordetella pertussis infection exacerbates influenza virus infection through pertussis toxin-mediated suppression of innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I Ayala

    Full Text Available Pertussis (whooping cough is frequently complicated by concomitant infections with respiratory viruses. Here we report the effect of Bordetella pertussis infection on subsequent influenza virus (PR8 infection in mouse models and the role of pertussis toxin (PT in this effect. BALB/c mice infected with a wild-type strain of B. pertussis (WT and subsequently (up to 14 days later infected with PR8 had significantly increased pulmonary viral titers, lung pathology and mortality compared to mice similarly infected with a PT-deficient mutant strain (ΔPT and PR8. Substitution of WT infection by intranasal treatment with purified active PT was sufficient to replicate the exacerbating effects on PR8 infection in BALB/c and C57/BL6 mice, but the effects of PT were lost when toxin was administered 24 h after virus inoculation. PT had no effect on virus titers in primary cultures of murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs in vitro, suggesting the toxin targets an early immune response to increase viral titers in the mouse model. However, type I interferon responses were not affected by PT. Whole genome microarray analysis of gene expression in lung tissue from PT-treated and control PR8-infected mice at 12 and 36 h post-virus inoculation revealed that PT treatment suppressed numerous genes associated with communication between innate and adaptive immune responses. In mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, increase of pulmonary viral titers by PT treatment was lost. PT also suppressed levels of IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, KC, MCP-1 and TNF-α in the airways after PR8 infection. Furthermore PT treatment inhibited early recruitment of neutrophils and NK cells to the airways. Together these findings demonstrate that infection with B. pertussis through PT activity predisposes the host to exacerbated influenza infection by countering protective innate immune responses that control virus titers.

  6. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  7. Research progress of epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pertussis%百日咳临床特点及流行病学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红梅; 郑佳佳

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is an severe infectious respiratory disease that continues to be a serious public health problem,which is caused by Bordetella Pertussis.Because it's highly infectivity,it is still an important etiological factor associated with persistent cough in adults and adolescents.With the introduction of mass vaccination in 1974,there has been a dramatic decrease in the morbidity and mortality.However,in recent years,increasing numbers of pertussis are reported in adolescents and adults in many countries where with high vaccination coverage.The thesis summarize and discuss the progress of pertussis cpidemiology and clinical characteristics.%百日咳(pertussis,whooping cough)是由百日咳鲍特菌引起的一种可预防的严重急性呼吸道传染病,传染性较强,人群普遍易感,是严重威胁人类健康的主要传染病之一,是导致年长儿及成人长期咳嗽的常见病因.1974年全球实施扩大免疫计划以来,世界范围内的百日咳得到有效控制,发病率和病死率大幅下降.近年来,百日咳发病率有所上升,甚至发生局部暴发,从而对公共健康产生了巨大冲击.现就百日咳的临床特点、流行病学等方面进行综述.

  8. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children. PMID:22953473

  9. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  10. Resident microbiota affect Bordetella pertussis infectious dose and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Feaga, Heather A; Park, Jihye; Muse, Sarah J; Safi, Chetan Y; Rolin, Olivier Y; Young, Sarah E; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-03-01

    Before contacting host tissues, invading pathogens directly or indirectly interact with host microbiota, but the effects of such interactions on the initial stages of infection are poorly understood. Bordetella pertussis is highly infectious among humans but requires large doses to colonize rodents, unlike a closely related zoonotic pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, raising important questions about the contributions of bacterial competition to initial colonization and host selection. We observed that <100 colony-forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica efficiently infected mice and displaced culturable host microbiota, whereas 10 000 CFU of B. pertussis were required to colonize murine nasal cavities and did not displace host microorganisms. Bacteria isolated from murine nasal cavities but not those from the human lower respiratory tract limited B. pertussis growth in vitro, indicating that interspecies competition may limit B. pertussis colonization of mice. Further, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment delivered before B. pertussis inoculation reduced the infectious dose to <100 CFU, and reintroduction of single Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species was sufficient to inhibit B. pertussis colonization of antibiotic-treated mice. Together, these results reveal that resident microorganisms can prevent B. pertussis colonization and influence host specificity, and they provide rationale for manipulating microbiomes to create more-accurate animal models of infectious diseases.

