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Sample records for acellular pertussis component

  1. [Preclinical studies of an adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (ADTP-vaccine) with acellular pertussis component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, E M; Britsina, M V; Bazhanova, I G; Mertsalova, N U; Ozeretskovskaia, M N; Ermolova, E V; Plekhanova, N G; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Kolyshkin, V A; Zverev, V V

    2013-01-01

    Evaluate standardness of antigenic composition of pertussis component, completeness of sorption of pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus components, specific activity and safety of experimental series ofADTP-vaccine with acellular pertussis component (ADTaP-vaccine). The content of separate antigens (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin and agglutinogens 1, 2, 3) in samples of acellular pertussis component of ADTaP-vaccine and completeness of sorption of pertussis component of ADTaP-vaccine were evaluated by using enzyme immunoassay. Completeness of sorption of diphtheria and tetanus components were determined in flocculation reaction and antitoxin-binding reactions, respectively. Protective activity ofADTaP-vaccine was studied in model ofmeningoencephalitis development in mice infected with Bordetella pertussis (strain 18323) neurotropic virulent culture, protective activity oftetanus component - by survival of mice after administration of tetanus toxin, protective activity of diphtheria component - by survival of guinea pigs after administration of diphtheria toxin. Safety of preparations was evaluated in tests of acute and chronic toxicity with carrying out pathomorphologic studies including immature animals. All the studied experimental series ofADTaP-vaccine were standard by content of separate antigens of pertussis microbe. All the ADTaP-vaccine components were completely sorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel. By protective activity ADTaP preparations satisfied the WHO requirements. The preparations were non-toxic in acute and chronic toxicity and did not induce pathomorphologic changes including immature animals. Experimental samples of ADTaP-vaccine by specific activity and safety satisfied WHO requirements.

  2. [Prophylaxis of pertussis: development and use of acellular pertussis vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprinina, R P; Alekseeva, I A; Ozeretskovskiĭ, N A

    2006-01-01

    Modern data substantiating the expediency of the use of acellular pertussis vaccine were analyzed. Serious postvaccinal complications caused by the action of the corpuscular pertussis component of adsorbed DPT vaccine served as the basis for the development of acellular pertussis vaccine (APV). During the period of 1990-1996 as many as 8 international field trials of the effectiveness of APV were carried out. The results of these trials and studies were evaluated in accordance with the unified programs and criteria. The vaccines under test differed by the composition of Bordetella pertussis purified antigens they contained, the methods of their purification and the detoxification of pertussis toxin. All tested APV, with the exception SKB-2, possessed pronounced prophylactic activity.

  3. Antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following immunization with a whole-cell, two-component, or five-component acellular pertussis vaccine and following pertussis disease in children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2014-02-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection.

  4. Antibody Responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following Immunization with a Whole-Cell, Two-Component, or Five-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and following Pertussis Disease in Children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection. PMID:24307240

  5. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole-cell pertussis component of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines in Senegalese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Yam, A; Gagnepain, J Y; Wassilak, S; Danve, B; Cadoz, M

    1996-12-01

    A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 micrograms glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 micrograms native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was observed than in infants receiving DTwP. One month after the third dose, the geometric mean titres for FHA antibodies were higher in the DTaP group, whereas increases in PT antibody titres were higher in the DTwP group. More than 90% of the infants had a fourfold or more increase in antibodies to both PT and FHA with either vaccine. Diphtheria, tetanus, and polio antibody responses were also measured and found to be comparable between the two groups. The results of this pilot study support the implementation of a field trial to compare the protective efficacy of these vaccines against pertussis in the same setting.

  6. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Dore, G; Guiso, N

    2014-11-20

    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough and has been the target of vaccination for over fifty years. The latest strategies include the use of acellular pertussis vaccines that induce specific immunity against few virulence factors amongst which pertactin is included in three and five component acellular pertussis vaccines. Recently, it has been reported that B. pertussis clinical isolates loose the production of this adhesin in regions reaching high vaccine coverage with vaccines targeting this virulence factor. We here demonstrate that isolates not producing pertactin are capable of sustaining longer infection as compared to pertactin producing isolates in an in vivo model of acellular pertussis immunization. Loosing pertactin production might thus provide a selective advantage to these isolates in this background, which could account for the upraise in prevalence of these pertactin deficient isolates in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF A NATIONAL COMBINED VACCINE AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND Hib-INFECTION, CONTAINING ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS COMPONENT, DURING IMMUNIZATION OF ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblyum, I V; Nikolaeva, A M; Pavroz, K A; Danilina, T V; Sosnina, O Yu; Vyaznikova, T V; Ershov, A E; Trofimov, D M; Polushkina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Study safety, reactogenicity and immunologic effectiveness of a national combined vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis (acellular component), tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib-infection during immunization of volunteers aged 18-60 years. The study was carried out in accordance with ethical standards and requirements, regulated by Helsinki declaration and Good clinical practice (ICHGCP). In a simple non-randomized clinical trial 20 adult volunteers took part, the mean age of those was 46.9 years. Registered: post-vaccination reactions (both local and systemic) were mild and of moderate degree of severity, stopped independently after 2-3 days without administration of drug treatment. Postvaccinal complications were not noted. Parameters of general and biochemical analysis of blood, urine, IgE content in dynamics of immunization were within normal limits. A single administration of aAPDT--HepB+Hib to individuals aged 18-60 years resulted in development of antibodies against all the components of the preparation. Seroconversion factor fluctuated from 6.9 to 53.5: The results obtained allow to recommend the vaccine for evaluation of its safety, reactogenicity, immunologic and prophylaxis effectiveness in randomized clinical observation trials in children.

  8. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomovici, A; Barreto, L; Zickler, P; Meekison, W; Noya, F; Voloshen, T; Lavigne, P

    2012-03-30

    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier clinical trials. Outcome measures were seroprotection (tetanus and diphtheria) or seropositivity (pertussis) and geometric mean concentrations. Humoral immune responses to all antigens were robust 1 month after initial immunization, decreased at subsequent measurements, but continued to exceed pre-immunization levels 1, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin persisted in 99.3% of adolescents 10 years after a booster dose of Tdap. Seropositivity to 1 or more pertussis antigens also persisted in most adolescents for 10 years. Although tetanus antitoxin responses were similar in adults to those observed in adolescents, diphtheria antitoxin titers were lower, reflecting the fact that a smaller proportion of adults had received diphtheria toxoid in the previous 10 years compared to adolescents. These data will contribute to the selection of the optimal interval for repeat doses of Tdap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune responses to pertussis antigens in infants and toddlers after immunization with multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Wang, Li; Chen, Qingxia; Halasa, Natasha B

    2014-12-01

    Given the resurgence of pertussis despite high rates of vaccination with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, a better understanding of vaccine-induced immune responses to Bordetella pertussis is needed. We investigated the antibody, cell-mediated, and cytokine responses to B. pertussis antigens in children who received the primary vaccination series (at 2, 4, and 6 months) and first booster vaccination (at 15 to 18 months) with 5-component acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. The majority of subjects demonstrated a 4-fold increase in antibody titer to all four pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin [PT], pertactin [PRN], filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA], and fimbriae [FIM]) following the primary series and booster vaccination. Following the primary vaccine series, the majority of subjects (52 to 67%) mounted a positive T cell proliferative response (stimulation index of ≥ 3) to the PT and PRN antigens, while few subjects (7 to 12%) mounted positive proliferative responses to FHA and FIM. One month after booster vaccination (age 16 to 19 months), our study revealed significant increase in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in response to the PT and FIM antigens, a significant increase in IL-2 production with the PT, FHA, and PRN antigens, and a lack of significant interleukin-4 (IL-4) secretion with any of the antigens. While previous reports documented a mixed Th1/Th2 or Th2-skewed response to DTaP vaccine in children, our data suggest that following the first DTaP booster, children aged 16 to 19 months have a cytokine profile consistent with a Th1 response, which is known to be essential for clearance of pertussis infection. To better define aP-induced immune responses following the booster vaccine, further studies are needed to assess cytokine responses pre- and postbooster in DTaP recipients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus, Hib-conjugate combined vaccine (Pentaxim™) and monovalent hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age in infants in South Africa.

  11. [Acellular pertussis vaccines--safe alternative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenborn, L; Saraczyńska, E

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the safety of various acellular vaccines (ACV) TripAcel, PacMarieux--Pasteur Merieux, Infanrix-SKB, Acel-P-Lederle and DTaP-SSI in 355 children, aged 7 weeks to 7 years, dismissed from immunization against pertussis with a whole-cell vaccine. All ACV contained varying concentrations of pertussis toxin; some vaccines contained filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin and/or agglutinogens. The indication of using ACV were adverse effects following immunization (AEFI) after wP vaccine (n = 29) and others reasons, mostly underlying perinatal and CNS pathology (n = 277). The 564 doses of ACV were given in 4 to 1 doses. Reaction forms and clinical follow-up were uniform throughout the study. Serious AEFI cases were not observed not only among children with CNS damage, but also in children with previous AEFI after DTwP vaccine. All ACV recipients consistently reported low rates of reactions in the 48 hours following immunization. We concluded that all investigated ACV were safe and well tolerated even in the group of high-risk children.

  12. Tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination for adults: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although tetanus and diphtheria have become rare in developed countries, pertussis is still endemic in some developed countries. These are vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination for adults is important to prevent the outbreak of disease. Strategies for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines vary from country to country. Each country needs to monitor consistently epidemiology of the diseases and changes vaccination policies accordingly. Recent studies showed that tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine for adults is effective and safe to prevent pertussis disease in infants. However, vaccine coverage still remains low than expected and seroprevalence of protective antibodies levels for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis decline with aging. The importance of tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine administration should be emphasized for the protection of young adult and elderly people also, not limited to children. PMID:28168170

  13. Bordetella pertussis lipooligosaccharide-derived neoglycoconjugates – new components of pertussis vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a contagious respiratory tract disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite widespread vaccination, in recent years the pertussis incidence has increased. The whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been very effective but reactogenic. Therefore the improved vaccines contain only a few isolated and inactivated antigens of B. pertussis. However, a waning of the acellular vaccine-induced immunity indicates that these vaccines lack some important protective B. pertussis antigens. The vaccine containing an inactivated pertussis toxin induces the production of toxin-neutralizing antibodies, but it does not lead to destruction of bacteria. Since many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis of pertussis, beside the toxin-neutralizing activity, the direct bactericidal activity is essential in anti-pertussis immunity. Lipooligosaccharide is the main surface component of B. pertussis. It is a target for bactericidal antibodies during natural infection. The endotoxic activity of LOS makes it unacceptable for acellular vaccines against B. pertussis. However, the non-toxic moiety of the B. pertussis LOS-derived oligosaccharide coupled to a carrier protein forms an immunogenic glycoconjugate which has a potential application as a new component of a pertussis vaccine.In this paper, we present a review of current research and reasons for the increased pertussis incidence. The epidemiologic situation of pertussis in the past decades showing the ineffectiveness of contemporary, acellular pertussis vaccines is also discussed. The immune processes elicited by natural infection with B. pertussis were compared to the vaccine-induced immunity. The important role of bactericidal antibodies against lipooligosaccharide was indicated in effective immune defense. In a number of research papers the immunogenicity and protective properties of glycoconjugates containing the oligosaccharide component of B. pertussis have been

  14. A randomized double-blind trial comparing a two-component acellular to a whole-cell pertussis vaccine in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Preziosi, M P; Yam, A; Kane, C T; Chabirand, L; Iteman, I; Sanden, G; Mboup, S; Hoffenbach, A; Knudsen, K; Guiso, N; Wassilak, S; Cadoz, M

    1997-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind trial comparing a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 through 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly during two visits after vaccination. Fewer serious adverse events were observed after DTaP. Surveillance for cough illnesses persisting more than 7 days, in children under 15 years of age, was made by weekly home visits. Examining physicians, blind to vaccination status, took samples for culture and serologic testing. Pertussis was defined as 21 or more days of cough confirmed by culture, serology, or contact with a culture-confirmed person. Beginning 28 days after the third vaccine dose, the overall ratio of pertussis incidence in the DTaP group relative to the DTwP group (RRac/wc) was 1.54 (95% CI, 1.23-1.93). In children younger than 18 months of age, RRac/wc was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.77-1.73) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33-2.33) in children older than 18 months, which suggests a shorter duration of protection with the acellular vaccine (P = 0.090). Absolute efficacy estimates derived from the case-contact study confirmed the lower protection afforded by the acellular vaccine compared with the whole-cell vaccine: 31% (95% CI, 7-49) versus 55% against the protocol case definition, and 85% (95% CI, 66-93) versus 96% for the more severe WHO case definition. Although vaccination with DTaP provided a lower degree of protection than the highly effective DTwP, this difference was less prominent before 18 months of age, the customary age for a fourth dose. The safer DTaP vaccine may prove a valuable substitute for whole-cell vaccines when used in a schedule that includes a booster-dose.

  15. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertus...

  16. Acellular and "low" pertussis vaccines: adverse events and the role of mutations Vacinas pertussis acelular e pertussis "low": eventos adversos e o papel das mutações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako G. Higashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to discuss the current PAHO recommendation that does not support the substitution of traditional cellular DTP vaccine by acellular DTP, and the role of mutations, in humans, as the main cause of rare adverse events, such as epileptic-like convulsions, triggered by pertussis vaccine. Data review: the main components related to toxic effects of cellular pertussis vaccines are the lipopolysaccharide of bacterial cell wall and pertussis toxin. The removal of part of lipopolysaccharide layer has allowed the creation of a safer cellular pertussis vaccine, with costs comparable to the traditional cellular vaccine, and which may be a substitute for the acellular vaccine. Conclusion: The new methodology introduced by Instituto Butantan allows for the development of a new safer pertussis vaccine with low LPS content (Plow, and the use of the lipopolysaccharide obtained in the process in the production of monophosphoryl lipid A. This component has shown potent adjuvant effect when administered together with influenza inactivated vaccine, making possible to reduce the antigen dose, enhancing the production capacity and lowering costs.Objetivo: Discutir as recomendações da WHO-OPAS que não consideram indicada a substituição da vacina DTP celular clássica pela DTP acelular e o papel de mutações, em humanos, como principal causa dos raros eventos de convulsões epileptiformes desencadeadas pela vacina pertussis. Revisão dos dados: Os principais componentes relacionados aos efeitos tóxicos da vacina pertussis celular são o lipopolissacarídio da parede celular da bactéria e a toxina pertussis. A remoção de parte da camada lipopolissacarídica permitiu a criação de uma vacina pertussis celular, mais segura e de custo comparável ao da vacina celular tradicional, podendo substituir a vacina pertussis acelular. Conclusão: A nova vacina pertussis, com baixo teor de LPS (Plow desenvolvida pelo Instituto Butantan, além de oferecer uma

  17. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  18. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L. E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.ch; Lee, C.-J.; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  19. A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenchai, Sirintip; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Dhitavat, Jittima; Pitisuthitham, Arom; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Boonnak, Kobporn; Lapphra, Keswadee; Sabmee, Yupa; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Poredi, Indrajeet Kumar; Petre, Jean; Thai, Pham Hong; Viviani, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that protection induced by acellular pertussis vaccines is short-lived, requiring repeated booster vaccination to control pertussis disease. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine containing genetically inactivated pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin, as either a monovalent vaccine (aP[PTgen/FHA]) or in combination with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines (TdaP[PTgen/FHA]), versus a licensed tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria and acellular pertussis combination vaccine (Tdap). We did this phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial at two sites in Bangkok, Thailand. Healthy adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation list with block sizes of three, to receive one dose (0·5 mL) of aP(PTgen/FHA), TdaP(PTgen/FHA), or Tdap (comparator). Clinical research staff responsible for participant randomisation, vaccine preparation and administration, and accountability were aware of group allocation. However, allocation was concealed from all other site study staff, data management personnel, statisticians, laboratory staff, and study participants. The primary outcome was non-inferior immunogenicity of TdaP(PTgen/FHA) to Tdap based on seroconversion rates (a four-fold increase or more) for pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin IgG antibodies 28 days after vaccination, with a predefined 10% margin of equivalence. We did analysis by per protocol. This study is registered with the Thai Clinical Trial Registry, number TCTR20150703002. Between July 6 and Aug 20, 2015, we allocated 450 participants to receive one dose of TdaP(PTgen/FHA) (n=150), aP(PTgen/FHA) (n=150), or comparator Tdap (n=150). 28 days after vaccination, seroconversion rates for anti-pertussis toxin IgG were 96·6% (95% CI 93·8-99·5; n=144) in the TdaP(PTgen/FHA) group and 55·0% (47·1-63·0; n=82) in the comparator Tdap group

  20. Risk of Brain Damage Following Pertussis Immunization with Whole-Cell cf Acellular Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Serious neurological disorders reported following whole-cell (WC in comparison to acellular (AC pertussis vaccines (PV were evaluated by the Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, MD.

  1. Impact of acellular pertussis preschool booster vaccination on disease burden of pertussis in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Sabine C; Mooi, Frits R; Schellekens, Joop F P; de Melker, Hester E

    2008-03-01

    An acellular preschool booster vaccination against pertussis has been included in the National Immunization Programme in The Netherlands, since November 2001. We studied the impact of this preschool booster on the epidemiology of pertussis. We analyzed and compared pertussis cases registered in the national notification system, hospital registry, and death registry between the periods 1998-2001 (without preschool booster) and 2002-2005 (with preschool booster). In 2002-2005, the incidence of hospitalizations and notifications in 1-4 year olds were 48% and 44%, lower respectively, than in 1998-2001. Similarly, in 5-9 year olds the incidence of hospitalizations and notifications had decreased 32% and 15%, respectively. In 2005, vaccine effectiveness for preschool booster among children born between January 1, 1998 and January 1, 2001--all of whom had been eligible for the booster--was estimated at 79% (95% CI: 71-85). In infants aged 0-6 months, the incidence of hospitalizations per 100,000 population decreased 40%, from 222.5 to 133.6. In contrast, among cohorts aged 10-19, 20-59, and >60 years, the incidence of notifications increased 60%, 44%, and 68%, respectively. The preschool booster strongly decreased the disease burden in the targeted cohorts. Importantly, the incidence in infants 0-6 months also showed a decline after introduction of the preschool booster, suggesting reduced transmission from siblings to young infants. Meanwhile, the number of pertussis cases in adolescents and adults increased. With prevention of severe pertussis among infants as focus, this effect should not be ignored in the discussion on future vaccination strategies for pertussis.

  2. Comparative biological activities of acellular pertussis vaccines produced by Kitasato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Izumiya, K; Sato, T; Yoshino, K; Nakagawa, N; Ohoishi, M; Hoshino, M

    1991-04-01

    The quality of 14 lots of acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (AC-PDT) vaccines manufactured by the Kitasato Institute during the period 1987-1990 were investigated. The geometric means of HSU, LPU, and BWDU were 0.078, 0.257, and 7.33 per ml respectively. The potency was higher than 14 IU per ml. These results indicated the consistency of the Kitasato AC-PDT vaccines. The antibody response to the AC-PDT vaccines was measured in primary and secondary vaccinated mice by ELISA. IgG antibody response to FHA and PT was obtained in all immunized mice (P less than 0.001) after the primary injection. In contrast, IgG antibody response to fimbriae 2 showed a significant titer rise (P less than 0.001) after the booster injection. The results indicated that the Kitasato AC-P vaccines consisted of protein, PT and FHA as the major antigens, and a little agglutinogen as the minor antigen.

  3. Protection and humoral immune responses against Bordetella pertussis infection in mice immunized with acellular or cellular pertussis immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B M; David, S; Beekhuizen, H; Mooi, F R; van Furth, R

    2000-12-08

    In the present study, protection against Bordetella pertussis infection and humoral immunological responses in mice has been assessed upon immunization with custom-made acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) and whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV). Mice were immunized, next intranasally infected with B. pertussis and during 14 days the number of bacteria in the trachea and lungs and the level of serum antibodies were determined. ACV contained five immunogens, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae serotypes 2 and 3, and chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PMC-5), or three immunogens, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and genetically detoxified (BC-3) or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (SKB-3). Immunization with a high or low dose of ACV or WCV resulted in significant protection against B. pertussis, with differences in the degree of protection between the vaccines. The lowest protection was found with a low dose of SKB-3 and WCV. The pattern of cytokine production by spleen cells of immunized, non-infected, mice indicated that T-helper 1 cells are activated by vaccination with WCV, and T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 cells are involved in the immune response upon vaccination with ACVs. Each vaccine stimulated the production of IgG, but not IgA, antibodies. In mice immunized with ACV, elimination of B. pertussis from trachea and lungs correlated significantly with the titre of IgG1, but not IgG2a, antibodies.

  4. Risk factors for acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccine failure in Senegalese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Karine; Yam, Abdoulaye; Simondon, Kirsten; Pinchinat, Sybil; Simondon, François

    2004-12-16

    Although use of acellular pertussis vaccine was associated with a higher rate of vaccine failure than that of whole-cell vaccine in the Senegal Pertussis Trial conducted in 1990-1994 on 4189 children, risk factors for vaccine failure regarding exposure and susceptibility to pertussis have not been studied so far. Pertussis occurred in 346 vaccinated children. Three factors were found to be associated with vaccine failure, independently of the vaccine type, namely the degree of exposure, birth rank, and time since weaning. In the whole-cell vaccine group, the risk of failure increased with birth rank [RR = 2.95 (1.51-5.75)] and was higher in non stunted children [RR = 1.43 (1.05-1.94)]. In the acellular vaccine group, the risk of failure increased with age at exposure to B. pertussis [RR = 2.24 (1.21-4.12) after 18 months of age] and the degree of exposure [RR = 2.14 (1.17-3.93) when the child shared the hut of an index case]. These results highlight the influence of environmental factors on the success of pertussis vaccination. However, they do not explain the shorter duration of protection provided by the acellular vaccine compared to the whole-cell vaccine which persist after controlling and thus might be related to the nature of the vaccine.

  5. Randomised study of the possible adjuvant effect of BCG vaccine on the immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in Senegalese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Preziosi, M P; Pinchinat, S; Yam, A; Chabirand, L; Wassilak, S; Pines, E; Trape, J F; Salomon, H; Hoffenbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Following a study in Senegal (1990-1995) in which the relative efficacy of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) was compared with that of a diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine in children given a simultaneous injection of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, this subsequent study was conducted to evaluate the possible adjuvant effect of the BCG vaccine on acellular pertussis vaccine components. A second objective was to compare the immunogenicity of these components when administered in accordance with a 2-4-6-month (spaced) schedule or an accelerated 2-3-4-month schedule. In all, 390 healthy Senegalese infants were randomly divided into three groups of 130 infants. Antibodies to acellular pertussis components were measured in serum samples obtained within 2 days of the first DTaP dose and 1 month after the third dose. BCG vaccine, given simultaneously with the DTaP vaccine, did not influence the immunogenicity of the acellular pertussis vaccine components when compared with separate administration of the two vaccines. Infants immunised according to a 2-4-6-month schedule had a significantly higher immune response than those immunised according to a 2-3-4-month schedule with respect to the response to pertussis toxoid assessed by seroneutralisation on Chinese hamster ovary cells (P<0.0001). These results suggest that BCG and DTaP vaccines can be given simultaneously without interference or enhancement and that more optimal immunogenicity is achieved with an extended than with an accelerated schedule.

  6. Booster immunization of children with an acellular pertussis vaccine enhances Th2 cytokine production and serum IgE against pertussis toxin but not against common allergens

    OpenAIRE

    MILLS, KINGSTON

    2000-01-01

    PUBLISHED Acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) protect against severe pertussis in children. However, serum antibody responses decline quickly after immunization. Studies in animal models suggest that cell-mediated immunity also contributes to protection against Bordetella pertussis, and it has already been demonstrated that Pa induce T cells that secrete type-1 and type-2 cytokines in children. In this study we examined the persistence of the T cell response and the effect of booster immuniz...

  7. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Schure, Rose-Minke; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; de Greeff, S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-09-16

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 months, 4 years and 9 years as well as in children who have been infected with Bordetella pertussis. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay was used for the measurement of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses against pertussis toxin, filamentous heamagglutinin and pertactin. Although IgG1 was the predominant subclass for all pertussis antigens in both healthy and infected children, elevated IgG4 levels were only present in children who had received repeated number of acellular pertussis vaccinations. IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies did not contribute to the IgG response. No differences in IgG-subclasses between healthy vaccinated or infected children were found. The pertussis vaccine used for priming seems to determine the IgG-subclass composition elicited after a secondary antibody response either induced by pertussis vaccination or infection. The pronounced anti-pertussis IgG4 response might reflect the Th2-skewing of the immune response after aP vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pertussis epidemic despite high levels of vaccination coverage with acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Arias-Varela, César; Recasens-Recasens, Assumpta; Simó-Sanahuja, Maria; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Pérez-Jové, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    We describe the pertussis epidemic, based only on confirmed whooping cough cases. We have analyzed data on the diagnosis, epidemiology and vaccine history in order to understand the factors that might explain the trends of the disease. A descriptive study of the confirmed pertussis cases reported during 2011 in the Vallès region (population 1,283,000). Laboratory criteria for confirmed pertussis cases include isolation of Bordetella pertussis from a clinical specimen or detection of B. pertussis by PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. A total of 421 pertussis confirmed cases were reported, which was the highest incidence reported in the last decade (33 cases/100,000 people/year in 2011). The highest incidence rate was among infants less than 1 year old (448/100,000), followed by children 5-9 years old (154/100,000). Pertussis cases aged 2 months-1 year were 90% vaccinated following the current DTaP schedule for their age group in Catalonia, and cases of 5-9 years were 87% fully vaccinated with 5 doses of DTaP vaccine. There were no deaths, although 8% of cases were hospitalized. Pertussis was more severe in infants, 30% required hospitalization despite having received the vaccine doses corresponding to their age. Children of 5-9 years were most often identified as primary cases in households or school clusters. Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, pertussis circulation cannot be controlled at all. The results question the efficacy of the present immunization programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    vacina é em torno de 6 a 12 anos. As avaliações sobre o impacto econômico do uso rotineiro da vacina em adolescentes evidenciam uma relação custo-benefício positiva. Os resultados do impacto epidemiológico dependem da qualidade do diagnóstico para que os dados reflitam a realidade da doença. CONCLUSÕES: Embora existam algumas questões a serem esclarecidas, a literatura disponível sinaliza a possibilidade para a solução do .ressurgimento. da coqueluche com o uso da vacina dTpa. Talvez a estratégia da utilização de uma dose de reforço na adolescência, substituindo a vacina dupla contra difteria e tétano, seja uma medida a ser prontamente indicada.BACKGROUND: The use of whole-cell pertussis vaccine has led to a significant decline in incidence of the disease among children. This change in the epidemiological profile led to an increased number of cases among teenagers and adults, as a result of loss of immunity to the disease or vaccine after approximately 10 years. An increased number of cases was also observed among non-immunized or partially immunized infants. Licensure of the DTP vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis formulated specifically for patients over 10 years of age (Tdap suggests the possibility of controlling pertussis in the most affected age groups over the past few years. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were collected from MEDLINE. The research was limited to the period between January 1995 and January 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In some countries there are two Tdap vaccines licensed for patients over 10 years of age. One of them contains five immunogenic components of Bordetella pertussis (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2 and 3, and pertactin, and the other contains three components (pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and inactivated pertussis toxin, the latter being the only one licensed in Brazil up to now. Although the composition of the two vaccines differs, studies show that they have

  10. Impact of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine use in wound management on health care costs and pertussis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbird, Sandra E; Graham, Jonathan; Mauskopf, Josephine; Masseria, Cristina; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine for routine wound management in adolescents and adults who require a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine who were vaccinated ≥ 5 years earlier with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine, and who have not previously received Tdap. To estimate the overall budget and health impact of vaccinating individuals presenting for wound management with Tdap instead of Td vaccine, the current standard of care in practices that do not use Tdap for purposes of wound management. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to estimate the expected increase in direct medical costs and the expected number of cases of pertussis avoided associated with the use of Tdap instead of Td vaccine in the wound management setting. Patients eligible for Tdap were aged 10+ years and required a tetanus-containing vaccine. Age-specific wound incidence data and Td and Tdap vaccination rates were taken from the National Health Interview Survey and the National Immunization Survey for the most recent available year. Age-specific pertussis incidence used in this analysis (151 per 100,000 for adolescents, 366 per 100,000 for those aged 20-64 years, and 176 per 100,000 for those aged 65+ years) used reported incidence rates adjusted by a factor of 10 for adolescents and by a factor of 100 for adults, based on assumptions previously made by ACIP to account for underreporting. Vaccine wholesale acquisition costs without federal excise tax were assumed in the base case. Efficacy of vaccination with Tdap in preventing pertussis was based on clinical trial data. Possible herd immunity effects of vaccination were not included in the model. Costs associated with vaccination and treatment of pertussis cases were reported as total annual costs and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs for hypothetical health plans and for the U

  11. Different T cell memory in preadolescents after whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Kaatje; Pottier, Gaelle; Smet, Julie; Dirix, Violette; Vermeulen, Françoise; De Schutter, Iris; Carollo, Maria; Locht, Camille; Ausiello, Clara Maria; Mascart, Françoise

    2013-12-17

    To better understand vaccine-induced protection and its potential failure in light of recent whooping cough resurgence, we evaluated quantity as well as quality of memory T cell responses in B. pertussis-vaccinated preadolescent children. Using a technique based on flow cytometry to detect proliferation, cytokine production and phenotype of antigen-specific cells, we evaluated residual T cell memory in a cohort of preadolescents who received a whole-cell pertussis (wP; n=11) or an acellular pertussis vaccine (aP; n=13) during infancy, and with a median of 4 years elapsed from the last pertussis booster vaccine, which was aP for all children. We demonstrated that B. pertussis-specific memory T cells are detectable in the majority of preadolescent children several years after vaccination. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in response to pertussis toxin and/or filamentous hemagglutinin was detected in 79% and 60% of the children respectively, and interferon-γ or tumor necrosis factor-α producing CD4(+) T cells were detected in 65% and 53% of the children respectively. Phenotyping of the responding cells showed that the majority of antigen-specific cells, whether defined by proliferation or cytokine production, were CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) effector memory T cells. Although the time since the last booster vaccine was significantly longer for wP-compared to aP-vaccinated children, their proliferation capacity in response to antigenic stimulation was comparable, and more children had a detectable cytokine response after wP- compared to aP-vaccination. This study supports at the immunological level recent epidemiological studies indicating that infant vaccination with wP induces longer lasting immunity than vaccination with aP-vaccines. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  13. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  14. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  15. Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2012-09-10

    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in Europe and from age 10 years onwards in the US. Compared with infant formulations used for primary vaccination, Tdap contains reduced quantities (10-50%) of all toxoids and antigens, which are adsorbed to either ≤0.39 mg/dose (US licensed formulation) or 0.5 mg/dose (rest-of-world formulation) of aluminium adjuvant. The reduced antigen content is designed to avoid the increasing reactogenicity historically seen with the fourth and fifth doses of infant vaccine. This article reviews the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and reactogenicity of Tdap booster administered to children, adolescents and adults, including those aged ≥65 years. In clinical trials, a single booster dose of Tdap induced seroprotective levels of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in virtually all children and adolescents, and in a high proportion of adults and elderly individuals at approximately 1 month post-vaccination irrespective of their vaccination history. In all age groups, seropositivity rates for antibodies against pertussis antigens were ≥90% (including in unvaccinated adolescents), and booster response rates were high. Tdap was safely co-administered with other common vaccines without significantly affecting the immune responses. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity profiles of booster doses of Tdap were generally similar to those of infant diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine and infant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in children aged 4-6 years, and infant diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in older children. In adolescents and adults, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Tdap were generally similar to those of reduced-antigen diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, reduced-antigen diphtheria-tetanus-five-component

  16. Age-specific effectiveness following each dose of acellular pertussis vaccine among infants and children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sarah; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Watson, Donna; Gentles, Dudley; Turner, Nikki

    2017-01-03

    Though it is believed the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccine has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis disease, few studies have evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) and duration of protection provided by an acellular vaccine schedule including three primary doses but no toddler-age dose. We assessed this schedule in New Zealand (NZ), a setting with historically high rates of pertussis disease, and low but recently improved immunisation coverage. We further evaluated protection following the preschool-age booster dose. We performed a nested case-control study using national-level healthcare data. Hospitalised and non-hospitalised pertussis was detected among children 6weeks to 7years of age between January 2006 and December 2013. The NZ National Immunisation Register provided vaccination status for cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate dose-specific VE with duration of immunity examined by stratifying VE into ages aligned with the immunisation schedule. VE against pertussis hospitalisation was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87, 96) following three doses among infants aged 5-11months who received three compared to zero doses. This protection was sustained through children's fourth birthdays (VE⩾91%). VE against non-hospitalised pertussis was also sustained after three doses, from 86% (95% CI: 80, 90) among 5-11month olds to 84% (95% CI: 80, 88) among 3-year-olds. Following the first booster dose at 4years of age, the protective VE of 93% (95% CI: 90, 95) among 4-year-olds continued through 7years of age (VE⩾91%). We found a high level of protection with no reduction in VE following both the primary course and the first booster dose. These findings support a 3-dose primary course of acellular vaccine with no booster dose until 4years of age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Humoral and B-cell memory responses in children five years after pertussis acellular vaccine priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Maria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2014-04-11

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts in understanding the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of humoral and B-cell memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac(®) vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa(®) (Infanrix) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated the specific immune responses in the two groups of children, 5 years after primary vaccination by measuring the persistence of IgG and antibody secreting cells (ASC) specific for vaccine antigens. Part of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. A similar level of antigen-specific IgG and ASC was found in Infanrix and Hexavac vaccinated children. The mean IgG levels were significantly higher in children that received the pre-school boost as compared with children that did not receive the boost dose. A longer persistence after the pre-school boost of IgG-Pertussis Toxin (PT) and IgG-pertactin levels was observed in Infanrix primed children, but it was not statistically significant. More than 80% of children presented a positive ASC B memory response. Around 50% of children still presented protective IgG-PT levels which are reduced to 36% in no-boosted children. The pre-school booster dose restores the percentage of protected children above 50%. In conclusion our data underline the importance of giving a booster dose 5 years after primary vaccination and suggest the need for a new vaccine able to induce a long lasting protective response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experience with monocomponent acellular pertussis combination vaccines for infants, children, adolescents and adults--a review of safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness studies and 15 years of field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Dalby, Tine; Stevner, Michael A; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel; Trollfors, Birger

    2013-10-25

    Combination vaccines containing a monocomponent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, manufactured at Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Denmark, have successfully controlled Bordetella pertussis infections in Denmark since 1997. The efficacy of this aP vaccine was 71% in a double-blind, randomised and controlled clinical trial. Its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in infants, children, adolescents and adults. In approximately 500,000 children it was effective against pertussis requiring hospitalisation (VE: 93% after 3 doses) and against pertussis not requiring hospitalisation (VE: 78% after 3 doses). IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (IgG anti-PT) response rates after booster vaccination of adults with tetanus, diphtheria and aP combination vaccine (TdaP) were considerably higher for this monocomponent aP vaccine containing 20μg pertussis toxoid, inactivated by hydrogen peroxide (92.0%), than for two multicomponent aP vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde and/or glutaraldehyde: 3-component aP with 8μg pertussis toxoid (77.2%) and 5-component aP with 2.5μg pertussis toxoid (47.1%), without compromising the safety profile. In Denmark where this monocomponent aP vaccine has been the only pertussis vaccine in use for 15 years, there has been no pertussis epidemic since 2002 (population incidence 36 per 100,000), in contrast to neighbouring countries, where epidemics have occurred. This monocomponent aP vaccine can be used in combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccination against pertussis in all age groups and is an important tool for successful pertussis control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated Immune Response Among Children 4 Years of Age With Pronounced Local Adverse Events After the Fifth Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Saskia; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; de Rond, Lia G H; Öztürk, Kemal; Westerhof, Anneke; de Melker, Hester E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Rümke, Hans C; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the

  20. Lichen planus following tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.

  1. Lichen planus following tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus–infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient’s presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus–infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell–mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease. PMID:29326823

  2. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety testing of acellular pertussis vaccines: Use of animals and 3Rs alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marieke; Arciniega, Juan; Hendriksen, Coenraad

    2017-11-02

    The current test of acellular Bordetella pertussis (aP) vaccines for residual pertussis toxin (PTx) is the Histamine Sensitization test (HIST), based on the empirical finding that PTx sensitizes mice to histamine. Although HIST has ensured the safety of aP vaccines for years, it is criticized for the limited understanding of how it works, its technical difficulty, and for animal welfare reasons. To estimate the number of mice used worldwide for HIST, we surveyed major aP manufacturers and organizations performing, requiring, or recommending the test. The survey revealed marked regional differences in regulatory guidelines, including the number of animals used for a single test. Based on information provided by the parties surveyed, we estimated the worldwide number of mice used for testing to be 65,000 per year: ∼48,000 by manufacturers and ∼17,000 by national control laboratories, although the latter number is more affected by uncertainty, due to confidentiality policies. These animals covered the release of approximately 850 final lots and 250 in-process lots of aP vaccines yearly. Although there are several approaches for HIST refinement and reduction, we discuss why the efforts needed for validation and implementation of these interim alternatives may not be worthwhile, when there are several in vitro alternatives in various stages of development, some already fairly advanced. Upon implementation, one or more of these replacement alternatives can substantially reduce the number of animals currently used for the HIST, although careful evaluation of each alternative's mechanism and its suitable validation will be necessary in the path to implementation.

  4. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis (TdaP) vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Jordan, Karina; Uhlving, Hilde Hylland

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults.......Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults....

  6. Safety of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-IPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Yih, W Katherine; Glanz, Jason M; Hambidge, Simon J; Narwaney, Komal J; Yin, Ruihua; Li, Lingling; Nelson, Jennifer C; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Weintraub, Eric

    2014-05-23

    In 2008, a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV) was licensed for use in children 4 through 6 years of age. While pre-licensure studies did not demonstrate significant safety concerns, the number vaccinated in these studies was not sufficient to examine the risk of uncommon but serious adverse events. To assess the risk of serious adverse events following DTaP-IPV vaccination. The study was conducted from January 2009 through September 2012 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. In the VSD, electronic vaccination and encounter data are updated and aggregated weekly as part of ongoing surveillance activities. Based on previous reports and biologic plausibility, eight potential adverse events were monitored: meningitis/encephalitis; seizures; stroke; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; anaphylaxis; serious allergic reactions other than anaphylaxis; and serious local reactions. Adverse event rates in DTaP-IPV recipients were compared to historical incidence rates in the VSD population prior to 2009. Sequential probability ratio testing was used to analyze the data on a weekly basis. During the study period, 201,116 children received DTaP-IPV vaccine. Ninety-seven percent of DTaP-IPV recipients also received other vaccines on the same day, typically measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines. There was no statistically significant increased risk of any of the eight pre-specified adverse events among DTaP-IPV recipients when compared to historical incidence rates. In this safety surveillance study of more than 200,000 DTaP-IPV vaccine recipients, there was no evidence of increased risk for any of the pre-specified adverse events monitored. Continued surveillance of DTaP-IPV vaccine safety may be warranted to monitor for rare adverse events, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  10. Relative Contribution of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Adaptive Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Towards the Rational Design of an Improved Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pádraig J.; Allen, Aideen C.; Walsh, Kevin; Misiak, Alicja; Lavelle, Ed C.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells. PMID:23592988

  11. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations.

  12. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certiva® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  13. Safety of a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine when used off-label in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Jackson, Lisa A; Glanz, Jason; Nordin, Jim; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison; Donahue, James; Weintraub, Eric; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Published data on the safety of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in persons aged ≥65 years are limited. This study aims to examine a large cohort of Tdap users ≥65 years for evidence of increased risk of adverse events following vaccination. A matched cohort study design and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design were used. The study population was adults aged ≥65 years who received the Tdap or tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine during 1 January 2006-31 December 2010 at 7 health maintenance organizations in the United States. Seven major groups of prespecified events were identified electronically by diagnostic codes. The study included 119 573 Tdap vaccinees and the same number of Td vaccinees. The results indicated that the risk of the prespecified events following Tdap was comparable to that following Td vaccination in this elderly population. There was a small increased rate of codes suggesting medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap in the SCCS analysis (incidence rate ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.40-1.81]). Although there is a small increased risk of medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap compared to other time periods, it is no more common than that following Td. This study provides empirical safety data suggesting that immunizing adults aged ≥65 years with Tdap to reduce the risk of pertussis in the elderly and their contacts should not have untoward safety consequences.

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta

    2017-01-02

    An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed a similar tolerability and safety profile to Adacel

  15. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  16. Concomitant administration of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japanese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yokokawa, Ruriko; Rong, Han Shi; Kishino, Hiroyuki; Stek, Jon E; Nelson, Margaret; Lawrence, Jody

    2017-06-03

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants. A total of 192 infants 6 to 11 weeks of age randomized to Group 1 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 concomitantly, and Group 2 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 separately. Antibody titer to diphtheria toxin, pertussis antigens (PT and FHA), tetanus toxin, and poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 were measured at 4 to 6 weeks following 3-doses of DTaP-sIPV. Seroprotection rates for all components of DTaP-sIPV were 100% in both groups, and the geometric mean titers for DTaP-sIPV in Group 1 were comparable to Group 2. Incidence of systemic AEs (including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and nasopharyngitis) were lower in Group 1 than in Group 2. All vaccine-related AEs were mild or moderate in intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs, no deaths, and no cases of intussusception during the study. Concomitant administration of DTaP-sIPV and RV5 induced satisfactory immune responses to DTaP-sIPV and acceptable safety profile. The administration of DTaP-sIPV given concomitantly with RV5 is expected to facilitate compliance with the vaccination schedule and improve vaccine coverage in Japanese infants.

  17. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  18. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixtures, expectorants, and suppressants are most often not helpful. These medicines should NOT be used. Outlook (Prognosis) ... childhood immunizations, protects children against pertussis infection. DTaP vaccine can be safely given to infants. Five DTaP ...

  20. Pertussis circulation has increased T-cell immunity during childhood more than a second acellular booster vaccination in Dutch children 9 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Minke Schure

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Here we report the first evaluation of T-cell responses upon a second acellular pertussis booster vaccination in Dutch children at 9 years of age, 5 years after a preschool booster vaccination. Blood samples of children 9 years of age were studied longitudinally until 1 year after the second aP booster and compared with those after the first aP booster in children 4 and 6 years of age from a cross-sectional study. After stimulation with pertussis-vaccine antigens, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine responses were measured and effector memory cells (CCR7-CD45RA- were characterized by 8-colour FACS analysis. The second aP booster vaccination at pre-adolescent age in wP primed individuals did increase pertussis-specific Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. Noticeably, almost all T-cell responses had increased with age and were already high before the booster vaccination at 9 years of age. The enhancement of T-cell immunity during the 5 year following the booster at 4 years of age is probably caused by natural boosting due to the a high circulation of pertussis. However, the incidence of pertussis is high in adolescents and adults who have only received the Dutch wP vaccine during infancy and no booster at 4 years of age. Therefore, an aP booster vaccination at adolescence or later in these populations might improve long-term immunity against pertussis and reduce the transmission to the vulnerable newborns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN64117538.