  11. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  12. Simultaneous administration of vitamin A and DTP vaccine modulates the immune response in a murine cerebral malaria model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, L; Jørgensen, M J; Ravn, H;

    2010-01-01

    -tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine may increase mortality from non-targeted diseases. We investigated the non-targeted effect of pretreatment with VAS and DTP vaccine in a murine model of experimental cerebral malaria. Our a priori hypothesis was that VAS/DTP would aggravate the infection. We found that the effect of VAS...

  13. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment...

  14. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  15. De-novo mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A in alleged vaccine encephalopathy : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkovic, SF; Harkin, L; McMahon, JM; Pelekanos, JT; Zuberi, SM; Wirrell, EC; Gill, DS; Iona, [No Value; Mulley, JC; Scheffer, IE

    2006-01-01

    Background Vaccination, particularly for pertussis, has been implicated as a direct cause of an encephalopathy with refractory seizures and intellectual impairment. We postulated that cases of so-called vaccine encephalopathy could have mutations in the neuronal sodium channel alpha 1 subunit gene (

  16. Prevalence and genetic characterization of pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Otsuka

    Full Text Available The adhesin pertactin (Prn is one of the major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough. However, a significant prevalence of Prn-deficient (Prn(- B. pertussis was observed in Japan. The Prn(- isolate was first discovered in 1997, and 33 (27% Prn(- isolates were identified among 121 B. pertussis isolates collected from 1990 to 2009. Sequence analysis revealed that all the Prn(- isolates harbor exclusively the vaccine-type prn1 allele and that loss of Prn expression is caused by 2 different mutations: an 84-bp deletion of the prn signal sequence (prn1ΔSS, n = 24 and an IS481 insertion in prn1 (prn1::IS481, n = 9. The frequency of Prn(- isolates, notably those harboring prn1ΔSS, significantly increased since the early 2000s, and Prn(- isolates were subsequently found nationwide. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA revealed that 24 (73% of 33 Prn(- isolates belong to MLVA-186, and 6 and 3 Prn(- isolates belong to MLVA-194 and MLVA-226, respectively. The 3 MLVA types are phylogenetically closely related, suggesting that the 2 Prn(- clinical strains (harboring prn1ΔSS and prn1::IS481 have clonally expanded in Japan. Growth competition assays in vitro also demonstrated that Prn(- isolates have a higher growth potential than the Prn(+ back-mutants from which they were derived. Our observations suggested that human host factors (genetic factors and immune status that select for Prn(- strains have arisen and that Prn expression is not essential for fitness under these conditions.

  17. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  18. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study....... Vaccinations were provided at three health centres. Vaccine information was collected through 3-monthly home visits. The survival analysis compared the effects of BCG and DTP according to the following sequence of vaccinations: BCG-first, BCG+DTP1-first, or DTP1-first. We compared DTP and MV between 9 and 24...

  19. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  20. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H. (Department of Microbiology, Alexander Stone Building, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland)

    1982-03-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 ..mu..Ci (37 K Bq) of (/sup 14/C)glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation.

  1. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  2. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  3. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  4. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  5. Pertussis immunisation and serious acute neurological illness in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Shah

    1981-01-01

    The first 1000 cases notified to the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study were analysed. The diagnoses included encephalitis/encephalopathy, prolonged convulsions, infantile spasms, and Reye's syndrome. Eighty-eight of the children had had a recent infectious disease, including 19 with pertussis. Only 35 of the notified children (3.5%) had received pertussis antigen within seven days before becoming ill. Of 1955 control children matched for age, sex, and area of residence, 34 (1.7%) had be...

  6. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  7. Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2012-01-01

    Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts. PMID:22496631

  8. Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2012-01-01

    Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.

  9. Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Bauch

    Full Text Available Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty. Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.

  10. Bordetella pertussis entry into respiratory epithelial cells and intracellular survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Yanina; Gorgojo, Juan; Massillo, Cintia; Rodriguez, Maria E

    2013-12-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, aka whooping cough. Although generally considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been found inside respiratory epithelial cells, which might represent a survival strategy inside the host. Relatively little is known, however, about the mechanism of internalization and the fate of B. pertussis inside the epithelia. We show here that B. pertussis is able to enter those cells by a mechanism dependent on microtubule assembly, lipid raft integrity, and the activation of a tyrosine-kinase-mediated signaling. Once inside the cell, a significant proportion of the intracellular bacteria evade phagolysosomal fusion and remain viable in nonacidic lysosome-associated membrane-protein-1-negative compartments. In addition, intracellular B. pertussis was found able to repopulate the extracellular environment after complete elimination of the extracellular bacteria with polymyxin B. Taken together, these data suggest that B. pertussis is able to survive within respiratory epithelial cells and by this means potentially contribute to host immune system evasion.

  11. Bordetella pertussis modulates human macrophage defense gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Hugo Alberto; Oviedo, Juan Marcos; Gorgojo, Juan Pablo; Lamberti, Yanina; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, still causes outbreaks. We recently found evidence that B. pertussis can survive and even replicate inside human macrophages, indicating that this host cell might serve as a niche for persistence. In this work, we examined the interaction of B. pertussis with a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) that differentiates into macrophages in culture in order to investigate the host cell response to the infection and the mechanisms that promote that intracellular survival. To that end, we investigated the expression profile of a selected number of genes involved in cellular bactericidal activity and the inflammatory response during the early and late phases of infection. The bactericidal and inflammatory response of infected macrophages was progressively downregulated, while the number of THP-1 cells heavily loaded with live bacteria increased over time postinfection. Two of the main toxins of B. pertussis, pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase (CyaA), were found to be involved in manipulating the host cell response. Therefore, failure to express either toxin proved detrimental to the development of intracellular infections by those bacteria. Taken together, these results support the relevance of host defense gene manipulation to the outcome of the interaction between B. pertussis and macrophages.

  12. [Public laboratories for vaccine production: a new paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, A; di Fabio, J L; de Quadros, C

    1998-10-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, public laboratories that produce vaccines have contributed in varying degrees to the control and eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases, and several of them are manufacturing vaccines that are routinely applied in national immunization programs, such as the vaccine against tuberculosis (made with the bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, BCG), the triple vaccine against diphtheriatetanus-pertussis (DTP), tetanus toxoid (TT), the vaccine against measles and the oral vaccine against polio. Thanks to recent scientific strides, one can foresee an important increase in the number of safe and effective vaccines that will be available in the near future for use in routine vaccination programs. However, there are high costs involved in developing such vaccines and in protecting the intellectual property rights involved, and few laboratories in Latin America have the technical capacity to research and develop these vaccines. Such factors will affect the speed with which they are assimilated into vaccination programs in countries of the Region. Currently, public laboratories that manufacture vaccines in the Region are not equipped to compete in this new scenario and run the risk of being completely outmarketed. Thus, they must radically change their style of management and their scientific and technical capabilities, backed by a commitment from governments to improve and strengthen those political and financial aspects that can assure that national laboratories participate in the sustainable supply of vaccines to immunization programs, as well as in researching, developing, and producing new vaccines. PMID:9924504

  13. Characterization of Nanostructures in Acellular Cementum of Human Tooth Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yong-bo; LIU Ming-xia; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Kai; DONG Feng-xia; SUN Hong-chen; YANG Bai

    2012-01-01

    Determining the microstructure in human cementum might help us design new kinds of replacement materials for the treatment of teeth injury and disease.The authors characterized the nanostructures in the cementum of health human teeth via scanning electronic microscopy(SEM).It was found that the acellular cementum is mainly composed of two kinds of nanostructures——inorganic nanoparticles and organic nanofibers.And the inorganic nanoparticles show a tendency to arrange along the organic nanofibers.Based on the micro-molding in capillary strategy,the distribution of organic component in acellular cementum was copied with UV curable resin.After removing the inorganic nanoparticles by acid etching,many isolated spindle shape nanopores were left in polymer,which suggested that the inorganic nanoparticles should have been isolated by the organic component in cementum,and should be oval or nanosheet in shape.We hope the present work could provide reference for the biomimetic preparation of tissue engineering materials,and help us design new types of tooth implant.

  14. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles.

  15. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  16. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes Participate in the IFN-γ Response to Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in Infants, Children, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Dirix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8+ T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8+ T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in IFN-γ production. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that both cell types synthesized antigen-specific IFN-γ, although CD4+ lymphocytes were the major source of this cytokine. IFN-γ synthesis by CD8+ cells was CD4+ T cell dependent, as evidenced by selective depletion experiments. Furthermore, IFN-γ synthesis by CD4+ cells was sometimes inhibited by CD8+ lymphocytes, suggesting the presence of CD8+ regulatory T cells. The role of this dual IFN-γ secretion by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in pertussis remains to be investigated.

  17. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  18. Patterns of Susceptibility in an Outbreak of Bordetella pertussis: Evidence from a Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Moore

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak of Bordetella pertussis and to assess which factors were associated with the development of clinical pertussis in children and adults during the outbreak.