  1. PROLIFERATION RESPONSES IN PREIMMUNIZED MICE LYMPHOCYTES BY BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS CELL WALL COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohabbati Mobarez; U. Hosseini Donst; A Zavaran Hosseini; B Tabaraie

    2003-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis infects the respiratory tract of the human host and causes whooping cough in children. The nature of immunity against Bordetella pertussis infection and disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate cell mediated immunity in mice immunized with outer membrane component of cell wall, of B. Pertussis.A group of mice were immunized with outer membrane complex (OMC) and killed whole cell (WCV) of B. pertussis, with an interval of 2 weeks. During a per...

  2. Meningococcal Conjugate and Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setse, Rosanna W; Siberry, George K; Moss, William J; Wheeling, John; Bohannon, Beverly A; Dominguez, Kenneth L

    2016-05-01

    The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) were first recommended for adolescents in the US in 2005. The goal of our study was to determine MCV4 and Tdap vaccines coverage among perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected adolescents in 2006 and to compare coverage estimates in our study population to similarly aged healthy youth in 2006. Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected youth in 22 HIV specialty clinics across the US. Among LEGACY participants ≥11 years of age in 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine MCV4, Tdap and MCV4/Tdap vaccine coverage. We compared vaccine coverage among our study population to coverage among similarly aged youth in the 2006 National Immunization Survey for Teens (NIS-Teen Survey). Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between MCV4/Tdap vaccination and mode of HIV transmission. MCV4 and Tdap coverage rates among 326 eligible participants were 31.6% and 28.8%, respectively. Among adolescents 13-17 years of age, MCV4 and Tdap coverage was significantly higher among HIV-infected youth than among youth in the 2006 NIS-Teen Survey (P infected youth were significantly more likely to have received MCV4/Tdap vaccination compared with their behaviorally infected counterparts (adjusted odds ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.7). HIV-infected youth with CD4 cell counts of 200-499 cells/μL were more likely to have had MCV4/Tdap vaccination compared with those with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/μL (adjusted odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 4.3). Participants with plasma HIV RNA viral loads of >400 copies/mL were significantly less likely to have received MCV4/Tdap vaccination (P infected youth was suboptimal but higher than for healthy adolescents in the 2006 NIS

  3. Th1 versus Th2 T cell polarization by whole-cell and acellular childhood pertussis vaccines persists upon re-immunization in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tara; Dillon, Myles B C; da Silva Antunes, Ricardo; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; Crotty, Shane; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of whooping cough among teenagers in the US suggests that the acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine (aP) that became standard in the mid 1990s might be relatively less effective than the whole-bacteria formulation (wP) previously used since the 1950s. To understand this effect, we compared antibody and T cell responses to a booster immunization in subjects who received either the wP or aP vaccine as their initial priming dose in childhood. Antibody responses in wP- and aP-primed donors were similar. Magnitude of T cell responses was higher in aP-primed individuals. Epitope mapping revealed the T cell immunodominance patterns were similar for both vaccines. Further comparison of the ratios of IFNγ and IL-5 revealed that IFNγ strongly dominates the T cell response in wP-primed donors, while IL-5 is dominant in aP primed individuals. Surprisingly, this differential pattern is maintained after booster vaccination, at times from eighteen years to several decades after the original aP/wP priming. These findings suggest that childhood aP versus wP vaccination induces functionally different T cell responses to pertussis that become fixed and are unchanged even upon boosting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with human TLR2: identification of the TLR2-binding domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Zeerleder, Sacha; Mahdavi, Marzieh; van Mierlo, Gerard; Solati, Shabnam; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Aarden, Leucien; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a major adhesion and virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and also a main component of acellular pertussis vaccines. Interaction of FHA with different receptors on human epithelial and immune cells facilitates entrance and colonization of bacteria as well as

  5. Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for use of Tdap among health-care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Broder, Karen R; Cortese, Margaret M; Joyce, M Patricia; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Lee, Grace M; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Cohn, Amanda C; Slade, Barbara A; Iskander, John K; Mijalski, Christina M; Brown, Kristin H; Murphy, Trudy V

    2006-12-15

    On June 10, 2005, a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) formulated for use in adults and adolescents was licensed in the United States for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL, manufactured by sanofi pasteur, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Prelicensure studies demonstrated safety and efficacy, inferred through immunogenicity, against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis when Tdap was administered as a single booster dose to adults. To reduce pertussis morbidity among adults and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria prevention and to reduce the transmission of pertussis to infants and in health-care settings, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that: 1) adults aged 19-64 years should receive a single dose of Tdap to replace tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they received their last dose of Td >or=10 years earlier and they have not previously received Tdap; 2) intervals shorter than 10 years since the last Td may be used for booster protection against pertussis; 3) adults who have or who anticipate having close contact with an infant aged Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). This statement 1) reviews pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria vaccination policy in the United States; 2) describes the clinical features and epidemiology of pertussis among adults; 3) summarizes the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data of Tdap; and 4) presents recommendations for the use of Tdap among adults aged 19-64 years.

  6. Pertussis specific T-cell immunity in Dutch children: Differences after whole-cell versus acellular vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative bacteria of whooping cough. Whooping cough is a highly contagious infection, which is characterized by coughing with whooping and post-tussive vomiting. In particular, infants under 6 months of age who have not been fully vaccinated, are at risk for serious

  7. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time Acellular pertussis vaccines may not prevent colonization (carrying the bacteria in your body without getting ... with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Comparison of the tolerability of an acellular pertussis-containing vaccine given as the fifth booster dose in differently primed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmeren, Jeanet M; Timmer, Sylvana S; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; de Melker, Hester E

    2011-06-10

    In 2005, an acellular pertussis-containing DTP-IPV-Hib vaccine for infants replaced the whole-cell combination vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme of the Netherlands. From 2008 onwards, an increase in local reactions to boosters was seen in an enhanced passive reporting system of adverse events following immunisation. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the difference in tolerability of a DTaP-IPV booster in four-year-old children primed in infancy with either three doses DTaP-IPV-Hib (aP-primed) or three doses of DTwP-IPV-Hib (wP-primed). Parents were asked to report in a questionnaire the local reactions and systemic adverse events that developed within one week after booster administration. Children in the aP-primed group experienced significantly more local reactions (36.1% versus 58.5%; OR 2.7; 95% CI 2.2-3.3) and also more systemic events (11.0% versus 20.6%; OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6-3.0) after the DTaP-IPV booster than wP-primed children. Besides, aP-primed children more often used acetaminophen (13.1% versus 6.7%); were more frequently absent from school, preschool, crèche or other activities (4.2% versus 1.5%), and more often had contact with the healthcare system (4.5% versus 1.6%) within one week after the booster than wP-primed children. The frequency of adverse events after DTaP-IPV booster immunisation in four year old children is higher in children primed with DTaP-IPV-Hib than in children primed with DTwP-IPV-Hib. However, for primary and booster vaccinations together, immunisation with acellular pertussis combination vaccines results in fewer adverse events than vaccination of whole cell combination vaccines. So, both the effectiveness and adverse events needs consideration in the discussion with regard to optimal timing of booster dose of DTaP-IPV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines to children less than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Bernstein, Henry; Blatter, Mark M; Bromberg, Kenneth; Guerra, Fernando; Kennedy, William; Pichichero, Michael; Senders, Shelly D; Trofa, Andrew; Collard, Alix; Sullivan, Diane C; Descamps, Dominique

    2006-09-01

    The availability of a hepatitis A virus vaccine for infant and early childhood immunization could reduce the transmission of hepatitis A virus in the United States. This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a hepatitis A virus vaccine (Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines to children vaccination history. Subjects 11 to 13 months of age received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 243). Subjects aged 15 to 18 months received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 241); or hepatitis A virus vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, and H influenzae type b at month 0 and the second dose of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months later (N = 183); or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b at month 0 and hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 1 and 7 (N = 175). Subjects 23 to 25 months of age received hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 0 and 6 (N = 242). Immune responses were measured at baseline and 30 days after vaccine doses, and solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine, all of the subjects in all of the groups were seropositive. Coadministration of hepatitis A virus vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b vaccines did not impact the immunogenicity of the 3 vaccines, except for the antipertussis toxoid vaccine response, which was slightly decreased. Hepatitis A virus vaccine was well tolerated in children 11 to 25 months of age. The administration of 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine on a 0- and 6-month schedule starting at 11 to 13 months of age or at 15 to 18 months of age was as immunogenic and well tolerated as the administration of 2 doses in children 2 years of age. Immune responses to diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b either given

  10. Bordetella pertussis Strain Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R; Skoff, Tami H; Cunningham, Victoria A; Halse, Tanya A; Tondella, M Lucia

    2016-02-01

    A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.

  11. Decennial administration in young adults of a reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine containing two different concentrations of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Corinne; Theeten, Heidi; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; Sokal, Etienne; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-06-12

    Regular booster vaccination might be necessary throughout life to protect against pertussis infection. Nevertheless the duration of protection after booster vaccination remains unclear. In this study, antibody persistence up to 10 years after previous vaccination of adolescents (N=478) with combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa, Boostrix™, GlaxoSmithKline Belgium) containing 0.5mg, 0.3mg or 0.133mg of aluminium was assessed. The immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of a decennial booster dTpa dose were also investigated. Young adults vaccinated as adolescents in the initial booster study were invited to participate in an assessment of antibody persistence at years 8.5 and 10, and to receive a dTpa booster dose at year 10 with immunogenicity assessment one month later. Those who originally received the 0.5mg or 0.3mg formulations received the same vaccine at year 10. Those in the 0.133mg group received the 0.5mg formulation. Reactogenicity and safety endpoints were captured until 30 days after booster vaccination. Prior to the decennial booster at year 8.5 and year 10, all participants had seroprotective antibodies for diphtheria (ELISA or neutralisation assay) and tetanus. At least 77.8% were seropositive for anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies at year 8.5 and 82.8% at year 10. All participants were seropositive for antibodies for filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin at both time points. The decennial booster dose induced robust increases in antibody GMCs to all antigens. The post-booster anti-PT geometric mean concentration was 82.5EL.U/ml (95%CI 67.0-101.6) and 124.0 (103.5-148.5) in the 0.3mg and 0.5mg groups, respectively. The reactogenicity and safety profile of the decennial booster dose was consistent with the known safety profile of dTpa. No serious adverse events were reported. Decennial booster vaccination with either of the two licensed formulations of dTpa was highly immunogenic and well

  12. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents--A single blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10-15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine.

  13. Predictors of Low Uptake of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Immunization in Privately Insured Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anne M; Layton, J Bradley; Li, Dongmei; Hudgens, Michael G; Boggess, Kim A; McGrath, Leah J; Weber, David J; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    To examine the uptake of prenatal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization among pregnant women in the United States. Using MarketScan data, we conducted a historical cohort study among pregnant women with employer-based commercial insurance in the United States who delivered between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. We examined temporal trends of uptake, predictors of uptake, and timing of Tdap immunization. Among 1,222,384 eligible pregnancies in 1,147,711 women, receipt of prenatal Tdap immunization increased from 0.0% of women who delivered in January 2010 to 9.8% who delivered in October 2012 (the date of the recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Tdap during every pregnancy) to 44.4% who delivered in December 2014. Among women who received Tdap during pregnancy, the majority were immunized between 27 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation per the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation. In multivariable analyses among women who delivered between November 2012 and December 2014, rates of prenatal Tdap immunization were lower for women younger than 25 years of age (eg, 20-24 compared with 30-34 years rate ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.88), with other children (eg, three compared with zero children: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.88), residing in the South compared with the Midwest (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.80-0.82), or with emergency department visits in early pregnancy (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.92-0.95). The proportion of pregnant women who received prenatal Tdap increased with increasing gestational age at birth. By the end of 2014, fewer than half of pregnant women in the United States were receiving prenatal Tdap immunization. Implementation and dissemination strategies are needed to increase Tdap coverage among pregnant women, especially those who are young, have other children, or reside in the South.

  14. Extensive swelling of the limb and systemic symptoms after a fourth dose of acellular pertussis containing vaccines in England in children aged 3-6years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Jo; Waight, Pauline A; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-01-23

    Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib). Post-vaccination symptoms and local reactions were recorded in 7-day diaries or by a telephone follow up if no diary was returned. Local swellings >50mm diameter were reported by 2.2% TdaP/IPV recipients compared with 6.6-11.1% of DTaP/IPV recipients; the corresponding proportions for redness >50mms was 7.0% for TdaP/IPV and 13.3-17.7% for DTaP/IPV recipients. Among the latter, the addition of Hib did not affect the frequency or size of local reactions. Pain at the injection site and systemic symptoms did not differ between the four vaccine groups. A history of atopy was not associated with development of local swelling or redness. A total of 13 children (1.3%) experienced an ESL, three after TdaP/IPV. ESLs resolved without systemic upset within a few days and were usually painless; medical advice was only sought for two children. Parents should be informed about the possible occurrence of an ESL with the pre-school aP-containing booster vaccine but can be reassured that it is a benign and transient condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Licensed pertussis vaccines in the United States. History and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P

    2014-01-01

    The United States switched from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines in the 1990s following global concerns with the safety of the whole cell vaccines. Despite high levels of acellular pertussis vaccine coverage, the United States and other countries are experiencing large pertussis outbreaks. The aim of this article is to describe the historical context which led to acellular pertussis vaccine development, focusing on vaccines currently licensed in the US, and to review evidence that waning protection following licensed acellular pertussis vaccines have been significant factors in the widespread reappearance of pertussis.

  16. Pertussis in children in Bloemfontein, South Africa: A 7-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced immunity after changeover from the whole- cell to the acellular pertussis vaccine, and pathogen adaptation of the B. pertussis populations.[2] The Expanded Programme on. Immunisation in South Africa (SA) changed from using whole-cell.

  17. Licensed pertussis vaccines in the United States: History and current state

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Nicola P

    2014-01-01

    The United States switched from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines in the 1990s following global concerns with the safety of the whole cell vaccines. Despite high levels of acellular pertussis vaccine coverage, the United States and other countries are experiencing large pertussis outbreaks. The aim of this article is to describe the historical context which led to acellular pertussis vaccine development, focusing on vaccines currently licensed in the US, and to review evidence that w...

  18. Identifying long-term memory B-cells in vaccinated children despite waning antibody levels specific for Bordetella pertussis proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Since the 1950s in developed countries pertussis vaccinations are included in the national immunization program. However, antibody levels rapidly wane after both whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccination. Therefore

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccine (Repevax®) followed by two doses of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine (Revaxis®) in adults aged ≥ 40 years not receiving a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccination in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicus, Rolf; Galtier, Florence; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2014-06-30

    The immunogenicity and safety of one dose of Tdap-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) and two doses of Td-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) were assessed in adults who had not received a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. This open-label, multicentre study was conducted in adults aged ≥ 40 years with no diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. Participants received one dose of Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV (0, 1, 6 month schedule). Primary immunogenicity objectives: to demonstrate acceptable seroprotection rates (percentage of participants with antibody titre above threshold) post-dose 3 for diphtheria (≥ 0.1IU/mL by seroneutralization assay [SNA]); tetanus (≥ 0.1IU/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]); and poliomyelitis (≥ 8 1/dil by SNA); and to evaluate the percentage of participants with an antibody concentration ≥ 5EU/mL (by ELISA) for pertussis antigens post-dose 1. Seroprotection rates were acceptable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was >95%. Percentage of participants with basic clinical immunity against diphtheria (≥ 0.01IU/mL) was also assessed. Safety (adverse events [AEs] and serious AEs) was assessed after each dose. Overall, 336 participants were included (mean age: 60.2 years). Post-dose 3 seroprotection rates were: diphtheria, 94.6% (CI 91.5-96.8); tetanus and poliomyelitis, 100% (CI: 98.8-100). Percentage of participants with an antibody titre ≥ 5EU/mL against pertussis antigens was ≥ 95.8% for all five pertussis components. Basic clinical immunity against diphtheria was achieved in 100% (CI: 98.8-100) of participants. AEs were reported more frequently following vaccination with Tdap-IPV (post-dose 1: 65.3%) than with Td-IPV (post-dose 2: 48.3%; post-dose 3: 50.3%). This study highlights the benefits of using Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV in an

  20. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster dose for all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years (preferred at 11 through 12 years) and for those adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not yet received a dose. In October 2010, despite the lack of an approved Tdap vaccine for adults aged 65 years and older, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged 65 years and older be vaccinated with Tdap if in close contact with an infant, and that other adults aged 65 years and older may receive Tdap. In July 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved expanding the age indication for Boostrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) to aged 65 years and older. In February 2012, ACIP recommended Tdap for all adults aged 65 years and older. This recommendation supersedes previous Tdap recommendations regarding adults aged 65 years and older.

  1. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  2. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  3. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

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    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens

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    Takumi Moriuchi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs.

  5. Proteomics-identified Bvg-activated autotransporters protect against bordetella pertussis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Daan; Gouw, Daan de; de Jonge, Marien I; Jonge, Marien I de; Hermans, Peter W M; Wessels, Hans J C T; Zomer, Aldert; Berends, Alinda; Pratt, Catherine; Berbers, Guy A; Mooi, Frits R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease of humans caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis has re-emerged globally. Causes for the re-emergence of pertussis include limited duration of protection conferred by acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptations involve antigenic divergence with vaccine strains, the emergence of strains which show enhanced in vitro expression of a number of virulence-associated genes and of strains that do not express pertactin, an important aP component. Clearly, the identification of more effective B. pertussis vaccine antigens is of utmost importance. To identify novel antigens, we used proteomics to identify B. pertussis proteins regulated by the master virulence regulatory system BvgAS in vitro. Five candidates proteins were selected and it was confirmed that they were also expressed in the lungs of naïve mice seven days after infection. The five proteins were expressed in recombinant form, adjuvanted with alum and used to immunize mice as stand-alone antigens. Subsequent respiratory challenge showed that immunization with the autotransporters Vag8 and SphB1 significantly reduced bacterial load in the lungs. Whilst these antigens induced strong opsonizing antibody responses, we found that none of the tested alum-adjuvanted vaccines - including a three-component aP - reduced bacterial load in the nasopharynx, suggesting that alternative immunological responses may be required for efficient bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx.

  6. Twister mutant mice are defective for otogelin, a component specific to inner ear acellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Marie Christine; Zwaenepoel, Ingrid; Verpy, Elisabeth; Guillaud, Laurent; Elbaz, Colette; Petit, Christine; Panthier, Jean Jacques

    2000-11-01

    Deafness is a common sensory defect in human. Our understanding of the molecular bases of this pathology comes from the study of a few genes that have been identified in human and/or in mice. Indeed, deaf mouse mutants are good models for studying and identifying genes involved in human hereditary hearing loss. Among these mouse mutants, twister was initially reported to have abnormal behavior and thereafter to be deaf. The recessive twister (twt) mutation has been mapped on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 7, homologous to the long arm of human Chr 15 (15q11). Otog, the gene encoding otogelin, a glycoprotein specific to all the acellular membranes of the inner ear, is also localized to mouse Chr 7, but in a region more proximal to the twister mutation, homologous to the short arm of human Chr 11 (11p15) carrying the two deafness loci, DFNB18 and USH1C. Mutant mice resulting from the knock-out of Otog, the Otog(tm1Prs) mice, present deafness and severe imbalance. Although twt had been mapped distally to Otog, these data prompted us to test whether twt could be due to a mutation in the Otog locus. Here, we demonstrate by genetic analysis that twt is actually allelic to Otog(tm1Prs). We further extend the phenotypical analysis of twister mice, documenting the association of a severe vestibular phenotype and moderate to severe form of deafness. Molecular analysis of the Otog gene revealed the absence of detectable expression of Otog in the twister mutant. The molecular and phenotypical description of the twt mouse mutation, Otog(twt), reported herein, highlights the importance of the acellular membranes in the inner ear mechanotransduction process.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine when coadministered with Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in children 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofa, Andrew F; Klein, Nicola P; Paul, Ian M; Michaels, Marian G; Goessler, Mary; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Blatter, Mark

    2011-09-01

    This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. This was an open-labeled, multicenter study with healthy subjects enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) into 3 treatment groups. A total of 394 subjects received the first study vaccinations at 15 months of age. Group HAV (N = 135) received 2 doses of HAV vaccine 6 to 9 months apart. Group HAV+DTaP+Hib (N = 127) received HAV vaccine coadministered with DTaP and Hib vaccines and the second dose of HAV vaccine, 6 to 9 months later. Group DTaP+Hib→HAV (N = 132) received the DTaP and Hib vaccines at 15 months of age, followed by HAV vaccine 30 days later and the second dose of HAV vaccine 7 to 10 months after the DTaP+Hib vaccines. Immune responses were evaluated before the first study vaccination and 30 days after each vaccine dose. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of the HAV vaccine, all subjects in the 3 groups were seropositive. The geometric mean concentration of anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 1625.1 and 1904.4 mIU/mL. Coadministration of the 3 vaccines did not impact immunogenicity of the HAV, DTaP, or Hib vaccines. Vaccines were well tolerated in all groups. A 2-dose schedule of HAV vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to children starting at 15 months of age. Immune responses to the DTaP or Hib vaccines were similar whether they were administered alone or were coadministered with the HAV vaccine.

  8. Delayed BCG vaccination results in minimal alterations in T cell immunogenicity of acellular pertussis and tetanus immunizations in HIV-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakney, Anna K; Tchakoute, Christophe Toukam; Hesseling, Anneke C; Kidzeru, Elvis B; Jones, Christine E; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Sodora, Donald L; Gray, Clive M; Jaspan, Heather B

    2015-09-11

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is effective in preventing disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in children but may also have non-specific benefits, and is thought to improve immunity to unrelated antigens through trained innate immunity. In HIV-infected infants, there is a risk of BCG-associated adverse events. We aimed to explore whether delaying BCG vaccination by 8 weeks, in utero or perinatal HIV infection is excluded, affected T-cell responses to B. pertussis (BP) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Infants were randomized to receive BCG vaccination at birth or 8 weeks of age. At 8 and 14 weeks, T cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine (IL-2, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ) expression was analyzed in response to BP, TT and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antigens. Delaying BCG vaccination did not alter T-cell proliferation to BP or TT antigens. Infants immunized with BCG at birth had higher CD4+ T cell proliferation to SEB at 14 weeks of age (p=0.018). Birth-vaccinated infants had increased CD8+ IL-2 expression in response to BP, but not TT or SEB, at 8 weeks. Infants vaccinated with BCG at 8 weeks had significantly lower IL-13 expression by BP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 14 weeks (p=0.032 and p=0.0035, respectively). There were no observed differences in multifunctional cytokine response to TT, BP or SEB between infants vaccinated with BCG at birth versus 8 weeks of age. Delaying BCG vaccination until 8 weeks of age results in robust T-cellular responses to BP and TT in HIV-exposed infants. NCT02062580. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF PERTACTIN CONTAINING ACELLULAR DPT VACCINES

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    M.V. Fesenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis vaccination with the use of DPT vaccines is a necessary condition for fighting the infection called bordetella pertussis. At the same time, it is known that the use of whole cellular DPT vaccines is accompanied with high incidence of side effects and serious neurological complications, and, as a result, reasonable refuse from injections by the population. Creation of less reactogenic, acellular vaccines would not only permit to decrease the incidence of side effects, but also increase the efficiency of pertussis vaccination. Maximum protective effect is achieved by using threebcomponent vaccines ( 80%, containng pertactin — outer membrane protein b. pertussis. the absence of this antigen in twobcomponent DPT vaccines predetermines their significantly lower efficacy.Key words: children, pertussis, acellular DPT vaccines, pertactin.

  10. The Senegal pertussis trial: safety and surveillance of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, M P; Ndiaye, M; Coll-Seck, A; Simondon, F

    1997-01-01

    In the Senegal pertussis trial, common adverse reactions were actively monitored during the pilot phase II study, while the frequency of severe adverse reactions was monitored as a secondary objective within the phase III efficacy trial. Since the trial was conducted in Niakhar, an area in rural West Africa under intensive surveillance, the safety monitoring during the study was incorporated within the general surveillance system. This was a two-step procedure: detection of a potential reaction by a field worker, followed by confirmation report by a physician. The frequency of severe reactions was low among both pertussis vaccine groups, receiving either the two-component acellular vaccine or the whole-cell vaccine currently used in the Senegal Expanded Programme on immunisation. Among severe reactions, only persistent crying was found to be at a significantly higher rate in the whole-cell group. Common adverse reactions were more frequent in the whole-cell group.

  11. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  12. Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Wilk, Mieszko M.; Han, Wanda G.H.; van Els, Cécile A.C.M.; Mills, Kingston H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Current acellular pertussis vaccines have various shortcomings, which may contribute to their suboptimal efficacy and waning immunity in vaccinated populations. This calls for the development of new pertussis vaccines capable of inducing long-lived protective immunity. Immunization with whole cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection with Bordetella pertussis induce distinct and more protective immune responses when compared with immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, the immune responses induced with whole cell vaccine or after infection can be used as a benchmark for the development of third-generation vaccines against pertussis. Here, we review the literature on the immunology of B. pertussis infection and vaccination and discuss the lessons learned that will help in the design of improved pertussis vaccines. PMID:26347400

  13. Pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekura, R.D.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Functional Studies of Pertussis Toxin Substrates; Effect of Pertussis Toxin on the Hormonal Responsiveness of Different Tissues; Extracellular Adenylate Cyclase of Bordetella pertussis; and GTP-Regulatory Proteins are Introcellular Messagers: A Model for Hormone Action.

  14. Maternal and neonatal vaccination protects newborn baboons from pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfel, Jason M; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-08-15

    The United States is experiencing a pertussis resurgence that resulted in a 60-year high of 48 000 cases in 2012. The majority of hospitalizations and deaths occur in infants too young to be vaccinated. Neonatal and maternal vaccination have been proposed to protect newborns until the first vaccination, currently recommended at 2 months of age. These interventions result in elevated anti-Bordetella pertussis titers, but there have been no studies demonstrating that these measures confer protection. Baboons were vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine at 2 days of age or at 2 and 28 days of age. To model maternal vaccination, adult female baboons primed with acellular pertussis vaccine were boosted in the third trimester of pregnancy. Neonatally vaccinated infants, infants born to vaccinated mothers, and naive infants born to unvaccinated mothers were infected with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Naive infant baboons developed severe disease when challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Baboons receiving acellular pertussis vaccine and infants born to mothers vaccinated at the beginning of their third trimester were protected. Our results demonstrate that neonatal vaccination and maternal vaccination confer protection in the baboon model and support further study of these strategies for protection of newborns from pertussis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Tdap-IPV; Repevax) administered concomitantly versus non-concomitantly with an influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) to adults aged ≥60 years: an open-label, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ulrich; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Baudin, Martine

    2013-03-01

    Annual influenza vaccination provides an opportunity to administer a booster dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Tdap-IPV) to the elderly. This study evaluated immune responses to and safety of the two vaccines administered concomitantly or sequentially to elderly individuals in France and Germany. Individuals aged ≥60 years who had received a diphtheria/tetanus booster within 5-15 years were randomised (1:1) to receive either Tdap-IPV and an inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly (Group 1) or inactivated influenza vaccine then Tdap-IPV 28-35 days later (Group 2). Antibody titres were measured before and 28-35 days after each vaccination. The mean age of randomised individuals (n=954) was 68.8 years. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates (≥0.1 IU/mL for diphtheria/tetanus and ≥8 1/dilution for polio) for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2 for diphtheria (85.4% vs. 87.5%), tetanus (both 100%), polio type 1 (99.8% vs. 100%), polio type 2 (both 100%) and polio type 3 (99.3% vs. 99.8%). Similarly, percentages of individuals with pertussis antibodies ≥5 EU/mL for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2: pertussis toxin (94.3% vs. 98.1%), filamentous haemagglutinin (99.8% vs. 100%), pertactin (97.3% vs. 96.0%), fimbriae 2 and 3 (91.7% vs. 89.5%). Post-vaccination geometric mean titres of anti-influenza haemagglutinin antibodies for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2. Adverse events following administration of Tdap-IPV were similar in both study groups, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Tdap-IPV and inactivated influenza vaccine can be administered concomitantly in the elderly without impairing tolerability or the immune response to either vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Proteomic Characterization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates Associated with a California State Pertussis Outbreak

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    Yulanda M. Williamson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (Bp is the etiologic agent of pertussis (whooping cough, a highly communicable infection. Although pertussis is vaccine preventable, in recent years there has been increased incidence, despite high vaccine coverage. Possible reasons for the rise in cases include the following: Bp strain adaptation, waning vaccine immunity, increased surveillance, and improved clinical diagnostics. A pertussis outbreak impacted California (USA in 2010; children and preadolescents were the most affected but the burden of disease fell mainly on infants. To identify protein biomarkers associated with this pertussis outbreak, we report a whole cellular protein characterization of six Bp isolates plus the pertussis acellular vaccine strain Bp Tohama I (T, utilizing gel-free proteomics-based mass spectrometry (MS. MS/MS tryptic peptide detection and protein database searching combined with western blot analysis revealed three Bp isolates in this study had markedly reduced detection of pertactin (Prn, a subunit of pertussis acellular vaccines. Additionally, antibody affinity capture technologies were implemented using anti-Bp T rabbit polyclonal antisera and whole cellular proteins to identify putative immunogens. Proteome profiling could shed light on pathogenesis and potentially lay the foundation for reduced infection transmission strategies and improved clinical diagnostics.

  17. Effect of Prepregnancy Pertussis Vaccination in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Kirsten; Tran, Thao Mai Phuong; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2017-06-15

    Maternal antibodies to pertussis can hamper infant immune responses to pertussis vaccines. The effect a maternal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster between 2 consecutive pregnancies is investigated. A prospective study was conducted in Belgium during 2008-2014 on the kinetics of maternal pertussis antibodies in unvaccinated women and their infants (group A; 86 mother-infant pairs) and in siblings born after the women received Tdap vaccine (group B; 58 mother-infant pairs). Levels of antibody to pertussis toxin, antibody to filamentous hemagglutinin, and antibody to pertactin were measured in maternal blood before and after vaccination and at both deliveries, in cord blood from both siblings, and in infants before and after they received a priming series of acellular pertussis containing vaccines. Levels of pertussis antibodies in all group B siblings at birth were significantly higher than those in their siblings at birth, even as the interval since maternal vaccination increased. Blunting of the infant pertussis vaccine response was detected in group B siblings. We estimated the maximum interval between repeat Tdap vaccine doses in adult women that would yield a beneficial effect for the consecutive infant. Prepregnancy Tdap vaccination significantly increases maternal antibody concentrations in consecutive infants. However, similar to the effect of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, immune responses of later-born infants born to mothers who received a prepregnancy immunization, are blunted.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV) compared to separate administration of standalone DTaP and IPV vaccines: a randomized, controlled study in infants in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Young; Hwang, Hui Sung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chung, Eun Hee; Park, Su Eun; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Chang, Jin Keun; Guitton, Fabrice; Ortiz, Esteban; Kang, Jin Han

    2011-02-11

    This randomized trial enrolled 442 infants in the Republic of Korea to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV; Tetraxim™) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age compared with DTaP and IPV vaccines given separately. Immunogenicity was high in both groups; seroprotection and seroconversion rates of the combined vaccine (Group A) were non-inferior to the control vaccines (Group B). All subjects were seroprotected against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (≥ 81/dil) and anti-diphtheria (≥ 0.01 IU/mL); 99.0% were seroprotected against tetanus (≥ 0.1 IU/mL). At least 93.6% had anti-diphtheria antibody titers ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Anti-pertussis toxoid (PT) and anti-filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) seroconversion (≥ 4-fold increase in antibody titer) rates were 96.6% and 94.4% for Group A, 92.2% and 78.4% for Group B. Most solicited reactions occurred within 4 days of vaccination, resolved within 3 days and were mild. Severe solicited reactions occurred after ≤ 0.5% of doses in Group A and ≤ 0.9% in Group B. No withdrawals occurred because of adverse events. The DTaP-IPV combined vaccine given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age was well tolerated; immunogenicity was similar to the control vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... whooping cough); when you have symptoms of a cold and have been exposed to someone with pertussis ...

  20. Pertussis and Rotavirus Vaccines - Controversies and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Nabaneeta; Verma, Sanjay

    2017-06-16

    Pertussis and rotavirus vaccines have been the subject of several controversies over the years. In this paper the authors discuss facts and myths behind these controversies and also suggest solutions to overcome some limitations of these vaccines. The whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wPV) came into disrepute due to the associated adverse reactions, resulting in its replacement by acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) in industrialized nations in 1990s. Although wPV is known to have more side effects; but they are usually minor. Whole-cell pertussis containing vaccine is being used safely in the National Immunization programme in India from many years. Another controversy erupted during 2009-2010, when there were reports of resurgence of pertussis cases among adolescents and adults, from developed nations. Present literature review raises doubts about long term protection offered by aPV, when compared with wPV. In spite of prevailing controversy, acellular pertussis containing vaccines should be acceptable, if timely delivery of primary and booster doses is ensured; including vaccination of adolescents and pregnant women. Initial rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn from the market because of increased risk of intussusception. Although three new generation rotavirus vaccines are currently available for use in India, but doubts about their efficacy, long term protection and safety still exists. Present literature review found them to be safe and moderately efficacious because of reasonable good cross protection. Even a moderately efficacious vaccine like rotavirus vaccine could significantly improve the outcome if disease burden is high. Therefore, it is being included in National Immunization Programme of India.

  1. The role of Toll-like receptor-4 in pertussis vaccine-induced immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mooi Frits R; Dormans Jan AMA; Stenger Rachel M; Gremmer Eric R; Banus Sander; Kimman Tjeerd G; Vandebriel Rob J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis is an important causative agent of pertussis, an infectious disease of the respiratory tract. After introduction of whole-cell vaccines (wP) in the 1950's, pertussis incidence has decreased significantly. Because wP were found to be reactogenic, in most developed countries they have been replaced by acellular vaccines (aP). We have previously shown a role for Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) in pertussis-infected mice and the per...

  2. Update on pertussis and pertussis immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yun Hong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory tract disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection. The clinical manifestation of this infection can be severe enough to cause death. Although pertussis has been supposed to be a vaccine-preventable disease ever since the widespread vaccination of children against pertussis was started, since the 1990s, cases of pertussis and related fatalities are on the rise, especially in countries with high vaccination coverage. In Korea, there have been no deaths due to pertussis since 1990, and the vaccination rate continues to be approximately 94%. However, the number of pertussis cases reported to the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention has tended to increase in the 2000s, and in 2009, there was an obvious increase in the number of pertussis cases reported. This review aims to present the latest information about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pertussis.

  3. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-03-04

    We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  4. The importance of Bordetella pertussis strains which do not produce virulence factors in the epidemiology of pertussis

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    Maciej Polak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis strains, which have lost the ability to produce antigens, such as pertactin - Prn, pertussis toxin - Ptx, filamentous haemagglutinin - FHA, fimbriae type 2 and 3 - Fim 2 and 3, tracheal colonization factor - TcfA, have recently been isolated in countries with a high vaccination coverage. The emergence of such isolates might have resulted from B. pertussis natural evolution course or adaptive mechanisms, allowing increased circulation of the pathogen in vaccinated populations. So far, the majority of described mutants were deficient in the Prn production. Prn deficient isolates were found in countries which use acellular pertussis vaccines (aP in routine immunization programmes. The increase of frequency of Prn¯ strains isolation was correlated with the period of routine vaccination with aP vaccines. In most countries, the spread of these isolates has resulted from independent mutations rather than from the expansion of a single clone. Prn¯ isolates were collected from patients showing typical clinical symptoms of pertussis found for Prn+ strains. Results of in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Prn¯, Ptx¯ and FHA¯ isolates retain cytotoxic properties, and besides Ptx¯ isolates, were lethal in intranasally infected mice. Further explanation of the impact of antigen deficiencies on virulence and transmission of B. pertussis in the context of the continuous increase of pertussis incidence is necessary to develop a new, optimized strategy of pertussis prevention.

  5. Pertussis and influenza immunisation during pregnancy: a landscape review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Edwards, Kathryn M; Scheifele, David W; Halperin, Scott A

    2017-07-01

    Immunisation during pregnancy is a relatively new strategy, and is currently limited to tetanus, pertussis, and influenza vaccines. None of these vaccines were developed specifically for use in pregnancy, but they provide an effective method of protecting mothers and young infants. In response to increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality among young infants, several countries have recommended universal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis immunisation during pregnancy. Similarly, many countries recommend influenza immunisation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of disease for mother and infant. Although scientific evidence to support maternal immunisation against pertussis and influenza is rapidly accumulating, important knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed by future research, which we have highlighted in this Series paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

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    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (presponses and may help to guide rational vaccine development by the objective description of a clinically relevant immune response that confers protection against infectious pathogens.

  7. Construction of Bordetella pertussis strains with enhanced production of genetically-inactivated Pertussis Toxin and Pertactin by unmarked allelic exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buasri Wasin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acellular Pertussis vaccines against whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis present a much-improved safety profile compared to the original vaccine of killed whole cells. The principal antigen of acellular Pertussis vaccine, Pertussis Toxin (PT, must be chemically inactivated to obtain the corresponding toxoid (PTd. This process, however, results in extensive denaturation of the antigen. The development of acellular Pertussis vaccines containing PTd or recombinant PT (rPT with inactivated S1, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA, and Pertactin (PRN has shown that the yield of PRN was limiting, whereas FHA was overproduced. To improve antigen yields and process economics, we have constructed strains of Bordetella pertussis that produce enhanced levels of both rPT and PRN. Results Three recombinant strains of Bordetella pertussis were obtained by homologous recombination using an allelic exchange vector, pSS4245. In the first construct, the segment encoding PT subunit S1 was replaced by two mutations (R9K and E129G that removed PT toxicity and Bp-WWC strain was obtained. In the second construct, a second copy of the whole cluster of PT structural genes containing the above mutations was inserted elsewhere into the chromosome of Bp-WWC and the Bp-WWD strain was obtained. This strain generated increased amounts of rPT (3.77 ± 0.53 μg/mL compared to Bp-WWC (2.61 ± 0.16 μg/mL and wild type strain (2.2 μg/mL. In the third construct, a second copy of the prn gene was inserted into the chromosome of Bp-WWD to obtain Bp-WWE. Strain Bp-WWE produced PRN at 4.18 ± 1.02 μg/mL in the cell extract which was about two-fold higher than Bp-WWC (2.48 ± 0.10 μg/mL and Bp-WWD (2.31 ± 0.17 μg/mL. Purified PTd from Bp-WWD at 0.8-1.6 μg/well did not show any toxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell whereas purified PT from WT demonstrated a cell clustering endpoint at 2.6 pg/well. Conclusions We have constructed Bordetella

  8. A pertussis outbreak among daycare children in Northern Israel: who gets sick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwald, Ori; Bamberger, Ellen S; Rubin, Lisa; Gershtein, Rosa; Srugo, Isaac

    2010-05-01

    An outbreak of pertussis occurred in a daycare center with 87.5% vaccination coverage. To assess the effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccine and prevention of pertussis after chemoprophylaxis with azithromycin. We studied 31 daycare children aged 3-5.5 years exposed to a child with pertussis. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for Bordetella pertussis culture and polymerase chain reaction initially, and at days 21 and 60 of follow-up, in cases exhibiting symptoms. Of the 31 daycare children 6 (19%) tested positive for 8. pertussis by PCR, 4 of whom had not been vaccinated against the disease. Of the two vaccinated children who contracted pertussis, one had milder symptoms and the other was asymptomatic. The incidence of pertussis was significantly lower in the vaccinated group (2/27) than in the unvaccinated group (4/4) (P = 0.000), with efficacy of the vaccine calculated to be 92.5%. Azithromycin chemoprophylaxis was taken only by 14 of the 25 exposed children (56%). On day 21 follow-up, there was no further laboratory-diagnosed B. pertussis cases in any of the exposed children, regardless of whether or not chemoprophylaxis was taken. Based o the children's clinical manifestations and PCR findings a pertussis outbreak had occurred in the daycare center studied. Our findings support the importance of pertussis vaccination since all the unvaccinated children in the daycare center contracted the infection.

  9. T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Cassone, Antonio; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2015-10-01

    The recent immunological investigations, stemming from the studies performed in the nineties within the clinical trials of the acellular pertussis vaccines, have highlighted the important role played by T-cell immunity to pertussis in humans. These studies largely confirmed earlier investigations in the murine respiratory infection models that humoral immunity alone is not sufficient to confer protection against Bordetella pertussis infection and that T-cell immunity is required. Over the last years, knowledge of T-cell immune response to B. pertussis has expanded broadly, taking advantage of the general progress in the understanding of anti-bacterial immunity and of refinements in methods to approach immunological investigations. In particular, experimental models of B. pertussis infection highlighted the cooperative role played by T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells for protection. Furthermore, the new baboon experimental model suggested a plausible explanation for the differences observed in the strength and persistence of protective immunity induced by the acellular or whole-cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection in humans, contributing to explain the upsurge of recent pertussis outbreaks. Despite the progress, open questions remain, the answer to them will possibly provide better tools to fight one of the hardest-to-control vaccine preventable disease. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Preventing Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grand- parent. Many adults who got the pertussis vaccine as a child have lost protection against pertussis and are able to get the infection again. All teenagers and adults, especially those who are often ... of the tetanus vaccine that also has the pertussis vaccine in the ...

  11. Bordetella pertussis transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are Gram negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are gene...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Cambodia determined by direct genotyping of clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Takumi; Vichit, Ork; Vutthikol, Yong; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Samnang, Chham; Toda, Kohei; Grabovac, Varja; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine the genotypes of circulating Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, in Cambodia by direct molecular typing of clinical specimens. DNA extracts from nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from 82 pertussis patients in 2008-2016 were analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). B. pertussis virulence-associated allelic genes (ptxA, prn, and fim3) and the pertussis toxin promoter ptxP were also investigated by DNA sequence-based typing. Forty-four DNA extracts (54%) yielded a complete MLVA profile, and these were sorted into 8 MLVA types (MT18, MT26, MT27, MT29, MT43, MT72, MT95, and MT200). MT27 and MT29, which are common in developed countries, were the predominant strain types (total 73%). The predominant profile of virulence-associated allelic genes was the combination of ptxP3/ptxA1/prn2/fim3A (48%). MT27 strains were detected during the entire study period, whereas MT29 strains were only found in 2014-2016. The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV) has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between mucosal immunity, nasopharyngeal carriage, asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Christopher Gill

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important. In this synthesis, we argue that sterilizing mucosal immunity that blocks or abbreviates the duration of nasopharyngeal carriage of Bordetella pertussis and impedes person-to-person transmission (including between asymptomatically infected individuals is a critical factor in this dynamic. Moreover, we argue that the ability to induce such mucosal immunity is fundamentally what distinguishes whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and may be pivotal to understanding much of the resurgence of this disease in many countries that adopted acellular vaccines. Additionally, we offer the hypothesis that observed herd effects generated by acellular vaccines may reflect a modification of disease presentation leading to reduced potential for transmission by those already infected, as opposed to inducing resistance to infection among those who have been exposed.

  14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, A. van der; Schellekens, J.F.; Mooi, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics,

  15. [Antigenic variability of Bordetella pertussis strains isolated in 1967-2010 in the Czech Republic--possible explanation for the rise in cases of pertussis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadilová, J; Lžičařová, D; Musílek, M; Křížová, P; Fabiánová, K

    2015-09-01

    Comparison of antigenic structures of Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) strains isolated from 1967 to 2010 in the Czech Republic. Seventy strains of B. pertussis were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Pertussis and Diphtheria within the surveillance of pertussis from all over the Czech Republic (CR) between 1967 and 2010. To study the strains, the analysis was performed of the genome sequences encoding the surface immunogenic structures--the pertussis toxin S1 subunit gene (ptxA), pertactin gene region 1 (prnA), type 3 fimbriae gene (fim3)--and pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) responsible for the regulation of the production of pertussis toxin. For the study set of B. pertussis strains, the sequencing analysis revealed changes in all genomic regions studied. The isolates from three periods differ in the allelic profile. In period I (19671978) with the use of whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP), the following two profiles were the most common: ptxP(1), ptxA(2), prnA(1), fim3(1) and ptxP(1), ptxA(1), prnA(3), fim3(1). In period 2 (19902007) with the switch to acellular pertussis vaccine (aP), the most common profile was: ptxP(3), ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(2). Period 3 (20082010) with the use of aP was characterized by the predominance of the following two profiles which had never been found in period 1: ptxP(3), ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(2) and ptxP(3) ptxA(1), prnA(2), fim3(1). Sequencing of the genomic regions ptxP, ptxA, prnA, and fim3 of B. pertussis strains isolated in the CR between 1967 and 2010 confirmed changes in the allelic variants of these regions. The incidence of strains carrying the new allelic variants was increasing after 1995 at the expense of those carrying the original variants. The study results can be interpreted as a partial genetic escape of pathogenic strains of B. pertussis beyond the reach of the pertussis vaccines.

  16. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Pertussis as health care workers infectious disease--the clinical case with a commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Ernest; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the changing epidemiological situation of pertussis observed in recent years, with a focus on the shift of cases from young children to older age groups, teenagers and adults. Whooping cough may affect healthcare workers who belong to a high-risk group and cause hospital infections. We present a case report of pertussis in a nurse and the recommended prophylactic measures in healthcare workers. The current definition and diagnosis of pertussis is also discussed. The clinical course of pertussis can be significantly alleviated and highly non-specific, with no typical coughing and vomiting in people vaccinated against whooping cough a few years earlier. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough lasting more than fourteen days. Improvement of the epidemiological situation requires, besides immunization of infants, regular and universal booster immunization for adolescents and adults. Vaccinations for health care workers of neonatal and pediatric wards are recommended in the National Program of Immunization for 2013. It seems that booster vaccination of health care workers with a triple vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (dTpa) of the reduced quantity of antigens, particularly of health workers caring for infants, children and the elderly, may be the most effective way to reduce the risk of pertussis transmission in the health care environment.

  18. Pertussis as health care workers infectious disease – The clinical case with a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kuchar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the changing epidemiological situation of pertussis observed in recent years, with a focus on the shift of cases from young children to older age groups, teenagers and adults. Whooping cough may affect healthcare workers who belong to a high-risk group and cause hospital infections. We present a case report of pertussis in a nurse and the recommended prophylactic measures in healthcare workers. The current definition and diagnosis of pertussis is also discussed. The clinical course of pertussis can be significantly alleviated and highly non-specific, with no typical coughing and vomiting in people vaccinated against whooping cough a few years earlier. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough lasting more than fourteen days. Improvement of the epidemiological situation requires, besides immunization of infants, regular and universal booster immunization for adolescents and adults. Vaccinations for health care workers of neonatal and pediatric wards are recommended in the National Program of Immunization for 2013. It seems that booster vaccination of health care workers with a triple vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (dTpa of the reduced quantity of antigens, particularly of health workers caring for infants, children and the elderly, may be the most effective way to reduce the risk of pertussis transmission in the health care environment. Med Pr 2013;64(5:731–739

  19. Characteristics of pertussis outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain, 1997 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Inma; Broner, Sonia; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Godoy, Pere; Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Company, Maria; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Group of Catalonia, the Pertussis Working

    2014-01-01

    In Catalonia, pertussis outbreaks must be reported to the Department of Health. This study analyzed pertussis outbreaks between 1997 and 2010 in general and according to the characteristics of the index cases. The outbreak rate, hospitalization rate and incidence of associated cases and their 95%CI were calculated. Index cases were classified in two groups according to age (<15 years and ≥15 years) and the vaccine type received: whole cell vaccine (DTwP) or acellular vaccine (DTaP). During the study period, 230 outbreaks were reported. The outbreak rate was 2.43 × 10−6 persons-year, and outbreaks ranged from 2 to 32 cases, with a median duration of 18 days. There were 771 associated cases, with an incidence rate of 0.8 × 10−5 persons-year. After classifying outbreaks according to the age of the index case, 126 outbreaks (1.3 × 10−6 persons-year) had an index case aged <15 y and 87 (0.87 × 10−6 person-year) had an index case aged ≥15 y (RR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.10–1.90; P = 0.007). Between 2003 and 2010, after the introduction of the acellular vaccine, the index case was vaccinated with DTwP vaccine in 25 outbreaks (0.43 × 10−6 persons-year) and with DTaP vaccine in 32 outbreaks (0.55 × 10−6 person-year) (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.46–1.31; P = 0.35). Of cases, 37.2% were correctly vaccinated, suggesting waning immunity of pertussis vaccine protection and endogenous circulation of pertussis. A greater number of outbreaks had an index case aged <15 y. No changes in the disease incidence, associated cases and hospitalization rate were observed after the introduction of DTaP. PMID:25483541

  20. Characteristics of pertussis outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain, 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Inma; Broner, Sonia; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Godoy, Pere; Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Company, Maria; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Group Of Catalonia, The Pertussis Working

    2015-01-01

    In Catalonia, pertussis outbreaks must be reported to the Department of Health. This study analyzed pertussis outbreaks between 1997 and 2010 in general and according to the characteristics of the index cases. The outbreak rate, hospitalization rate and incidence of associated cases and their 95%CI were calculated. Index cases were classified in two groups according to age (<15 years and ≥15 years) and the vaccine type received: whole cell vaccine (DTwP) or acellular vaccine (DTaP). During the study period, 230 outbreaks were reported. The outbreak rate was 2.43 × 10(-6) persons-year, and outbreaks ranged from 2 to 32 cases, with a median duration of 18 days. There were 771 associated cases, with an incidence rate of 0.8 × 10(-5) persons-year.   After classifying outbreaks according to the age of the index case, 126 outbreaks (1.3 × 10(-6) persons-year) had an index case aged <15 y and 87 (0.87 × 10(-6) person-year) had an index case aged ≥15 y (RR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.10-1.90; P = 0.007). Between 2003 and 2010, after the introduction of the acellular vaccine, the index case was vaccinated with DTwP vaccine in 25 outbreaks (0.43 × 10(-6) persons-year) and with DTaP vaccine in 32 outbreaks (0.55 × 10(-6) person-year) (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.46-1.31; P = 0.35). Of cases, 37.2% were correctly vaccinated, suggesting waning immunity of pertussis vaccine protection and endogenous circulation of pertussis. A greater number of outbreaks had an index case aged <15 y. No changes in the disease incidence, associated cases and hospitalization rate were observed after the introduction of DTaP.

  1. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  2. Assessing the Evidence for Maternal Pertussis Immunization: A Report From the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Symposium on Pertussis Infant Disease Burden in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Duclos, Philippe; McIntyre, Peter; Lewis, Kristen D C; Van Damme, Pierre; O'Brien, Katherine L; Klugman, Keith P

    2016-12-01

    Implementation of effective interventions has halved maternal and child mortality over the past 2 decades, but less progress has been made in reducing neonatal mortality. Almost 45% of under-5 global mortality now occurs in infants <1 month of age, with approximately 86% of neonatal deaths occurring in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). As an estimated 23% of neonatal deaths globally are due to infectious causes, maternal immunization (MI) is one intervention that may reduce mortality in the first few months of life, when direct protection often relies on passively transmitted maternal antibodies. Despite all countries including pertussis-containing vaccines in their routine childhood immunization schedules, supported through the Expanded Programme on Immunization, pertussis continues to circulate globally. Although based on limited robust epidemiologic data, current estimates derived from modeling implicate pertussis in 1% of under-5 mortality, with infants too young to be vaccinated at highest risk of death. Pertussis MI programs have proven effective in reducing infant pertussis mortality in high-income countries using tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines in their maternal and infant programs; however, these vaccines are cost-prohibitive for routine use in LMICs. The reach of antenatal care programs to deliver maternal pertussis vaccines, particularly with respect to infants at greatest risk of pertussis, needs to be further evaluated. Recognizing that decisions on the potential impact of pertussis MI in LMICs need, as a first step, robust contemporary mortality data for early infant pertussis, a symposium of global key experts was held. The symposium reviewed current evidence and identified knowledge gaps with respect to the infant pertussis disease burden in LMICs, and discussed proposed strategies to assess the potential impact of pertussis MI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases

  3. Bordetella Pertussis Toxin does not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Christina; Spreitzer, Ingo; Becker, Bjoern; Loeschner, Bettina; Rosskopf, Ute; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Schwanig, Michael; Schneider, Christian K; Lieb, Bernhard; Montag, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Pertussis Toxin (PTx) is one of the most important virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis, the cause of whooping cough. Therefore, the inactivated toxin is an obligatory constituent of acellular pertussis vaccines. It is described in the literature that both native PTx and recombinant Pertussis Toxin (PTg) activate human monocytes whereas others report an inhibition of mammalian monocytes during pertussis infection. B. pertussis, as a Gram-negative bacterium, harbours naturally lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin), one of the strongest stimulators of monocytes. The latter is triggered via the interaction of endotoxin with inter alia the surface receptor CD14. Consequently, it is necessary to consider a potential contamination of Pertussis Toxin preparations with LPS. First, we determined the LPS content in different preparations of PTx and PTg. All preparations examined were contaminated with LPS; therefore, possible PTx- and PTg-driven monocyte activation independently of LPS was investigated. To meet these aims, we examined monocyte response to PTx and PTg while blocking the LPS receptor CD14 with a specific monoclonal antibody (anti-CD14 mAb). In addition, all toxin preparations examined underwent an LPS depletion. Our results show that it is contaminating LPS, not Pertussis Toxin, which activates human monocytes. Blocking the CD14 receptor prevents Pertussis Toxin-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes. The depletion of LPS from Pertussis Toxin leads to the same effect. Additionally, the PTx toxicity after LPS depletion procedure was confirmed by animal tests. In contrast, the original Pertussis Toxin preparations not treated as mentioned above generate strong monocyte activation. The results in this publication allow the conclusion that purified Pertussis Toxin preparations do not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human whole blood.

  4. Comparative Epidemiologic Characteristics of Pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich; André, Philippe; Chlibek, Roman; Kristufkova, Zuzana; Kutsar, Kuulo; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Petrović, Vladimir; Prymula, Roman; Usonis, Vytautas; Zavadska, Dace

    2016-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey of the annual incidence of pertussis reported from 2000 to 2013 in ten Central and Eastern European countries to ascertain whether increased pertussis reports in some countries share common underlying drivers or whether there are specific features in each country. The annual incidence of pertussis in the participating countries was obtained from relevant government institutions and/or national surveillance systems. We reviewed the changes in the pertussis incidence rates in each country to explore differences and/or similarities between countries in relation to pertussis surveillance; case definitions for detection and confirmation of pertussis; incidence and number of cases of pertussis by year, overall and by age group; population by year, overall and by age group; pertussis immunization schedule and coverage, and switch from whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP) to acellular pertussis vaccines (aP). There was heterogeneity in the reported annual incidence rates and trends observed across countries. Reported pertussis incidence rates varied considerably, ranging from 0.01 to 96 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates generally reported in Estonia and the lowest in Hungary and Serbia. The greatest burden appears for the most part in infants (<1 year) in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, and Serbia, but not in the other participating countries where the burden may have shifted to older children, though surveillance of adults may be inappropriate. There was no consistent pattern associated with the switch from wP to aP vaccines on reported pertussis incidence rates. The heterogeneity in reported data may be related to a number of factors including surveillance system characteristics or capabilities, different case definitions, type of pertussis confirmation tests used, public awareness of the disease, as well as real differences in the magnitude of the disease, or a combination of these factors. Our study highlights the

  5. Antibody response patterns to Bordetella pertussis antigens in vaccinated (primed) and unvaccinated (unprimed) young children with pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, James D; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O

    2010-05-01

    In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany

  6. Use of a Toxin Neutralization Assay To Characterize the Serologic Response to Adenylate Cyclase Toxin after Infection with Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C; Gray, Mary C; Warfel, Jason M; Merkel, Tod J; Hewlett, Erik L

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is an essential virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, and antibodies to ACT protect against B. pertussis infection in mice. The toxin is therefore a strong candidate antigen for addition to future acellular pertussis vaccines. In order to characterize the functionality of the immunologic response to ACT after infection, we developed an assay for testing the ability of serum samples from subjects infected with B. pertussis to neutralize ACT-induced cytotoxicity in J774 macrophage cells. Baboons develop neutralizing anti-ACT antibodies following infection with B. pertussis, and all sera from baboons with positive anti-ACT IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results neutralized ACT cytotoxicity. The toxin neutralization assay (TNA) was positive in some baboon sera in which ELISA remained negative. Of serum samples obtained from humans diagnosed with pertussis by PCR, anti-ACT IgG ELISA was positive in 72%, and TNA was positive in 83%. All samples positive for anti-ACT IgG ELISA were positive by TNA, and none of the samples from humans without pertussis neutralized toxin activity. These findings indicate that antibodies to ACT generated following infection with B. pertussis consistently neutralize toxin-induced cytotoxicity and that TNA can be used to improve understanding of the immunologic response to ACT after infection or vaccination. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Pertussis immunisation and control in England and Wales, 1957 to 2012: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, G; Gupta, S; Campbell, H

    2013-09-19

    This review summarises the epidemiology and control of pertussis in England and Wales since the introduction of routine immunisation and considers the implications for future control. Routine infant immunisation with a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine was introduced in 1957 and had a marked impact on the overall disease burden. Following a fall in vaccine coverage during the 1970s and 80s linked to a safety scare with wP vaccine, there was an extended period of high coverage and pertussis incidence fell dramatically. Incidence continued to decrease with the introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine in the pre-school booster in November 2001 and in the primary United Kingdom (UK) schedule in September 2004 but has increased since July 2011. In response to a high rate of pertussis in infants, a temporary vaccination programme for pregnant women was introduced in October 2012. The key aim of the programme is to protect vulnerable infants from birth in the first months of life, before they can be fully protected by routine infant immunisation. A review of the UK adolescent immunisation programme is currently ongoing and the inclusion of a pertussis booster is being considered.

  8. Cloning of Bordetella pertussis putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin binding protein (LivJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu Emine Tefon

    2017-04-01

    Whooping cough also known as pertussis is a contagious acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by Bordetella pertussis. It is known that this disease may be fatal especially in infants and recently, the number of pertussis cases has been increased. Despite the fact that there are numbers of acellular vaccines on the market, the current acellular vaccine compositions are inadequate for providing sustainable immunity and avoiding subclinical disease cases. Hence, exploring novel proteins with high immune protective capacities is essential to enhance the clinical efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, genes of selected immunogenic proteins via -omics studies, namely Putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin Binding Protein (LivJ) were first cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and transformed to into E. coli DH5α cells and then cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+) and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to express the proteins.

  9. A randomised controlled study with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines in combination with regular DT-IPV vaccine and a new poliomyelitis (IPV vero) component in children 4 years of age in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbers GAM; Lafeber AB; Labadie J; Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Bolscher DJA; Plantinga AD; LVO; Stichting Thuiszorg Oost-Veluwe

    1999-01-01

    In deze veldproef is de immunogeniteit en de reactogeniteit van 3 verschillende ACVAs en WCV van het RIVM onderzocht, gecombineerd met DTP toegediend als booster bij 4-jarige kinderen. Bij deze kinderen is tevens de immuunrespons op IPVvero (geproduceerd op Vero cellen) vergeleken met het reguliere

  10. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  11. Pertussis and Pertussis like Illness: Pediatric Experience in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maani, Amal; Al Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Nazir, Hanan Fawzi; Omar, Heba; Al Jardani, Amina; Al Muharrmi, Zakariya; Wali, Yasser

    2017-09-01

    A resurgence of pertussis or whooping cough has been observed worldwide despite broad vaccination coverage. Pertussis like illness (PLI) refers to a clinical syndrome compatible with pertussis infection but lacking laboratory confirmation or an epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Our study aimed to estimate the contribution of Bordetella pertussis infection and identifying predictors of its diagnosis in a cohort of children with PLI. Demographic and clinical information were retrospectively collected from the medical records of children Oman from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. The laboratory data of all cases were reviewed and confirmed cases of pertussis were identified, analyzed, and compared with non-confirmed cases. A total of 131 patients were enrolled in this study. The majority (95.4% [125/131]) were infants. Only 54.1% (71/131) of admitted children with PLI were tested for pertussis. The incidence of pertussis infection among the tested group was 16.9% (12/71) with a 95% confidence interval 8.2-25.6. Severe illness occurred in 56.4% (74/131) of patients, and six were confirmed to have pertussis. Pediatric intensive care unit admission was required for one confirmed case of pertussis and eight cases from the PLI group (three were negative for pertussis, and five were not tested). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that a white blood cell count 3 23.5 × 109/L had 96.6% specificity and lymphocytes 3 17 × 109/L had 98.3% specificity. Taking into consideration that the number tested for pertussis was limited, the incidence of pertussis was 16.9% (12 out of 71 patients). Lymphocytosis can be used as a reliable predictor for the diagnosis of pertussis especially in the absence of specific confirmatory tests or until their results are available.

  12. Pertussis: Disease Villain!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about pertussis, or whooping cough-what it is and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  13. Effects of crosslinking degree of an acellular biological tissue on its tissue regeneration pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huang-Chien; Chang, Yen; Hsu, Cheng-Kuo; Lee, Meng-Horng; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2004-08-01

    It was reported that acellular biological tissues can provide a natural microenvironment for host cell migration and may be used as a scaffold for tissue regeneration. To reduce antigenicity, biological tissues have to be fixed with a crosslinking agent before implantation. As a tissue-engineering scaffold, it is speculated that the crosslinking degree of an acellular tissue may affect its tissue regeneration pattern. In the study, a cell extraction process was employed to remove the cellular components from bovine pericardia. The acellular tissues then were fixed with genipin at various known concentrations to obtain varying degrees of crosslinking. It was shown in the in vitro degradation study that after fixing with genipin, the resistance against enzymatic degradation of the acellular tissue increased significantly with increasing its crosslinking degree. In the in vivo subcutaneous study, it was found that cells (inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and red blood cells) were able to infiltrate into acellular tissues. Generally, the depth of cell infiltration into the acellular tissue decreased with increasing its crosslinking degree. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by degradation of the acellular tissue. Due to early degradation, no tissue regeneration was observed within fresh (without crosslinking) and the 30%-degree-crosslinking acellular tissues. This is because the scaffolds provided by these two samples were already completely degraded before the infiltrated cells began to secrete their own extracellular matrix. In contrast, tissue regeneration (fibroblasts, neo-collagen fibrils, and neo-capillaries) was observed for the 60%- and 95%-degree-crosslinking acellular tissues by the histological examination, immunohistological staining, transmission electron microscopy, and denaturation temperature measurement. The 95%-degree-crosslinking acellular tissue was more resistant against enzymatic degradation than its 60%-degree

  14. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla los Sonidos de la Tos ... know has hbv/hcv standard precautions Silence the Sounds of Pertussis spokespeople who we are Your Choice! ...

  15. Pertussis ainda mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Freitas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A tosse convulsa é uma doença respiratória altamente infecciosa e endémica em todo o mundo, causada pela bactéria Bordetella pertussis.Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de um lactente de 36 dias, admitido no serviço de urgência por dificuldade respiratória e tosse cianosante, internado com suspeita de tosse convulsa complicada por pneumonia bacteriana, tendo iniciado antibioterapia de largo espectro. Apresentava na admissão hiperleucocitose e trombocitose. Foi transferido no segundo dia de internamento para o serviço de cuidados intensivos por agravamento clínico, tendo falecido cerca de 20 horas após admissão por hipertensão e hemorragia pulmonar. A tosse convulsa foi diagnosticada por PCR.Nos últimos anos, tem-se verificado um aumento do número de casos de tosse convulsa. Os adolescentes e adultos têm-se tornado numa fonte subreconhecida mas significativa de infecção, particularmente para os pequenos lactentes ainda sem a vacinação primária completa.Os autores salientam a importância do reconhecimento da tosse convulsa, para que, mesmo nos seus quadros mais atípicos, se possa suspeitar, tratar, declarar e prevenir uma doença que não está nem se espera que esteja erradicada a curto ou médio prazo. São necessárias novas estratégias de vacinação para evitar esta doença, que pode ser fatal nos mais vulneráveis. Abstract: Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly infectious respiratory disease, endemic all over the world, caused by bacteria Bordetella pertussis.The authors describe the case of a 36 day old infant, brought to the emergency room due to respiratory distress and cyanosing cough, admitted with suspected pertussis infection complicated by bacterial pneumonia, having begun large spectrum antibiotics. Labs showed hyperleukocytosis and thrombocytosis. She was transferred to an Intensive Care Unit because of a worsened state

  16. Faktory virulence Bordetella pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Držmíšek, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella pertusis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming coccobacillus. Although it's strictly human pathogen, it's possible to infect other mammals at laboratory conditions. Transmission among hosts is mediated via respiratory tract droplets. Infection could be direct, host to host, alternatively by contaminated environment. Bordetella colonizes upper respiratory tract, wherefrom descends into lungs and causes disease known as whooping cough or pertussis leading to 195 000 deaths o...

  17. Impaired long-term maintenance and function of Bordetella pertussis specific B cell memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Rachel M; Smits, Mieke; Kuipers, Betsy; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline; Poelen, Martien; Boog, Claire J P; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2010-09-14

    Frequent occurrence of whooping cough in vaccinated populations suggests limited duration of vaccine-induced immunological memory. To investigate peculiarities in B cell memory specific for pertussis antigens P.69 pertactin (P.69 Prn), pertussis toxin (Ptx) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), we monitored the induction and maintenance of specific serum IgG, long-lived bone marrow (BM)-derived plasma cell (PC) and splenic memory B cell (B(mem)) populations in a long-term preclinical vaccination model. Groups of BALB/c mice were primed and boosted (day 28) with a combined diphtheria (D), tetanus (T), acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine (DTaP) or whole cell pertussis (P) vaccine (DTP) and the immune status was followed over time. Levels of pertussis specific IgG, induced after primary and booster immunization, peaked at day 98 to decline thereafter. This was not paralleled by a decay, but rather an increase in BM resident specific PC, over time (>1 year). In contrast, splenic B(mem) peaked after booster immunization to decline till background levels. Late recall of immunological memory more than 1 year after primary and booster vaccination, however, did reveal a rapid proliferative response of pre-existing B(mem) but failed to evoke an anamnestic IgG response. A combination of waning P-antigen specific IgG production by PC and poor functions of the B(mem) compartment such as self-maintenance and anamnestic IgG responses could be a hallmark of waning pertussis immunity. A better understanding of the mechanisms of limited immunological memory to pertussis may help to improve current vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis strains: evidence for a possible selective advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stacey W; Pawloski, Lucia; Williams, Margaret; Weening, Keeley; DeBolt, Chas; Qin, Xuan; Reynolds, Laura; Kenyon, Cynthia; Giambrone, Gregory; Kudish, Kathy; Miller, Lisa; Selvage, David; Lee, Adria; Skoff, Tami H; Kamiya, Hajime; Cassiday, Pamela K; Tondella, Maria L; Clark, Thomas A

    2015-01-15

    A recent increase in Bordetella pertussis without the pertactin protein, an acellular vaccine immunogen, has been reported in the United States. Determining whether pertactin-deficient (PRN(-)) B. pertussis is evading vaccine-induced immunity or altering the severity of illness is needed. We retrospectively assessed for associations between pertactin production and both clinical presentation and vaccine history. Cases with isolates collected between May 2011 and February 2013 from 8 states were included. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among 753 isolates, 640 (85%) were PRN(-). The age distribution differed between cases caused by PRN(-) B. pertussis and cases caused by B. pertussis producing pertactin (PRN(+)) (P = .01). The proportion reporting individual pertussis symptoms was similar between the 2 groups, except a higher proportion of PRN(+) case-patients reported apnea (P = .005). Twenty-two case-patients were hospitalized; 6% in the PRN(+) group compared to 3% in the PRN(-) group (P = .11). Case-patients having received at least 1 pertussis vaccine dose had a higher odds of having PRN(-) B. pertussis compared with unvaccinated case-patients (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0). When restricted to case-patients at least 1 year of age and those age-appropriately vaccinated, the adjusted OR increased to 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-6.1). The significant association between vaccination and isolate pertactin production suggests that the likelihood of having reported disease caused by PRN(-) compared with PRN(+) strains is greater in vaccinated persons. Additional studies are needed to assess whether vaccine effectiveness is diminished against PRN(-) strains. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, A E; Oladokun, R E

    2012-11-26

    In the prevaccine era pertussis and diphtheria were responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children. In the United States of America more than 125,000 cases of diphtheria with 10,000 deaths were reported annually in the 1920s. In the same period about 1.7 million cases of pertussis with 73,000 deaths were also reported. Vaccination against these two diseases has caused remarkable reduction in the morbidity and mortality from these diseases both in developed and developing countries. The initial vaccines were the combined diphtheria toxoid and whole cell pertussis vaccine. The recent reported increases in the incidence of these two diseases in countries, which maintain high childhood vaccination coverage is a source of concern not only to these countries but also for developing countries with weak immunization programmes. Nigeria for example reported 11,281 cases of pertussis, the second highest number of cases worldwide in 2009. Waning immunity in adult and adolescent populations has been reported and epidemiologically, more cases are being reported in adults and adolescents. Also a high proportion of pertussis cases are being reported in infants and most of these infant cases are linked to adult/adolescent sources. Recent approaches to control of these diseases include booster doses of combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine while the cocooning strategy (which is immunizing every person who is likely to have contact with a given infant such as mother, father, grandparents and health care workers) is being used in a number of countries. For developing countries including Nigeria where the capacity for making the diagnosis of both diseases is limited, strengthening of routine immunization as well as diagnostic capacity is imperative. Research to determine current levels of immunity in children, adolescents and adults is required. This will enable the determination of the need for booster doses and the age at which such boosters

  20. Assessment of Serologic Immunity to Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis After Treatment of Korean Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Nak-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients. A total of 146 children with either malignancy in remission after cessation of therapy or bone marrow failure were recruited. All children had received routine immunization including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination before diagnosis of cancer. The serologic immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was classified as: completely protective, partially protective, or non-protective. Non-protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was detected in 6.2%, 11.6%, and 62.3% of patients, respectively, and partial protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was seen in 37%, 28.1%, and 8.9% of patients. There was no significant correlation between the severity of immune defect and age, gender or underlying disease. Revaccination after antineoplastic therapy showed significantly higher levels of antibody for each vaccine antigen. Our data indicates that a large proportion of children lacked protective serum concentrations of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This suggests that reimmunization of these patients is necessary after completion of antineoplastic treatment. Also, prospective studies should be undertaken with the aim of devising a common strategy of revaccination. PMID:22219618

  1. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing

    2010-01-01

    %. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  2. Binding of pertussis toxin to eucaryotic cells and glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, M H; Burns, D L; Brennan, M J; Poolman, J T; Manclark, C R

    1989-01-01

    The binding of pertussis toxin and its subunits to cell surface receptors and purified glycoproteins was examined. The interaction of pertussis toxin with components of two variant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines was studied. These cell lines are deficient in either sialic acid residues (LEC 2) or sialic acid and galactose residues (LEC 8) on cell surface macromolecules. The binding of pertussis toxin to components of these cells differed from the binding of the toxin to wild-type components. Although the toxin bound to a 165,000-dalton glycoprotein found in N-octylglucoside extracts of wild-type cells, it did not bind to components found in extracts of LEC 2 cells. In contrast, the toxin bound to components found in extracts of LEC 8 cells, which are variant cells that contain increased amounts of terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues on cell surface macromolecules. These results suggest that the receptor for pertussis toxin on CHO cells contains terminal acetamido-containing sugars. The cytopathic effect of the toxin on both types of variant cells was much reduced compared with its effects on wild-type cells. Thus, optimal functional binding of pertussis toxin appears to require a complete sialyllactosamine (NeuAc----Gal beta 4GlcNAc) sequence on surface macromolecules. In addition to studying the nature of the eucaryotic receptor for pertussis toxin, we examined corresponding binding sites for glycoproteins on the toxin molecule. Binding of both S2-S4 and S3-S4 dimers of the toxin to cellular components and purified glycoproteins was observed. The two dimers bound to a number of glycoproteins containing N-linked oligosaccharides but not O-linked oligosaccharides, and differences in the binding of the two dimers to some glycoproteins was noted. These data indicate that the holotoxin molecule contains at least two glycoprotein-binding sites which may have slightly different specificities for glycoproteins. Images PMID:2478471

  3. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9–10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0–25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. PMID:27632433

  4. PERTUSSIS INFECTION AMIDST ANTIGENIC DRIFTING OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Babachenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data, which manifests the change in the serotypes of Bordetella рertussis in St. Petersburg, as well as dynamics of biological properties of the causative agent within 1990–2004. The researchers have described the dynamics of dominating serotype changes among the hospital patients from 1.2.3. between 1990–2000 Up to 1.0.3. between 2002–2004, as well as gradual change of chromosomal d na of Bordetellae from iii to iv and pertaktin (PRN from 1 to type 2 (antigenic drifting. Analysis of the clinical picture and treatment of the disease among 138 children, suffering from pertussis, producing strains of Bordetella рertussis of serotypes 1.2.3. and 1.2.0. (93 people along with Bordetella рertussis of serotypes 1.0.3 (45 people showed that biological strain mutability of Bordetella рertussis causes changes in severity and clinical course of pertussis infection, without effecting the clinicial picture of the disease. Strains of pertussis bacilla of serotypes 1.0.3., iv (during electrophoresis in pulsating gel efppbgroup, prn 2 are associated with rarer development of the severe illness forms (by 2.5 times, as well as specific complications (breathbholding and pertussis encephalopathy. The patients had no life threatening complications (respiratory standstill and convulsive disorder.Key words: pertussis, children, antigenic drifting of Bordetella рertussis, biological strain mutability, specific complications of pertussis.

  5. Lack of cross-protection against Bordetella holmesii after pertussis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Weyrich, Laura S; Lavine, Jennie S; Karanikas, Alexia T; Harvill, Eric T

    2012-11-01

    Bordetella holmesii, a species closely related to B. pertussis, has been reported sporadically as a cause of whooping cough-like symptoms. To investigate whether B. pertussis-induced immunity is protective against infection with B. holmesii, we conducted an analysis using 11 human respiratory B. holmesii isolates collected during 2005-2009 from a highly B. pertussis-vaccinated population in Massachusetts. Neither whole-cell (wP) nor acellular (aP) B. pertussis vaccination conferred protection against these B. holmesii isolates in mice. Although T-cell responses induced by wP or aP cross-reacted with B. holmesii, vaccine-induced antibodies failed to efficiently bind B. holmesii. B. holmesii-specific antibodies provided in addition to wP were sufficient to rapidly reduce B. holmesii numbers in mouse lungs. Our findings suggest the established presence of B. holmesii in Massachusetts and that failure to induce cross-reactive antibodies may explain poor vaccine-induced cross-protection.

  6. Agent Based Modeling: Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    In epidemiology, spatial and temporal variables are used to compute vaccination efficacy and effectiveness. The chosen resolution and scale of a spatial or spatio-temporal analysis will affect the results. When calculating vaccination efficacy, for example, a simple environment that offers various ideal outcomes is often modeled using coarse scale data aggregated on an annual basis. In contrast to the inadequacy of this aggregated method, this research uses agent based modeling of fine-scale neighborhood data centered around the interactions of infants in daycare and their families to demonstrate an accurate reflection of vaccination capabilities. Despite being able to prevent major symptoms, recent studies suggest that acellular Pertussis does not prevent the colonization and transmission of Bordetella Pertussis bacteria. After vaccination, a treated individual becomes a potential asymptomatic carrier of the Pertussis bacteria, rather than an immune individual. Agent based modeling enables the measurable depiction of asymptomatic carriers that are otherwise unaccounted for when calculating vaccination efficacy and effectiveness. Using empirical data from a Florida Pertussis outbreak case study, the results of this model demonstrate that asymptomatic carriers bias the calculated vaccination efficacy and reveal a need for reconsidering current methods that are widely used for calculating vaccination efficacy and effectiveness.

  7. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) are serious bacterial infections. Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all ... It can lead to "locking" of the jaw. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Whooping cough ...

  8. Data from acellular human heart matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, Mª Eugenia; Espinosa, Mª Angeles; González-Nicolas, Mª Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, “Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts” (Sanchez et al.,...

  9. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the ... GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis We provide this video in ...

  10. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... sheet talks about whether exposure to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (or Tdap) vaccine may increase the ...

  11. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  12. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hpv overview why vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu ... vaccinate CDC and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla ...

  13. Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... pertussis vaccine to infants and the vaccination of close contacts to prevent transmission ('cocooning') are measures that will reduce the burden of pertussis, but the protection of young infants from pertussis is most likely achieved through maternal vaccination – a strategy that has been shown as safe and ...

  14. Loss of multi-epitope specificity in memory CD4(+) T cell responses to B. pertussis with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wanda G H; van Twillert, Inonge; Poelen, Martien C M; Helm, Kina; van de Kassteele, Jan; Verheij, Theo J M; Versteegh, Florens G A; Boog, Claire J P; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2013-01-01

    Pertussis is still occurring in highly vaccinated populations, affecting individuals of all ages. Long-lived Th1 CD4(+) T cells are essential for protective immunity against pertussis. For better understanding of the limited immunological memory to Bordetella pertussis, we used a panel of Pertactin and Pertussis toxin specific peptides to interrogate CD4(+) T cell responses at the epitope level in a unique cohort of symptomatic pertussis patients of different ages, at various time intervals after infection. Our study showed that pertussis epitope-specific T cell responses contained Th1 and Th2 components irrespective of the epitope studied, time after infection, or age. In contrast, the breadth of the pertussis-directed CD4(+) T cell response seemed dependent on age and closeness to infection. Multi-epitope specificity long-term after infection was lost in older age groups. Detailed knowledge on pertussis specific immune mechanisms and their insufficiencies is important for understanding resurgence of pertussis in highly vaccinated populations.

  15. Loss of multi-epitope specificity in memory CD4(+ T cell responses to B. pertussis with age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda G H Han

    Full Text Available Pertussis is still occurring in highly vaccinated populations, affecting individuals of all ages. Long-lived Th1 CD4(+ T cells are essential for protective immunity against pertussis. For better understanding of the limited immunological memory to Bordetella pertussis, we used a panel of Pertactin and Pertussis toxin specific peptides to interrogate CD4(+ T cell responses at the epitope level in a unique cohort of symptomatic pertussis patients of different ages, at various time intervals after infection. Our study showed that pertussis epitope-specific T cell responses contained Th1 and Th2 components irrespective of the epitope studied, time after infection, or age. In contrast, the breadth of the pertussis-directed CD4(+ T cell response seemed dependent on age and closeness to infection. Multi-epitope specificity long-term after infection was lost in older age groups. Detailed knowledge on pertussis specific immune mechanisms and their insufficiencies is important for understanding resurgence of pertussis in highly vaccinated populations.

  16. Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Inge H.M.; van Gent, Marjolein; He, Qiushui; Bart, Marieke J.; Heuvelman, Kees J.; de Greeff, Sabine C.; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri; Teunis, Peter; Nagelkerke, Nico; Mertsola, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated populations, and pertussis has become the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in industrialized countries. We present evidence that in the Netherlands the dramatic increase in pertussis is temporally associated with the emergence of Bordetella pertussis strains carrying a novel allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, which confers increased pertussis toxin (Ptx) production. Epidemiologic data suggest that these strains are more virulent in humans. We discuss changes in the ecology of B. pertussis that may have driven this adaptation. Our results underline the importance of Ptx in transmission, suggest that vaccination may select for increased virulence, and indicate ways to control pertussis more effectively. PMID:19751581

  17. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  18. [The influence of Bordetella pertussis bvgAS operon on formation and resolution of plasmid-chromosome cointegrates in Escherichia coli K12 mutants with damages in common components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiarov, A M; Siniashina, L N; Amelina, I P; Datsenko, K A; Bol'shakova, T N; Dobrynina, O Iu; Karataev, G I

    2010-01-01

    The plasmids containing the genetically marked variants of Bordetela pertussi transposon TnBP were synthesized on the base of the plasmid with thermosensitive replication. The integration frequency of these plasmids into the E.coli K12 chromosome at non-permissive temperature (42 degrees C) was determined. It was found that the frequency of forming of RSBP-induced plasmid-chromosome cointegrated in bacteria E.coli K12 deficient in HPr or Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system was decreased. The bvgAS operon from B.pertussis in trans-position restores the ability of mutant E.coli K12 to form and resolve.

  19. Photolabeling of Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Rappuoli, R.; Collier, R.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation was shown to induce efficient transfer of radiolabel from nicotinamide-labeled NAD to a recombinant protein (C180 peptide) containing the catalytic region of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin. Incorporation of label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was efficient (0.5 to 0.6 mol/mol of protein) relative to incorporation from (32P-adenylate)NAD (0.2 mol/mol of protein). Label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was specifically associated with Glu-129. Replacement of Glu-129 with glycine or aspartic acid made the protein refractory to photolabeling with (3H-nicotinamide)NAD, whereas replacement of a nearby glutamic acid, Glu-139, with serine did not. Photolabeling of the C180 peptide with NAD is similar to that observed with diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the nicotinamide portion of NAD is transferred to Glu-148 and Glu-553, respectively, in the two toxins. These results implicate Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit as an active-site residue and a potentially important site for genetic modification of pertussis toxin for development of an acellular vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.

  20. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able

  1. Cellular and humoral immunity after infection with B. pertussis : the role of age, antigen and vaccination history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, I

    2017-01-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough), is a bacterial disease of the respiratory tract, caused by the human pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Vaccination against pertussis has dramatically lowered pertussis incidence and mortality rates; however pertussis still occurs. The duration of immunity to B. pertussis

  2. Monitoring Pertussis Infections Using Internet Search Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Milinovich, Gabriel; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-09-05

    This study aims to assess the utility of internet search query analysis in pertussis surveillance. This study uses an empirical time series model based on internet search metrics to detect the pertussis incidence in Australia. Our research demonstrates a clear seasonal pattern of both pertussis infections and Google Trends (GT) with specific search terms in time series seasonal decomposition analysis. The cross-correlation function showed significant correlations between GT and pertussis incidences in Australia and each state at the lag of 0 and 1 months, with the variation of correlations between 0.17 and 0.76 (p internet search metrics for the detection of pertussis epidemics in real-time, which can be considered as a pre-requisite for constructing early warning systems for pertussis surveillance using internet search metrics.

  3. Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity to Bordetella pertussis: variables in the in vivo priming and in vitro cytokine detection techniques affect the classification of T cell subsets as Th1, Th2 or Th0

    OpenAIRE

    MILLS, KINGSTON

    1996-01-01

    PUBLISHED In studies of the mechanism of immunity to Bordetella pertussis in a murine respiratory infection model, we have previously demonstrated that natural infection of immunization with a whole cell vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which is mediated by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. In contrast an acellular vaccine generates Th2 cells and is associated with delayed bacterial clearance following respiratory challenge. In the present study we have investigated the appa...

  4. Bordetella pertussis pathogenesis: current and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Jeffrey A.; Scheller, Erich V.; Miller, Jeff F.; Cotter, Peggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, has recently reemerged as a major public health threat despite high levels of vaccination against the etiological agent, Bordetella pertussis. In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis of this disease, with a focus on recent mechanistic insights into virulence factor function. We also discuss the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the challenges of vaccine development. Despite decades of research, many aspects of B. pertussis physiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed to develop improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24608338

  5. Conversion of Bordetella pertussis to Bordetella parapertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, N. H.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1978-01-01

    The epidemiological and drug susceptibility data on whooping cough suggested a possibility that Bordetella pertussis converts in some way to Bordetella parapertussis. To prove this, B. pertussis strain 75 was treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and a mutant resistant to staphcillin v and eight mutants resistant to trimethoprim were isolated. The staphcillin V-resistant mutant of B. pertussis agreed with all of the criteria of B. parapertussis and the trimethoprim-resistant mutants also agreed with many of these criteria. Thus, a hypothesis is presented that B. parapertussis is a mutant of B. pertussis which appeared in nature probably by a selective pressure of antibiotics. PMID:211161

  6. c-di-GMP enhances protective innate immunity in a murine model of pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Elahi

    Full Text Available Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the respiratory tract. Innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes contain specific pathogen-recognition molecules which induce the production of cytokines and subsequently activate the adaptive immune response. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that stimulates innate immunity and regulates biofilm formation, motility and virulence in a diverse range of bacterial species with potent immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, c-di-GMP was used to enhance the innate immune response against pertussis, a respiratory infection mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Intranasal treatment with c-di-GMP resulted in the induction of robust innate immune responses to infection with B. pertussis characterized by enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The immune responses were associated with an earlier and more vigorous expression of Th1-type cytokines, as well as an increase in the induction of nitric oxide in the lungs of treated animals, resulting in significant reduction of bacterial numbers in the lungs of infected mice. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is a potent innate immune stimulatory molecule that can be used to enhance protection against bacterial respiratory infections. In addition, our data suggest that priming of the innate immune system by c-di-GMP could further skew the immune response towards a Th1 type phenotype during subsequent infection. Thus, our data suggest that c-di-GMP might be useful as an adjuvant for the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccine to mount a more protective Th1 phenotype immune response, and also in other systems where a Th1 type immune response is required.

  7. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  8. Structure of Bordetella pertussis peptidoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkening, W.J.; Nogami, W.; Martin, S.A.; Rosenthal, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    Bordetella pertussis Tohama phases I and III were grown to the late-exponential phase in liquid medium containing (/sup 3/H)diaminopimelic acid and treated by a hot (96/sup 0/C) sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction procedure. Washed sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residue from phases I and III consisted of complexes containing protein (ca. 40%) and peptidoglycan (60/sup 6/). Subsequent treatment with proteinase K yielded purified peptidoglycan which contained N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid in molar ratios of 1:1:2:1:1 and <2% protein. Radiochemical analyses indicated that /sup 3/H added in diaminopimelic acid was present in peptidoglycan-protein complexes and purified peptidoglycan as diaminopimelic acid exclusively and that pertussis peptidoglycan was not O acetylated, consistent with it being degraded completely by hen egg white lysozyme. Muramidase-derived disaccharide peptide monomers and peptide-cross-linked dimers and higher oligomers were isolated by molecular-sieve chromatography; from the distribution of these peptidoglycan fragments, the extent of peptide cross-linking of both phase I and III peptidoglycan was calculated to be ca. 48%. Unambiguous determination of the structure of muramidase-derived pepidoglycan fragments by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry indicated that the pertussis peptidoglycan monomer fraction was surprisingly homogeneous, consisting of >95% N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-glutamyl-diaminopimelyl-alanine.

  9. Data from acellular human heart matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, M Eugenia; Espinosa, M Angeles; González-Nicolas, M Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Elizaga, Jaime; Taylor, Doris A; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, "Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts" (Sanchez et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process.

  10. Data from acellular human heart matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, “Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts” (Sanchez et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process.