  19. Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  20. Vaccine hesitancy: Causes, consequences, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  1. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pdf . I have an adult patient with controlled epilepsy who wishes to receive the Tdap vaccine. May ... a tetanus-prone wound) until the development of human tetanus immune globulin in the late 1950s. Equine ...

  2. Compliance to compulsory vaccination: strategies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, G; Caramello, S; Vaudetto, S

    1995-06-01

    This report is devoted to analyze the effect that compulsory vaccination has on the compliance of the population, compared with the results obtained by massive campaigns for optional vaccinations. The implementation of a specific software for the management of individual schedules helps to reach a substantial complete coverage of the individuals for the first ones, while improving but incomplete results regard the vaccines against pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella, optional in Italy. The optimization of data management at the local health unit level improves the quality and the satisfaction of the work performed by the personnel, but has a limited effect on the already nearly complete coverage for the compulsory immunizations. The mounting percentage of children immunized with optional vaccines can be explained both by the massive campaigns of information conducted in recent years and by the better tracking of individual immunization schedules.

  3. Comparison of molecular detection methods for pertussis in children during a state-wide outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Zerr, D M; Kronman, M P; Adler, A L; Berry, J E; Rich, S; Buccat, A M; Xu, M; Englund, J A

    2016-04-27

    A state-wide pertussis outbreak occurred in Washington during the winter-spring months of 2012, concurrent with respiratory viral season. We compared performance characteristics of a laboratory-developed pertussis PCR (LD-PCR for Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii) and rapid multiplex PCR (RM-PCR) for respiratory viruses (FilmArray™, BioFire, B. pertussis data unblinded following FDA approval post outbreak). We analyzed three cohorts of patients using physician testing orders as a proxy for clinical suspicion for pertussis or respiratory viruses: Cohort 1, tested by LD-PCR for pertussis pathogens only by nasopharyngeal swab; Cohort 2, by RM-PCR for respiratory viruses only by mid-nasal turbinate swab; and Cohort 3, by both methods. B. pertussis was detected in a total of 25 of the 490 patients in Cohort 3 in which LD-PCR detected 20/25 (80 %) cases and the RM-PCR detected 24/25 (96 %; p = 0.2). Pertussis pathogens were detected in 21/584 (3.6 %) of samples from Cohort 1 where clinicians had a relatively strong suspicion for pertussis. In contrast, B. pertussis was detected in only 4/3071 (0.1 %) specimens from Cohort 2 where suspicion for pertussis was lower (p < 0.001 for comparison with Cohort 1). In summary, the two laboratory methods were comparable for the detection of B. pertussis.

  4. Bordetella pertussis: an underreported pathogen in pediatric respiratory infections, a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den G.; Wishaupt, J.O.; Douma, J.C.; Hartwig, N.G.; Versteegh, F.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of pertussis has been increasing worldwide. In the Netherlands, the seroprevalence has risen higher than the reported cases, suggesting that laboratory tests for pertussis are considered infrequently and that even more pertussis cases are missed. The objective of our study

  5. Expression of the S-1 catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, J T; Rappuoli, R; Collier, R J

    1987-01-01

    The S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin was expressed as a fusion protein in a strain of Escherichia coli deficient in protein degradation. The fusion protein reacted with anti-pertussis toxin antibody, and, like authentic pertussis toxin, it ADP-ribosylated a 41,000-molecular-weight membrane protein from human erythrocytes.

  6. Vaccination coverage of health care personnel working in health care facilities in France: results of a national survey, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Fonteneau, Laure; Ciotti, Céline; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Pellissier, Gérard; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Abiteboul, Dominique

    2012-06-29

    We conducted a national cross-sectional survey to investigate vaccination coverage (VC) in health care personnel (HCP) working in clinics and hospitals in France. We used a two-stage stratified random sampling design to select 1127 persons from 35 health care settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and completed using information gathered from the occupational health doctor. A total of 183 physicians, 110 nurses, 58 nurse-assistants and 101 midwives were included. VC for compulsory vaccinations was 91.7% for hepatitis B, 95.5% for the booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-polio (DTP), 94.9% for BCG. For non-compulsory vaccinations, coverage was 11.4% for the 10 year booster of the DTP pertussis containing vaccine, 49.7% for at least one dose of measles, 29.9% for varicella and 25.6% for influenza. Hepatitis B VC did not differ neither between HCP working in surgery and HCP in other sectors, nor in surgeons and anaesthesiologists compared to physicians working in medicine. Young HCP were better vaccinated for pertussis and measles (pvaccinated for influenza and pertussis (pcompulsory vaccinations, whereas VC for non-compulsory vaccinations is very insufficient. The vaccination policy regarding these latter vaccinations should be reinforced in France.