  11. Epizootic pertussis focus of hamadryad baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Medkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an adequate experimental animal model makes difficult study of immunity against whooping cough and its pathogenesis. Experimental whooping cough reported by us earlier in pubescent non-human primates of the Old World was accompanied by specific clinical and laboratory marks in the absence of cough. The possibility of pertussis modelling while experimental whooping cough in impuberal hamadryad baboons was investigated. In the process of selection of monkeys for the further studies for perfecting of experimental model for pertussis research unexpectedly were detected specific pertussis antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons.The aim of the study: revealing of source of infection and transmission of pertussis to hamadryad baboons and investigation of response of antibody-positive impuberal hamadryad baboons to secondary contagion by B. pertussis bacteria while experimental infection.Results. 18 veterinary checked, somatically healthy hamadryad baboons of various gender managed in two neighboring cages. Specific pertussis IgM and IgG antibodies were found in blood serum of all the animals and one of the monkey keepers. By real-time PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs of the monkey keeper and three 7- and 9-month-old hamadryad baboons were registered single B. pertussis genom equivalents. Seropositive impuberal hamadryad baboons were experimentally challenged by virulent B. pertussis 475 strain. Quantity of B. pertussis genom equivalents and percentage of IgM and IgG antibodies in impuberal hamadryad baboons after experimental infection were detected. These results were comparable with such received after secondary experimental challenge of monkeys by B. pertussis. Humoral immuneresponse was characterized by booster effect and rapid B. pertussis elimination.Conclusion. The case of transmission of B.pertussis bacteria to hamadryad baboons by natural contagion and epizootic focus of pertussis in apery conditions

  12. Evidence for a role of the polysaccharide capsule transport proteins in pertussis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Regina; Lam, Jian Hang; Huot, Ludovic; Pant, Aakanksha; Li, Rui; Hot, David; Alonso, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharide (PS) capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule itself, affects drastically B. pertussis colonization efficacy in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that absence of KpsT in B. pertussis resulted in global down-regulation of gene expression including key virulence genes regulated by BvgA/S, the master two-component system. Using a BvgS phase-locked mutant, we demonstrated a functional link between KpsT and BvgA/S-mediated signal transduction. Whereas pull-down assays do not support physical interaction between BvgS sensor and any of the capsule locus encoded proteins, absence of KpsT impaired BvgS oligomerization, necessary for BvgS function. Furthermore, complementation studies indicated that instead of KpsT alone, the entire PS capsule transport machinery spanning the cell envelope likely plays a role in BvgS-mediated signal transduction. Our work thus provides the first experimental evidence of a role for a virulence-repressed gene in pertussis pathogenesis.

  13. Evidence for a role of the polysaccharide capsule transport proteins in pertussis pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Hoo

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (PS capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule itself, affects drastically B. pertussis colonization efficacy in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that absence of KpsT in B. pertussis resulted in global down-regulation of gene expression including key virulence genes regulated by BvgA/S, the master two-component system. Using a BvgS phase-locked mutant, we demonstrated a functional link between KpsT and BvgA/S-mediated signal transduction. Whereas pull-down assays do not support physical interaction between BvgS sensor and any of the capsule locus encoded proteins, absence of KpsT impaired BvgS oligomerization, necessary for BvgS function. Furthermore, complementation studies indicated that instead of KpsT alone, the entire PS capsule transport machinery spanning the cell envelope likely plays a role in BvgS-mediated signal transduction. Our work thus provides the first experimental evidence of a role for a virulence-repressed gene in pertussis pathogenesis.

  14. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-fold increase in IgG antibodies to. AGG2,3 and to either PT or FHA or both are shown in Figs. 1 - 3. The subclinical pertussis led to stimulation of antibody responses to multiple antigens of Bordetella perttjssis. Antibody levels attained were significantly higher for all pertussis antibody assays than those detected in' age-.

  15. Clinical presentation of infants hospitalised with pertussis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pertussis, commonly known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory illness caused by Bordetella pertussis, a Gram-negative coccobacillus restricted to humans. Although the disease affects all age groups, the disease is most serious in infants (<6 months of age) and in incompletely immunised children.[1] There are ~50 ...

  16. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Melzer, H.; Freymuller, G.; Stumvoll, S.; Rendi-Wagner, P.; Paulke-Korinek, M.; Repa, A.; Mooi, F.R.; Kollaritsch, H.; Mittermayer, H.; Kessler, H.H.; Stanek, G.; Steinborn, R.; Duchene, M.; Wiedermann, U.

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd

  17. Exposure to acellular blood products and risk of HIV infection in hemophiliacs from Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Proietti, Fernando A; Proietti, Anna Barbara F. C.; Costa,Maria Fernanda F. L.; Antunes,Carlos M.F.; Guimarães, Mark D. C.; Paulino, Urquiza H. M.; Souza, Caio J. C.; Laércio de Melo; Álvaro Munõz

    1992-01-01

    Results of a HIV prevalence study conducted in hemophiliacs from Belo Horizonte, Brazil are presented. History of exposure to acellular blood components was determined for the five year period prior to entry in the study, which occurred during 1986 and 1987. Patients with coagulations disorders (hemophilia A = 132, hemophilia B = 16 and coagulation disorders other than hemophilia = 16) were transfused with liquid cryoprecipitate, locally produced, lyophilized cryoprecipitate, imported from Sã...

  18. Children with pertussis inform the investigation of other pertussis cases among contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community. Methods At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A. Results Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases. Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51 were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51. Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276 of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107 were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107 were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107 of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107. Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis. Conclusion Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.

  19. PLGA nano/micro particles encapsulated with pertussis toxoid (PTd) enhances Th1/Th17 immune response in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Liu, Fang; Khaing, Kyi Kyi; Kmiec, Dorota; Wei, Xiaoqing; Song, Bing; Xing, Dorothy; Kong, Deling

    2016-11-20

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nano/micro particles were investigated as a potential vaccine platform for pertussis antigen. Presentation of pertussis toxoid as nano/micro particles (NP/MP) gave similar antigen-specific IgG responses in mice compared to soluble antigen. Notably, in cell line based assays, it was found that PLGA based nano/micro particles enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-nano/micro particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen. More importantly, when mice were immunised with the antigen-nano/micro particles they significantly increased antigen-specific Th1 cytokines INF-γ and IL-17 secretion in splenocytes after in vitro re-stimulation with heat killed Bordetalla pertussis, indicating the induction of a Th1/Th17 response. Also, presentation of pertussis antigen in a NP/MP formulation is able to provide protection against respiratory infection in a murine model. Thus, the NP/MP formulation may provide an alternative to conventional acellular vaccines to achieve a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect ... vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles ...

  1. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... poster infectious disease workshop links & resources personal items standard precautions travel in health immunizations about immunizations current ... hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard precautions Silence the Sounds of Pertussis spokespeople who ...

  2. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room ...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal disease to Pertussis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal disease to Pertussis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. Bordetella pertussis infection in paediatric healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunegundes, K S A; de Moraes-Pinto, M I; Takahashi, T N; Kuramoto, D A B; Weckx, L Y

    2015-06-01

    An increased incidence of pertussis has been observed recently in adults, and healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered a risk group for transmission to infants. Prevalence of recent pertussis infection was assessed in HCWs from a paediatric department of a tertiary care hospital in Brazil. Serum pertussis toxin IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 388 HCWs included in the analysis, 6.4% had serology suggestive of recent infection. Medical residents [odds ratio (OR): 4.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-12.14; P = 0.009] and those working >40 h a week (OR: 3.29; 95% CI: 1.17-9.26; P = 0.024) had increased risk of pertussis infection. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... hiv/aids overview current news labs links & resources hpv overview why vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos ... q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room ...

  6. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O. ...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal to Pertussis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal to Pertussis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... doctor find health information helpful articles antibiotics colds fevers injection tips sports travel in health travel tips ... hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O. ...

  9. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... freed meet keri russell posters grand article rich media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families ... hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. ...

  10. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Poland in the period 1959-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Ewa; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Polak, Maciej; Prygiel, Marta; Lutyńska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Despite the long history of pertussis vaccination and high vaccination coverage in Poland and many other developed countries, pertussis incidence rates have increased substantially, making whooping cough one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases. Among the factors potentially involved in pertussis resurgence, the adaptation of the Bordetella pertussis population to country-specific vaccine-induced immunity through selection of non-vaccine-type strains still needs detailed studies. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), also linked to MLST and PFGE profiling, was applied to trace the genetic changes in the B. pertussis population circulating in Poland in the period 1959-2013 versus country-specific vaccine strains. Generally, among 174 B. pertussis isolates, 31 MLVA types were detected, of which 11 were not described previously. The predominant MLVA types of recent isolates in Poland were different from those of the typical isolates circulating in other European countries. The MT27 type, currently predominant in Europe, was rarely seen and detected in only five isolates among all studied. The features of the vaccine strains used for production of the pertussis component of a national whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, as studied by MLVA and MLST tools, were found to not match those observed in the currently circulating B. pertussis isolates in Poland. Differences traced by MLVA in relation to the MLST and PFGE profiling confirmed that the B. pertussis strain types currently observed elsewhere in Europe, even if appearing in Poland, were not able to successfully disseminate within a human population in Poland that has been vaccinated with a whole-cell pertussis vaccine not used in other countries.

  11. Pertussis diagnoses among service members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System, January 2005-June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Pertussis ("whooping cough") is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Individuals at highest risk are infants and unvaccinated children; however, there have been recent increases in incidence among adolescent and young adult populations in the United States. During the surveillance period, there were 476 confirmed and 3,073 probable cases of pertussis among U.S. military members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System. Among service members there were 77 and 13 confirmed cases in active and reserve component members, respectively. In comparison, infants and children aged 15 years and younger accounted for over half of all confirmed cases (n=244). Several spatiotemporal clusters of pertussis among military healthcare beneficiaries were associated with outbreaks in adjacent non-military communities, particularly in five states (California, Texas, Florida, Washington, and New York); one cluster occurred in a military community in Okinawa, Japan.

  12. Development and characterization of a full-thickness acellular porcine cornea matrix for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to produce a natural, acellular matrix from porcine cornea for use as a scaffold in developing a tissue-engineered cornea replacement. Full-thickness, intact porcine corneas were decellularized by immersion in 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The resulting acellular matrices were then characterized and examined specifically for completeness of the decellularization process. Histological analyses of decellularized corneal stromas showed that complete cell and α-Gal removal was achieved, while the major structural proteins including collagen type I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin were retained. DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA within the matrix, and the DNA contents, which reflect the presence of cellular materials, were significantly diminished in the decellularized cornea. The collagen content of the decellularized cornea was well maintained compared with native tissues. Uniaxial tensile testing indicated that decellularization did not significantly compromise the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue (P > 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assays using rabbit corneal fibroblast cultures excluded the presence of soluble toxins in the biomaterial. In vivo implantation to rabbit interlamellar stromal pockets showed good biocompability. In summary, a full-thickness natural acellular matrix retaining the major structural components and strength of the cornea has been successfully developed. The matrix is biocompatible with cornea-derived cells and has potential for use in corneal transplantation and tissue-engineering applications. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Surface modification of RGD peptides onto acellularized porcine aortic valve to promote cell adhesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-ming; Zeng, Xiao-fei; Ma, Rui-dong; Shang, Guan-sheng; Hao, Ming; Yi, Ding-hua

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the impact of RGD peptides on cell adhesion to acellularized procine aortic valve. The acellular porcine aorta valve (APAV) was prepared by removing the cells and cellular components from porcine aortic valve using trypsin and hyposmosis TritonX-100. With the help of epoxy chloropropane (EC), the decelluarized valve scaffolds were immobilized with YGRGDSP peptide. MFBs were seeded onto four groups [acellularized value (AV) group, EC group, glutaraldehyde+EC (GE) group and EC+ RGD group or GE+RGD group] of coupled, coated and untreated decelluarized valve scaffolds. Ninhydrin reaction, cell count and fluorescent imaging test were employed to examine the efficiency of cell adhesion. More cells were attached to the decellularized valve scaffolds when the cells were coupled with RGD peptides compared with the others. The adhesive effect was correlated with the concentration of the RGD peptide and the attaching time. With the help of EC, YGRGDSP peptides can be immobilized by covalent bonding. RGD peptides improve cell adhesion to decellularized valve scaffolds.

  14. Evaluation of a ribosomal vaccine against pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L H; Parker, C D; Manclark, C R; Berry, L J

    1979-01-01

    A crude ribosomal vaccine derived from Bordetella pertussis administered to ICR and N:NIH (SW) strains of mice protected them effectively against a standardized intracranial challenge. The dose of vaccine that protected half the mice was less for N:NIH (SW) than for ICR mice and compared favorably with a killed reference vaccine. Ribosomes prepared from bacteria ground with washed sea sand were more immunogenic than those obtained by rupture with alumina or with a Braun homogenizer. The protective effect of the crude ribosomes was not an innate part of the organelle but was due to a substance or substances that could be removed from them by a 1 M NH4Cl wash. The material in the wash was highly immunogenic and retained both the histamine-sensitizing and leukocytosis-promoting properties. It lost much of the dermonecrotic activity and was poorly pyrogenic in rabbits. The most potent pyrogen was present in the washed ribosomes, which apparently, retained the endotoxic components of the cell wall. The best vaccines permitted acceptable weight gain in the immunized mice. PMID:222684

  15. PENETAPAN STANDAR NASIONAL DARI VAKSIN DPT: Penetapan Standar Nasional Vaksin Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljanti Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To check the potency of DPT vaccine, standard preparations of the components, namely Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine, and Adsorbed Tetanus Toxoid are necessary. Since WHO International Standard Preparations are distributed only in limited amounts, WHO has suggested that each member country shold develop a National Standard, which is to be matched with International Standard Preparations. An Indonesian National Standard of DPT vaccine (lot 1 has been prepared and lyophilized at the National Institute of Health in Tokyo. The potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine was determined by Active Mouse Protection Test (AMPT. After several experiments, the potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine has been decided of being 12 IU/ml. Using the same standard preparations, namely the National Standards, it is hoped that from a lot of DPT vaccine, similar results of potency could be achieved when determined by Government Vaccine Quality Control laboratory and the Manufacturer's laboratory.

  16. Evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection in vaccinated 1-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Pontoppidan, Peter Lotko; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing

    2010-01-01

    We measured IgA and IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in sera from 203 1-year-old children who had received one to three doses of a monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine. Ten children (5%) had IgA antibody to PT indicating recent infection; seven of these children...... had received three doses of vaccine. PT IgA responders did not have significantly longer coughing episodes than PT IgA non-responders. Since an IgA antibody response occurs in only approximately 50% of infected children, the actual infection rate in our cohort is estimated to approximately 10......%. The apparent high Bordetella pertussis infection rate in Danish infants suggests that the monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine used in Denmark has limited efficacy against B. pertussis infection. A prospective immunization study comparing a multi-component vaccine with the present monocomponent PT toxoid vaccine...

  17. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  18. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  19. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not

  20. Bordetella pertussis isolates from Argentinean whooping cough patients display enhanced biofilm formation capacity compared to Tohama I reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eArnal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines since the 1950´s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  1. Differentially expressed genes in Bordetella pertussis strains belonging to a lineage which recently spread globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan de Gouw

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which is associated with higher levels of pertussis toxin (Ptx production. Within 10 to 20 years, ptxP3 strains have nearly completely replaced the previously dominant ptxP1 strains resulting in a worldwide selective sweep. In order to identify B. pertussis genes associated with the selective sweep, we compared the expression of genes in ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains that are under control of the Bordetella master virulence regulatory locus (bvgASR. The BvgAS proteins comprise a two component sensory transduction system which is regulated by temperature, nicotinic acid and sulfate. By increasing the sulfate concentration, it is possible to change the phase of B. pertussis from virulent to avirulent. Until recently, the only distinctive phenotype of ptxP3 strains was a higher Ptx production. Here we identify additional phenotypic differences between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains which may have contributed to its global spread by comparing global transcriptional responses under sulfate-modulating conditions. We show that ptxP3 strains are less sensitive to sulfate-mediated gene suppression, resulting in an increased production of the vaccine antigens pertactin (Prn and Ptx and a number of other virulence genes, including a type III secretion toxin, Vag8, a protein involved in complement resistance, and lpxE involved in lipid A modification. Furthermore, enhanced expression of the vaccine antigens Ptx and Prn by ptxP3 strains was confirmed at the protein level. Identification of genes differentially expressed between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains may elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination and allow the improvement of pertussis vaccines by

  2. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Print The ...

  3. Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, C.

    1990-11-14

    Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

  4. Temporal Trends in Bordetella pertussis Populations, Denmark, 1949–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Tine; Dragsted, Ditte Marie; Mooi, Frits; Lambertsen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    We used multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and multiple antigen sequence typing to characterize isolates of Bordetella pertussis strains circulating in Denmark during periods with and without pertussis vaccination coverage. Our results show substantial shifts in the B. pertussis population over time and a reduction in genetic diversity. These changes might have resulted from the introduction of pertussis vaccines in Denmark and other parts of Europe. The predominant strains currently circulating in Denmark resemble those in other European countries. PMID:22515990

  5. Systems vaccinology : molecular signatures of immunity to Bordetella pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeven, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide resurgence of whooping cough (pertussis), even in highly vaccinated populations, demands improved pertussis vaccines. In this thesis a systems vaccinology approach is applied to deepen knowledge of the immune responses evoked by different pertussis vaccines and compare this with a

  6. Radiotherapy for Pertussis: An Historical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Calabrese PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray therapy was used to treat pertussis/whooping cough during a 13-year period from 1923 to 1936 in North America and Europe. Twenty studies from clinicians in the United States reported that approximately 1500 cases of pertussis were treated by X-ray therapy usually with less than 0.5 erythema dose. Young children (<3 years comprised about 70% to 80% of the cases, with the age of cases ranging from as young as 1 month to 50 years. In general, symptoms of severe coughing, vomiting episodes, and spasms were significantly relieved in about 85% of cases following up to 3 treatments, while about 15% of the cases showed nearly full relief after only 1 treatment. The X-ray therapy was also associated with a marked reduction in mortality of young (<3 years children by over 90%. Despite such reported clinical success from a wide range of experienced researchers, the use of X-rays for the treatment of pertussis in young children was controversial, principally due to concerns of exposure to the thymus and thyroid even with the availability of lead shielding. By the mid-1930s, the treatment of pertussis cases via vaccine therapy came to dominate the therapeutic arena, and the brief era of a radiotherapy option for the treatment of pertussis ended.

  7. Options in Acellular Dermal Matrix-Device Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalove, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Prepectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular during the last several years. Original shortcomings and poor outcomes in the 1970s have been overcome with the use of the bioengineered breast concept-namely, use of improved form stable breast implants, autologous fat grafting, and acellular dermal matrices (ADMs). Careful use of these reconstructive tools combined with improved mastectomy skin flaps has lead to successful early outcomes. Prepectoral breast reconstruction mitigates the animation deformities and muscle tightness previously associated with dual-plane prosthetic breast reconstruction while at the same time producing reproducible and outstanding aesthetic outcomes. The use of ADM is a critical component to performing prepectoral breast reconstruction. There are many techniques utilized to inset the ADM. Various methods of direct in vivo inset have been performed. These techniques are employed following completion of the mastectomy and are performed with both 2-stage as well as single-stage direct-to-implant reconstruction. Various ex vivo techniques have also been used for prepectoral breast reconstruction. Various prefabricated constructs of ADM and implant/tissue expander can be created on the back table while the mastectomy is in progress, which decreases operative time and improves surgical efficiency. This article will describe briefly the history of prepectoral reconstruction as well as describing the various techniques used for creating the ADM-device interphase.

  8. Detection of small RNAs in Bordetella pertussis and identification of a novel repeated genetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulbrecht Bérénice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bacterial RNAs (sRNAs have been shown to participate in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in numerous prokaryotic species. Some of them are involved in the regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. So far, little is known about sRNAs in Bordetella, and only very few sRNAs have been identified in the genome of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Results An in silico approach was used to predict sRNAs genes in intergenic regions of the B. pertussis genome. The genome sequences of B. pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella avium were compared using a Blast, and significant hits were analyzed using RNAz. Twenty-three candidate regions were obtained, including regions encoding the already documented 6S RNA, and the GCVT and FMN riboswitches. The existence of sRNAs was verified by Northern blot analyses, and transcripts were detected for 13 out of the 20 additional candidates. These new sRNAs were named Bordetella pertussis RNAs, bpr. The expression of 4 of them differed between the early, exponential and late growth phases, and one of them, bprJ2, was found to be under the control of BvgA/BvgS two-component regulatory system of Bordetella virulence. A phylogenetic study of the bprJ sequence revealed a novel, so far undocumented repeat of ~90 bp, found in numerous copies in the Bordetella genomes and in that of other Betaproteobacteria. This repeat exhibits certain features of mobile elements. Conclusion We shown here that B. pertussis, like other pathogens, expresses sRNAs, and that the expression of one of them is controlled by the BvgA/BvgS system, similarly to most virulence genes, suggesting that it is involved in virulence of B. pertussis.

  9. Seroprevalence of pertussis in the Gambia : evidence for continued circulation of bordetella pertussis despite high vaccination rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Susana; van der Sande, Marianne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205083420; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Mendy, Maimuna; Sanneh, Bakary; Barry Jallow, Fatou; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona; van Gageldonk, Pieter; Mooi, Frits; Kampmann, Beate

    BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis can cause severe respiratory disease and death in children. In recent years, large outbreaks have occurred in high-income countries; however, little is known about pertussis incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We evaluated antibody responses to pertussis toxin

  10. Neurologic manifestations of diphtheria and pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Viraj

    2014-01-01

    Historically, diphtheria was a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the prevaccine era. However, in recent times there has been a resurgence of diphtheria, especially in the newly independent states of the former USSR. Diphtheritic polyneuropathy can be a serious complication in patients who have a severe infection. In patients with pertussis, seizures and encephalopathy can occur as a complication of asphyxia. Vaccination against diphtheria and pertussis in children and booster vaccination in adults is recommended. DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccination has been shown to increase the risk of febrile seizures in children. Currently, it appears that the risk of vaccine-induced encephalopathy and/or epilepsy following DTP vaccination, if any, is extremely low. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool.

  12. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  13. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  14. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough 2 (Pertussis)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    This podcast encourages everyone to get vaccinated against whooping cough (pertussis), especially those who will have close contact with an infant.  Created: 9/16/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  15. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ... not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles ...

  16. Paediatric surveillance of pertussis in 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker HE de; Neppelenbroek SN; Schellekens JFP; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Conyn- van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LIS

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the severity of pertussis in hospitalised cases. Methods: In 1998, hospitalisation data were collected through paediatric surveillance. Results: From 115 hospitalisation admissions collected, 55% of the patients were younger than 3 months of age and not vaccinated;

  17. An Open-Label, Randomized Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Given Concomitantly with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents 11 to 15 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Mehlsen, Jesper; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-01-01

    .8% in both groups at month 7. For REPEVAX, noninferiority of immune response was established for diphtheria, tetanus, and all polio and pertussis antigens for both groups. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. CONCLUSION: Overall, concomitant administration of 9vHPV vaccine and REPEVAX was generally......BACKGROUND: A nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine has recently been reported to be safe and highly efficacious against infection and disease related to HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine administered concomitantly with REPEVAX...... (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine). METHODS: This open-label, randomized, multicenter study enrolled 1054 males and females ages 11-15 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to each group in a 1:1 ratio. Subjects received a 0.5mL dose of 9vHPV vaccine...

  18. The role of Toll-like receptor-4 in pertussis vaccine-induced immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooi Frits R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis is an important causative agent of pertussis, an infectious disease of the respiratory tract. After introduction of whole-cell vaccines (wP in the 1950's, pertussis incidence has decreased significantly. Because wP were found to be reactogenic, in most developed countries they have been replaced by acellular vaccines (aP. We have previously shown a role for Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4 in pertussis-infected mice and the pertussis toxin (Ptx-IgG response in wP-vaccinated children, raising the issue of the relative importance of Tlr4 in wP vaccination of mice. Here we analyze the effects of wP and aP vaccination and B. pertussis challenge, in Tlr4-deficient C3H/HeJ and wild-type C3H/HeOuJ mice. aP consists of Ptx, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA, and pertactin (Prn. Results We show an important role of Tlr4 in wP and (to a lesser extent aP vaccination, induction of Th1 and Th17 cells by wP but not aP vaccination, and induction of Th17 cells by infection, confirming data by Higgins et al. (J Immunol 2006, 177:7980–9. Furthermore, in Tlr4-deficient mice, compared to wild-type controls (i after vaccination only, Ptx-IgG (that was induced by aP but not wP vaccination, FHA-IgG, and Prn-IgG levels were similar, (ii after infection (only, lung IL-1α and IL-1β expression were lower, (iii after wP vaccination and challenge, Prn-IgG level and lung IL-5 expression were higher, while lung IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 expression were lower, and lung pathology was absent, and (iv after aP vaccination and challenge, Prn-IgG level and lung IL-5 expression were higher, while Ptx-IgG level was lower. Conclusion Tlr4 does not influence the humoral response to vaccination (without challenge, plays an important role in natural immunity, wP and aP efficacy, and induction of Th1 and Th17 responses, is critical for lung pathology and enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine production after w

  19. Workshop on Animal free Detection of Pertussis Toxin in Vaccines--Alternatives to the Histamine Sensitisation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Christina; Hoonakker, Marieke; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Buchheit, Karl-Heinz; Spreitzer, Ingo; Montag, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI), the Nederlands Vaccin Instituut (NVI) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) organised the international scientific workshop "Animal free Detection of Pertussis Toxin in Vaccines--Alternatives to the Histamine Sensitisation Test" at the PEI in Langen (Germany) on 09-10 June 2011. Twenty-seven experts (regulators, representatives from national control laboratories, vaccine manufacturers and academia) from 7 countries participated in this workshop. The meeting was triggered by the lack of satisfaction with the current safety testing for acellular pertussis vaccines, the "Histamine Sensitisation Test" (HIST) in mice, and the growing attention for the alternatives under development. The workshop objectives were: a) to review the current status of available alternative methods, b) to discuss the sensitivity that an alternative test needs, c) to plan experiments that allow for comparison of the alternative tests. The results of the workshop are summarised in this meeting report. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  1. Comparison of anti-pertussis toxin ELISA and agglutination assays to assess immune responses to pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Pavel; Bochkova, Maria; Timganova, Valeria; Zamorina, Svetlana; Rayev, Mikhail

    2017-08-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the following two methods of assessment of pertussis post-vaccination immunity: bacterial agglutination test and pertussis toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study was carried out in Perm Region, Russia. We measured pertussis immunity using two serological methods: ELISA of IgG to pertussis toxin (PT) and the agglutination test (AT) among 135 children, in the age range from 2 months to 17 years old. The immunization schedule included four doses of DTwP: at 3, 4.5 and 6 months of age and a booster at 18 months. All participants were divided into six age groups. The percentage of samples with IgG level less than the detection limit in vaccinated children was 52.2%. The total seropositivity rate (the percent of children with agglutinin titres ≥1:160) in vaccinated children was 47.8%. Only a weak association was observed between agglutinin and anti-PT IgG titres (R = .3). Neither the primary nor the booster vaccination with DTwP influenced the IgG levels in children. Agglutinin titres significantly increased after vaccination and declined 5 years after the booster dose. Significant growth of IgG concentration was observed in 11-year-olds, indicating the presence of B. pertussis circulation in the childhood population. Based on the obtained results and the results of other authors, we summarize that anti-PT ELISA should be carefully used to assess the population immunity to pertussis. Currently, there is neither a serological test that accurately determines the protection against pertussis nor a distinctive criterion of protection that can be applied in seroepidemiological studies.

  2. Modulation of Pertussis and Adenylate Cyclase Toxins by Sigma Factor RpoE in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mariette; Boehm, Dylan T; Sen-Kilic, Emel; Bonnin, Claire; Pinheiro, Theo; Hoffman, Casey; Gray, Mary; Hewlett, Erik; Damron, F Heath

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen that can infect the respiratory tract and cause the disease known as whooping cough. B. pertussis uses pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) to kill and modulate host cells to allow the pathogen to survive and persist. B. pertussis encodes many uncharacterized transcription factors, and very little is known about their functions. RpoE is a sigma factor which, in other bacteria, responds to oxidative, heat, and other environmental stresses. RseA is a negative regulator of RpoE that sequesters the sigma factor to regulate gene expression based on conditions. In B. pertussis, deletion of the rseA gene results in high transcriptional activity of RpoE and large amounts of secretion of ACT. By comparing parental B. pertussis to an rseA gene deletion mutant (PM18), we sought to characterize the roles of RpoE in virulence and determine the regulon of genes controlled by RpoE. Despite high expression of ACT, the rseA mutant strain did not infect the murine airway as efficiently as the parental strain and PM18 was killed more readily when inside phagocytes. RNA sequencing analysis was performed and 263 genes were differentially regulated by RpoE, and surprisingly, the rseA mutant strain where RpoE activity was elevated expressed very little pertussis toxin. Western blots and proteomic analysis corroborated the inverse relationship of PT to ACT expression in the high-RpoE-activity rseA deletion strain. Our data suggest that RpoE can modulate PT and ACT expression indirectly through unidentified mechanisms in response to conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. The BvgAS Regulon of Bordetella pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis are activated by a master two-component system, BvgAS, composed of the sensor kinase BvgS and the response regulator BvgA. When BvgS is active, BvgA is phosphorylated (BvgA~P, and virulence-activated genes (vags are expressed [Bvg(+ mode]. When BvgS is inactive and BvgA is not phosphorylated, virulence-repressed genes (vrgs are induced [Bvg(− mode]. Here, we have used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR to define the BvgAS-dependent regulon of B. pertussis Tohama I. Our analyses reveal more than 550 BvgA-regulated genes, of which 353 are newly identified. BvgA-activated genes include those encoding two-component systems (such as kdpED, multiple other transcriptional regulators, and the extracytoplasmic function (ECF sigma factor brpL, which is needed for type 3 secretion system (T3SS expression, further establishing the importance of BvgA~P as an apex regulator of transcriptional networks promoting virulence. Using in vitro transcription, we demonstrate that the promoter for brpL is directly activated by BvgA~P. BvgA-FeBABE cleavage reactions identify BvgA~P binding sites centered at positions −41.5 and −63.5 in bprL. Most importantly, we show for the first time that genes for multiple and varied metabolic pathways are significantly upregulated in the B. pertussis Bvg(− mode. These include genes for fatty acid and lipid metabolism, sugar and amino acid transporters, pyruvate dehydrogenase, phenylacetic acid degradation, and the glycolate/glyoxylate utilization pathway. Our results suggest that metabolic changes in the Bvg(− mode may be participating in bacterial survival, transmission, and/or persistence and identify over 200 new vrgs that can be tested for function.

  4. Direct Detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis: Comparison of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Donno, A; Quattrocchi, M; Ansaldi, F; Campa, A; Rollo, M.C; Gabutti, G

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a genomic DNA amplification method for Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis compared with culture isolation. Aliquots from B. pertussis and B...

  5. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Ten Have, Rimko; van der Maas, Larissa; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-31

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick injuries, and (iii) ensure better protection against pertussis as compared to vaccines containing acellular pertussis antigens. An approach to obtain a hexavalent vaccine might be reconstituting lyophilized polio vaccine (IPV-LYO) with liquid pentavalent vaccine just before intramuscular delivery. The potential limitations of this approach were investigated including thermostability of IPV as measured by D-antigen ELISA and rat potency, the compatibility of fluid and lyophilized IPV in combination with thimerosal and thimerosal containing hexavalent vaccine. The rat potency of polio type 3 in IPV-LYO was 2 to 3-fold lower than standardized on the D-antigen content, suggesting an alteration of the polio type 3 D-antigen particle by lyophilization. Type 1 and 2 had unaffected antigenicity/immunogenicity ratios. Alteration of type 3 D-antigen could be detected by showing reduced thermostability at 45°C compared to type 3 in non-lyophilized liquid controls. Reconstituting IPV-LYO in the presence of thimerosal (TM) resulted in a fast temperature dependent loss of polio type 1-3 D-antigen. The presence of 0.005% TM reduced the D-antigen content by ∼20% (polio type 2/3) and ∼60% (polio type 1) in 6h at 25°C, which are WHO open vial policy conditions. At 37°C, D-antigen was diminished even faster, suggesting that very fast, i.e., immediately after preparation, intramuscular delivery of the conceived hexavalent vaccine would not be a feasible option. Use of the TM-scavenger, l-cysteine, to bind TM (or mercury containing TM degradation products), resulted in a hexavalent vaccine mixture in which polio D-antigen was more stable. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  6. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K

    1994-01-01

    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity...... of PCR for the diagnosis of BP, we used known concentrations of BP, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica in aqueous solutions. PCR was furthermore carried out on species of bacteria that might be isolated from the nasopharynx. The applicability of PCR to patient specimens was tested...... in 25 patients in whose nasopharyngeal secretions BP had been demonstrated after 4-7 days of culture. The detection limit of PCR in aqueous solution was 1-2 BP bacteria per reaction tube. PCR was 100% specific for BP, showing no response with other Bordetella species or other bacteria known to colonize...

  7. Experimental Study of Interference Between Pertussis Antigens and Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirehamsy

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available An interference is observed between whooping-cough antigens and Salk polioc vaccine even if the two components are mixed immediately before use. The phenomenon is more evident when flUlid antigens are injected. Pertussis soluble antigen, which gives a good serological response in rabbits, when used alone or combined with DT, is inactivated in the presence of Salk polio vacc:ne

  8. Tissue engineering of rat bladder using marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bladder acellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Coutu

    Full Text Available Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration.

  9. Xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium has been widely used in the reconstruction of the ocular surface. However, it often degrades too early to ensure the success of the transplanted corneal epithelium when treating patients with severe ocular surface disorders. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix (aCM and evaluated its efficacy and safety as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium. Native porcine conjunctiva was decellularized with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS for 12 h at 37°C and sterilized via γ-irradiation. Compared with native conjunctiva, more than 92% of the DNA was removed, and more than 90% of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen remained after the decellularization treatment. Compared with denuded amniotic membrane (dAM, the aCM possessed favorable optical transmittance, tensile strength, stability and biocompatibility as well as stronger resistance to degradation both in vitro and in vivo. The corneal epithelial cells seeded on aCM formed a multilayered epithelial structure and endured longer than did those on dAM. The aCM-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was more effective in the reconstruction of the ocular surface in rabbits with limbal stem cell deficiency. These findings support the application of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold for reconstructing the ocular surface.

  10. Pertussis vaccinations in Dutch children: memory immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite high pertussis vaccination coverage, pertussis is reemerging in the Netherlands since 1996. In attempt to improve protection against whooping cough, two major changes in the national immunization program have been made; the introduction of a preschool booster vaccination in children 4 years

  11. Crucial role of antibodies to pertactin in Bordetella pertussis immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, SMM; Rodriguez, ME; Berbers, GAM; de Winkel, JGJV; Mooi, FR

    2003-01-01

    Pertussis, a serious infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis, is reemerging in vaccinated populations. Efforts to curtail this disease are hampered by limited insight into the basis of protective immunity. Opsonophagocytosis was recently found to play a central

  12. Seroepidemiology of pertussis among elementary school children in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Kuo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Currently, almost one-third of elementary school children in Taiwan were seropositive for pertussis, a rate lower than expected. Seroprevalence declined with increasing class grades except for Grade 6. The current national immunization program may not provide adequate protection for children against pertussis.

  13. Seroprevalence of pertussis in Senegal: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaayeb, Lobna; Sarr, Jean Biram; Ndiath, Mamadou O; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Seck, Modou; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Remoué, Franck; Hermann, Emmanuel; Riveau, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP). Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries. We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab) response against pertussis toxin (PT). A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children. PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT) suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed. Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs.

  14. Seroprevalence of pertussis in Senegal: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Gaayeb

    Full Text Available Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP. Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries.We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab response against pertussis toxin (PT. A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children.PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed.Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs.

  15. Pertussis in north-central and northwestern regions of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrouche, Nabila; Tali Maamar, Hassiba; Lazri, Malika; Hasnaoui, Sonia; Radoui, Abdelkarim; Lafer, Ourida; Boukari, Rachida; Kaddache, Chawki; Arrada, Zakia; Rahal, Kheira

    2016-11-24

    Pertussis outbreaks continue to occur in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. Under-diagnosed cases in adolescents and adults may result in increased transmission to infants, who are at risk of severe pertussis. Additional measures to protect both groups should be considered. Nasopharyngeal samples and sera were collected from patients and household contacts with clinically suspected pertussis. Diagnoses were confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Bordetella pertussis isolates were characterized by antimicrobial sensitivity and fimbrial serotyping. Of 392 participants, 134/248 patients (54%) and 66/144 contacts (45.8%) had confirmed pertussis infections. B. parapertussis was not detected. All B. pertussis isolates were sensitive to the antibiotics tested, and all expressed the Fim3, not the Fim2, fimbrial serotype. Most patients (81.2%) were Algeria. Most infections occur in unvaccinated infants <6 months of age, with mothers as the main source of infection. An adolescent/adult booster should be considered. Adoption of sensitive and specific laboratory tests would improve pertussis diagnosis and surveillance.

  16. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark: the impact of herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A; Larsen, S O

    1994-12-01

    An evaluation is presented of the Danish pertussis immunization programme, which consists of three injections of plain whole-cell pertussis vaccine given alone at ages 5 weeks, 9 weeks, and 10 months. The incidence of pertussis in vaccinated and unvaccinated children since the start of vaccination was obtained from the notification system for infectious diseases. Data for vaccination coverage were obtained from the National Social Security. The data for 1980-1986 were supplemented with data from culture-verified cases and hospitalized cases. Compared with other countries using four injections, incidence rates in Denmark are high, especially in pre-school years, leaving infants at a relatively high risk for contracting pertussis from siblings. However, compared with the era before general vaccination, the incidence of pertussis has fallen to one-sixteenth of its former levels. Today, only one in 20 vaccinated, and one in six unvaccinated children develop pertussis before the age of 15 years. This considerable fall, which has also occurred among unvaccinated children, is used to elucidate the importance of herd immunity, which, with the relatively high vaccination coverage in Denmark, was found to play a major role. The importance of herd immunity is stressed, and it is recommended that a fourth injection of pertussis vaccine is introduced to bring incidence rates down to the very low values found in countries with more intensive vaccination programmes.

  17. The epidemiology of pertussis in Germany: past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppermann Hanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current and past pertussis epidemiology in the two parts of Germany is compared in the context of different histories of vaccination recommendations and coverage to better understand patterns of disease transmission. Methods Available regional pertussis surveillance and vaccination coverage data, supplemented by a literature search for published surveys as well as official national hospital and mortality statistics, were analyzed in the context of respective vaccination recommendations from 1964 onwards. Results Routine childhood pertussis vaccination was recommended in the German Democratic Republic (GDR from 1964 and in former West German states (FWG from 1969, but withdrawn from 1974–1991 in FWG. Pertussis incidence declined to Conclusion The shift in pertussis morbidity to older age groups observed in FEG is similar to reports from other countries with longstanding vaccination programs and suggests that additional booster vaccination may be necessary beyond adolescence. The high proportion of fully vaccinated cases in older children in FEG suggests waning immunity 5–10 years after primary immunisation in infancy. The higher incidence of pertussis hospitalisations in infants suggests a stronger force of infection in FWG than FEG. Nationwide pertussis reporting is required for better evaluation of transmission patterns and vaccination policy in both parts of Germany.

  18. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H. (Department of Microbiology, Alexander Stone Building, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland)

    1982-03-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 ..mu..Ci (37 K Bq) of (/sup 14/C)glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation.

  19. Increase in pertussis cases along with high prevalence of two emerging genotypes of Bordetella pertussis in Perú, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, H; León-Janampa, N; Padilla, C; Hozbor, D

    2016-08-17

    As has occurred in many regions worldwide, in 2012 the incidence of pertussis increased in Perú. This epidemiologic situation has been associated with a waning vaccine-induced immunity and the adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccine-induced immunity along with improved diagnostic methods. The study comprised a total of 840 pertussis-suspected cases reported in Perú during 2012. We summarize here the distribution of pertussis cases according to age and immunization status along with the immunization-coverage rate. Laboratory diagnosis was performed by culture test and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). B. pertussis bacteria recovered from infected patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the DNA sequencing of the pertussis-toxin (promoter and subunit A), pertactin, and fimbriae (fim2 and fim3) genes. From the total pertussis-suspected cases, 191 (22.7 %) infections were confirmed by real-time PCR and 18 through cultivation of B. pertussis (2.1 %), while one infection of B. parapertussis (0.11 %) was also detected by culture. Pertussis was significantly higher in patients that had had 0-3 vaccine doses (pentavalent vaccine alone) than in those who had had 4-5 vaccine doses (pentavalent plus DwPT boosters) at 94.3 vs. 5.7 %, respectively (p < 0.00001). The relative risk (RR) for patients with 4-5 doses compared to those with fewer than 4 doses or no dose was 0.23 (95 % Confidence Interval: 0.11-0.44), while the vaccine effectiveness was 77 % and coverage 50.5 %. Genetic analysis of B. pertussis isolates from different Peruvian regions detected two clonal groups as identified by PFGE. Those two groups corresponded to the B. pertussis genotypes emerging worldwide ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2 or 9-fim3-1 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2 or 9-fim3-2. Two emerging B. pertussis genotypes similar to isolates involved in worldwide epidemics were detected in Perú. Low vaccine coverage (<50 %) and genetic divergence between the vaccine

  20. Preparation of acellular scaffold for corneal tissue engineering by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Hsun; Tseng, Fan-Wei; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Peng, I-Chen; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wu, Shu-Wei; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed a novel method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) to prepare acellular porcine cornea (APC). Under gentle extraction conditions using SCCO 2 technology, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that cells were completely lysed, and cell debris, including nuclei, was efficiently removed from the porcine cornea. The SCCO 2 -treated corneas exhibited intact stromal structures and appropriate mechanical properties. Moreover, no immunological reactions and neovascularization were observed after lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. All transplanted grafts and animals survived without complications. The transplanted APCs were opaque after the operation but became transparent within 2weeks. Complete re-epithelialization of the transplanted APCs was observed within 4weeks. In conclusion, APCs produced by SCCO 2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal tissue engineering. We decellularized the porcine cornea using SCCO 2 extraction technology and investigated the characteristics, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of the decellularized porcine cornea by lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of SCCO 2 extraction technology for preparation of acellular corneal scaffold. We proved that the cellular components of porcine corneas had been efficiently removed, and the biomechanical properties of the scaffold were well preserved by SCCO 2 extraction technology. SCCO 2 -treated corneas maintained optical transparency and exhibited appropriate strength to withstand surgical procedures. In vivo, the transplanted corneas showed no evidence of immunological reactions and exhibited good biocompatibility and long-term stability. Our results suggested that the APCs developed by SCCO 2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal replacement and corneal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  1. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain 134 employed indigenous technology. KC Shivanandappa, S Jagannathan, S Pandiyarajan, P Tamilvanan, T Umadevi, Jeeva Kalaiselvan, B Seker ...

  2. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  3. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  4. Resistance of acellular dermal matrix materials to microbial penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Elizabeth N; Qi, Chao; Ibrahim, Omer; Kim, John Y; Alam, Murad

    2013-05-01

    Acellular dermal matrices have many current and potential applications, but their long-term safety has not been extensively studied. In particular, limited information exists regarding such materials' resistance to infection. To assess the resistance to microbial penetration of common acellular dermal matrix materials used in reconstruction after skin cancer excision, treatment of chronic ulcers and burns, breast reconstruction, hernia repairs, and other applications. Comparative in vitro study of 4 commercially available dermal substitutes for their ability to act as barriers to penetration by common skin pathogens. University-based dermatology and plastic surgery departments and a hospital microbiology laboratory. Four commercially available dermal substitutes, including AlloDerm (LifeCell), FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation), Strattice (LifeCell), and NeoForm (Mentor Corporation). We tested the 4 dermal matrix materials with the following 4 organisms commonly implicated in wound infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans. Each material was inoculated with the same concentration of each pathogen. The number of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar plates. AlloDerm and rehydrated FlexHD were found to be the best barriers to penetration by P. aeruginosa. AlloDerm, FlexHD, and Strattice also prevented penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes; NeoForm was less effective in withstanding these organisms. The results of this study were inconclusive with regard to C. albicans penetration. Three of the 4 commonly used acellular dermal matrix materials are resistant to in vitro penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes and partially resistant to P. aeruginosa. Resistance to fungal pathogens is uncertain. Antimicrobial differences across matrix materials may influence their selection for particular uses, such as treatment of refractory leg ulcers or reconstruction after skin cancer excision.

  5. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  6. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS STRAINS TO ANTIBACTERIAL PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Borisova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 178 strains of B. pertussis isolated from infected individuals in various regions of Russia from 1948 to 2012 have been studied for their susceptibility to six antibacterial preparations. It has been shown, that B. pertussis strains isolated from 1948 to 1989 were predominantly sensitive to erythromycin. In the following years a gradual decrease in susceptibility of circulating strains of B. pertussis to this antibiotic was registered with the emergence of strains with intermediate susceptibility in 22% of cases from 1990 to 2005 (MIC 0,060 mcg/mL, up to 59,3% in the last six years (MIC 0,125 mcg/mL. As for azithromycin, high susceptibility of strains of B. pertussis to this preparation was shown throughout the entire duration of the survey. However, the rate of incidence of intermediate strains reached 14% among those strains isolated from 1990 to 2005, and is now at 32%. Thus, after several decades of active use of antibiotics pertussis underwent a series of transformations resulting in a decrease in susceptibility of B. pertussis strains to erythromycin and azithromycin.

  7. Development of a tissue-engineered human oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix: a preliminary report of clinical application to burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takuya; Takami, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Shimazaki, Shuji; Harii, Kiyonori

    2005-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents composed of epidermal and dermal components have been widely investigated for coverage of full-thickness skin defects. We developed a tissue-engineered oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and investigated its characteristics. We also tried and assessed its preliminary clinical application. Human oral mucosal keratinocytes were separated from a piece of oral mucosa and cultured in a chemically-defined medium. The keratinocytes were seeded on to the acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and cultured. Histologically, the mucosa equivalent had a well-stratified epithelial layer. Immunohistochemical study showed that it was similar to normal oral mucosa. We applied this equivalent in one case with an extensive burn wound. The equivalent was transplanted three weeks after the harvest of the patient's oral mucosa and about 30% of the graft finally survived. We conclude that this new oral mucosa equivalent could become a therapeutic option for the treatment of extensive burns.

  8. [Tissue engineering of urinary bladder using acellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Olefir, Yu V; Alyaev, Yu G; Butnaru, D V; Bezrukov, E A; Chaplenko, A A; Zharikova, T M

    2017-04-01

    Tissue engineering has become a new promising strategy for repairing damaged organs of the urinary system, including the bladder. The basic idea of tissue engineering is to integrate cellular technology and advanced bio-compatible materials to replace or repair tissues and organs. of the study is the objective reflection of the current trends and advances in tissue engineering of the bladder using acellular matrix through a systematic search of preclinical and clinical studies of interest. Relevant studies, including those on methods of tissue engineering of urinary bladder, was retrieved from multiple databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase. The reference lists of the retrieved review articles were analyzed for the presence of the missing relevant publications. In addition, a manual search for registered clinical trials was conducted in clinicaltrials.gov. Following the above search strategy, a total of 77 eligible studies were selected for further analysis. Studies differed in the types of animal models, supporting structures, cells and growth factors. Among those, studies using cell-free matrix were selected for a more detailed analysis. Partial restoration of urothelium layer was observed in most studies where acellular grafts were used for cystoplasty, but no the growth of the muscle layer was observed. This is the main reason why cellular structures are more commonly used in clinical practice.

  9. Preclinical evaluations of acellular biological conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chien Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of natural biological conduits have been investigated as alternatives to the current surgical standard approach for peripheral nerve injuries. Autologous nerve graft, the current gold standard for peripheral nerve damage, is limited by clinical challenges such as donor-site morbidity and limited availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using acellular xenographic conduits (nerve, artery, and dermis for the repair of a 1.2 cm critical size defect of peripheral nerve in a rodent model. Four months post surgery, the animal group receiving acellular artery as a nerve conduit showed excellent physiological outcome in terms of the prevention of muscle atrophy and foot ulcer. Histological assessment of the bridged site revealed excellent axon regeneration, as opposed to the nonrepaired control group or the group receiving dermal conduit. Finally, the study evaluated the potential improvement via the addition of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells into the artery conduit during the bridging procedure. The mesenchymal stem cell–dosed artery conduit group resulted in significantly higher concentration of regenerated axons over artery conduit alone, and exhibited accelerated muscle atrophy rescue. Our results demonstrated that xenographic artery conduits promoted excellent axonal regeneration with highly promising clinical relevance.

  10. Intention to accept Bordetella pertussis booster vaccine during pregnancy in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Richardson, Vesta; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Cervantes-Powell, Patricia; Omer, Saad B

    2014-02-07

    Adult booster vaccination against pertussis can help prevent severe infections in young infants. We examined influences on intention to accept pertussis booster vaccination among pregnant women in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, recruiting convenience samples of pregnant women receiving prenatal care from three public healthcare centers between March and May 2012. Our primary outcome was intention to accept pertussis vaccination during pregnancy. We examined socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, pertussis knowledge, perceptions of vaccine information sources, and other potential influences on vaccine decision-making. A total of 402 pregnant women agreed to participate, of which 387 (96%) provided their intention to accept or decline pertussis vaccination. Among respondents, 57% intended to accept a pertussis booster vaccine if offered, but only 16% had ever heard of pertussis, and only 2% knew someone who had contracted this disease. Over 80% of respondents would accept pertussis vaccination if recommended by an obstetrician-gynecologist. The most frequently selected reasons to refuse pertussis vaccination were concerns that the vaccine might harm the unborn baby or pregnant woman. In multivariate analysis, rating doctors and nurses as good sources of vaccine information, and having ever heard of pertussis, were independently associated with intention to accept pertussis vaccination. Promoting patient awareness about pertussis disease and vaccine safety, and encouraging general practitioners, nurses and obstetricians to recommend pertussis booster vaccine, may increase vaccine uptake among pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of bvg-repressed genes in Bordetella pertussis is controlled by RisA through a novel c-di-GMP signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BvgAS two component system of Bordetella pertussis controls virulence factor expression. In addition, BvgAS controls expression of the bvg-repressed genes through the action of the repressor, BvgR. The transcription factor RisA is inhibited by BvgR, and when BvgR is not expressed RisA induces th...

  12. Cyclic di-GMP regulation of the bvg-repressed genes and the orphan response regulator RisA in Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors is activated by the BvgAS two-component system. Under modulating growth conditions BvgAS indirectly represses another set of genes through the action of BvgR, a bvg-activated protein. BvgR blocks activation of the response regulator RisA which is ...

  13. A retrospective study of acute pertussis in Hasan Sadikin Hospital–Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Mostly patients were admitted on paroxysmal phase when no more active B. pertussis could be found from nasopharyngeal secret. A rigorous history taking particularly excessive cough, posttussive vomitting, and pertussis vaccination status need to be taken into account.

  14. Tdap Vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  15. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeven, R.H.M.; Brummelman, J.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Nijst, O.E.M.; Kuipers, B.; Blok, L.E.R.; Helm, K.; Riet, van E.; Jiskoot, W.; Els, van C.A.C.M.; Han, W.G.H.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Metz, B.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues

  16. Patterns of Susceptibility in an Outbreak of Bordetella pertussis: Evidence from a Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Moore

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak of Bordetella pertussis and to assess which factors were associated with the development of clinical pertussis in children and adults during the outbreak.

  17. Protection against Pertussis in Humans Correlates to Elevated Serum Antibodies and Memory B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Marcellini; Eva Piano Mortari; Giorgio Fedele; Francesco Gesualdo; Elisabetta Pandolfi; Fabio Midulla; Pasqualina Leone; Paola Stefanelli; Alberto Eugenio Tozzi; Rita Carsetti; The Pertussis Study Group; E. Agricola; C. M. Ausiello; Buttinelli, G.; I. Campagna

    2017-01-01

    Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis that may be particularly severe and even lethal in the first months of life when infants are still too young to be vaccinated. Adults and adolescents experience mild symptoms and are the source of infection for neonates. Adoptive maternal immunity does not prevent pertussis in the neonate. We compared the specific immune response of mothers of neonates diagnosed with pertussis and mothers of control children. We show that wom...

  18. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Juhasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the implants was 185 cm2. Among those, 15 implant sites of 14 patients were assessed at an average of 50 months after surgery. The scar function was assessed by using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale. We have found that the overall scar quality and function was significantly better over the implanted areas than over the surrounding skin. Also these areas received a better score for scar height and pliability. Our findings suggest that acellular dermal implants are especially useful tools in the treatment of full-thickness burns as well as postburn scar contractures.

  19. Differences of circulating Bordetella pertussis population in Argentina from the strain used in vaccine production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fingermann, M; Fernández, J; Sisti, F; Rodríguez, M E; Gatti, B; Bottero, D; Graieb, A; Gaillard, M E; Ayala, S González; Mooi, F R; Lopardo, H; Hozbor, D

    2006-01-01

    In Argentina, as in other countries, the number of pertussis cases has been increasing, even in highly vaccinated zones. Many reports suggest that the decline of vaccine efficacy due to antigenic shifts in the circulating Bordetella pertussis might be among the factors that contribute to pertussis

  20. Significant finding of Bordetella holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal samples from French patients with suspected pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Debruyne, Monique; Gibaud, Sophie Anne; Guillot, Sophie; Guiso, Nicole

    2011-12-01

    Pertussis is routinely diagnosed with real-time PCR based on insertion sequence IS481, which is not specific for Bordetella pertussis. We conducted a retrospective study using real-time PCRs specific for Bordetella pertussis and for Bordetella holmesii on 177 samples positive for IS481 PCR. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 20.3% samples collected from adolescents and adults.

  1. Evidence for an intracellular niche for Bordetella pertussis in broncho-alveolar lavage cells of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, SMM; Hazenbos, WLW; van de Winkel, JGJ; Mooi, FR

    1999-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis can attach, invade and survive intracellularly in human macrophages in vitro. To study the significance of this bacterial feature in vivo, we analyzed the presence of viable bacteria in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells of mice infected with B, pertussis. We found B. pertussis

  2. Hospital-Diagnosed Pertussis Infection in Children and Long-term Risk of Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten; Thygesen, Sandra K; Østergaard, John R

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Pertussis is associated with encephalopathy and seizures in infants. However, the risk of childhood epilepsy following pertussis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pertussis is associated with the long-term risk of epilepsy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used individual...

  3. Modelling the return on investment of preventively vaccinating healthcare workers against pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tariq, Luqman; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217293964; Hovels, Anke; Frijstein, Gerard; de Boer, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring pertussis and transmitting the infection to high-risk susceptible patients and colleagues. In this paper, the return on investment (ROI) of preventively vaccinating HCWs against pertussis to prevent nosocomial pertussis

  4. Modelling the return on investment of preventively vaccinating healthcare workers against pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tariq, Luqman; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Hövels, Anke; Frijstein, Gerard; de Boer, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring pertussis and transmitting the infection to high-risk susceptible patients and colleagues. In this paper, the return on investment (ROI) of preventively vaccinating HCWs against pertussis to prevent nosocomial pertussis outbreaks is

  5. Pertussis outbreak in primary and secondary schools in Ludwigslust, Germany demonstrating the role of waning immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Muna Abu; Zenke, Rosemarie; Rönckendorf, Rita; Littmann, Martina; Jorgensen, Pernille; Hellenbrand, Wiebke

    2009-03-01

    A pertussis outbreak primarily affecting school-age children in Ludwigslust, Germany, was investigated in 2006 to estimate attack rates and relative risk of pertussis according to time since last vaccination, after a complete primary course. Results suggested waning immunity beginning approximately 5 years after the last dose of pertussis vaccination. Most cases could have been prevented by earlier booster vaccination.

  6. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C.; Hoffman, Casandra L.; Gonyar, Laura A.; Hewlett, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10–14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28–35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors. PMID:26432818

  7. Nosocomial pertussis infection of infants: still a risk in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jennifer M; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    The Sydney West Centre for Population Health investigated a confirmed pertussis infection in a health care worker on a maternity ward and identified pertussis infection in 4 neonates cared for by this case. This report describes the public health intervention to identify and prevent further cases. Of the 4 neonates, three were laboratory-confirmed cases and one was diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. All were cared for by the infected worker during only one shift and developed symptoms six to 16 days afterwards. No other possible source of infection was identified. This investigation highlights the need to maintain awareness, particularly amongst staff working with neonates, that pertussis infection can arise despite complete vaccination. Thus it is important to investigate new coughing illnesses and exclude symptomatic staff from contact with neonates until pertussis infection is excluded or effectively treated. The burden on the health system arising from a pertussis infection in a health care worker in a high-risk setting is also described with the hospitalisation of 4 infants, and prophylactic antibiotics given to 73 new mothers, infants and health care workers.

  8. Spatial dynamics of pertussis in a small region of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutin, Hélène; Elguero, Eric; Simondon, François; Guégan, Jean-François

    2004-10-22

    Extended time-series analysis of infectious diseases raises two issues: the spread of disease, and its persistence in space and time. Most studies are based on both data and models, corresponding to conditions encountered in developed countries. The present work sought to determine the impact of local heterogeneity on these two issues, regarding pertussis in tropical conditions. First, we tested the 'cities and villages' model in a small community of 30 villages in rural Senegal. Second, we focused on the impact of population size and density, as well as geographic distance, on population dynamics of pertussis. Results showed that pertussis initially arrived in urban centres, and then spread to surrounding areas. Both population size and density are implicated in the persistence of pertussis within the study area, whereas geographical distance between villages is not. This is the first study on pertussis in a developing country carried out on a very fine spatial scale. Furthermore, it confirms previous results for measles in England and Wales.

  9. Prevalence of antibody to Bordetella pertussis in neonates and prevalence of recent pertussis infection in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain) in 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, Pedro; Álvarez, Elena; de Ory, Fernando; Campins, Magda; Payà, Toni; Balfagón, Pilar; Godoy, Pere; Caylà, Joan; Carreras, Ramon; Cabero, Lluís; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Infections because of Bordetella pertussis still occur in infants and adults in European countries, despite vaccination coverage against pertussis being high. IgG antibody titers to pertussis toxin (anti-PT) were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (Serion ELISA classic) in 353 cord blood samples from neonates of a representative sample of pregnant women obtained in Catalonia (Spain) in 2013. Neonates with anti-PT titers ≤ 40 international units (IU)/mL were considered to be unprotected against pertussis. IgG-PT titers >100 IU/mL in umbilical cord samples were considered to be indicative of a current or recent pertussis infection (12 months) in pregnant women. The age-standardized prevalence of recent pertussis infection obtained in this study was compared with the prevalence obtained in 2003. The mean anti-PT titer in neonates was 10.8 IU/mL and 89.8% of neonates were unprotected against pertussis. The prevalence of unprotected neonates as defined by cord blood anti-PT ≤ 40 IU/mL was 90%. The prevalence of recent pertussis infection in pregnant women as defined by cord blood anti-PT >100 IU/mL was 2%. The diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage during childhood in pregnant women was 75%. The age-standardized prevalence of recent pertussis infection in pregnant women observed in this study (2.2%) was slightly higher than the prevalence obtained in 2003 (1.5%), with an odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence intervals: 0.5-3.9), although differences were not statistically significant. Most neonates are unprotected against pertussis and pertussis infections are frequent in pregnant women in Catalonia. Infants and pregnant women should be the priority population groups for pertussis prevention programs in Catalonia.

  10. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  11. Comparison study of acellular dermal matrices in complicated hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Grant V; De Castro, Gerard P; Bochicchio, Kelly M; Weeks, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Scalea, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Damage control surgery and management of the open abdomen has led to a significant improvement in survival in trauma and emergency surgical patients. However, subsequent abdominal reconstruction has become a significant challenge. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different acellular dermal matrices in regard to hernia recurrence and complications in patients who present with a large complicated ventral hernia as a result of trauma or emergency surgery. A prospective quasi-experimental time-interrupted series design was used to evaluate the incidence of hernia recurrence in trauma/emergency surgery patients who had a ventral hernia repair with a biologic matrix. From January 2005 to December 2007, 55 patients with a complicated ventral hernia were repaired with AlloDerm (Life Cell Corporation). Beginning in February 2008 to January 2010, 40 patients with the same criteria were repaired with FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation) and followed prospectively over the following year. The primary outcome for this study was hernia recurrence (functional or real) at 1 year. Other outcomes variables included abdominal laxity, seroma formation, and wound or intra-abdominal infection. There was no significant difference in age, sex, and body mass index between the groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean hernia size and size of the acellular dermis that was inserted. At 1 year postsurgery, all of the AlloDerm patients were diagnosed with recurrence requiring a second formal repair. Eleven patients (31%) whose hernias were repaired with FlexHD were diagnosed with a recurrence requiring a second formal repair. FlexHD appears to have reduced the recurrence and laxity rates while maintaining a similar complication profile compared with AlloDerm in trauma/emergency surgery patients with large complicated ventral hernias. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation.Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA.Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating local levels of PP(i, directing and

  13. Efficacy of Acellular Nerve Allografts in Trigeminal Nerve Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, Andrew; Ziccardi, Vincent; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2017-10-01

    During trigeminal nerve repair, a gap is sometimes encountered that prevents the tension-free apposition of nerve endings. The use of a processed acellular nerve allograft is a novel technique that shows promise in overcoming this problem. The goal of the present study was to support the slowly evolving body of evidence that acellular processed nerve allografts (Avance; Axogen, Alachua, FL) are a viable alternative to autogenous nerve grafting and the use of conduits for reconstructing defects of the trigeminal nerve. The study design consisted of a retrospective review of the medical records of patients referred to Rutgers School of Dental Medicine for management of trigeminal nerve injuries from July 2008 to August 2014. Sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria for the present study. All patients underwent nerve grafting using a processed nerve allograft. All operations were performed by the same surgeon (V.Z.). Serial neurosensory testing was performed by 1 clinician (V.Z.) in a standardized fashion. The primary outcome variable was the interval to functional sensory recovery as defined by the Medical Research Council Scale. The participants ranged in age from 16 to 62 years (mean 32). Of the 16 patients, 12 were female (75%) and 4 were male (25%), and 3 were smokers (18.75%) and 13 were nonsmokers (81.25%). One half of the patients (n = 8; 50%) underwent surgery on the inferior alveolar nerve, and 8 (50%) underwent surgery on the lingual nerve. The most common mechanism of injury was impacted third molar removal (n = 9; 56.25%) Of the 16 patients, 15 (93.75%) achieved functional sensory recovery during the study period. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that processed nerve allografts are effective in reconstructing small (<2-cm) trigeminal nerve defects. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Tdap vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years in the prevention of pertussis in the US: a dynamic model of disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J McGarry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In February 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP advised that all adults aged ≥65 years receive a single dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap, expanding on a 2010 recommendation for adults >65 that was limited to those with close contact with infants. We evaluated clinical and economic outcomes of adding Tdap booster of adults aged ≥65 to "baseline" practice [full-strength DTaP administered from 2 months to 4-6 years, and one dose of Tdap at 11-64 years replacing decennial Td booster], using a dynamic model. METHODS: We constructed a population-level disease transmission model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of supplementing baseline practice by vaccinating 10% of eligible adults aged ≥65 with Tdap replacing the decennial Td booster. US population effects, including indirect benefits accrued by unvaccinated persons, were estimated during a 1-year period after disease incidence reached a new steady state, with consequences of deaths and long-term pertussis sequelae projected over remaining lifetimes. Model outputs include: cases by severity, encephalopathy, deaths, costs (of vaccination and pertussis care and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with each strategy. Results in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained are presented from payer and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses vary key parameters within plausible ranges. RESULTS: For the US population, the intervention is expected to prevent >97,000 cases (>4,000 severe and >5,000 among infants of pertussis annually at steady state. Additional vaccination costs are $4.7 million. Net cost savings, including vaccination costs, are $47.7 million (societal perspective and $44.8 million (payer perspective. From both perspectives, the intervention strategy is dominant (less costly, and more effective by >3,000 QALYs versus baseline. Results are robust to sensitivity analyses and alternative

  15. Clinical study on human lamellar keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcers with porcine acellular corneal stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Hong Liao; Zi-Zhong Yu; Bin Hu

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To observe the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal stroma on the treatment of superficial keratitis by drug-resistant fungal. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 16 cases of fungal keratitis received the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix from June 2015 to March 2016 with a follow-up of 6mo. We analyzed on items as postoperative visual acuity, corneal graft status, postoperative recurrence and postoperative complications. RESULTS: We observed a hea...

  16. Erythroid Suppressor Cells Compromise Neonatal Immune Response against Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Garett; Bozorgmehr, Najmeh; Delyea, Cole; Koleva, Petya; Namdar, Afshin; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-09-15

    Newborns are highly susceptible to infection. The underlying mechanism of neonatal infection susceptibility has generally been associated with neonatal immune cell immaturity. In this study, we challenged this notion and built upon our recent discovery that neonates are physiologically enriched with erythroid TER119(+)CD71(+) cells (Elahi et al. 2013. Nature 504: 158-162). We have used Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract infection, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in newborns. We found that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immune-suppressive properties and suppress innate immune responses against B. pertussis infection. CD71(+) cell ablation unleashed innate immune response and restored resistance to B. pertussis infection. In contrast, adoptive transfer of neonatal CD71(+) cells into adult recipients impaired their innate immune response to B. pertussis infection. Enhanced innate immune response to B. pertussis was characterized by increased production of protective cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12, as well as recruitment of NK cells, CD11b(+), and CD11c(+) cells in the lung. Neonatal and human cord blood CD71(+) cells express arginase II, and this enzymatic activity inhibits phagocytosis of B. pertussis in vitro. Thus, our study challenges the notion that neonatal infection susceptibility is due to immune cell-intrinsic defects and instead highlights active immune suppression mediated by abundant CD71(+) cells in the newborn. Our findings provide additional support for the novel theme in neonatal immunology that immunosuppression is essential to dampen robust immune responses in the neonate. We anticipate that our results will spark renewed investigation in modulating the function of these cells and developing novel strategies for enhancing host defense to infections in newborns. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. [Microorganisms isolated in cases of pertussis-like syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, A; Calicó, I; Manresa, J M; Andreu, A; Moraga, F; Valle, I

    2000-11-01

    To describe the etiologic study of the pertussis-like syndrome, not only as far as Bordetella genus is concerned but also regarding the causative role of other microorganisms for a 11-year period (1988-1998). In all specimens from patients suffering from pertussis-like cough the presence of Bordetella spp., other bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma was investigated. The analysed data included microbiological findings and epidemiologic issues (age, sex, hospital admission area, yearly distribution and seasonal period). A total of 1,063 specimens were investigated, most of them nasopharyngeal aspirates (910), corresponding to 905 patients; a positive culture was obtained form 56.9 of these patients. B. pertussis was isolated from 10.5% of patients. As for other bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also isolated, in 16.9% and 15.8% of occasions, respectively. The respiratory syncitial virus was isolated from 10.7% of patients and other viruses in 9.4%. Among mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum predominated, with a recovery rate of 2.9%. The male/female ratio was 495/410; the ages of 67.2% of patients ranged from 0 to 6 months; a total of 689 (76.1%) required hospital admission. The recovery of B. pertussis and adenoviruses predominated during spring and summer months. In contrast, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and respiratory syncitial virus were recovered more frequently during winter months. Most patients with pertussis-like syndrome are children aged less than 6 months. The recovery percentages of B. pertussis and respiratory syncitial virus are identical and therefore we think that the investigation of their presence in this syndrome is fully warranted as well as the search for other microorganisms, since clinical symptoms are commonly non-specific among infants.

  18. The History of Bordetella pertussis Genome Evolution Includes Structural Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Michael R; Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Bowden, Katherine E; Burroughs, Mark; Cassiday, Pamela K; Davis, Jamie K; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Knipe, Kristen; Mathis, Marsenia H; Pruitt, Andrea M; Rowe, Lori; Sheth, Mili; Tondella, M Lucia; Williams, Margaret M

    2017-04-15

    Despite high pertussis vaccine coverage, reported cases of whooping cough (pertussis) have increased over the last decade in the United States and other developed countries. Although Bordetella pertussis is well known for its limited gene sequence variation, recent advances in long-read sequencing technology have begun to reveal genomic structural heterogeneity among otherwise indistinguishable isolates, even within geographically or temporally defined epidemics. We have compared rearrangements among complete genome assemblies from 257 B. pertussis isolates to examine the potential evolution of the chromosomal structure in a pathogen with minimal gene nucleotide sequence diversity. Discrete changes in gene order were identified that differentiated genomes from vaccine reference strains and clinical isolates of various genotypes, frequently along phylogenetic boundaries defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The observed rearrangements were primarily large inversions centered on the replication origin or terminus and flanked by IS481, a mobile genetic element with >240 copies per genome and previously suspected to mediate rearrangements and deletions by homologous recombination. These data illustrate that structural genome evolution in B. pertussis is not limited to reduction but also includes rearrangement. Therefore, although genomes of clinical isolates are structurally diverse, specific changes in gene order are conserved, perhaps due to positive selection, providing novel information for investigating disease resurgence and molecular epidemiology.IMPORTANCE Whooping cough, primarily caused by Bordetella pertussis, has resurged in the United States even though the coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines remains high. The rise in reported cases has included increased disease rates among all vaccinated age groups, provoking questions about the pathogen's evolution. The chromosome of B. pertussis includes a large number of repetitive mobile genetic

  19. PERTUSSIS IS COMING BACK? IMPROVEMENT OF FORGOTTEN CHILDHOOD INFECTION CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Fedoseenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection that more than 60 years ago was recognized one of the leading childhood diseases that caused infant mortality, is returning. Of course, with the introduction of vaccination against pertussis in the national programs, we rarely meet severe pertussis infection in our practice, considering that vaccinating children, we protect them. But why so far is this infectious disease remains a serious problem not only in Russia but throughout the world? Several global reasons contribute to the fact that until now vaccine-preventable diseases leads to a prolonged, exhausting cough in schoolchildren, deceiving the doctors with the correct diagnosis is still a real threat to infants. 

  20. Diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by Cough Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Habib Bukhari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pertussis or whooping cough is a communicable infection of upper respiratory tract that mainly affects children. Reports regarding resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated children mainly motivated us to document pertussis in the children. The aim of the study was to explore pertussis in vaccinated children using an alternative method for pertussis diagnosis.Materials and methods: A total of 700 clinical samples were collected during study period (2006-2009, from suspected whooping cough cases of Diphtheria-tetanus- whole cell pertussis (DTwP vaccinated children both male and female aged from 6 months to 84 months The classical ‘Cough Plate Method’ instead of Nasopharyngeal Swab was used for sampling to find out its potential in diagnosis of pertussis.Results: Present study reports the presence of pertussis in vaccinated children using Cough Plate Method. The method successfully isolated Bordetella pertussis from suspected patients of pertussis. A total of 28 culture confirmed cases were detected among 700 samples tested. (Total Isolation rate: 4%.The peak incidence age under risk was 48 months. However, pertussis was detected in children aged as young as 6 and 12 months.Conclusion: The ‘Cough plate’ method used for isolation proved successful and simple instead of nasopharyngeal swabs that is difficult to perform and children may be reluctant to this sampling method when tried. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (2 : 68-72

  1. Characterization of a Bvg-regulated fatty acid methyl-transferase in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Millot, Alex; Lesne, Elodie; Solans, Luis; Coutte, Loic; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Froguel, Philippe; Dhennin, Véronique; Hot, David; Locht, Camille; Antoine, Rudy; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    The whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis controls the expression of its large virulence regulon in a coordinated manner through the two-component signal transduction system BvgAS. In addition to the genes coding for bona fide virulence factors, the Bvg regulon comprises genes of unknown function. In this work, we characterized a new Bvg-activated gene called BP2936. Homologs of BP2936 are found in other pathogenic Bordetellae and in several other species, including plant pathogens and environmental bacteria. We showed that the gene product of BP2936 is a membrane-associated methyl-transferase of free fatty acids. We thus propose to name it FmtB, for fatty acid methyl-transferase of Bordetella. The role of this protein was tested in cellular and animal models of infection, but the loss of BP2936 did not appear to affect host-pathogen interactions in those assays. The high level of conservation of BP2936 among B. pertussis isolates nevertheless argues that it probably plays a role in the life cycle of this pathogen.

  2. Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during pertussis outbreak, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Hajime; Otsuka, Nao; Ando, Yuka; Odaira, Fumito; Yoshino, Shuji; Kawano, Kimiko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Toshihide; Hidaka, Yoshio; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-07-01

    We describe the epidemiology of a pertussis outbreak in Japan in 2010-2011 and Bordetella holmesii transmission. Six patients were infected; 4 patients were students and a teacher at the same junior high school. Epidemiologic links were found between 5 patients. B. holmesii may have been transmitted from person to person.

  3. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-04-01

    Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014-2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005-2007 (41%), 2008-2010 (35%), and 2011-2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes.

  4. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Ferronato

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP.

  5. Pertussis: clinical and bacteriological diagnosis of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano Penagos Mario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ertussis is an endemic disease in our population. Every 3 to 4 years, pertussis has an epidemic pattern even in countries with good health conditions. Antipertussis vaccine first dose is adminis- tered at the age of 2 months; a second and third dose are given at 4 and 6 months of age. This vaccine has an 8 to 10 year protective effect, for which reason it is suggested that pregnant women in the third trimester should be vaccinated in order to prevent pertussis in newborns. It should also be administered to older people to avoid turning them into asymptomatic carriers. Clinic manifestations are easily identifiable due to respiratory symptoms, especially to the particular characteristics of the cough. The diagnosis is supported by the presence of leukocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes and by certain thoracic radiologic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed with a positive culture for Bordetella pertussis or with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In a non complicated clinic course macrolides are still the best therapeutic choice. Nonetheless clinic observation is highly recom- mended in order to avoid complications. Redefinition of vaccine programs against Bordetella pertussis in Mexican population is recommended and also to notify the presence of the disease to the corresponding health authorities.

  6. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for serological diagnosis of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Teppo; Knuutila, Aapo; Barkoff, Alex-Mikael; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2018-03-07

    Current serological diagnosis of pertussis is usually done by ELISA. However, the ELISAs are often central-laboratory based, require trained staff and have long turnaround times. A rapid point-of-care (POC) assay for pertussis serology would aid in both diagnosis and surveillance of the disease. While lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are simple to use and ideal for point-of-care diagnostics, they were limited to qualitative assays until recently. In this study, we developed a quantitative LFIA with fluorescent Eu-nanoparticle reporters for the detection of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG. The assay was evaluated by testing 198 serum samples with varying anti-PT IgG levels and the result was compared to those obtained with standardized anti-PT IgG ELISA. At the diagnostic cutoff of 100 IU/mL in ELISA, the LFIA had a concordance of 92% with the ELISA, with a specificity of 96% [95% confidence interval (CI): 89-99%] and a sensitivity of 88% [CI: 77-94%]. The developed LFIA has a turnaround time of one hour and requires only a simple manipulation by the user and an instrument for the quantitative detection of the signal. We conclude that the LFIA is specific and sensitive for serological diagnosis of pertussis and is suitable for a POC test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.C. Shivanandappa

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... loaded on shakers (140 ± 10 RPM) and sterile filters were applied over the surface of the medium (3–5 Lpm). Cultivation was allowed to continue for ..... Assessment of Bordetella pertussis strain 509 cell mass yield in baffle and vortex mode of agitation during large scale industrial fermentor cultivation.

  8. Editorial: Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants. Ziyaad Dangor, Sanjay G. Lala. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  9. Proteome analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolated from human macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamberti, Y.; Cafiero, J.H.; Surmann, K.; Valdez, H.; Holubová, Jana; Večerek, Branislav; Šebo, Peter; Schmidt, F.; Völker, U.; Rodriguez, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, MAY16 (2016), s. 55-67 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR028 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * Intracellular survival * Proteomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  10. High-throughput assay for bacterial adhesion on acellular dermal matrices and synthetic surgical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyame, Theodore T; Lemon, Katherine P; Kolter, Roberto; Liao, Eric C

    2011-11-01

    There has been increasing use of synthetic and acellular dermal matrix materials in surgery, ranging from breast reconstruction to hernia repairs. There is a paucity of data on how acellular dermal matrix compares with other surgical materials as a substrate for bacterial adhesion, the first step in formation biofilm, which occurs in prosthetic wound infections. The authors have designed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus adherence on various synthetic and biologically derived materials. Clinical isolates of S. aureus (strains SC-1 and UAMS-1) were cultured with different materials, and bacterial adherence was measured using a resazurin cell vitality assay. Four materials that are commonly used in surgery were evaluated: Prolene mesh, Vicryl mesh, and two different acellular dermal matrix preparations (AlloDerm and FlexHD). The authors were able to develop a high-throughput and reliable assay for quantifying bacterial adhesion on synthetic and biologically derived materials. The resazurin vitality assay can be reliably used to quantify bacterial adherence to acellular dermal matrix material and synthetic material. S. aureus strains SC-1 and UAMS-1 both adhered better to acellular dermal matrix materials (AlloDerm versus FlexHD) than to the synthetic material Prolene. S. aureus also adhered better to Vicryl than to Prolene. Strain UAMS-1 adhered better to Vicryl and acellular dermal matrix materials than did strain SC-1. The results show that S. aureus adheres more readily to acellular dermal matrix material than to synthetic material. The resazurin assay provides a standard method for evaluating surgical materials with regard to bacterial adherence and potential propensity for biofilm development.

  11. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussi.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J; Hestekin, B M

    1966-06-01

    Munoz, J. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), and B. M. Hestekin. Antigens of Bordetella pertussis. IV. Effect of heat, Merthiolate, and formaldehyde on histamine-sensitizing factor and protective activity of soluble extracts from Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2175-2179. 1966.-Both histamine-sensitizing and protective activities of soluble preparations from Bordetella pertussis cells are destroyed by heating at 80 C for 0.5 hr. The histamine-sensitizing activity appeared to be more susceptible to inactivation by heat than the protective activity. Formaldehyde in a final concentration of 0.5% rapidly diminished the histamine-sensitizing ability of saline extract (SE) held at 37 C. The protective activity was clearly more resistant to inactivation by formaldehyde at similar temperature. The inactivating action of formaldehyde was slower when the concentration of SE was increased or when the mixture was kept at 2 to 5 C. Merthiolate in a final concentration of 1:10,000 had no demonstrable deleterious effects on either protective or histamine-sensitizing activity of SE.

  12. Pertussis outbreak among patients and healthcare workers in a provincial dialysis facility in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Kobayashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tokuda, K; Miura, S; Abe, Y; Kashiwazaki, J; Aoyagi, T; Kaku, M; Kanemitsu, K

    2016-12-01

    Sixteen pertussis cases in haemodialysis patients and healthcare workers were detected in a 25-bed outpatient haemodialysis facility in Japan between October 2013 and April 2014. To describe an outbreak of pertussis among patients and healthcare workers, and to identify risk factors for pertussis infection. Sputum cultures, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays performed on nasopharyngeal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens including Bordetella pertussis, and serum anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin G measurements were performed for all haemodialysis patients and healthcare workers. A retrospective case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors for pertussis infection in the clinic. Only six of the 16 pertussis patients (37.5%) had respiratory symptoms. Recent exposure to an unmasked individual with a cough was associated with pertussis infection (odds ratio 6.25, Phealthcare workers. This report demonstrates the risk of pertussis transmission in a haemodialysis facility, and underscores the importance of wearing surgical masks to control a pertussis outbreak. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyesterurethane and acellular matrix based hybrid biomaterial for bladder engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Maya; Milleret, Vincent; Noetzli, Sarah; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based biomaterials for soft tissue engineering have inherent disadvantages, such as a relative rigidity and a limited variability in the mechanical properties and degradation rates. In this study, a novel electrospun biomaterial based on degradable polyesterurethane (PEU) (DegraPol® ) was investigated for potential use for bladder engineering in vitro and in vivo. Hybrid microfibrous PEU and PLGA scaffolds were produced by direct electrospinning of the polymer onto a bladder acellular matrix. The scaffold morphology of the scaffold was analyzed, and the biological performance was tested in vitro and in vivo using a rat cystoplasty model. Anatomical and functional outcomes after implantation were analyzed macroscopically, histologically and by cystometry, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that PEU samples had a lower porosity (p reaction in vivo. PEU is a promising biomaterial, particularly with regard to functional tissue engineering of the bladder and other hollow organs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 658-667, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preparation and Biomechanical Properties of an Acellular Porcine Corneal Stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Hongmei; Dai, Zhenye; Cao, Yichen; Jin, Chuanyu

    2017-11-01

    To construct an acellular porcine corneal stroma (aPCS) as a human corneal stroma alternative and to further explore its biomechanical properties. A combination of DNA-RNA enzymes and ultrasound technology was used to strip the native porcine corneal cells. The microstructure of aPCS was observed by H&E staining, DAPI staining, and α-Gal tests. The mechanical properties were detected by a tension machine. Cytotoxicity of aPCS was measured by the MTT assay. The subcutaneous embedding experiment in rats was also used to detect immunity and degradation. The aPCS was transplanted into the rabbit cornea by lamellar keratoplasty, general observations were made at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after implantation, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical properties of aPCS were not damaged during the decellularization process. The aPCS extracts had no significant cytotoxicity on human corneal stroma cells. Moreover, the subcutaneous embedding experiment in rats demonstrated that aPCS could not be degraded and induced no immune reaction in and around the transplanted discs. More important is that the aPCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma and maintained corneal transparency and thickness, with almost no neovascularization and inflammation at 3 months after surgery. The aPCS prepared in this study had good biocompatibility, safety, and low antigenicity, which has great potential for corneal disease treatment.

  15. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  16. Seroprevalence study of B. pertussis infection in health care workers in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Costa, Josep; Rocamora, Laura; Bayas, José M; Campins, Magda; Esteve, Maria; Borras, Eva; Domínguez, Angela; For The Study Of The Immune Status In Health Care, The Working Group

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a re-emerging infection in countries with high infant immunization coverage. Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed and can transmit the infection to especially-vulnerable patients. Therefore, pertussis vaccination of HCW is recommended. Between June 2008 and December 2010, 460 HCW from hospital and primary healthcare centers were recruited to determine susceptibility to pertussis. IgG antibodies against pertussis (anti-pertussis ab) were measured, using a routine technique that detects antibodies against pertussis including pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA). Positive results were confirmed with a more-specific technique that only assesses anti-PT IgG antibodies. The median age was 42 years (range, 21-65), 77.3% were female. 172 were nurses, 133 physicians, 60 other clinical workers and 95 non-clinical workers. None had received pertussis vaccination since childhood. The overall prevalence of anti-pertussis antibodies was 51.7%, (95% CI 47.1-56.4). Anti-PT antibodies were determined in the 220 HCW with positive anti-pertussis antibodies: 4 (1.8%) were negative and 33 (15%) had a high titer (≥ 45 IU/mL). No significant differences between the prevalence of anti-pertussis antibodies or anti-TP antibodies were found according to age, type of occupation or type of center. Our study confirms the need for vaccination of HCW because at least half are susceptible to pertussis. High anti-PT titers found in 15% of seropositive HCW showed that they had had recent contact with B. pertussis.

  17. Acellular Dermal Matrix as an Adjunct Material in Cleft Le Fort I Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; MacIsaac, Zoe M; Swanson, Edward; Davidson, Edward; Kumar, Anand

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of acellular dermal matrix in the management of nasal lining deficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with residual/recurrent oronasal fistulae who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy. In instances where there was an inadequate volume of nasal mucosa for tension-free closure or for defects >1 cm in width, the acellular dermal matrix was used for augmentation. Demographic and cleft-related factors were recorded. Complications (recurrent fistula, infection, seroma, and wound dehiscence) were recorded. Over the 3-year period, the authors used acellular dermal matrix to augment nasal lining in 8 subjects. The sample's mean age was 18.7 ± 3.1 years; 5 subjects were male. Six patients had bilateral cleft defects. The mean follow-up time was 20.2 ± 3.2 years. There were no episodes of infection, seroma, wound dehiscence, or recurrent fistula. Acellular dermal matrix is a useful adjunct for managing nasal liningdeficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. There were no episodes of bone graft extrusion, infection, tooth loss, or bone graft loss. The Enemark scores improved significantly across both subsets (P managed at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy using allograft bone and acellular dermal matrix.

  18. Meta-Analysis of Pulmonary Transcriptomes from Differently Primed Mice Identifies Molecular Signatures to Differentiate Immune Responses following Bordetella pertussis Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raeven, René H. M; Pennings, Jeroen L. A; van Riet, Elly; Kersten, Gideon F. A; Metz, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    ... by Bordetella pertussis , is an endemic disease with considerable health impact [1, 2]. Several vaccines against B. pertussis are marketed or under development. These include whole-cell pertussis vacci...

  19. Pertussis without apparent cough in a disabled girl with a tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Hisataka; Shoji, Kensuke; Uda, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Tomoo; Kubota, Mitsuru; Ishiguro, Akira; Miyairi, Isao

    2017-11-01

    Pertussis is characterized by intense, prolonged coughing in children often followed by a distinctive whooping sound on inspiration. However, the clinical manifestations and natural course of pertussis in disabled children are largely unknown. We experienced a case of pertussis in a disabled girl who had previously undergone a tracheostomy and laryngotracheal separation. She presented with increased tracheal secretions and required hospitalization but did not develop a cough. Pertussis was suspected from the sputum Gram stain, which revealed numerous, short gram-negative rods that did not grow on chocolate agar. A nucleic acid amplification test was positive for Bordetella pertussis and the patient improved on azithromycin. Pertussis may present without its cardinal symptoms in disabled children. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale comparative analysis of pertussis population dynamics: periodicity, synchrony, and impact of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutin, Hélène; Guégan, Jean-François; Elguero, Eric; Simondon, François; Cazelles, Bernard

    2005-06-15

    Pertussis is a worldwide infectious disease which persists despite massive vaccination campaigns that have gone on for several decades. To obtain an overall view of pertussis dynamics and the impact of vaccination, the authors performed, using the wavelet method, a comparative analysis of pertussis time series in 12 countries to detect and quantify periodicity and synchrony between them. Results showed a clear 3- to 4-year cycle in all countries, but the main finding was that this periodicity was transient. No global pattern in the effect of vaccination on pertussis dynamics was observed, but some spatial synchrony between countries was detected. This large-scale comparative analysis of pertussis dynamics sheds light on the complexity of the multiple interactions involved in global pertussis spatial dynamic patterns. It suggests a need to perform a global survey of human infectious diseases over the long term, which would permit better assessment of the risk of disease outbreaks in the future.

  1. The Role of Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in Gulf War-Related Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Ramirez et al, 1996). Finally, although natural infection with Bordetella pertussis and its whole cell-derived vaccine promote a strong Thl response...the stress of deployment with additional effects of the T helper 2 (Th2) adjuvant pertussis could skew the immune response towards a Th2 profile. The...paradoxically the acellular vaccine component pertussis toxin used as adjuvant in GW vaccinations causes Th2 deviation (Munoz et al, 1990; Mu et al, 1993

  2. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; D'Angelo, Denise; Shealy, Kristen H; Singleton, James A; Liang, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2015-05-22

    In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range = 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range = 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range = 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers.