  7. Extended Eden model reproduces growth of an acellular slime mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Geri; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Meakin, Paul

    1999-11-01

    A stochastic growth model was used to simulate the growth of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum on substrates where the nutrients were confined in separate drops. Growth of Physarum on such substrates was previously studied experimentally and found to produce a range of different growth patterns [Phys. Rev. E 57, 941 (1998)]. The model represented the aging of cluster sites and differed from the original Eden model in that the occupation probability of perimeter sites depended on the time of occupation of adjacent cluster sites. This feature led to a bias in the selection of growth directions. A moderate degree of persistence was found to be crucial to reproduce the biological growth patterns under various conditions. Persistence in growth combined quick propagation in heterogeneous environments with a high probability of locating sources of nutrients.

  8. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating

  9. Expresión episomal de toxina de pertussis genéticamente inactivada en Bordetella pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis es una bacteria Gram negativa, la cual constituye el agente etiologico de la tos ferina. La enfermedad se desencadena por el efecto conjunto de una serie de factores de virulencia expresados por la bacteria, los cuales se encuentran regulados por el sistema bvg. Uno de los factores de virulencia mas importantes es la toxina de pertussis, razon por la cual, se emplea de forma inactivada como el componente principal de las vacunas acelulares contra la enfermedad. La toxina de pertussis posee una estructura del tipo A-B compuesta por seis polipeptidos codificados en un operon unico. El polipeptido S1 constituye la subunidad enzimaticamente activa, la cual cataliza la transferencia de ADP-ribosa del NAD a la subunidad ALPHA de las proteinas G en celulas eucariotas, lo cual genera una serie de efectos biologicos dentro de los que se incluye: sensibilizacion a histamina, incremento de la secrecion de insulina y efectos inmunoestimuladores e inmunosupresores. El presente trabajo describe los procedimientos realizados para la obtencion de cepas de Bordetella pertussis productoras de elevadas concentraciones de toxina pertusica atenuada geneticamente. Para esto, se realizaron las sustituciones aminoacidicas Arg9 por Lys y Glu129 por Gly de la subunidad S1. El operon de la toxina de pertussis mutada se clono en un vector de amplio rango de hospedero bajo la regulacion de un promotor de expresion temprana (fhaB. Los clones obtenidos pudieran ser empleados como sistemas de expresion para produccion de vacunas acelulares en Cuba.

  10. Formaldehyde-inactivated human enterovirus 71 vaccine is compatible for co-immunization with a commercial pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Yi-Ping; Wang, Ya-Fang; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2011-03-24

    In this study we tested the effectiveness of a formaldehyde-inactivated EV71 vaccine and its compatibility for co-immunization with a pentavalent vaccine that contained inactivated poliovirus (PV) vaccine. The inactivated EV71 vaccine (C2 genogroup) elicited an antibody response which broadly neutralized homologous and heterologous genogroups, including B4, C4, and B5. Pups from vaccinated dams were resistant to the EV71 challenge and had a high survival rate and a low tissue viral burden when compared to those from non-vaccinated counterparts. Co-immunization with pentavalent and inactivated EV71 vaccines elicited antibodies against the major components of the pentavalent vaccine including the PV, Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid at the same levels as in mice immunized with pentavalent vaccine alone. Likewise, EV71 neutralizing antibody titers were comparable between EV71-vaccinated mice and mice co-immunized with the two vaccines. These results indicate that formaldehyde-inactivated whole virus EV71 vaccine is feasible for designing multivalent vaccines. PMID:21315698

  11. Sterile Acellular Dermal Collagen as a Treatment for Rippling Deformity of Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Brittany Busse; Hakan Orbay; Sahar, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal...

  12. Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144......Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144...

  13. Bovine versus Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix: A Comparison of Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Adelman, MD, PhD, FACS

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Before implantation, BADM is inherently stronger than PADM at equivalent thicknesses and considerably stronger at increased thicknesses. These results corroborate clinical data from a previous study in which PADM was associated with a higher intraoperative device failure rate. Although numerous properties of acellular dermal matrix contribute to clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider initial mechanical strength properties when choosing acellular dermal matrices for load-bearing applications such as hernia repair.