  3. Evaluation of two vaccine education interventions to improve pertussis vaccination among pregnant African American women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Jennifer L; Frew, Paula M; Cortes, Marielysse; Malik, Fauzia A; Chamberlain, Allison T; Seib, Katherine; Flowers, Lisa; Ault, Kevin A; Howards, Penelope P; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2017-03-13

    Vaccination coverage with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in pregnancy or immediately postpartum has been low. Limited data exist on rigorously evaluated interventions to increase maternal vaccination, including Tdap. Tailored messaging based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) framework has been successful in improving uptake of some public health interventions. We evaluated the effect of two ELM-based vaccine educational interventions on Tdap vaccination among pregnant African American women, a group of women who tend to have lower vaccine uptake compared with other groups. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to pilot test two interventions - an affective messaging video and a cognitive messaging iBook - among pregnant African American women recruited during routine prenatal care visits. We measured Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period (during pregnancy and immediately postpartum), reasons for non-vaccination, and intention to receive Tdap in the next pregnancy. Among the enrolled women (n=106), 90% completed follow-up. Tdap vaccination in the perinatal period was 18% in the control group; 50% in the iBook group (Risk Ratio [vs. control group]: 2.83; 95% CI, 1.26-6.37), and 29% in the video group (RR: 1.65; 95% CI, 0.66-4.09). From baseline to follow-up, women's reported intention to receive Tdap during the next pregnancy improved in all three groups. Among unvaccinated women, the most common reason reported for non-vaccination was lack of a recommendation for Tdap by the woman's physician. Education interventions that provide targeted information for pregnant women in an interactive manner may be useful to improve Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period. However, larger studies including multiple racial and ethnic groups are needed to evaluate robustness of our findings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01740310. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential regulation of type III secretion and virulence genes in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica by a secreted anti-σ factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Umesh; Shokeen, Bhumika; Cheng, Ning; Cho, Yeonjoo; Blum, Charles; Coppola, Giovanni; Miller, Jeff F

    2016-03-01

    The BvgAS phosphorelay regulates ∼10% of the annotated genomes of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and controls their infectious cycles. The hierarchical organization of the regulatory network allows the integration of contextual signals to control all or specific subsets of BvgAS-regulated genes. Here, we characterize a regulatory node involving a type III secretion system (T3SS)-exported protein, BtrA, and demonstrate its role in determining fundamental differences in T3SS phenotypes among Bordetella species. We show that BtrA binds and antagonizes BtrS, a BvgAS-regulated extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, to couple the secretory activity of the T3SS apparatus to gene expression. In B. bronchiseptica, a remarkable spectrum of expression states can be resolved by manipulating btrA, encompassing over 80 BtrA-activated loci that include genes encoding toxins, adhesins, and other cell surface proteins, and over 200 BtrA-repressed genes that encode T3SS apparatus components, secretion substrates, the BteA effector, and numerous additional factors. In B. pertussis, BtrA retains activity as a BtrS antagonist and exerts tight negative control over T3SS genes. Most importantly, deletion of btrA in B. pertussis revealed T3SS-mediated, BteA-dependent cytotoxicity, which had previously eluded detection. This effect was observed in laboratory strains and in clinical isolates from a recent California pertussis epidemic. We propose that the BtrA-BtrS regulatory node determines subspecies-specific differences in T3SS expression among Bordetella species and that B. pertussis is capable of expressing a full range of T3SS-dependent phenotypes in the presence of appropriate contextual cues.

  5. Eyelid reconstruction with acellular human dermal allograft after chemical and thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Chen; Zheng, Wang; Jianjun, Gu

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of eyelid reconstruction with acellular dermal allograft in patients with eyelid defect after chemical and thermal burns. Eyelid reconstruction was performed in 15 eyelids of 13 patients during the period of June 2001-October 2004 by a single senior surgeon (Chen). Among them five patients had thermal burns, and eight patients had chemical burns. The acellular dermal allograft was used as a tarsus substitute that was sutured into the place between the levator aponeurosis in upper lid or retractor in lower eyelid and the remaining tarsus. After a mean follow-up of 9 months, satisfactory function and cosmesis were obtained. No implant rejection or severe complications were observed. Acellular dermal allograft may be used safely as a posterior lamellar spacer graft after chemical and thermal burns; the allograft appears to be biocompatible and does not aggravate the inflammation in the injured eyelid.

  6. Evaluation of a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Kazunari; Moriuchi, Takumi; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay kit for Bordetella pertussis detection. The LAMP primers were designed to target the ptxP1 allele of the pertussis toxin promoter, but the assay could detect B. pertussis ptxP3 and ptxP8 strains in addition to ptxP1 strains, with high analytical sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for a Role of the Polysaccharide Capsule Transport Proteins in Pertussis Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Hoo; Jian Hang Lam; Ludovic Huot; Aakanksha Pant; Rui Li; David Hot; Sylvie Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharide (PS) capsules are important virulence determinants for many bacterial pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, produces a surface associated microcapsule but its role in pertussis pathogenesis remained unknown. Here we showed that the B. pertussis capsule locus is expressed in vivo in murine lungs and that absence of the membrane-associated protein KpsT, involved in the transport of the PS polymers across the envelope, but not the surface-exposed PS capsule...

  8. Does Breastfeeding Protect Young Infants From Pertussis? Case-control Study and Immunologic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Gesualdo, Francesco; Carloni, Emanuela; Villani, Alberto; Midulla, Fabio; Carsetti, Rita; Stefanelli, Paola; Fedele, Giorgio; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. Hospitalized infants breastfeeding on pertussis was investigated through multivariable analysis. Breast milk and blood samples were obtained from mothers of patients. IgA and bacterial binding against Bordetella pertussis and other bacteria were tested in breast milk. IgG against pertussis toxin (PT) was tested in serum. We enrolled 296 patients (61 cases and 235 controls). Exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with pertussis compared with partial breastfeeding/artificial feeding [odds ratio: 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-4.67]. Children with siblings were at higher risk for pertussis (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.21-5.35). IgA against pertussis antigens were not higher in cases (IgA anti-PT median = 0.24 optical density) compared with controls (IgA anti-PT median = 0.21 optical density). Though bacterial binding to B. pertussis, measured in breast milk, was higher in cases (median = 4.35%) compared with controls (median = 2.8%; P = 0.004), bacterial binding to B. pertussis was low compared with other pathogens. IgG titers were higher in mothers of cases, but no correlation was found between serum IgG and breast milk IgA. Breastfeeding remains a mainstay of prevention for numerous diseases, though it does not seem to play a role against pertussis. Alternative strategies to protect unvaccinated infants from pertussis should be considered.

  9. Morbidity and mortality due to Bordetella pertussis: a significant pathogen in West Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    KAMPMANN, B; MacKenzie, G

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of specific surveillance platforms for pertussis and availability of suitable diagnostics at the hospital level, reliable data that describe morbidity and mortality from pertussis are difficult to obtain in any setting, as is the case in West Africa. Here, we summarize the available evidence of the burden of pertussis in the region, given historical data, and describe recent and ongoing epidemiological studies that offer opportunities for additional data collection. The availab...

  10. Bordetella Pertussis is an Uncommon Pathogen in Children Hospitalized with Bronchiolitis During the Winter Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Pedro A.; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Jewell, Alan M.; Thakar, Sneha D.; Grant, Cameron C.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Espinola, Janice A.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the United States (U.S.), Bordetella pertussis incidence has increased. Cough and apnea are common findings in pertussis and also in bronchiolitis, the most common cause of hospitalization in U.S. infants. The objective was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis infection in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis and to describe its clinical course. Methods Children hospitalized with bronchiolitis and age bronchiolitis in the winter. Making a diagnosis of pertussis can be challenging because the disease can be atypical, and may not meet the CDC definition of probable infection. PMID:25970109

  11. Pertussis and parapertussis in children and adults with a persistent cough: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Piia; Oona, Marje; Kaart, Tanel; Toompere, Karolin; Maskina, Tereza; Koort, Iris; Rätsep, Anneli; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence, symptoms and course of pertussis and parapertussis among patients at any age with a cough of unknown aetiology that had lasted for ≥ 7 days and to assess the diagnostic value of the symptoms included in the World Health Organisations' (WHO) clinical case definition of pertussis. Patients were enrolled between the 23 April 2012 and 31 December 2014 at 25 general practitioner (GP) centres and three paediatric hospitals. Pertussis was confirmed by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or quantitative serology. Parapertussis was confirmed by culture and/or PCR. Altogether, 549 patients were recruited. Of them, 22 (4.0%; 95% CI 2.5-6.0) had pertussis (predominately diagnosed by positive serology 17/22) and 7 (1.3%; 95% CI 0.5-2.6) had parapertussis. Patients with pertussis were more likely to have inspiratory whooping and posttussive emesis than those with a cough of another/unknown aetiology. However, the presence or absence of these two symptoms did not definitively confirm or exclude pertussis. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO's clinical definition was 0.77 and 0.38, respectively. The prevalence of pertussis and parapertussis among patients with a persistent cough of unknown aetiology in Estonia is low. As clinical symptoms alone cannot be used to distinguish pertussis, we recommend that laboratory testing for pertussis is performed in all patients with a persistent cough regardless of age.

  12. Microsurgical anastomosis of renal vasculature in rats: A practical platform for acellular kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Kameli, Seyede Maryam; Nabavizadeh, Behnam

    2018-02-03

    End-stage renal disease is becoming a contemporary global concern with increasing prevalence. The available treatment strategies are limited to dialysis and renal transplantation. However, limited organ supply and autoimmune rejection are the shortcomings that limit widespread application of transplantation. Favorably, regenerative medicine is able to provide acellular natural scaffolds for renal transplantation. Experimental surgeries in animal models are a fundamental step in transplantation research. This video presents a practical method for transplantation of bilateral acellular kidneys in a rat model, which could serve as a key step for further research. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bordetella pertussis TonB, a Bvg-Independent Virulence Determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Elizabeth; Guiso, Nicole; Menozzi, Franco D.; Locht, Camille

    2000-01-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, high-affinity iron uptake requires the TonB/ExbB/ExbD envelope complex to release iron chelates from their specific outer membrane receptors into the periplasm. Based on sequence similarities, the Bordetella pertussis tonB exbB exbD locus was identified on a cloned DNA fragment. The tight organization of the three genes suggests that they are cotranscribed. A putative Fur-binding sequence located upstream from tonB was detected in a Fur titration assay, indicating that the tonB exbB exbD operon may be Fur-repressed in high-iron growth conditions. Putative structural genes of the β-subunit of the histone-like protein HU and of a new two-component regulatory system were identified upstream from tonB and downstream from exbD, respectively. A B. pertussis ΔtonB exbB::Kmr mutant was constructed by allelic exchange and characterized. The mutant was impaired for growth in low-iron medium in vitro and could not use ferrichrome, desferal, or hemin as iron sources. Levels of production of the major bacterial toxins and adhesins were similar in the TonB+/TonB− pair. The ΔtonB exbB mutant was still responsive to chemical modulators of virulence; thus, the BvgA/BvgS two-component system is not TonB dependent. Nevertheless, in vivo in the mouse respiratory infection model, the colonization ability of the mutant was reduced compared to the parental strain. PMID:10722583

  14. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim; Mašín, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2014), s. 1215-1227 ISSN 1476-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * antigen delivery * Bordetella pertussis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2014

  15. Development of an acellular tumor extracellular matrix as a three-dimensional scaffold for tumor engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Lü

    Full Text Available Tumor engineering is defined as the construction of three-dimensional (3D tumors in vitro with tissue engineering approaches. The present 3D scaffolds for tumor engineering have several limitations in terms of structure and function. To get an ideal 3D scaffold for tumor culture, A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice to establish xenotransplatation models. Tumors were retrieved at 30-day implantation and sliced into sheets. They were subsequently decellularized by four procedures. Two decellularization methods, Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treatment and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatment, achieved complete cellular removal and thus were chosen for evaluation of histological and biochemical properties. Native tumor tissues were used as controls. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured onto the two 3D scaffolds for further cell growth and growth factor secretion investigations, with the two-dimensional (2D culture and cells cultured onto the Matrigel scaffolds used as controls. Results showed that Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treated tumor sheets had well-preserved extracellular matrix structures and components. Their porosity was increased but elastic modulus was decreased compared with the native tumor samples. They supported MCF-7 cell repopulation and proliferation, as well as expression of growth factors. When cultured within the Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated scaffold, A549 cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-480 had similar behaviors to MCF-7 cells, but human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells (KYSE-510 had a relatively slow cell repopulation rate. This study provides evidence that Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated acellular tumor extracellular matrices are promising 3D scaffolds with ideal spatial arrangement, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility for improved modeling of 3D tumor microenvironments.

  16. Effect van pertussis-toxine op de gevoeligheid van receptoren in het centrale zenuwstelsel van de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan JW; Schoffermeer ANM

    1988-01-01

    De invloed van kinkhoestvaccinatie op het centrale zenuwstelsel (CZS) wordt bestudeerd vanwege het voorkomen van neurologische effecten bij kinderen na vaccinatie. De aandacht wordt vooral gericht op het pertussis toxine. Pertussis toxine (PT) zou vooral reageren met het receptor adenylaatcyclase

  17. Incidence of Seromas and Infections Using Fenestrated versus Nonfenestrated Acellular Dermal Matrix in Breast Reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Palaia, David A.; Arthur, Karen S.; Cahan, Anthony C.; Rosenberg, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) provide clinical benefits in breast reconstruction but have been associated with increased postoperative complications, most frequently seromas. Fenestration of the ADM before insertion into the reconstructed breast may reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. In this retrospective analysis, postoperative complications were assessed after breast reconstruction with or without fenestrated ADMs. Methods: Patients who underwent immediate 2...

  18. Corneal Stroma Regeneration with Acellular Corneal Stroma Sheets and Keratocytes in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao Yun; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Dan; Lu, Yang; Zhou, Guangdong; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2015-01-01

    Acellular corneal stroma matrix has been used for corneal stroma engineering. However, because of its compact tissue structure, regrowth of keratocytes into the scaffold is difficult. Previously, we developed a sandwich model for cartilage engineering using acellular cartilage sheets. In the present study, we tested this model for corneal stroma regeneration using acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) sheets and keratocytes. Porcine corneas were decellularized by NaCl treatment, and the APCS was cut into 20-μm-thick sheets. A rabbit corneal stroma defect model was created by lamellar keratoplasty and repaired by transplantation of five pieces of APCS sheets with keratocytes. Six months after transplantation, transparent corneas were present in the experimental group, which were confirmed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination and transmittance examination. The biomechanical properties in the experimental group were similar to those of normal cornea. Histological analyses showed an even distribution of keratocytes and well-oriented matrix in the stroma layer in the experimental group. Together, these results demonstrated that the sandwich model using acellular corneal stroma sheets and keratocytes could be potentially useful for corneal stroma regeneration.

  19. Do acellularized dermal matrices change the rationale for immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Lawrence B; Disa, Joseph J

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) to immediate breast reconstruction. The current literature on ADMs is reviewed and the potential advantages and disadvantages of their use are highlighted. Technical considerations on how to effectively use these materials is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro engineering of a palatal mucosa equivalent with acellular porcine dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xuepeng; Zhao, Yifang; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Weiguo; He, Sangang

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a palatal mucosa equivalent composed of multilayered oral keratinocytes grown on the acellular porcine dermal matrix. Acellular porcine dermal matrix was prepared through a series of procedures and assessed by histological, immunohistochemical, and scanning electron microscopy examination. The palatal mucosa equivalent was fabricated by seeding oral keratinocytes, which cultured from human palate mucosa, onto the acellular dermal matrix. After 4 days submerged in medium, this composite was raised to the air-liquid interface for another 7 or 14 days of cultivation. The results demonstrated the processed porcine dermal matrix was totally cell-free. The resultant palatal mucosa equivalent showed a multilayered oral epithelium that had been formed, and the number of cell layers was correlated with the culture period at the air-liquid interface. Oral keratinocytes infiltrated into the empty hair follicles of the acellular porcine dermal matrix and formed an anchor-like structure, which exhibited resemblance to the rete ridges of the native palate mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining for CK10/13, CK19, Ki-67 nuclear antigen, and Heparan sulphate indicated the cultured palatal mucosa equivalent shared the same characteristics with that of the native palate mucosa. In conclusion, our fabricated palatal mucosa equivalent exhibited the characteristics of the native counterpart, and this equivalent might be useful for recovery of the wounds in the palate secondary to palatoplasty.

  1. Role of Demyelination Efficiency within Acellular Nerve Scaffolds during Nerve Regeneration across Peripheral Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqin Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hudson’s optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson’s method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson’s method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid. In addition, the efficacy of this new scaffold in repairing a 1.5 cm defect in the sciatic nerve of rats was examined. The modified method produced a higher degree of demyelination than Hudson’s method, resulting in a minor host immune response in vivo and providing an improved environment for nerve regeneration and, consequently, better functional recovery. A morphological study showed that the number of regenerated axons in the modified group and Hudson group did not differ. However, the autograft and modified groups were more similar in myelin sheath regeneration than the autograft and Hudson groups. These results suggest that the modified method for producing a demyelinated acellular scaffold may aid functional recovery in general after nerve defects.

  2. Corneal Stroma Regeneration with Acellular Corneal Stroma Sheets and Keratocytes in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yun Ma

    Full Text Available Acellular corneal stroma matrix has been used for corneal stroma engineering. However, because of its compact tissue structure, regrowth of keratocytes into the scaffold is difficult. Previously, we developed a sandwich model for cartilage engineering using acellular cartilage sheets. In the present study, we tested this model for corneal stroma regeneration using acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS sheets and keratocytes. Porcine corneas were decellularized by NaCl treatment, and the APCS was cut into 20-μm-thick sheets. A rabbit corneal stroma defect model was created by lamellar keratoplasty and repaired by transplantation of five pieces of APCS sheets with keratocytes. Six months after transplantation, transparent corneas were present in the experimental group, which were confirmed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination and transmittance examination. The biomechanical properties in the experimental group were similar to those of normal cornea. Histological analyses showed an even distribution of keratocytes and well-oriented matrix in the stroma layer in the experimental group. Together, these results demonstrated that the sandwich model using acellular corneal stroma sheets and keratocytes could be potentially useful for corneal stroma regeneration.

  3. Histological evaluation and biomechanical characterisation of an acellular porcine cornea scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi; Pang, Kunpeng; Yang, Yongmei

    2011-03-01

    To optimise a protocol to produce an acellular porcine cornea scaffold and investigate its mechanical integrity and biocompatibility. Fresh porcine corneas were decellularised with different detergents over a range of concentrations. Morphological and histological examinations were carried out to detect the major structure of the cornea. Completely acellular cornea scaffolds were subjected to uniaxial tensile testing and reseeding assay. Most protocols resulted in the retention of large numbers of whole cells and cell fragments. Only sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0.5% or 1%) resulted in total decellularisation at 24h. Histological analysis of the acellular matrix showed that the corneal stromal cells had been completely removed, collagen fibres were arranged in an orderly fashion, and Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane were both intact after decellularisation. The ultimate tensile strength of acellular matrix treated with 0.5% SDS for 24h was not affected significantly compared with that of fresh cornea (p>0.05), whereas there was a significant difference between fresh cornea and cornea treated with 1% SDS (pcornea decellularisation. Biomechanical analysis and recellularisation showed that treatment with 0.5% SDS for 24h was optimal.

  4. Mesothelium regeneration on acellular bovine pericardia loaded with an angiogenic agent (ginsenoside Rg1) successfully reduces postsurgical pericardial adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen; Lai, Po-Hong; Wang, Chung-Chi; Chen, Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to reduce postsurgical pericardial adhesions with porous acellular bovine pericardia loaded with ginsenoside Rg1, an angiogenic agent isolated from Panax ginseng (the Acellular/Rg1 patch). The acellular/Rg1 patch was used as a substitute to repair a defect created in the pericardium of a rabbit model. A commercially available expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch, the cellular pericardium (the cellular patch), and the acellular pericardium without loading Rg1 (the acellular patch) were used as controls. The implanted samples were retrieved at 1 and 3 months after surgery (n = 5 per group at each time point). It was found that each side of the implanted patch could be remesothelialized provided that regeneration of neo-tissue fibrils occurred initially on its surfaces. Because remesothelialization did not take place on the surfaces of the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and cellular patches, moderate to severe adhesions to the lung and epicardium were clearly observed. As compared with the cellular patch, the acellular patch significantly reduced postsurgical pericardial adhesions, especially on its lung side, as a result of remesothelialization. In the presence of Rg1, a faster remesothelialization was observed on each side of the acellular/Rg1 patch. Therefore, the acellular/Rg1 patch was free of any adhesions to the lung; however, there was still a filmy adhesion to the epicardium observed in 3 of the 5 studied animals at 3 months after surgery, due to incomplete remesothelialization. The acellular/Rg1 patch effectively repaired pericardial defects in rabbits and successfully reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions.

  5. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: acellularization of human flexor tendons with preservation of biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-08-01

    Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4  h followed by 24  h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212  ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4  ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104  ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24  h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to

  6. Decreased leukocyte accumulation and delayed Bordetella pertussis clearance in IL-6-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Goel, Tania; Goodfield, Laura L; Muse, Sarah J; Harvill, Eric T

    2011-04-15

    IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine primarily produced by the innate immune system, has been implicated in the development of acquired immune responses, though its roles are largely undefined and may vary in the context of different diseases. Using a murine model of infection, we established that IL-6 influences the adaptive immune responses against the endemic human respiratory pathogen Bordetella pertussis. IL-6 was induced in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice by B. pertussis. IL-6(-/-) mice showed a protracted infectious course and were less efficiently protected by B. pertussis vaccination than wild-type mice. Abs from IL-6(-/-) mice, though lower in titer, efficiently reduced B. pertussis numbers in IL-6-sufficient mice. Pulmonary leukocyte recruitment and splenic or pulmonary T cell cytokine responses to B. pertussis, including Th1 and Th17 cytokine production, were lower in IL-6(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer of immune wild-type CD4(+) cells ameliorated the defect of IL-6(-/-) mice in the control of B. pertussis numbers. Together, these results reveal the dysregulation of multiple aspects of adaptive immune responses in B. pertussis-infected IL-6(-/-) mice and suggest that IL-6 is involved in regulating Ab generation, pulmonary leukocyte accumulation, and T cell cytokine production in response to B. pertussis as well as the generation of effective vaccine-induced immunity against this pathogen.

  7. Cholesterol-rich domains are involved in Bordetella pertussis phagocytosis and intracellular survival in neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberti, Yanina; Perez Vidakovics, Maria Laura; Van der Pol, Ludo-W.; Eugenia Rodriguez, Maria

    Bordetella pertussis-specific antibodies protect against whooping cough by facilitating host defense mechanisms such as phagocytosis However. the mechanism involved in the phagocytosis of the bacteria under non-opsonic conditions is still poorly characterized. We report here that B. pertussis

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Bordetella pertussis Strains Representing the Pandemic ptxP3 Lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, M.J.; Heide, H.G. van der; Zeddeman, A.; Heuvelman, K.; Gent, M. van; Mooi, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen adaptation has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis. To facilitate our understanding of this adaptation we report here 11 completely closed and annotated Bordetella pertussis genomes representing the pandemic ptxP3 lineage. Our analyses included six strains which do not produce the

  9. Bordetella pertussis attachment to respiratory epithelial cells can be impaired by fimbriae-specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, ME; Hellwig, SMM; Vidakovics, MLAP; Berbers, GAM; van de Winkel, JGJ

    Bordetella pertussis attachment to host cells is a crucial step in colonization. In this study, we investigated the specificity of antibodies, induced either by vaccination or infection, capable of reducing bacterial adherence to respiratory epithelial cells. Both sera and purified anti-B. pertussis

  10. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis : evaluation of the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, de H.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.

    In a

  11. Assessing determinants of the intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination: A survey among Dutch parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Olga; Kraan, Janneke; Akkermans, Reinier; Ruiter, Robert A C; van der Velden, Koos; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2016-09-07

    Pertussis cocooning is one of the strategies aiming to prevent the potential harm of pertussis in infants by vaccinating (among others) their parents. Several countries adopted this strategy, but uptake is a problem. Determinants of parental uptake are important in the design of an effective vaccination programme. Therefore, this study aims to assess parents' intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination and its determinants. A 98 item questionnaire was developed based on a theoretical framework, assessing parents' intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination and its personal and psychosocial determinants. In addition, beliefs underlying parents' attitude towards pertussis cocooning vaccination were assessed. Both logistic and linear regression analysis were used to assess univariate and multivariate associations amongst study variables. Parents returned 282 questionnaires. The majority of the parents (78%) reported a positive intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination. Attitude (OR 6.6, pvaccination beliefs (β 0.58, pvaccination. The parental intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination in this study is rather high. Targeting the identified determinants of parents' acceptance in a pertussis cocooning vaccination programme is crucial to secure that intention is translated into actual vaccination uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing determinants of the intention to accept a pertussis cocooning vaccination: A survey among Dutch parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, O.; Kraan, J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Ruiter, R.A.; Velden, K. van der; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pertussis cocooning is one of the strategies aiming to prevent the potential harm of pertussis in infants by vaccinating (among others) their parents. Several countries adopted this strategy, but uptake is a problem. Determinants of parental uptake are important in the design of an

  13. Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in maternal and cord blood pairs: a Thai cohort study

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    Nasamon Wanlapakorn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, yet an increasing incidence of pertussis occurs in many countries. Thailand has a long-standing pertussis vaccination policy, therefore most expectant mothers today had received vaccines as children. The resurgence of pertussis among Thai infants in recent years led us to examine the pre-existing antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in a cohort of 90 pregnant women. Methods We evaluated the IgG to the Pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (PRN in maternal and cord blood sera using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Results When values of >10 IU/ml were accepted as potential protective concentrations, we found that the percentages of unprotected infants were 73.3%, 43.3% and 75.5% for anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG, respectively. Discussion These results may explain the susceptibility for pertussis among newborn infants in Thailand and support the requirement for a pertussis booster vaccine during pregnancy, which may contribute to the passive seroprotection among newborns during the first months of life.

  14. Acellular ostrich corneal stroma used as scaffold for construction of tissue-engineered cornea

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    Xian-Ning Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS: A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS: The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION: We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft.

  15. Epidemiology of pertussis in Casablanca (Morocco): contribution of conventional and molecular diagnosis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katfy, Khalid; Guiso, Nicole; Diawara, Idrissa; Zerouali, Khalid; Slaoui, Bouchra; Jouhadi, Zineb; Zineddine, Abdelhadi; Belabbes, Houria; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2017-05-16

    Pertussis, a vaccine preventable disease, is still responsible of significant morbidity and mortality around the world, mostly in newborns. The aim of the present study was (1) to introduce pertussis surveillance in the major pediatric hospital of Casablanca (2) to analyze the prevalence of pertussis among children under 14 years of age and their entourage in Casablanca, Morocco. This is a prospective and non-case controlled study, including children suspected of Pertussis admitted at the Abderrahim Harouchi Pediatric Hospital in Casablanca, from January 2013 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for Bordetella spp. culture and Real time PCR detection (RT-PCR) with specific primers of Bordetella spp., B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. holmesii. The detection of Bordetella spp. was also performed in some household contacts of the children suspected of pertussis. During the 2.5-years period, a total of 282 samples were collected from hospitalized children (156) and in some of their contacts (126). Among 156 samples from the children (from whom 57% were under 2 month of age), Bordetella DNA was detected in 61% (96/156) by RT-PCR. Among these positive samples, 91.7% (88/96) corresponded to B. pertussis DNA. Furthermore, in 39.5% (38/96) of the Bordetella positive samples, B. holmesii DNA was also detected. B. parapertussis DNA was detected in only one sample (1/156). Out of the 156 samples collected from the hospitalized children, only 48 were tested by culture, and 4 B. pertussis were isolated (8.3%). Among the 126 samples from the contacts of the children, mostly mothers (115 cases), Bordetella DNA was detected in 47% (59/126), 90% (53/59) being B. pertussis DNA. Moreover, B. holmesii DNA was also detected in 18.6% (11/59) of the Bordetella positive samples, and coexistence of B. pertussis and B. holmesii DNA in 36.5% (35/96). Two B. pertussis were isolated by culture performed on 43 samples of the contacts of the children (4.6%). This study

  16. Is pertussis actually reemerging? Insights from an individual-based model

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    Codeço Cláudia Torres

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a spatially explicit, individual-based model developed to simulate the dynamics of pertussis in a small population. With this simulation approach, complex epidemic systems can be built using information on parasite population structure (strain diversity, virulence diversity, etc., human population structure (individual risk, age structure, interaction matrices, immune response, etc., as well as mechanisms of evolution and learning. We parameterized our model to describe pertussis in an age-structured community. Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite wide-scale vaccination in many countries, this disease is reemerging throughout the world in both adults and children. Emergence has been explained by many factors: wane of vaccine and natural immunity, increase of asymptomatic carriers, and/or natural selection of non-vaccine strains. Here, we model these hypotheses and analyze their potential impact on the observed increase of pertussis notification.

  17. Impact of a multi-component antenatal vaccine promotion package on improving knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza and Tdap vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Allison T; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A; Rosenberg, Eli S; Frew, Paula M; Cortes, Marielysse; Whitney, Ellen A S; Berkelman, Ruth L; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-08-02

    Understanding whether interventions designed to improve antenatal vaccine uptake also change women's knowledge about vaccination is critical for improving vaccine coverage. This exploratory study evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-component influenza and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine promotion package on improving women's knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward antenatal vaccination. In 2012/2013 a cluster-randomized trial was conducted to test the effectiveness of a vaccine promotion package on improving antenatal vaccine coverage. Participants included 325 unvaccinated pregnant women from 11 obstetric practices in Georgia. Eleven health beliefs measures were assessed at baseline and 2-3 months post-partum. Outcomes were differences in proportions of women citing favorable responses to each measure between study groups at follow-up. Women enrolled in their third trimester had a higher probability of asking family members to vaccinate to protect the infant if they were in the intervention group versus the control group (36% vs. 22%; risk ratio [RR] = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21, 2.26). A similar association was not observed among women enrolled before their third trimester (39% vs. 44%; RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.73). There were no other significant differences at follow-up between study groups. While exposure to the intervention package may have raised awareness that vaccinating close contacts can protect an infant, there is little evidence that the package changed women's attitudes and beliefs toward antenatal vaccination. Future research should ensure adequate exposure to the intervention and consider study design aspects including power to assess changes in secondary outcomes, discriminatory power of response options, and social desirability bias. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, study ID NCT01761799.

  18. Epidemiologic and laboratory features of a large outbreak of pertussis-like illnesses associated with cocirculating Bordetella holmesii and Bordetella pertussis--Ohio, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Loren; Martin, Stacey W; Cohn, Amanda; Budd, Jeremy; Marcon, Mario; Terranella, Andrew; Mandal, Sema; Salamon, Douglas; Leber, Amy; Tondella, Maria-Lucia; Tatti, Kathleen; Spicer, Kevin; Emanuel, Allen; Koch, Elizabeth; McGlone, Londell; Pawloski, Lucia; Lemaile-Williams, Mysheika; Tucker, Naomi; Iyer, Radhika; Clark, Thomas A; Diorio, Mary

    2013-02-01

    During 9 May 2010-7 May 2011, an outbreak of pertussis-like illness (incidence, 80 cases per 100 000 persons) occurred in Franklin County, Ohio. The majority of cases were identified by IS481-directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which does not differentiate among Bordetella species. We sought to determine outbreak etiology and epidemiologic characteristics. We obtained demographic, clinical, and vaccination-related data from the Ohio Disease Reporting System and Impact Statewide Immunization Information System. We tested sera from 14 patients for anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies and used species-specific PCR on 298 nasopharyngeal specimens. Reported cases totaled 918. IS481 results were available for 10 serologically tested patients; 5 of 10 had discordant anti-PT antibody and IS481 results, suggestive of Bordetella holmesii, which lacks PT and harbors IS481. We identified specific Bordetella species in 164 of 298 specimens tested with multitarget PCR; B. holmesii and Bordetella pertussis were exclusively detected among 48 (29%) and 112 (68%), respectively; both were detected in 4 (2%). Among 48 patients with B. holmesii infections, 63% were aged 11-18 years, compared with 35% of 112 patients with B. pertussis infections (P = .001). Symptoms were similar among B. holmesii- and B. pertussis-infected patients. Adolescent pertussis ("Tdap") booster vaccinations were more effective against B. pertussis than B. holmesii (effectiveness: 67% and 36%, respectively; 95% confidence intervals, 38%-82% and -33% to 69%, respectively). We report the first documented mixed outbreak of B. pertussis and B. holmesii infections. Bordetella holmesii particularly affected adolescents. Although laboratory capacity limitations might inhibit routine use of multitarget PCR for clinical diagnosis, focused testing and enhanced surveillance might improve understanding the burden of B. holmesii infection.

  19. Survey and Rapid detection of Bordetella pertussis in clinical samples targeting the BP485 in China

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    Wei eLiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis is an important human respiratory pathogen. Here, we describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of B. pertussis in clinical samples based on a visual test. The LAMP assay detected the BP485 target sequence within 60 min with a detection limit of 1.3 pg/µl, a 10-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 31 non-pertussis respiratory pathogens tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the primers for B. pertussis. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 105 sputum and nasopharyngeal samples collected from the patients with suspected respiratory infections in China, a total of 12 Bordetella pertussis isolates were identified from 33 positive samples detected by LAMP-based surveillance targeting BP485. Strikingly, a 4.5 months old baby and her mother were found to be infected with B. pertussis at the same time. All isolates belonged to different B. pertussis multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups with different alleles of the virulence-related genes including 4 alleles of ptxA, 6 of prn, 4 of tcfA, 2 of fim2 and 3 of fim3. The diversity of B. pertussis carrying toxin genes in clinical strains indicates a rapid and continuing evolution of B. pertussis. This combined with its high prevalence will make it difficult to control. In conclusion, we have developed a visual detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for rapid B. pertussis detection, especially in situations where resources are poor and in point-of-care tests.

  20. Pertussis incidence rates in Novi Sad (Serbia before and during improved surveillance

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    Petrović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI proposed clinical case definitions for pertussis diagnosis in three different age cohorts in order to improve surveillance of pertussis especially in older children, adolescents, and adults. The main goal of this research was to compare the burden of pertussis in the city of Novi Sad before and after the introduction of improved surveillance using the GPI clinical case definitions of pertussis. Methods. Baseline data on pertussis were obtained from routine (non-sentinel reporting before improved surveillance was introduced. From September 16, 2012, clinical case definitions proposed by GPI were applied within improved (sentinel and hospital surveillance, while surveillance clinical case definitions were not introduced within non-sentinel. To confirm the suspected diagnosis, sampling of nasopharyngeal swab and/or blood was obtained from all cases. The choice of laboratory method (PCR or ELISA depended on the duration of coughing and the age of the patients. Data were statistically processed by SPSS Statistics, version 22. Results. During the 12-year period before the introduction of improved surveillance, only two clinical pertussis cases were registered. In contrast, during the two-year period of improved surveillance, a total of 14 (season 2012/13 and 146 (season 2013/2014 confirmed pertussis cases were reported. Significant differences were determined in distribution of pertussis according to the type of surveillance and the level of health care. Conclusion. Introduction of clinical case definitions proposed by GPI improved the quality of surveillance and enabled an insight in the distribution of pertussis in all age groups and at all levels of health care.

  1. Testing implications of varying targets for Bordetella pertussis: comparison of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and the Focus B. pertussis PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerris, Robert C; Williams, Sally R; MacDonald, Heather J; Ingebrigtsen, Danielle R; Westblade, Lars F; Rogers, Beverly B

    2015-05-01

    The FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) detects multiple pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis. The multiplex PCR system is appropriate for a core laboratory or point of care due to ease of use. The purpose of this study is to compare the analytical sensitivity of the FilmArray RP, which targets the promoter region of the B. pertussis toxin gene, with the Focus real-time PCR assay, which targets the insertion sequence IS481. Seventy-one specimens from patients aged 1 month to 18 years, which had tested positive for B. pertussis using the Focus assay, were analysed using the FilmArray RP. Forty-six specimens were positive for B. pertussis by both the Focus and the FilmArray RP assays. Twenty-five specimens were negative for B. pertussis using the FilmArray RP assay, but positive using the Focus assay. The FilmArray RP assays will detect approximately 1/3 less cases of B. pertussis than the Focus assay. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Development of a rabbit corneal equivalent using an acellular corneal matrix of a porcine substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Gen; Xu, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Chen; Feng, Yun; Li, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The tissue equivalent that mimics the structure and function of normal tissue is a major bioengineering challenge. Tissue engineered replacement of diseased or damaged tissue has become a reality for some types of tissue such as skin and cartilage. The tissue engineered corneal epithelium, stroma, and endothelium scaffold are promising concepts in overcoming the current limitations of a cornea replacement with an allograft. The acellular corneal matrix from porcine (ACMP) was examined as a potential corneal cell sheet frame. The physical and mechanical properties of strength, expansion, transparency, and water content of the ACMP were measured. The major antigens of the cell components were completely removed with series of extraction methods, the major antigens of the cell components were identified by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), immunofluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The structural properties were investigated by HE stain and scanning electron microscopy. The three types of rabbit corneal cells were cultured in vitro, and characteristics were investigated by colony formation efficiency (CFE), BrdU staining, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot assay of keratin 3 (K3), vimentin, and aquaporin A. The biocompatibility of the ACMP was investigated for one month using rabbit corneal stroma and three types of cultured corneal cells both in vivo and in vitro. The three types of cultured rabbit corneal cells were seeded onto ACMP of each side at a cell density of 5.0 x 10(3) cells/mm(2). The optical and mechanical properties of the ACMP were similar to the normal porcine cornea. The collagen fiber interconnected to the network, formed regular collagen bundles of the ACMP, and was parallel to the corneal surface. The ACMP was transferred to the rabbit cornea stroma, which showed an intact epithelium and keratocytes in the implant region. There were no inflamed cells or new vessel invasion one month after transplantation. The three types of

  3. El Gran Catharro de 1580 ¿gripe o pertussis?

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    Camaño Puig, Ramón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gran Catharro (1580 is considered the first influenza epidemic. The analysis of various testimonies of the time may offer some doubts about whether or not it was so; and data strongly support that it was a pertussis epidemic.

    El Gran Catharro (1580 es considerado como la primera epidemia de gripe. El análisis conjunto de los datos contenidos en diferentes testimonios, suscita dudas respecto a que se tratara de una epidemia de gripe y apoyan la posibilidad de que se tratara de una de tos ferina.

  4. Acellular Endocardium as a Novel Biomaterial for the Intima of Tissue-Engineered Small-Caliber Vascular Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Guan, Xin; Wu, TianYi; Qiao, JianOu; Han, ZhaoQing; Wu, JinLong; Yu, XiaoWei; You, QingJun

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether acellular endocardium can be used as a useful biomaterial for the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Fresh endocardium was harvested from the swine left atrium and was decellularized by digestion with the decellularization solution of Triton X-100 and SDS containing DNase I and RNase A. Surface morphological characteristics and Young's modulus were evaluated. To analyze the effect of mechanical characteristics on cell adhesion, the decellularized endocardium was stiffened with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. Small-caliber vascular grafts were constructed using decellularized endocardium treated with or without glutaraldehyde as the intima. CD34+ cells were seeded onto the luminal surface of the vascular grafts and linked to bioreactors that simulate a pulsatile blood stream. Acellular endocardium had distinct surface morphological characteristics, which were quite different from those of other materials. The compliance of acellular endocardium was higher than that of other materials tested by Young's modulus. CD34+ cells formed a monolayer structure and adhered to the inner face of the acellular endocardium. The glutaraldehyde treatment stiffened the acellular endocardium but had little impact on the surface morphological characteristics or static adhesiveness of the cells. Data from the bioreactor study showed that the detachment of the cells from the surface of glutaraldehyde-treated acellular endocardium increased dramatically when the pressure was equal or higher than 40 mm Hg, while the cells on the untreated acellular endocardium remained well and formed confluent monolayers and tight junctions under the same pressure. Acellular endocardium has distinct structures and mechanical characteristics that are beneficial for CD34+ cell adhesion and retention under dynamic fluid perfusion. Thus, it can be used as a useful biomaterial for the construction of the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Copyright © 2016

  5. The historical association between measles and pertussis: A case of immune suppression?

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    Stephen Coleman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: According to historical medical reports, many children with measles subsequently contracted pertussis, often with fatal results. The likelihood of a child contracting pertussis after a measles infection is increased by its immune-suppressing effects. This research aims to verify the historical reports. Methods: The analysis examines statistically the historical relationship between average measles and pertussis incidence rates in the United States from 1938 to 1954 at the state level and in average weekly rates. Analysis of incidence rates is cross-sectional at the state level using public health data. Results: The results show that, on average and over time, states with higher measles rates have higher pertussis rates, and the peaks and nadirs of average weekly incidence rates of pertussis lag measles by a delay of about 3–4 weeks, well within the duration of immune suppression. Measles and pertussis have similar geographical distributions. Conclusion: The research tentatively supports the hypothesis that because of its immune-suppressing effects, measles causes an increase in pertussis, but other factors may be involved. Epidemic models should give more attention to the possibility of immune suppression for diseases such as measles where that might be a risk factor. The findings reemphasize the importance of measles vaccination for the prevention of other diseases.

  6. The historical association between measles and pertussis: A case of immune suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: According to historical medical reports, many children with measles subsequently contracted pertussis, often with fatal results. The likelihood of a child contracting pertussis after a measles infection is increased by its immune-suppressing effects. This research aims to verify the historical reports. Methods: The analysis examines statistically the historical relationship between average measles and pertussis incidence rates in the United States from 1938 to 1954 at the state level and in average weekly rates. Analysis of incidence rates is cross-sectional at the state level using public health data. Results: The results show that, on average and over time, states with higher measles rates have higher pertussis rates, and the peaks and nadirs of average weekly incidence rates of pertussis lag measles by a delay of about 3–4 weeks, well within the duration of immune suppression. Measles and pertussis have similar geographical distributions. Conclusion: The research tentatively supports the hypothesis that because of its immune-suppressing effects, measles causes an increase in pertussis, but other factors may be involved. Epidemic models should give more attention to the possibility of immune suppression for diseases such as measles where that might be a risk factor. The findings reemphasize the importance of measles vaccination for the prevention of other diseases. PMID:27092263

  7. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  8. Prevalence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in Samples Submitted for RSV Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of Bordetella pertussis can overlap with that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; however, management differs.HYPOTHESIS: First, the prevalence of B. pertussis is less than 2% among patients screened for RSV, and second the prevalence of B. parapertussis is also less than 2% among these patients.METHODS: Nasal washings submitted to a clinical laboratory for RSV screening were tested for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, using species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. These were optimized to target conserved regions within a complement gene and the CarB gene, respectively. A Bordetella spp. genus-specific real-time PCR assay was designed to detect the Bhur gene of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. RSV A and B subtypes were tested by reverse transcription-PCR.RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-nine clinical samples were tested. There was insufficient material to complete testing for one B. pertussis, 10 RSV subtype A, and four RSV subtype B assays. Bordetella pertussis was detected in 3/488 (0.6% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.8%, while B. parapertussis was detected in 5/489 (1.0% (95% CI 0.3% to 2.4%. Dual infection of B. pertussis with RSV and of B. parapertussis with RSV occurred in two and in three cases respectively. RSV was detected by PCR in 127 (26.5%.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of B. pertussis in nasal washings submitted for RSV screening was less than 2%. The prevalence of parapertussis may be higher than 2%. RSV with B. pertussis and RSV with B. parapertussis coinfection do occur.

  9. High prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Bordetella pertussis in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Cui, Z; Li, Y; Hou, T; Liu, X; Xi, Y; Liu, Y; Li, H; He, Q

    2014-11-01

    Resistance of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, to erythromycin is rare. Recently, several Chinese isolates were found to be erythromycin resistant. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of pertussis in children suffering persistent cough and the prevalence of B. pertussis resistance to erythromycin in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and thirteen patients with suspected pertussis admitted to Xi'an Children's Hospital from January 2012 through to December 2013 were included and their nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were taken for culture and PCRs (targeting IS481 and ptx-Pr). PCR-based sequencing was used to identify the A2047G mutation of B. pertussis 23S rRNA directly from the NP samples. Sixteen (5.1%) and 168 (53.7%) patients were positive for culture and IS481 PCR. Of the 168 samples positive for IS481 PCR, 122 (72.6%) and 100 (59.5%) were positive for ptx-Pr and 23S rRNA PCRs, respectively. All culture-positive samples were also positive for the three PCRs. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 B. pertussis isolates were found to be resistant to erythromycin (MICs>256 mg/L). All the 14 isolates were confirmed to have a homogeneous A2047G mutation of 23S rRNA. Of the 100 samples positive for 23S rRNA PCR, 85 (85.0%) were found to have the A2047G mutation by sequencing. Our results indicate that in Xi'an, China, pertussis remains endemic in young children, and the circulating B. pertussis strains are mostly erythromycin resistant. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix: Treating Periocular Melanoma in a Patient with Xeroderma Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlen Pillay, MBChB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 7-year-old girl with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP, who presented in our clinic with a large melanoma (35 × 50 × 20 mm, Breslow depth 18 mm in the zygomatic-malar area. Palliative surgery was performed to maintain her residual vision and to reduce the pain caused by the compression of local structures. Because of the limited access of autologous skin grafts in pediatric patients with XP who are severely affected, we opted to use an acellular dermal matrix. There was 100% graft uptake, and the pain due to compression by the tumor was alleviated. This case demonstrates that acellular dermal matrices can be safely and effectively used in oncological facial reconstruction, especially in patients with progressive conditions such as XP.

  11. Comparative gene expression profiling in two congenic mouse strains following Bordetella pertussis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demant Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to Bordetella pertussis infection varies widely. These differences can partly be explained by genetic host factors. HcB-28 mice are more resistant to B. pertussis infection than C3H mice, which could partially be ascribed to the B. pertussis susceptibility locus-1 (Bps1 on chromosome 12. The presence of C57BL/10 genome on this locus instead of C3H genome resulted in a decreased number of bacteria in the lung. To further elucidate the role of host genetic factors, in particular in the Bps1 locus, in B. pertussis infection, and to identify candidate genes within in this region, we compared expression profiles in the lungs of the C3H and HcB-28 mouse strains following B. pertussis inoculation. Twelve and a half percent of the genomes of these mice are from a different genetic background. Results Upon B. pertussis inoculation 2,353 genes were differentially expressed in the lungs of both mouse strains. Two hundred and six genes were differentially expressed between the two mouse strains, but, remarkably, none of these were up- or down-regulated upon B. pertussis infection. Of these 206 genes, 17 were located in the Bps1 region. Eight of these genes, which showed a strong difference in gene expression between the two mouse strains, map to the immunoglobulin heavy chain complex (Igh. Conclusion Gene expression changes upon B. pertussis infection are highly identical between the two mouse strains despite the differences in the course of B. pertussis infection. Because the genes that were differentially regulated between the mouse strains only showed differences in expression before infection, it appears likely that such intrinsic differences in gene regulation are involved in determining differences in susceptibility to B. pertussis infection. Alternatively, such genetic differences in susceptibility may be explained by genes that are not differentially regulated between these two mouse strains. Genes in the Igh

  12. Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms of Pertussis Toxin Subunit S2 (PtxB) Affect Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Millen, Scott H.; Mineo Watanabe; Eiji Komatsu; Fuminori Yamaguchi; Yuki Nagasawa; Eri Suzuki; Haleigh Monaco; Weiss, Alison A.

    2015-01-01

    Whooping cough due to Bordetella pertussis is increasing in incidence, in part due to accumulation of mutations which increase bacterial fitness in highly vaccinated populations. Polymorphisms in the pertussis toxin, ptxA and ptxB genes, and the pertactin, prn genes of clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis collected in Cincinnati from 1989 through 2005 were examined. While the ptxA and prn genotypes were variable, all 48 strains had the ptxB2 genotype; ptxB1 encodes glycine at amino acid ...

  13. Estimated and reported incidence of pertussis in Estonian adults: A seroepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Piia; Oona, Marje; Toompere, Karolin; Lutsar, Irja

    2015-09-11

    Rates of pertussis immunisation among children in Estonia are high (∼95%), but pertussis is still the most common vaccine preventable childhood disease. Adults are suspected to be sources of pertussis in children. We aimed to measure pertussis toxin (PT) IgG in adults to estimate pertussis infection activity and compare estimated and reported pertussis incidences. In a cross-sectional serosurvey, consecutive leftover blood sera (n=3327) from subjects aged 20-99 years old were collected at Quattromed HTI laboratories between the 7th January and 27th February 2013. Anti-PT IgG concentration was measured by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). Estimated annual pertussis incidence was calculated for 10-year age classes using de Melker et al. (2006. J Infect. 53(2):106-13) formula. The mean number of samples in each 10-year age class was 466 (SD 20.5), except for 90-99 year olds which contained 65 samples. More than half of all subjects (58.1%) had anti-PT IgG <5.0IU/mL, 2.7% had 62.5 to <125IU/mL and 0.6% ≥125IU/mL; no differences occurred between 10-year age classes. Estimated incidence of pertussis infection was 5.8% (95% CI 4.8-7.0) in 2012, with peaks observed in 20-29 year olds (11.0%; 95% CI 7.4-15.6) and 90-99 year olds (10.8%; 95% CI 3.0-26.2). Estimated pertussis incidence rate was 915 times higher than reported. Of 80 subjects with anti-PT IgG ≥62.5IU/mL, 25 (31.3%) had complained of coughing to their GP during the previous six months. The frequency of pertussis infection was similar for all ages, suggesting similar Bordetella pertussis activity in adults and children. The wide gap between reported and estimated incidence indicates poor recognition of pertussis, likely owing to it being an asymptomatic or mild disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin in children and adolescents in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Piia; Oona, Marje; Toompere, Karolin; Leedo, Sirje; Epstein, Jevgenia; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-09-15

    Despite high immunisation coverage and frequent booster doses, the national notification rates of pertussis in Estonia have been increasing. The peak of 97/100,000 was reached in 2010 which is the highest incidence rate since 1962 (210/100,000). We aimed to measure the prevalence of pertussis toxin (PT) IgG type antibodies in subjects of <18 years and to estimate the pertussis infection activity in a recently non-immunised cohort. In a cross-sectional serosurvey, all consecutive leftover sera were collected in the Tartu University Hospital during April-August 2012. Anti-PT IgG concentration was measured by commercial ELISA and analysed in yearly cohorts. The antibody concentrations ≥62.5 IU/mL was considered suggestive to pertussis in the last year among 9- to 14-year-olds. The GMC of the anti-PT-IgG was 7.4 IU/mL (95% CI 6.9-8.0). In the total of 1053 serum samples, the highest proportion of sera with high antibody titres ≥125 IU/mL and ≥62.5 IU/mL were at the ages when pertussis vaccine boosters were given: 7 years 10.9% (95% CI 4.1-22.3) and 2 years 36.9% (95% CI 25.3-49.8), respectively. Approximately half of all sera had undetectable anti-PT IgG levels. The estimated incidence of Bordetella pertussis infection among 9- to 14-year-olds in the year before serum sampling was 6.3% (95% CI 3.3-10.8), which is at least 60 times higher than the officially reported incidence of pertussis disease in respective years. The serologic method is not suitable for diagnosing pertussis in instances when the last pertussis immunisation was less than one year ago. The relatively high proportion of subjects with undetectable anti-PT IgG levels and the relatively low rate of officially reported pertussis cases suggest that low antibody levels do not necessarily indicate the absence of protection. The estimated incidence rate of pertussis is much higher than officially reported figures, which suggests that asymptomatic/mild B. pertussis infection remains unrecognised and

  15. Speed–accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum

    OpenAIRE

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Speed–accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accur...

  16. [Experimental study on promotion of neurotropic reinnervation with chemically extracted acellular nerve allograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanjun; Lu, Shibi; Kuang, Zhengda; Peng, Jiang; Guo, Quanyi; Ji, Huiru

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the promotion effect of neurotropic reinnervation with chemically extracted acellular nerve allograft. The sciatic nerves of 5 healthy adult SD rats, regardless of gender and weighing 270-300 g, were collected to prepare chemically extracted acellular nerve allograft. Eighteen healthy adult Wistar rats, regardless of gender and weighing 300-320 g, were made the model of left sciatic nerve defect (10 mm) and randomly divided into 2 groups: autograft (control group, n = 9) and allograft group (experimental group, n = 9). The defects were bridged by acellular nerve allograft in experimental group and by autograft by turning over the proximal and distal ends of the nerve in control group. At 3 months after transplantation, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) resection operation was performed in 6 rats of 2 groups. At 3 weeks after operation, the sural nerves were harvested to calculate the misdirection rate of nerve fibers with pathological staining and compute-assisted image analysis. Cholinesterase staining and carbonic anhydrase staining were performed in the sural nerve of 3 rats that did not undergo DRG resection at 3 months. The results of cholinesterase staining and carbonic anhydrase staining showed that experimental group had less brown granules and more black granules than control group. After DRG resection, count of myelinated nerve fiber were 4 257 +/- 285 in the experimental group and 4 494 +/- 310 in the control group significant (P < 0.05). The misdirection rate was 2.27% +/- 0.28% and 7.65% +/- 0.68% in the experimental group and in the control group respectively, showing significant difference (P < 0.05). Chemically extracted acellular nerve allograft can not only act as a scaffold in the period of nerve defects repair, but markedly enhance the effects of neurotropic reinnervation.

  17. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

  18. Effect of acellular human dermis buttress on laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kyle C; Costello, Kevin P; Baalman, Sara; Pierce, Richard A; Deeken, Corey R; Frisella, Margaret M; Michael Brunt, L; Matthews, Brent D

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of acellular human dermis reinforcement during laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. A prospective non-randomized, single institution study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Acellular human dermis, FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, Edison, NJ) or AlloDerm (LifeCell Inc., Branchburg, NJ) were used to buttress the repair after primary closure. A protocol barium swallow (BAS) was performed at 6 months and then as needed due to clinical indications. Primary outcome measure was recurrence. Patients completed preoperative and postoperative GERD symptom questionnaires and quality of life surveys (SF-36). Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were utilized as appropriate (p hiatal hernia repair using Flex HD (n = 37) or AlloDerm (n = 17). Both groups were similar with respect to gender, age, hiatus size, hernia type [sliding/Type I (n = 14) or paraesophageal/Type III/IV (n = 40)], esophageal motor function (manometry), preoperative SF-36 quality of life surveys, and GERD symptom questionnaires. Forty-seven patients (87 %) completed the BAS at 6 months; each group had two recurrences (p = 0.597). At median follow-up of 33 months, there were 3 recurrences (18 %) in the AlloDerm group and 5 recurrences (14 %) in the Flex HD group (p = 0.365). Minimal differences in GERD symptoms or SF-36 scores were detected between groups. However, anti-reflux medication usage, GERD symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved for both groups after laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair with acellular human dermis reinforcement results in improvement of GERD-related symptoms and quality of life without mesh-associated complications. The type of acellular human dermis did not influence recurrence rate.

  19. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  20. A systematic evaluation of Schwann cell injection into acellular cold-preserved nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuraj, Nithya J; Santosa, Katherine B; Newton, Piyaraj; Liu, Z; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Johnson, Philip J

    2011-04-30

    Peripheral nerve regeneration after injury depends on environmental cues and trophic support. Schwann cells (SCs) secrete trophic factors that promote neuronal survival and help guide axons during regeneration. The addition of SCs to acellular nerve grafts is a promising strategy for enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration; however, inconsistencies in seeding parameters have led to varying results. The current work sought to establish a systematic approach to seeding SCs in cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts. Studies were undertaken to (1) determine the needle gauge for optimal cell survival and minimal epineurial disruption during injection, (2) track the seeded SCs using a commercially available dye, and (3) evaluate the seeding efficiency of SCs in nerve grafts. It was determined that seeding with a 27-gauge needle resulted in the highest viability of SCs with the least damage to the epineurium. In addition, Qtracker(®) dye, a commercially available quantum dot nanocrystal, was used to label SCs prior to transplantation, which allowed visualization of the seeded SCs in nerve grafts. Finally, stereological methods were used to evaluate the seeding efficiency of SCs in nerve grafts immediately after injection and following a 1- or 3-day in vitro incubation in SC growth media. Using a systematic approach, the best needle gauge and a suitable dye for SC visualization in acellular nerve grafts were identified. Seeding efficiency in these grafts was also determined. The findings will lead to improvements ability to assess injection of cells (including SCs) for use with acellular nerve grafts to promote nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Loading of a novel angiogenic agent, ginsenoside Rg1 in an acellular biological tissue for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huang-Chien; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Chang, Yen; Huang, Ya-Chun; Chen, Sung-Ching; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of ginsenoside Rg1, a natural compound isolated from Panax ginseng, on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) behavior in vitro, and on angiogenesis and tissue regeneration in genipin-fixed acellular tissue (extracellular matrix, ECM) in vivo, were investigated. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a control. The in vitro results indicated that in the presence of bFGF or Rg1, HUVEC proliferation was significantly increased. Both bFGF and Rg1 promoted HUVEC migration in a Transwell plate assay. In addition, bFGF or Rg1 significantly increased the formation of capillary-like network by HUVECs on Matrigel. Thus, both bFGF and Rg1 enhanced multiple components of angiogenic activity in vitro. The in vivo results obtained 1 week postoperatively showed that the extent of angiogenesis in ECMs was significantly enhanced by bFGF or Rg1. At 1 month postoperatively, vascularized neoconnective tissues were found to fill the pores within ECMs loaded with bFGF or Rg1. There was a significant increase in neocapillary density from 1 week to 1 month for ECMs loaded with Rg1, whereas that observed in ECMs loaded with bFGF stayed approximately the same because of the limitations of protein stability. These results suggested that Rg1 may be a new class of angiogenic agent and may be loaded in ECMs to accelerate tissue regeneration.

  2. Acellular dermal matrix allograft used to gain attached gingiva in a case of epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduneli, Eralp; Ilgenli, Tunç; Buduneli, Nurcan; Ozdemir, Fezal

    2003-11-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an acquired disease or inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive with an incidence of 1/50,000. The prominent clinical characteristic of the disease is the development of bullae or vesicles in mucosa or skin in response to minor trauma. A female patient with a dystrophic type of EB had been put in a maintenance regimen after completion of the initial phase of periodontal therapy and followed for 7 years. The purpose of this report is to document acellular dermal matrix allograft application to increase the width of the attached gingiva in this patient experiencing difficulty in chewing and performing plaque control due to the dramatic loss of attached gingiva after 7 years of supportive periodontal therapy. Under local anaesthesia and antibiotic coverage, the acellular dermal matrix allograft was applied in the anterior region of the upper jaw in order to increase the width of attached gingiva, thereby improving patient comfort. The healing was uneventful and a significant gain in attached gingiva dimensions was observed 9 months after the periodontal surgery. The procedure avoided a second surgical site, provided satisfactory results from an aesthetic point of view, and improved patient comfort. Acellular dermal matrix allograft may be regarded as an alternative in the treatment of EB cases to increase the width of attached gingiva and facilitate maintenance of the dentition.

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of acellular collagen matrix augmented Achilles tendon repair in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Olsen, Raymond E; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana

    2010-01-01

    The rate of rerupture of repaired Achilles tendon in young and athletic populations remains high despite improvement in surgical techniques, suture design, and postsurgical management. Acellular biological matrices can be used to enhance the immediate strength of repaired tendons and to serve as scaffolds for cell in-growth and constructive tissue remodeling. A number of commercially available matrices have been used clinically, albeit with varying degrees of success and failure. The disparity is likely attributable to the different physical and biochemical properties of individual matrices. In this study, we investigated the biomechanical characteristics of 2 different acellular collagen matrices, namely TissueMend and GraftJacket, using a sheep Achilles tendon repair model. Static and cyclic creep, cyclic and linear construct stiffness, maximum load to failure, and displacement at maximum load were determined at time zero. We found that the maximum load to failure, displacement, and ultimate failure mode were similar between tendons augmented with either acellular collagen matrix; however, TissueMend augmentation yielded lower creep and smaller construct elongation than did GraftJacket. The results indicated that the strength of TissueMend-augmented tendons and GraftJacket-augmented tendons was not statistically significantly different, although tendons augmented with TissueMend displayed greater stiffness, which may be clinically advantageous in the restoration of ruptured tendons. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammasome activation by adenylate cyclase toxin directs Th17 responses and protection against Bordetella pertussis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, Aisling; Ross, Pádraig J; Pospisilova, Eva; Masin, Jiri; Meaney, Aoife; Sutton, Caroline E; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Tschopp, Jurg; Sebo, Peter; Mills, Kingston H G

    2010-01-01

    .... In this article, we demonstrate that inflammasome-mediated IL-1beta plays a critical role in promoting Ag-specific Th17 cells and in generating protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis infection...

  5. Monocyte-derived interleukin-10 depresses the Bordetella pertussis- specific gamma interferon response in vaccinated infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, V; Verscheure, V; Goetghebuer, T; Hainaut, M; Debrie, A S; Locht, C; Mascart, F

    2009-12-01

    Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) has been demonstrated to participate in protection against Bordetella pertussis infection. Circulating mononuclear cells from B. pertussis-infected and from pertussis-vaccinated infants secrete high amounts of IFN-gamma after in vitro stimulation by B. pertussis antigens, but with a large variation in the secreted IFN-gamma levels between individuals. We show here that the inhibition of the specific IFN-gamma response can be at least partially attributed to IL-10 secretion by monocytes. This IL-10 secretion was not associated with polymorphisms at positions -1082, -819, and -592 of the IL-10 gene promoter, suggesting that other genetic or environmental factors affect IL-10 expression and secretion.

  6. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  7. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after a severe cut or burn to prevent tetanus infection. Your doctor or the person giving you the vaccine can give you more information. Tdap may safely be given at the ... tetanus or pertussis containing vaccine, OR has a severe ...

  8. Pertussis Reinfection in an Adult: A Cause of Persistent Cough Not to Be Ignored

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    Theocharis Koufakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is traditionally considered as a disease of the childhood; however, accumulating evidence suggests a stable increase of its incidence among adults and adolescents, during the last decades. Despite the fact that reinfection after natural disease or vaccination is not uncommon, the index of clinical suspicion of pertussis diagnosis in adults remains low. In this article, we report a case of pertussis reinfection 30 years after natural infection, which was complicated by pneumonia, and we discuss our diagnostic and therapeutic approach, aiming to raise clinicians’ degree of suspicion regarding pertussis diagnosis in adults. Prompt recognition and appropriate therapy of adult patients can result in the effective control of the symptoms, prevention of severe complications, and spread of the infection to children; thus, they are of great clinical and public health importance.

  9. Nonspecific Resistance Induced by an Immunopharmacologic Agent Derived from Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-02

    GaiA Caasel, ’University of Alabama in Birmingham, testd the individual antieera of 53 retired ureeders from our C3H/!4eN ,colony by an ELISA tes...International symposium on pertussis. Department of Health, Education , and Welfare publication no. (NIH)79-1830. U.S. Government P.:nting Office, Washing...JC. (ed.) International symposium on pertussis. Department of Health, Education , and Welfare publication no. (NIH)79-1830. U.S. Government Printing

  10. The seroepidemiology of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against pertussis toxin in China: a cross sectional study

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    Zhang Qi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pertussis is a reported vaccine-preventable respiratory disease in China. Because the routine laboratory methods for diagnosis are not in use, the reported cases are mainly in infants with classical paroxysmal cough and the true incidence related to pertussis is most likely under estimated. In China, however, few studies have attempted to address this issue. The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the incidence rates using the method of sero-epidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT among healthy populations in China. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 1313 healthy individuals aged 0 to 95 years in Guangdong province of China throughout September 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT were determined by commercial ELISA kits. Subjects with concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL were indicated to have recent Bordetella pertussis infection, if they have not received a booster dose of pertussis vaccine within one year. Results Of the 1313 study subjects, 117 (8.91% were found to have anti-PT antibodies higher than 30 IU/mL. The estimated incidence of recent infection was thus 9395 per 100,000 for individuals older than 7 years. Peaks of the estimated incidence rate of recent infection were found to be 11561 per 100,000 in age group of 41–50 years and 11428 per 100,000 in the group aged 13–19 years. Conclusions Our study indicated that B.pertussis infections are considerablely common, particularly in adolescents and adults in China. The study also stresses the importance of laboratory diagnosis for pertussis and employment of booster dose of pertussis vaccine in adolescents and adults in this country.

  11. Detection of IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis with /sup 125/I-protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsing von Koenig, C.H.; Finger, H.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the detection of IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis is described, based on the principle of 'sandwich' radioimmunoassay. /sup 125/I protein A is used as radioactive tracer. The influence of amounts of antigen, antibody, radioactive tracer, incubation time and temperature were tested and the optimal conditions for the assay are described. The procedure offers a simple, quick, and sensitive method for detecting antibodies against B. pertussis. Application and limitation of the test are discussed.

  12. [A case of Reye's-like syndrome due to suspected Bordetella pertussis infection in an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Sonoda, Ken

    2009-11-01

    We report a rare case of Reye's-like syndrome associated with suspected pertussis infection. A 26-year-old woman admitted comatose and found in laboratory studies to have acute liver dysfunction, severe hypoglycemia and prolonged prothrombin time, was diagnosed with clinical Reye's-like syndrome due to aspirin use. Her child was probably infected with pertussis, which she contracted and which, in turn, triggered Reye's-like syndrome.

  13. Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Pertussis Toxin-Induced Mitogenicity of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott H Millen; Bernstein, David I.; Connelly, Beverly; Ward, Joel I.; Chang, Swei-Ju; Weiss, Alison A.

    2004-01-01

    Antibody-mediated neutralization of pertussis toxin-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was assessed using alamarBlue and compared with results from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay using sera from vaccinated adults and convalescent children. Neutralization values for the CHO assay were similar for vaccinated and convalescent subjects; however. the convalescent group had higher titers in the PBMC assay. Results for pertussis toxin neutralization ...

  14. The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2003-09-08

    This historical essay analyzes the role played by Great Britain in the pertussis vaccine controversy of the 1970s and 1980s. Public backlash against this vaccine not only took place earlier in Britain than the United States, but also was so widespread that a series of whooping cough epidemics soon followed. As with the more recent dispute involving measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, the United Kingdom played a primary role in defining, promoting, and ultimately exporting this controversy. This essay seeks to explain this phenomenon by situating it in Britain's long history of suspicion regarding vaccines evident among both the public and the medical profession, a theme dating back to the compulsory vaccination laws of the 19th century. It argues that anti-vaccinationism, far from being simply a new development related to the public's lack of awareness of childhood vaccine-preventable illness, actually represents a revival of a much older movement.

  15. Mucosal innate response stimulation induced by lipopolysaccharide protects against Bordetella pertussis colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errea, A; Moreno, G; Sisti, F; Fernández, J; Rumbo, M; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2010-05-01

    Non-specific enhancement of the airways innate response has been shown to impair lung infections in several models of infection such diverse as influenza A, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Aspergillus niger. Our aim was to evaluate whether a similar event could operate in the context of Bordetella pertussis respiratory infection, not only to enrich the knowledge of host-bacteria interaction but also to establish immunological basis for the development of new control strategies against the pathogen. Using a B. pertussis intranasal infection model and coadministration of different TLR agonists at the moment of the infection, we observed that the enhancement of innate response activation, in a TLR4-dependent way, could efficiently impair B. pertussis colonization (P response markers TNFalpha, CXCL2, CXCL10 and IL6, was not effective to prevent B. pertussis colonization. Our results indicate that during the early stage of infection, specific anti-microbial mechanisms triggered by TLR4 stimulation are able to impair B. pertussis colonization. These findings could complement our current view of the role of TLR4-dependent processes that contribute to anti-pertussis immunity.

  16. Prior exposure to Bordetella species as an exclusion criterion in the baboon model of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annalee W; Wagner, Ellen K; Posada, Luciano; Liu, Xinlei; Connelly, Sheila; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2017-01-20

    The baboon model of Bordetella pertussis infection is the newest and most clinically accurate model of the human disease to date. However, among the 15 experimentally infected baboons in this study, a subset of baboons did not exhibit the expected high bacterial colonization levels or increase in white blood cell count. Moreover, cultures of nasopharyngeal wash samples from several baboons suggested B. bronchiseptica coinfection. Analysis of serum antibodies recognizing filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin and B. pertussis lipo-oligosaccharide indicated that several baboons had likely been previously exposed to Bordetella species and that prior exposure correlated with partial protection from B. pertussis infection. Notably, all animals with a baseline Fha titer of 5 IU/ml or below exhibited symptoms typical of the model, suggesting this value can be used as inclusion criteria for animals prior to study enrollment. While B. pertussis infection is endemic to human populations and B. bronchiseptica is common in wild small mammals, this study illustrates that baboons can readily harbor both organisms. Awareness of Bordetella species that share antigens capable of generating protective immune responses and tracking of prior exposure to those species is required for successful use of the baboon model of pertussis.

  17. Protection against Pertussis in Humans Correlates to Elevated Serum Antibodies and Memory B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marcellini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis that may be particularly severe and even lethal in the first months of life when infants are still too young to be vaccinated. Adults and adolescents experience mild symptoms and are the source of infection for neonates. Adoptive maternal immunity does not prevent pertussis in the neonate. We compared the specific immune response of mothers of neonates diagnosed with pertussis and mothers of control children. We show that women have pre-existing pertussis-specific antibodies and memory B cells and react against the infection with a recall response increasing the levels specific serum IgG, milk IgA, and the frequency of memory B cells of all isotypes. Thus, the maternal immune system is activated in response to pertussis and effectively prevents the disease indicating that the low levels of pre-formed serum antibodies are insufficient for protection. For this reason, memory B cells play a major role in the adult defense. The results of this study suggest that new strategies for vaccine design should aim at increasing long-lived plasma cells and their antibodies.

  18. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  19. Geospatial analysis of nonmedical vaccine exemptions and pertussis outbreaks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Carlin; Kulldorff, Martin; Bloom, Barry R

    2017-07-03

    Because of increased numbers of recorded pertussis cases in the United States, this study sought to understand the role of nonmedical vaccine exemptions and waning immunity may have had on the resurgence of pertussis in the United States at the community level. We used geospatial scan statistics, SaTScan, version 9.4, to analyze nonmedical vaccine exemptions of children entering kindergarten in 2011 and 2012 and reported pertussis cases in 2012 for children in age groups 5 years and younger and 10 to 14 years. Eight statistically significant clusters of nonmedical vaccine exemptions in kindergarteners and 11 statistically significant clusters of pertussis cases in children and adolescents were identified and geospatially linked. Forty-five percent of the counties in the study had high rates of nonmedical vaccine exemptions. The proportion of kindergarteners with nonmedical vaccine exemptions was 2.8 times larger in the identified exemption clusters. In addition, 31 counties had geographic clusters of high rates of pertussis in children ages 10 to 14 years old, consistent with waning immunity. Our findings are consistent with the view that geographic clusters of nonmedical vaccine exemptions and waning immunity may have been factors contributing to community-level pertussis outbreaks.

  20. Genotypic characterization by multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis international Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains

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    M. Fatah Moghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1930's first whole cell pertussis vaccines became available to the public heralding a dramatic success in overcoming the global burden of the disease. To date only a handful of B. pertussis strains have been used by international/local pertussis vaccine manufacturers. Inevitable well-documented genetic changes in the world population of this pathogen have prompted serious questions on suitability of traditional vaccine strains protect human against currently circulating wild isolates of Bordetella pertussis. Objective: Analyzing the genetic diversity within the most frequently-used vaccine strains of B. pertussis in the world Methods: A recently developed multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA genotyping system along with a bioinforamtic piece of analysis was conducted on 11 strain / substrains of B137, B203 (10536, C393, Cs, E476, Tohama I, J445 (134, B202 and J446 (509 plus 2 sub-strains of 134 and 509 that are used at Razi institute for preparation of pertussis vaccine. In this study have used 6 individual loci of VNTR1, VNTR3a, VNTR3b, VNTR4, VNTR5 and VNTR6. Findings: Six distinct genotypes were recognized among the examined strains by comparing our data with the Dutch MLVA databank. These were all new and not reported before in the database. Conclusion: This observation reiterates on necessity for detection of predominant native strains to include in vaccine preparations suitable for different countries.

  1. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure F Pittet

    Full Text Available Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old, formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+. No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+ was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  2. Pertussis may be the cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults in the interepidemic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Analíria Moraes; Baptista, Paulo Neves; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Magalhães, Vera; Silva, Andrea Rosane Sousa; Souza, Nadjla Ferreira; Matos, Deize Gomes Cavalcanti de; Pessoa, Ana Kelly Lins

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pertussis in adolescents and adults with cough lasting more than 14 days and less than 30 days. This is a prospective observational study in interepidemic period of pertusis. Ten public health outpatient clinics in the city of Recife, Brazil, were randomly selected for the study. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10 years and over with cough that had lasted between 14 and 30 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for culture and PCR in order to identify Bordetella pertussis. We adopted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US (CDC) definition of cases of pertussis. A total of 192 individuals were identified as suspected cases. Their mean age was 40.7 years. Pertussis was confirmed in 10 of the 192 suspected cases, with an estimated prevalence of 5.21% (95% confidence interval 2.03-8.38). All cases met the clinical case definition for pertussis; one suspect had both culture and PCR positive. PCR confirmed 100% of the cases, 7/10 by PCR and 3/10 by epidemiological linkage with a case confirmed by PCR. During an interepidemic period, 1 in 20 cases of prolonged cough had pertussis, suggesting this is an important cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Pertussis may be the cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults in the interepidemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analíria Moraes Pimentel

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pertussis in adolescents and adults with cough lasting more than 14 days and less than 30 days.Methods:This is a prospective observational study in interepidemic period of pertusis. Ten public health outpatient clinics in the city of Recife, Brazil, were randomly selected for the study. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10 years and over with cough that had lasted between 14 and 30 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for culture and PCR in order to identify Bordetella pertussis. We adopted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US (CDC definition of cases of pertussis.Results:A total of 192 individuals were identified as suspected cases. Their mean age was 40.7 years. Pertussis was confirmed in 10 of the 192 suspected cases, with an estimated prevalence of 5.21% (95% confidence interval 2.03-8.38. All cases met the clinical case definition for pertussis; one suspect had both culture and PCR positive. PCR confirmed 100% of the cases, 7/10 by PCR and 3/10 by epidemiological linkage with a case confirmed by PCR.Conclusion:During an interepidemic period, 1 in 20 cases of prolonged cough had pertussis, suggesting this is an important cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults.

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF LABELED LYMPH NODE CELLS IN MICE DURING THE LYMPHOCYTOSIS INDUCED BY BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Robert N.; Rosett, Walter; Adler, Andy; Morse, Stephen I.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism by which Bordetella pertussis organisms and their products induce lymphocytosis in mice was analyzed in terms of the localization of syngeneic Cr-51-labeled lymph node cells. Labeled lymphoid cells incubated in vitro with the supernatant of B. pertussis cultures and then injected intravenously into normal recipients, or labeled cells injected into pertussis-treated recipients were unable to "home" to lymphoid organs but persisted for long periods in the blood. In animals "equipped" with a population of Cr-51-labeled lymphoid cells, administration of B. pertussis organisms or culture supernatant effected a shift of radioactivity from lymph nodes and spleen into the peripheral blood, coincident with the lymphocytosis. In in vitro experiments it was found that the active principle could bind to both erythrocytes and lymphocytes and could spontaneously elute from these cells onto labeled lymphocytes which were then unable to home efficiently. The data suggest that Bordetella pertussis-induced lymphocytosis involves a reversible attachment of the pertussis factor onto the surfaces of lymphocytes which prevents their recirculation to lymphoid organs. Recirculating lymphocytes are presumably affected as they emerge from lymphoid organs to enter the blood. PMID:4345107

  5. Evaluation of an immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin in diagnosis of pertussis in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Iteman, I; Preziosi, M P; Yam, A; Guiso, N

    1998-03-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is widely employed for the serological diagnosis of pertussis. It is generally concluded that a significant increase in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgA against the pertussis toxin (PT) or against filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in paired sera correlates with Bordetella pertussis infection. However, this type of diagnosis of pertussis has mainly been applied to unvaccinated children, with timely sampling of acute- and convalescent-phase sera. In current practice and in epidemiological studies, such criteria are not always fulfilled. The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of decreases in IgG antibody titers against PT and FHA between paired sera observed in suspected cases of pertussis infection. Serological results from paired sera were available for 460 children experiencing at least 8 days of cough. An anti-PT IgG decrease was observed in 25% of the children, more frequently than the anti-FHA IgG decrease. Fourteen percent of the serologic decreases were observed in children with culture-confirmed infection, and 59% of the decreases were observed in children with confirmation criteria according to World Health Organization recommendations. Most of the decreases were observed when serum samples were collected according to a standard recommended schedule. Serologic decreases were observed more frequently among vaccinated children than among unvaccinated children. This difference, which was highly significant (P < 0.00001), was explained by the different kinetics of the antibody responses between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. The importance of the antibody response for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy, namely a bias toward higher absolute vaccine efficacy when this response is not taken into account, is discussed. This study supports an earlier recommendation that a significant decrease in PT or FHA should be added to the diagnostic criteria for pertussis.

  6. [Experimental study on the recycling of denatured acellular dermal matrix after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-chuan; Li, Chuan; Shan, Fei; Wang, Wen-ting; Zhu, Xu-guo; Jiang, Du-yin

    2012-06-01

    To explore the feasibility of burn denatured acellular dermal matrix (DADM) as dermal substitute in repairing wounds. (1) Nine Wistar rats received a deep partial-thickness scald on the back. Full-thickness wounded skin was collected on post scald day (PBD) 1, 2, and 3 (with 3 rats at each time point), and it was treated with 2.5 g/L trypsin/0.5% Triton X-100 to remove cells to prepare DADM, respectively called DADM-1 d, DADM-2 d, and DADM-3 d. Another 3 rats without scald injury were treated with the same method as above to prepare acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to serve as control. Gross and histological observations and microbiological and biomechanical tests, including ultimate tensile strength, maximum tension, stretched length at breaking, stress-strain relationship, were conducted for the resulting ADM and DADM. (2) Another 64 rats were divided into ADM group and DADM-1 d, DADM-2 d, and DADM-3 d groups according to the random number table, with 16 rats in each group. A skin flap in size of 2.0 cm×1.8 cm was raised on the back of each rat. The above-mentioned ADM, DADM-1 d, DADM-2 d, and DADM-3 d were cut into pieces in the size of 1.8 cm×1.5 cm, and they were respectively implanted under the skin flaps of rats in corresponding group. At post surgery week (PSW) 1, 3, 5, or 9, 4 rats in each group were used to observe wound healing condition and change in implants with naked eye, and histological observation of the implants was conducted. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and t test. (1) The freshly prepared DADM was milky white, soft in texture with flexibility, but poor in elasticity as compared with ADM. No epithelial structure or cellular component was observed in ADM or DADM under light microscope. Collagen fibers of DADM were seen to be thickened unevenly and arranged in disorder and eosinophilic. All microbiological results of DADM were negative. There was no statistically significant difference among DADM-1 d, DADM-2 d, and DADM-3

  7. Testing implications of varying targets for Bordetella pertussis: comparison of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and the Focus B. pertussis PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Jerris, Robert C; Williams, Sally R; MacDonald, Heather J; Ingebrigtsen, Danielle R; Westblade, Lars F; Rogers, Beverly B

    2015-01-01

    Background The FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) detects multiple pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis. The multiplex PCR system is appropriate for a core laboratory or point of care due to ease of use. The purpose of this study is to compare the analytical sensitivity of the FilmArray RP, which targets the promoter region of the B. pertussis toxin gene, with the Focus real-time PCR assay, which targets the insertion sequence IS481. Methods Seventy-one specimens from patients aged 1?month...

  8. La toxina adenilato ciclasa – hemolisina de Bordetella pertussis: Función en la patogénesis y aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Yunier Serrano-Rivero; Rafael Fando-Calzada

    2013-01-01

    La toxina adenilato ciclasa – hemolisina (TAC) es uno de los principales factores de virulencia de Bordetella pertussis. Fue descubierta en 1973 por Wolff y Cook como un contaminante en las formulaciones vacunales contra este microorganismo. Pertenece a la familia de las toxinas que forman poros en la membrana plasmática de las células diana y alcanza su máxima expresión en la fase virulenta de la bacteria. Esta toxina posee 1706 residuos de aminoácidos y se compone de dos dominios: uno N-ter...

  9. Dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and fibroblasts from different layers of pig skin exhibit different profibrotic characteristics: evidence from in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanhai; Lu, Shuliang

    2017-04-04

    To explore the profibrotic characteristics of the autografted dermis, acellular dermal matrix, and dermal fibroblasts from superficial/deep layers of pig skin, 93 wounds were established on the dorsa of 7 pigs. 72 wounds autografted with the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix served as the superficial/deep dermis and acellular dermal matrix group, respectively, and were sampled at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-wounding. 21 wounds autografted with/without superficial/deep dermal fibroblasts served as the superficial/deep dermal fibroblast group and the control group, respectively, and were sampled at 2 weeks post-wounding. The hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the wounded skin thicknesses in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) were significantly greater than those in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point, the thickness of the cutting plane in the deep dermal fibroblast group was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermal fibroblast group and the control group. The western blots showed that the α-smooth muscle actin expression in the deep dermis group (superficial acellular dermal matrix group) was significantly greater than that in the superficial dermis group (deep acellular dermal matrix group) at each time point. In summary, the deep dermis and dermal fibroblasts exhibited more profibrotic characteristics than the superficial ones, on the contrary, the deep acellular dermal matrix exhibited less profibrotic characteristics than the superficial one.

  10. Optimizing polymerase chain reaction testing for the diagnosis of pertussis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbefeville S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Nucleic acid testing has revolutionized the diagnosis of pertussis in the clinical microbiology laboratory and has become the main avenue of testing for pertussis infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is an important tool for timely diagnosis of pertussis and is more sensitive than culture. The most commonly amplified targets are the insertion-sequence (IS genes, which are found in multiple copies in the genome of Bordetella species. Some strains of Bordetella pertussis have more than 200 copies of IS481 in their genome. This high number of repeats allows RT-PCR assays to be very sensitive and makes nucleic acid testing two to three times more sensitive than culture. Despite these advantages, RT-PCR can give inaccurate results due to contamination or lack of specificity. Contamination can easily happen during specimen collection, DNA extraction, or nucleic acid amplification steps. To avoid contamination, laboratories need to have quality controls and good workflows in place. The poor specificity of the nucleic acid assays amplifying the IS genes is because they are found in various Bordetella species and, thus, not unique to a specific species. Bordetella holmesii, a more recently described Bordetella species found to be responsible for respiratory symptoms similar to pertussis in adolescents and adults, can be misidentified as B. pertussis in RT-PCR assays that amplify only the IS481 target. Use of multiple targets may improve specificity of RT-PCR assays for pertussis. In the past few years, the US Food and Drug Administration has cleared three commercial assays for the detection of B. pertussis in respiratory specimens. Several commercial assays and analyte-specific reagents, which are not US Food and Drug Administration cleared, are available for the detection of one

  11. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  12. Recurrent abdominal laxity following interpositional human acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Keifa, Emily S; Mithani, Suhail; Bochicchio, Grant V; Scalea, Thomas; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2008-01-01

    Repair of large complex abdominal hernias with significant loss of domain requires component separation in combination with either a synthetic or biologic interpositional material. We previously described an algorithm for complex abdominal hernia repair, which incorporates Alloderm as an interpositional material and selective use of prolene mesh as an overlay. We now report recurrent laxity in a series of patients who were repaired with interpositional Alloderm alone without prolene mesh overlay. We reviewed all patients who underwent repair of massive ventral hernias and identified 7 patients who presented with abdominal wall laxity following component separation with interpositional Alloderm alone. All patients developed laxity within 12 months and required a secondary procedure. At the time of re-exploration, severe attenuation in the Alloderm was noted. The segment was excised, the edges closed primarily, and prolene mesh was placed as an onlay. Although Alloderm has been reported to be an effective biologic material for abdominal hernia reconstruction, we have noted significant laxity requiring secondary intervention.

  13. Clinical study on human lamellar keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcers with porcine acellular corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hong Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal stroma on the treatment of superficial keratitis by drug-resistant fungal. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 16 cases of fungal keratitis received the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix from June 2015 to March 2016 with a follow-up of 6mo. We analyzed on items as postoperative visual acuity, corneal graft status, postoperative recurrence and postoperative complications. RESULTS: We observed a healing time of corneal epithelium in 7 to 10d postoperatively generally and the absence of corneal edema in 1mo, while the cornea gradually returned transparent in the 16 cases. Two cases required medication for an epithelial recovery and 3 cases received intervention for decreasing intraocular pressure to a certain level. During the follow-up we observed no cases of cornea degeneration, recurrence of infection or rejection. The vision acuity showed 1.27±0.22, 1.11±0.13, 0.79±0.22 in 1, 3 and 6mo after operation respectively. There was no statistical difference between vision in 1mo and the vision before surgery(P=0.06; while we found a statistical difference when comparing the vision of 3 and 6mo with vision before surgery(P=0.01,0.001. The vision in 6mo increased with a statistic difference to the vision at 1 and 3mo(PP=0.11. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix is a safe and efficient treatment for fungal keratitis.

  14. Preparation and characterization of genipin-crosslinked rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Xian-Jun, E-mail: ren_xianjun@sina.com [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Tang, Jin-Liang [Department of Pathology, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yin, Hong; Wang, Kai-Jian; Zhou, Chang-Li [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was investigated. Fresh rat spinal cords were decellularized and crosslinked with genipin (GP) to improve their structural stability and mechanical properties. The GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds possessed a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 31.1 μm and a porosity of 81.5%. The resultant scaffolds exhibited a water uptake ratio of 229%, and moderate in vitro degradation rates of less than 5% in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and slightly more than 20% in trypsin-containing buffer, within 14 days. The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds were determined to be 0.193 ± 0.064 MPa and 1.541 ± 0.082 MPa, respectively. Compared with glutaraldehyde (GA)-crosslinked acellular spinal cord scaffolds, GP-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated similar microstructure and mechanical properties but superior biocompatibility as indicated by cytotoxicity evaluation and rat mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion behavior. Cells were able to penetrate throughout the crosslinked scaffold due to the presence of an interconnected porous structure. The low cytotoxicity of GP facilitated cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion in vitro on the crosslinked scaffolds over 7 days. Thus, these GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds show great promise for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We prepared a modified acellular spinal cord scaffold by crosslinking with genipin. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold possessed a good 3-dimension porous structure. • Structural stability and mechanical property of scaffold were enhanced by genipin-crosslinking. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold demonstrated superior biocompatibility. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold show great promise for tissue engineering applications.

  15. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeven, René H M; Brummelman, Jolanda; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Nijst, Olaf E M; Kuipers, Betsy; Blok, Laura E R; Helm, Kina; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; van Els, Cecile A C M; Han, Wanda G H; Kersten, Gideon F A; Metz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) infection in mice. Data were collected from (i) individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii) twelve time points during the infection; and (iii) different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive) of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  16. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  17. Role of Adhesins and Toxins in Invasion of Human Tracheal Epithelial Cells by Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassinet, Laurence; Gueirard, Pascale; Maitre, Bernard; Housset, Bruno; Gounon, Pierre; Guiso, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, can invade and survive in several types of eukaryotic cell, including CHO, HeLa 229, and HEp-2 cells and macrophages. In this study, we analyzed bacterial invasiveness in nonrespiratory human HeLa epithelial cells and human HTE and HAE0 tracheal epithelial cells. Invasion assays and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. pertussis strains invaded and survived, without multiplying, in HTE or HAE0 cells. This phenomenon was bvg regulated, but invasive properties differed between B. pertussis strains and isolates and the B. pertussis reference strain. Studies with B. pertussis mutant strains demonstrated that filamentous hemagglutinin, the major adhesin, was involved in the invasion of human tracheal epithelial cells by bacteria but not in that of HeLa cells. Fimbriae and pertussis toxin were not found to be involved. However, we found that the production of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin prevents the invasion of HeLa and HTE cells by B. pertussis because an adenylate cyclase-hemolysin-deficient mutant was found to be more invasive than the parental strain. The effect of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin was mediated by an increase in the cyclic AMP concentration in the cells. Pertactin (PRN), an adhesin, significantly inhibited the invasion of HTE cells by bacteria, probably via its interaction with adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Isolates producing different PRNs were taken up similarly, indicating that the differences in the sequences of the PRNs produced by these isolates do not affect invasion. We concluded that filamentous hemagglutinin production favored invasion of human tracheal cells but that adenylate cyclase-hemolysin and PRN production significantly inhibited this process. PMID:10722585

  18. Direct Detection of Erythromycin-Resistant Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengguo; Han, Ruijun; Liu, Ying; Du, Quanli; Liu, Jifeng; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Hengxin; He, Qiushui; Yan, Yongping

    2015-11-01

    Resistance of Bordetella pertussis to erythromycin has been increasingly reported. We developed an allele-specific PCR method for rapid detection of erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis directly from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. Based on the proven association of erythromycin resistance with the A2047G mutation in the 23S rRNA of B. pertussis, four primers, two of which were designed to be specific for either the wild-type or the mutant allele, were used in two different versions of the allele-specific PCR assay. The methods were verified with results obtained by PCR-based sequencing of 16 recent B. pertussis isolates and 100 NP swab samples submitted for diagnostic PCR. The detection limits of the two PCR assays ranged from 10 to 100 fg per reaction for both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant B. pertussis. Two amplified fragments of each PCR, of 286 and 112 bp, respectively, were obtained from a mutant allele of the isolates and/or NP swab samples containing B. pertussis DNAs. For the wild-type allele, only a 286-bp fragment was visible when the allele-specific PCR assay 1 was performed. No amplification was found when a number of non-Bordetella bacterial pathogens and NP swab samples that did not contain the DNAs of B. pertussis were examined. This assay can serve as an alternative for PCR-based sequencing, especially for local laboratories in resource-poor countries. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Seroprevalence of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis among healthy adolescents and adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Babak; Moradi, Behnaz; Mirzaee, Farin; Mahmoudi, Shima; Teymuri, Mostafa; Mamishi, Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccine are useful to evaluate the success of immunization programs. In this study we evaluated the serologic levels of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. In a cross sectional study, a total of 360 people aged 10-25 years were randomly selected and classified by sex and age (10-14, 15-20, 21-25 years). Overall, 78.8% of people aged 10-25 years had fully protected levels of diphtheria antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), and 89.7% had fully protected levels of tetanus antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), 94.3% of women aged 15-25 years had anti tetanus antibody sufficient to protect against neonatal tetanus (> or = 0.1 IU/ML). Antibodies to Pertussis toxin (PT) were found in 44.2% samples but only 1.4% had fully protective levels. Antibodies to PT increased with age, ranging from 33.5% in aged 10-14 years to 54.6 % in aged 21-25 years. No differences were found between male and female, except for diphtheria in age group 21-25 years. Results of this study reveal that diphtheria and tetanus (dT) are efficient between booster doses. About pertussis, most people are susceptible to pertussis and increased PT antibodies with age suggest acquired asymptomatic Bordeella pertussis infection. Also B. pertussis infections in adolescents and adults are of concern, as they are the most important source of transmission of pertussis to young, unprotected infants. So one booster dose in adolescents and adults (as CDC recommended), to reduce mortality and morbidity in infants, is therefore suggested.

  20. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H M Raeven

    Full Text Available Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis infection in mice. Data were collected from (i individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii twelve time points during the infection; and (iii different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  1. Calvarial Regeneration With Use of Acellular Dermal Matrix in Aplasia Cutis Congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericli, Alexander F; Chen, Kevin; Murariu, Daniel; Jane, John A; Lin, Kant Y

    2015-09-01

    Aplasia cutis congenital (ACC) is a rare congenital anomaly, most commonly affecting the scalp, with a variable penetrance ranging from a small (cutis aplasia defect associated with absent skin, subcutaneous tissue, calvarium, dura, and with exposed cortical surface and sagittal sinus. This defect was successfully reconstructed in a single stage with the use of an acellular dermal matrix/skin graft construct. The acelluar dermal matrix served as a scaffold for tissue ingrowth, promoting regeneration of the bony calvarium as well as soft tissue. At 18-month follow-up, the patient exhibits a 50% smaller calvarial defect as well as stable skin coverage.

  2. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allow...

  3. Bordetella pertussis infection induces a mucosal IL-17 response and long-lived Th17 and Th1 immune memory cells in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfel, J M; Merkel, T J

    2013-07-01

    Despite near universal vaccine coverage, the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis has re-emerged as a major public health concern. We recently developed a baboon (Papio anubis) model of pertussis that provides an excellent model of human pertussis. Using this model, the immune response to pertussis was characterized by measuring cytokines in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of infected baboons. Notably, we observed mucosal expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as well as IL-6, IL-23, and several cytokines and chemokines that are orchestrated by IL-17 immune responses. We also found substantial populations of circulating B. pertussis-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in convalescent animals >2 years post-infection consistent with a role in immunological memory to pertussis. Collectively, these data shed important light on the innate and adaptive immune responses to pertussis in a primate infection model and suggest that Th17 and Th1 immune responses contribute to the immunity conferred by natural pertussis infection.

  4. Strain Variation among Bordetella pertussis Isolates Circulating in Poland after 50 Years of Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Use▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Ewa; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Zawadka, Monika; Dąbrowski, Waldemar; Lutyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis collected in Poland from 1960 to 2005 were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to protocols recommended in previous studies. Among the 110 isolates from 1995 to 2005, 59 PFGE patterns were found, most of which were different from those currently circulating in other European Union (EU) countries for which data are available. The PFGE patterns of currently disseminating B. pertussis clones were found within PFGE groups III and IV, as elsewhere in the EU, and in newly identified clusters A and C. Up to 70, 26, and 4%, respectively, of the currently isolated strains in Poland harbored ptxA1-prn1, ptxA1-prn2, and ptxA1-prn3 allele combinations, and most (82%) were found to be of the Fim2 phenotype. Differences in the extent of heterogeneity estimated by PFGE typing in B. pertussis populations circulating in Poland in comparison to other EU countries may be due to the different vaccine composition strategy, since routine pertussis vaccination was initiated in Poland in 1960. PMID:21307213

  5. Immune response to Bordetella pertussis is associated with season and undernutrition in Senegalese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaayeb, Lobna; Pinçon, Claire; Cames, Cécile; Sarr, Jean-Biram; Seck, Modou; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Remoué, Franck; Hermann, Emmanuel; Riveau, Gilles

    2014-06-05

    While vaccines elicit a protective response in most recipients, studies suggest that environmental and nutritional factors can influence the strength of the individual response to immunization and to subsequent natural infectious challenges. We conducted a longitudinal survey in Senegal to assess the individual response to B. pertussis, a respiratory disease against which Senegalese children are vaccinated before the age of one (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01545115). A cohort of 203 children aged 1-9 from four villages of the Senegal River Valley was followed-up for 14 months (October 2008-January 2010). During that period, four visits have been made to the villages to assess the immunological and nutritional status of these children and to determine risk factors involved in the modulation of their humoral immune response to B. pertussis toxin. A multivariate model has demonstrated that birth season and nutritional status appeared to modulate humoral response to pertussis toxin. Moreover, response to B. pertussis was dependent on age, village and time of visit. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental and nutritional factors modulate children's response to pertussis following natural infection or vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dose response of attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1-induced protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Nathalie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mahieux, Severine; Locht, Camille

    2010-03-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious vaccines, the incidence of whooping cough is still high in many countries and is even increasing in countries with high vaccine coverage. Most severe and life-threatening pertussis cases occur in infants who are too young to be sufficiently protected by current vaccine regimens. As a potential solution to this problem, we have developed an attenuated live Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain, named BPZE1. Here, we show that after a single administration, BPZE1 induces dose-dependent protection against challenge with virulent B. pertussis in low-dose and in high-dose intranasal mouse lung colonization models. In addition, we observed BPZE1 dose-dependent antibody titers to B. pertussis antigens, as well as cell-mediated immunity, evidenced by the amounts of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) released from spleen cells upon stimulation with B. pertussis antigens. These two parameters may perhaps be used as readouts in clinical trials in humans that are currently being planned.

  7. Development of vaccines against pertussis caused by Bordetella holmesii using a mouse intranasal challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Momoko; Odanaka, Keita; Otsuka, Nao; Kamachi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Mineo

    2016-09-01

    Bordetella holmesii is recognized as the third causative agent of pertussis (whooping cough) in addition to Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Pertussis caused by B. holmesii is not rare around the world. However, to date, there is no effective vaccine against B. holmesii. We examined the protective potency of pertussis vaccines available in Japan and vaccines prepared from B. holmesii. A murine model of respiratory infection was exploited to evaluate protective potency. No Japanese commercial pertussis vaccines were effective against B. holmesii. In contrast, a wBH vaccine and an aBH vaccine prepared from B. holmesii were both protective. Passive immunization with sera from mice immunized with aBH vaccine established protection against B. holmesii, indicating that B. holmesii-specific serum antibodies might play an important role in protection. Immuno-proteomic analysis with sera from mice immunized with aBH vaccine revealed that the sera recognized a BipA-like protein of B. holmesii. An aBH vaccine prepared from a BipA-like protein-deficient mutant strain did not have a protective effect against B. holmesii. Taken together, our results suggest that the BipA-like protein plays an important role in the protective efficacy of aBH vaccine. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms of Pertussis Toxin Subunit S2 (PtxB Affect Protein Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott H Millen

    Full Text Available Whooping cough due to Bordetella pertussis is increasing in incidence, in part due to accumulation of mutations which increase bacterial fitness in highly vaccinated populations. Polymorphisms in the pertussis toxin, ptxA and ptxB genes, and the pertactin, prn genes of clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis collected in Cincinnati from 1989 through 2005 were examined. While the ptxA and prn genotypes were variable, all 48 strains had the ptxB2 genotype; ptxB1 encodes glycine at amino acid 18 of the S2 subunit of pertussis toxin, while ptxB2 encodes serine. We investigated antigenic and functional differences of PtxB1 and PtxB2. The S2 protein was not very immunogenic. Only a few vaccinated or individuals infected with B. pertussis developed antibody responses to the S2 subunit, and these sera recognized both polymorphic forms equally well. Amino acid 18 of S2 is in a glycan binding domain, and the PtxB forms displayed differences in receptor recognition and toxicity. PtxB1 bound better to the glycoprotein, fetuin, and Jurkat T cells in vitro, but the two forms were equally effective at promoting CHO cell clustering. To investigate in vivo activity of Ptx, one μg of Ptx was administered to DDY mice and blood was collected on 4 days after injection. PtxB2 was more effective at promoting lymphocytosis in mice.

  9. Desensitization with DTP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with DTP vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis is a part of the vaccination calendar offered in childhood. Adverse allergic reactions vary from minimal urticarial reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. In infancy these reactions usually interrupt the vaccination calendar, but immunization in these children should be done. At the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade, a group of 137 children with suspected allergic anaphylactic reaction to DTP, DT, TT and monopertussis vaccine was studied for the last six years. Skin (prick and intradermal tests were performed with corresponding vaccine. If both tests were negative, the vaccine could be given as a single dose of 0.5 ml. If one of these tests were positive desensitization with vaccine could be done (according to the protocol described by Carey and Meltzer. In one group of 52 children three days before desensitization, premedication with antihistamines, was done, whereas in the other group of 52 children premedication was not done. Two (3.8% children in a group of 52 children with premedication had a minor (local reaction after vaccination and 50 children (96.2% had no reaction after vaccination, whereas no children (0% had systemic reaction after desensitization.

  10. [Genetic evolution under vaccine pressure: the Bordetella pertussis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Guiso, N

    2000-07-01

    A possible genetic selective pressure related to the long-term use of vaccines has been the object of recent theoretical thought and publications. For more than thirty years, an effective vaccine has been in use against whooping cough on a wide scale basis in several countries. Thus, the Bordetella pertussis model may contribute to the analysis of an evolutionary risk linked to the vaccine. To maintain and improve the control of whooping cough, better vaccination coverage must be achieved in countries where prevalence is low. In countries where high vaccination coverage has been achieved over a long period, a trend toward the resurgence of the disease has been observed. Efforts are therefore now being directed toward primary vaccination and boosters. These two targets require new vaccines with fewer side effects. Outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations have been reported, raising the issues of vaccine efficacy, of the long-term effect of vaccines on the transmission of the disease, and of genetic selective pressure. Time trend modifications of circulating strains related to vaccination practices and vaccine types have been observed and are compatible with a selective pressure of the vaccine on related pathogens. However, evidence for a causal relation is lacking. In order to monitor and understand the various effects the vaccine may be having on the effectiveness of immunisation against whooping cough, further surveillance is needed, integrating a standardised characterisation of circulating strains and vaccines by way of a space-time sampling model.

  11. Sterile Acellular Dermal Collagen as a Treatment for Rippling Deformity of Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Busse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal matrix product, AlloMax. The patient presented with visible rippling of bilateral prosthetic breast implants as well as significant asymmetry of the breasts after multiple excisional biopsies for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ. A 6×10 cm piece of AlloMax was placed on the medial aspect of each breast between the implant and the skin flap. Follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year following the procedure. The patient recovered well from the surgery and there were no complications. At her first postoperative follow-up the patient was extremely satisfied with the result. At her 3-month and 1-year follow-up she had no recurrence of her previous deformity and no new deformity.

  12. RNA isolation for small RNA Next-Generation Sequencing from acellular biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Kasandra L; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of considerations when choosing protocols both upstream and downstream of Next-Generation Sequencing experiments. On the front end, purification methods, additives, and residuum can often inhibit the sensitive chemistries by which sequencing-by-synthesis is performed. On the back end, data handling, analysis software packages, and pipelines can also impact sequencing outcomes. The current chapter will describe stepwise how acellular biofluid samples are prepared for small RNA sequencing. With regard to purification methods, we found that small RNA yield can be improved considerably by following the total RNA isolation protocol included with Ambion's mirVana PARIS Kit but modifying the organic extraction step. Specifically, after transferring the upper aqueous phase to a fresh tube, water is added to the residual material (interphase and lower organic layer) and again phase-separated. In contrast, all the protocols provided with the commercially available kits at the time of this chapter publication require only one organic extraction. This simple yet, as it turns out, quite useful modification allows access to previously inaccessible material. Potential benefits from these changes are a more comprehensive sample profiling of small RNA, as well as wider access to small volume samples, such as is typically available for acellular biofluids, which now can be prepared for small RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform.

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Bordetella pertussis Isolates B1917 and B1920, Representing Two Predominant Global Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, M.J.; Zeddeman, A.; Heide, H.G. van der; Heuvelman, K.; Gent, M. van; Mooi, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, a disease which has resurged despite vaccination. We report the complete, annotated genomes of isolates B1917 and B1920, representing two lineages predominating globally in the last 50 years. The B1917 lineage has been associated with the

  14. Evaluation of Amplification Targets for the Specific Detection of Bordetella pertussis Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rubayet Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis infections continue to be a major public health challenge in Canada. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect B pertussis are typically based on the multicopy insertion sequence IS481, which offers high sensitivity but lacks species specificity.

  15. Strain variation among Bordetella pertussis isolates from Québec and Alberta provinces of Canada from 1985 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Mark S; Kuny, Sharee; Nevesinjac, Anna; Rogers, Christina; de Moissac, Yvon R; Knowles, Kathleen; Lorange, Manon; De Serres, Gaston; Talbot, James

    2003-07-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gene typing were able to differentiate among 3,597 Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Alberta and Québec Provinces, Canada, from 1985 to 1994 and distinguish them from the strains used in vaccine production. This study provides a baseline for continued surveillance of prevalent and emerging strains of B. pertussis in Canada.

  16. [Accumulation of the bvg- Bordetella pertussis a virulent mutants in the process of experimental whooping cough in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Rumiantseva, Iu P; Voronina, O L; Kunda, M S; Karataev, G I

    2013-01-01

    The duration of the persistence and dynamics of accumulation of insertion bvg- Bordetella pertussis mutants were studied in lungs of laboratory mice after intranasal and intravenous challenge by virulent bacteria of the causative agent of whooping cough. The capability of the virulent B. pertussis bacteria to long-term persistence in the body of mice was tested. Using the real-time PCR approximately hundred genome equivalents of the B. pertussis DNA were detected in lungs of mice in two months after infection regardless of the way of challenge. Using the bacterial test bacteria were identified during only four weeks after challenge. Bvg- B. pertussis avirulent mutants were accumulated for the infection time. The percentage of the avirulent bacteria in the B. pertussis population reached 50% in 7-9 weeks after challenge. The obtained results show that the laboratory mice can be used for study of the B. pertussis insertion mutant formation dynamics in vivo and confirm the hypothesis about insertional bvg- B. pertussis virulent mutants accumulation during development of pertussis infection in human.

  17. Activation of Bvg-Repressed Genes in Bordetella pertussis by RisA Requires Cross Talk from Noncooperonic Histidine Kinase RisK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Ng, Victoria; Warfel, Jason M; Merkel, Tod J; Stibitz, Scott

    2017-11-15

    The two-component response regulator RisA, encoded by open reading frame BP3554 in the Bordetella pertussis Tohama I genomic sequence, is a known activator of vrg genes, a set of genes whose expression is increased under the same environmental conditions (known as modulation) that result in repression of the bvgAS virulence regulon. Here we demonstrate that RisA is phosphorylated in vivo and that RisA phosphorylation is required for activation of vrg genes. An adjacent histidine kinase gene, risS , is truncated by frameshift mutation in B. pertussis but not in Bordetella bronchiseptica or Bordetella parapertussis Neither deletion of risS ' or bvgAS nor phenotypic modulation with MgSO 4 affected levels of phosphorylated RisA (RisA∼P) in B. pertussis However, RisA phosphorylation did require the histidine kinase encoded by BP3223, here named RisK (cognate histidine kinase of RisA). RisK was also required for expression of the vrg genes. This requirement could be obviated by the introduction of the phosphorylation-mimicking RisA D60E mutant, indicating that an active conformation of RisA, but not phosphorylation per se , is crucial for vrg activation. Interestingly, expression of vrg genes is still modulated by MgSO 4 in cells harboring the RisA D60E mutation, suggesting that the activated RisA senses additional signals to control vrg expression in response to environmental stimuli. IMPORTANCE In B. pertussis , the BvgAS two-component system activates the expression of virulence genes by binding of BvgA∼P to their promoters. Expression of the reciprocally regulated vrg genes requires RisA and is also repressed by the Bvg-activated BvgR. RisA is an OmpR-like response regulator, but RisA phosphorylation was not expected because the gene for its presumed, cooperonic, histidine kinase is inactivated by mutation. In this study, we demonstrate phosphorylation of RisA in vivo by a noncooperonic histidine kinase. We also show that RisA phosphorylation is necessary but not

  18. [Acellular vaccines (DTPa/dTpa) against whooping cough, protection duration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Medrano, M Vicenta; Mendoza-García, José L; Gimeno-Gascón, Adelina; Roda-Ramón, Jorge; Cremades-Bernabeú, Israel; Antequera-Rodríguez, Pedro; Alcalá-Minagorre, Pedro J; Ortiz-de la Tabla, Victoria; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    An increase in whooping cough in most of the developed countries has been detected in the last decade. To determine whether the administration of dTpa vaccine instead of DTPa fifth dose is contributing to the appearance of these cases. A descriptive study based on cases of whooping cough reported during an epidemic period in the city of Alicante in the first 5 months of 2014. Only pertussis cases confirmed by PCR were included in the study, and only those vaccinated with 5 doses were included in the analysis of the period of protection. A total of 104 cases of pertussis confirmed by PCR were reported, with 85 cases (82%) having had 5 doses of vaccine. The mean time and standard deviation (SD) of protection was 2.1±1.1 years with dTpa, and 5.1±1.5 years with DTPa (p<.001). In the protection, adjusted for age, it was observed that, after 3 years, only 47.6% of people vaccinated with dTpa were still protected, while people vaccinated with DTPa were 100% protected (P<.001). This study found that people who were properly vaccinated against pertussis and received their last re-vaccination dose with dTpa had a shorter period of protection than those who were vaccinated with DTPa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical characteristics and pertussis costs in cases reported to epidemiological services and cases detected in household contacts in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P; Muñoz-Almagro, C; Godoy, P; Jané, M; Carmona, G

    2016-02-01

    To assess the clinical characteristics and direct health costs associated with pertussis cases reported to and confirmed by epidemiological services and cases detected among household contacts in Catalonia (Spain) in 2012-2013. All pertussis cases confirmed by the epidemiological services (n = 641) and all cases detected among the household contacts (n = 422) were included in the study. The chi-square test and odds ratios were used to compare percentages and the t-test was used to compare mean pertussis costs, with p Catalonia was high in terms of health costs, especially in infants aged less than 1 year. Active epidemiological surveillance activities could prevent pertussis transmisison and reduce pertussis costs.

  20. Human allogeneic keratinocytes cultured on acellular xenodermis: the use in healing of burns and other skin defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.; Štolbová, V.; Klein, L.; Konigová, R.; Veselý, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2006), s. 63-71 ISSN 0959-2989 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5052312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : acellular xenodermis * human keratinocytes * wound grafting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2006

  1. Improving specificity of Bordetella pertussis detection using a four target real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Helena; Detemmerman, Liselot; Soetens, Oriane; Yusuf, Erlangga; Piérard, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of whooping cough, a contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, is on the rise despite existing vaccination programmes. Similar, though usually milder, respiratory symptoms may be caused by other members of the Bordetella genus: B. parapertussis, B. holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica. Pertussis diagnosis is mostly done using PCR, but the use of multiple targets is necessary in order to differentiate the different Bordetella spp. with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate a multiplex PCR assay for the differentiation of B. pertussis from other Bordetella spp., using the targets IS481, IS1001, IS1002, and recA. Moreover, we retrospectively explore the epidemiology of Bordetella spp. infections in Belgium, using the aforementioned assay over a three-year period, from 2013 until 2015.

  2. Complete genome sequence of a clinical Bordetella pertussis isolate from Brazil

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    Bruno Gabriel N Andrade

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence in the number of pertussis cases in Brazil and around the world. Here, the genome of a clinical Bordetella pertussis strain (Bz181 that was recently isolated in Brazil is reported. Analysis of the virulence-associated genes defining the pre- and post-vaccination lineages revealed the presence of the prn2-ptxS1A-fim3B-ptxP3 allelic profile in Bz181, which is characteristic of the current pandemic lineage. A putative metallo-β-lactamase gene presenting all of the conserved zinc-binding motifs that characterise the catalytic site was identified, in addition to a multidrug efflux pump of the RND family that could confer resistance to erythromycin, which is the antibiotic of choice for treating pertussis disease.

  3. Relative Stability of Pertussis Vaccine Preserved with Merthiolate, Benzethonium Chloride, or the Parabens1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Roberta A.; Pittman, Margaret

    1965-01-01

    When stored at 4 C, or heated at 22 or 35 C followed by storage at 4 C, the potency of pertussis vaccines preserved with Merthiolate was more stable than the potency of vaccines preserved with benzethonium chloride or the parabens (methyl- and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate). Without preservative, potency was more stable than in the presence of benzethonium chloride or the parabens, but less stable than when Merthiolate was present. The histamine-sensitizing factor of the vaccines likewise decreased with the loss of potency. The deleterious effect of benzethonium chloride and the absence of the stabilizing effect of Merthiolate were contributing factors, if not the sole cause, for the instability of pertussis vaccine in quadruple antigen vaccine (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines). Images Fig. 2 PMID:14339263

  4. Bordetella pertussis diagnosis in children under five years of age in the Regional Hospital of Cajamarca, Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Casabona-Oré, Veronica; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Veronica; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Pons, Maria J; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernan; Ruiz, Joaquin

    2015-11-30

    Bordetella pertussis is an important human pathogen that causes whooping cough (pertussis), an endemic illness responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and children. Worldwide, there are an estimated of 16 million cases of pertussis, resulting in about 195,000 child deaths per year. In Peru, pertussis is a major health problem that has been on the increase despite immunization efforts. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age suspected to have whopping cough in Cajamarca, Peru. Children diagnosed with whooping cough admitted to the Hospital Regional de Cajamarca from August 2010 to July 2013 were included. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for B. pertussis culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. In 133 children, the pertussis toxin and IS481 gene were detected in 38.35% (51/133) of the cases by PCR, while only 9.02% (12/133) of the Bordetella cultures were positive. The most frequent symptoms in patients with positive B. pertussis were paroxysm of coughing 68.63% (35/51), cyanosis 56.86% (29/51), respiratory distress 43.14% (22/51), and fever 39.22% (20/51). Pneumonia and acute bronchial obstructive syndrome were present in 17.65% (9/51) and 13.72% (7/51) of the cases, respectively. B. pertussis is responsible for an important proportion of whooping cough in hospitalized children in Cajamarca. Epidemiologic surveillance programs for B. pertussis are essential in Peru, especially in children who could most benefit from the vaccine.

  5. Pertussis Vaccination Among Childcare Center Staff, Administrators, and Parents: Uptake, Policies, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Loux, Travis M; Lew, Daphne; Wakefield, Mary

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Little is known about childcare staff's and parents' uptake of and attitudes towards pertussis vaccine. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to St. Louis parents and childcare staff in fall, 2014. Parents versus staff and vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals' beliefs regarding pertussis vaccine were compared using chi square tests. Multivariate logistic regressions were run to develop predictive models for staff's and parents' vaccine uptake. Results Overall, 351 parents and staff from 23 agencies participated (response rate = 32%). Parents were more likely than staff to have received pertussis vaccine (66.5 vs. 45.8%, X 2  = 12.5, p < .001). Predictors for staff vaccination included willingness to get vaccinated even if there was a cost (OR 6.6; CI 1.8-24.6; p < .01), awareness of vaccination recommendations (OR 5.2; CI 1.2-22.8; p < .05), and healthcare provider recommendation (OR 4.2; CI 1.2-15.1; p < .05). Parents' predictors of vaccination included perceived importance of vaccination (OR 9.9; CI 4.1-23.8; p < .001), healthcare provider recommendation (OR 4.6; CI 1.7-12.6; p < .01), believing vaccination is effective (OR 4.4; CI 1.1-18.0; p < .05), and knowing where to get vaccine (OR 3.5; CI 1.5-8.1; p < .01). Among unvaccinated staff (n = 52), 74.5% (n = 38) and 70.0% (n = 35) would receive pertussis vaccine if it were offered free of charge and onsite, respectively. Conclusions for Practice Childcare staff's and parents' pertussis vaccine uptake was higher than overall U.S. rates, though significantly lower than the Global Pertussis Initiative target. Implementing an education campaign and providing free vaccine on-site are likely to result in increased vaccine uptake.

  6. Comparative genomics of Bordetella pertussis reveals progressive gene loss in Finnish strains.

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    Eriikka Heikkinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical isolates in Finland. To better understand genome evolution in B. pertussis circulating in the immunized population, we developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray for comparative genomic analysis of Finnish strains isolated during the period of 50 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The microarray consisted of 3,582 oligonucleotides (70-mer and covered 94% of 3,816 ORFs of Tohama I, the strain of which the genome has been sequenced. Twenty isolates from 1953 to 2004 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains and two international reference strains. The isolates were selected according to their characteristics, e.g. the year and place of isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Genomic DNA of the tested strains, along with reference DNA of Tohama I strain, was labelled and hybridized. The absence of genes as established with microarrays, was confirmed by PCR. Compared with the Tohama I strain, Finnish isolates lost 7 (8.6 kb to 49 (55.3 kb genes, clustered in one to four distinct loci. The number of lost genes increased with time, and one third of lost genes had functions related to inorganic ion transport and metabolism, or energy production and conversion. All four loci of lost genes were flanked by the insertion sequence element IS481. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the progressive gene loss occurred in Finnish B. pertussis strains isolated during a period of 50 years and confirmed that B. pertussis is dynamic and is continuously evolving, suggesting that the bacterium may use gene loss as one strategy to adapt to highly immunized populations.

  7. The Bordetella pertussis Bps Polysaccharide Enhances Lung Colonization by Conferring Protection from Complement-mediated Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Tridib; Johnson, John B.; Kock, Nancy D.; Parks, Griffith D.; Deora, Rajendar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bordetella pertussis is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes whooping cough or pertussis. Pertussis is the leading vaccine preventable disease that is resurging in the USA and other parts of the developed world. There is an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which B. pertussis evades killing and clearance by the complement system, a first line of host innate immune defense. The present study examined the role of the Bps polysaccharide to resist complement activity in vitro and in the mouse respiratory tract. The isogenic bps mutant strain containing a large non polar in-frame deletion of the bpsA-D locus was more sensitive to serum and complement mediated killing than the WT strain. As determined by western blotting, flow cytometry and electron microscopic studies, the heightened sensitivity of the mutant strain was due to enhanced deposition of complement proteins and the formation of membrane attack complex, the end product of complement activation. Bps was sufficient to confer complement resistance as evidenced by a Bps-expressing E. coli being protected by serum killing. Additionally, western blotting and flow cytometry assays revealed that Bps inhibited the deposition of complement proteins independent of other B. pertussis factors. The bps mutant strain colonized the lungs of complement-deficient mice at higher levels than that observed in C57Bl/6 mice. These results reveal a previously unknown interaction between Bps and the complement system in controlling B. pertussis colonization of the respiratory tract. These findings also make Bps a potential target for the prevention and therapy of whooping cough. PMID:24438122

  8. Age related differences in dynamics of specific memory B cell populations after clinical pertussis infection.

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    Inonge van Twillert

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the maintenance of immune mechanisms to Bordetella pertussis (Bp in relation to age, we investigated the dynamic range of specific B cell responses in various age-groups at different time points after a laboratory confirmed pertussis infection. Blood samples were obtained in a Dutch cross sectional observational study from symptomatic pertussis cases. Lymphocyte subpopulations were phenotyped by flowcytometry before and after culture. Memory B (Bmem cells were differentiated into IgG antibody secreting cells (ASC by polyclonal stimulation and detected by an ELISPOT assay specific for pertussis antigens pertussis toxin (Ptx, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn. Bp antigen specific IgG concentrations in plasma were determined using multiplex technology. The majority of subjects having experienced a clinical pertussis episode demonstrated high levels of both Bp specific IgG and Bmem cell levels within the first 6 weeks after diagnosis. Significantly lower levels were observed thereafter. Waning of cellular and humoral immunity to maintenance levels occurred within 9 months after antigen encounter. Age was found to determine the maximum but not base-line frequencies of Bmem cell populations; higher levels of Bmem cells specific for Ptx and FHA were reached in adults and (pre- elderly compared to under-fours and schoolchildren in the first 6 weeks after Bp exposure, whereas not in later phases. This age effect was less obvious for specific IgG levels. Nonetheless, subjects' levels of specific Bmem cells and specific IgG were weakly correlated. This is the first study to show that both age and closeness to last Bp encounter impacts the size of Bp specific Bmem cell and plasma IgG levels.

  9. Comparison of PCR, Culture, and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Testing for Detection of Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelholz, Mike J.; Thompson, Curt J.; Long, Karla S.; Gilchrist, Mary J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively compared the performance of culture, direct fluorescent-antibody testing (DFA), and an in-house-developed PCR test targeting the repeated insertion sequence IS481 for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We tested 319 consecutive paired specimens on which all three tests were performed. A total of 59 specimens were positive by one or more tests. Of these, 5 were positive by all three tests, 2 were positive by culture and PCR, 16 were positive by PCR and DFA, 28 were positive by PCR only, and 8 were positive by DFA only. Any specimen positive by culture was considered to be a true positive, as were specimens positive by both PCR and DFA. Specimens positive only by PCR or DFA were considered discrepant, and their status was resolved by review of patient histories. Patients with symptoms meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical case definition for pertussis and who had a specimen positive by PCR or DFA were considered to have true B. pertussis infections. Of the 28 patients positive by PCR only, 20 met the clinical case definition for pertussis, while 3 of the 8 patients positive by DFA only met the clinical case definition. After resolution of the status of discrepant specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 15.2, 100, 100, and 87.5%, respectively, for culture; 93.5, 97.1, 84.3, and 98.9%, respectively, for PCR; and 52.2, 98.2, 82.8, and 92.4%, respectively, for DFA. The actual positive predictive value of PCR was probably greater, as several PCR-positive patients who did not meet the clinical case definition had symptoms consistent with typical or atypical pertussis. PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of B. pertussis. PMID:10449467

  10. Evaluation of real-time PCR for diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection

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    Fox Julie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acid amplification of the IS481 region by PCR is more sensitive than culture for detection and diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis but the assay has known cross-reactivity for Bordetella holmesii and its use as a routine diagnostic assay has not been widely evaluated. Methods The objectives of this study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic utility of real-time IS481 PCR by comparison of results with culture and direct fluorescent antigen (DFA testing for B. pertussis, 2 to employ a PCR assay designed against a different insertion sequence (IS1001 to assess the incidence of B. holmesii in symptomatic individuals and 3 to design and evaluate a new PCR-based assay which could be used for B. pertussis confirmation. A total of 808 nasopharyngeal specimens were included in the study the majority of which were submitted in charcoal transport medium (88% with the rest submitted in Regan-Lowe medium. Results Concordant results for PCR, DFA and culture were obtained for 21 B. pertussis positive and 729 B. pertussis negative specimens. DFA was prone to false positive and negative reactions when compared with both PCR and culture. The IS481 PCR identified 28 positive results for specimens that were DFA and culture negative. A novel real-time PCR targeting the B. pertussis toxin promoter was found to be specific and useful for confirming the majority of IS481 positive specimens as B. pertussis. B. holmesii was not detected in any of the submitted samples. Conclusion The potential pick up of B. holmesii by the IS481 PCR had minimal diagnostic relevance in the Alberta population during the time period of our study. The IS481 PCR assay is now used in our laboratory routinely for front-line screening of samples for B. pertussis with associated enhancement in diagnostic sensitivity compared with DFA and culture. Retrospectively, patients' samples are batched and tested by the IS1001 MB and TPR assays for research purposes and to ensure

  11. Polymorphism of Repeated Regions of Pertactin in Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursaux-Eude, Caroline; Guiso, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Pertactin is an outer membrane protein expressed by Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica that induces protective immunity to Bordetella infections. The immunodominant and immunoprotective epitopes of pertactin include two repeated regions, I and II. Comparison of these two repeated regions showed that B. parapertussis pertactin is invariant, whereas B. pertussis pertactin varies mostly in region I and B. bronchiseptica pertactin varies in both repeated regions I and II, but mostly in region II. These differences may result from specific characteristics of these Bordetella species. PMID:10899896

  12. In vitro susceptibilities of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to six new oral cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, J E; Müller, J

    1990-01-01

    Of six new oral cephalosporins, cefixime and cefpodoxime were the most active (MIC for 90% of isolates tested [MIC90], 16 micrograms/ml) against Bordetella pertussis, followed by cefetamet, cefprozil, and loracarbef (LY163892) (MIC90, 64 micrograms/ml) and ceftibuten (MIC90, 128 micrograms/ml). Against Bordetella parapertussis, loracarbef was more active (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml) than the other compounds tested (MIC90s, 64 to greater than 128 micrograms/ml). The new oral cephalosporins are unlikely to play a role in pertussis treatment. PMID:2386374

  13. Scanning electron microscopic study of hamster tracheal organ cultures infected with Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, K E; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

    1977-12-01

    Hamster tracheal organculture was employed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of infection due to bordetella pertusis. Scanning electron microscopy provided a three-dimensional view of the surface infection of the tracheal explants. Phase I B. pertussis attached only to the ciliated epithelial cells, and a sequence of events involving the injury, expulsion, and destruction of these differentiated cells occurred. This in vitro model provides insights into the mechanisms by which B. pertussis mediates host cell injury at the site of infection.

  14. Experimental total wrapping of breast implants with acellular dermal matrix: a preventive tool against capsular contracture in breast surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Marweh; Bertram, Martin; Kneser, Ulrich; Keller, Andrea K; Horch, Raymund E

    2013-10-01

    Capsular contracture remains a hitherto unsolved complication after implantation of silicone gel-filled breast prostheses. Based on clinical and experimental data, the use of an acellular dermal matrix as a sheath around implants may lead to lesser capsular contracture acting as a proposed biological environment mimicking wound bed tissue. The aim of our study was to analyse the tissue reaction after implantation of silicone prosthesis with and without an envelope of acellular dermal matrix. Implantation of 60 silicone prostheses in the back of Lewis rats were carried out, randomly paired taking one rat from group A and one from group B. Group A included implants completely enveloped with xenogenic acellular dermis and group B undraped silicone implants. At 3, 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, the samples were explanted and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. A new myofibroblast tissue layer was identified in proximity to the implant in both groups. The thickness of the layer in group A was continuously thinner than in group B regarding the different explantation time points. Implants completely wrapped with acellular dermal matrix showed significantly lesser inflammatory signs at 3 and 12 weeks after implantation compared to controls. Cell proliferation after 12 weeks was significantly decreased in group A. The slight myofibroblast layer and reduced rate of inflammation and proliferation in the treatment group show a positive effect of total acellular dermal matrix envelope and hypothesise the decrease of capsular contracture in long-term periods. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Application of Acellular Dermal Matrix in the Treatment of Aplasia Cutis Congenita on Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Soo; Park, Jun Ho; Shin, Ho Seong; Nam, Seung Min

    2017-11-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), also called cutis aplasia, is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by focal defect of the skin at birth, frequently involving the scalp, but may affect any region of the body. Approximately 80% of patients have the defect confined to the skin and generally less than 2 cm diameter, which can be managed conservatively with dressing alone. However, some patients present large cutaneous defects and aplasia of the underlying skull may also be present. The main complications of large defects include meningeal infection, bleeding, and thrombosis, which may be deadly. Some controversy remains in the literature regarding ACC treatment, with surgical and conservative treatment modalities having proponents and opponents.This article presents the first case of a newborn with full-thickness ACC lesion of the vertex healed by conservative treatment with application of acellular dermal matrix.

  16. Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Edna S; Goldberg, Elad; Hellmann, Sarah; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-04-18

    doses differed significantly between the studies. Heterogeneous interventions, study location, healthcare environment and combining research across disparate geographical locations, may have lead to bias. The risk of bias was unclear across most of the included studies. Comparisons found little heterogeneity. In two immunological responses the combined vaccine achieved lower responses than the separate vaccines for HIB and tetanus. No significant differences in immunogenicity were found for pertussis, diphtheria, polio and hepatitis B. Serious adverse events were comparable with mainly hospitalisation and acute bronchiolitis cases. Minor adverse events such as pain and redness were more common in children given the combined vaccine. Overall, the direction shown by the results is in favour of the DTPw (diptheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis)-HBV-HIB vaccine rather than the DTPa (diptheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis)-HBV-HIB vaccine when compared to the separate vaccines (size of effect: risk ratio (RR) 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 2.10, for 5269 participants). We could not conclude that the immune responses elicited by the combined vaccine were different from or equivalent to the separate vaccines. There was significantly less immunological response for HIB and tetanus and more local reactions in the combined injections. However, these differences rely mostly on one study each. Studies did not use an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and we were uncertain about the risk of bias in many of the studies. These results are therefore inconclusive. Studies addressing clinical end points whenever possible, using correct methodology and a large enough sample size should be conducted.

  17. High Throughput Assay for Bacterial Adhesion on Acellular Dermal Matrices and Synthetic Surgical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyame, Theodore T.; Lemon, Katherine P.; Kolter, Roberto; Liao, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been increasing use of various synthetic and biologically derived materials in surgery. Biologic surgical materials are used in many plastic surgery procedures, ranging from breast reconstruction to hernia repairs. In particular, acellular dermal matrix (ADM) material has gained popularity in these applications. There is a paucity of data on how ADM compares to other surgical materials as a substrate for bacterial adhesion, the first step in formation biofilm, which occurs in prosthetic wound infections. We have designed a high throughput assay to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus adherence on various synthetic and biologically derived materials. Methods Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (strains SC-1 and UAMS-1) were cultured with different materials and bacterial adherence was measured using a resazurin cell vitality reporter microtiter assay. Four materials that are commonly utilized in reconstructive procedures were evaluated: prolene mesh, vicryl mesh, and two different ADM preparations (AlloDerm®, FlexHD®). We were able to develop a high throughput and reliable assay for quantifying bacterial adhesion on synthetic and biologically derived materials. Results The resazurin vitality assay can be reliably used to quantify bacterial adherence to acellular dermal matrix material, as well as synthetic material. S. aureus strains SC-1 and UAMS-1 both adhered better to ADM materials (AlloDerm® vs. FlexHD®) than to the synthetic material prolene. S. aureus also adhered better to vicryl than to prolene. Strain UAMS-1 adhered better to vicryl and ADM materials than did strain SC-1. Conclusion Our results suggest that S. aureus adheres more readily to ADM material than to synthetic material. We have developed an assay to rapidly test bacterial formation on surgical materials, using two S. aureus bacterial strains. This provides a standard method to evaluate existing and new materials with regard to bacterial adherence and potential

  18. Repair of nerve injury by implanting prostheses obtained from isogenic acellular nerve segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Medrano, B; Mesuro Domínguez, N; Simón Pérez, Cl; Garrosa García, M; Gayoso Del Villar, S; Mayo Íscar, A; Gayoso Rodríguez, M J; Martín Ferrero, M A

    When a nerve section with a significant gap occurs, it is necessary to use a prosthesis to suture it. To date an autologous nerve segment graft appears to be the best treatment; but it has several important disadvantages. Our goal is to study the effectiveness of an isogenic acellular nerve prosthesis comparing a simple suture with tubulisation. Four groups of Wistar rats were used. The animals in Group 0 served as donors of nerve segments to graft. Group 1 received the implant with an end-to-end suture. In group 2, the implant was sutured inside an ɛ-caprolactone tube. Group 3 received it in a polylactic-co-glycolic acid tube. We evaluated the motor function (sciatic index and step test in motion), and the regeneration length by histological study of regeneration, after a maximum of 3 weeks. Regeneration was uneven in the three groups. In all groups, there were implants with regenerated nerve fibres at the maximum studied length (15mm) and others where regeneration was scarce. The mean regeneration length was greater in the direct end-to-end suture group (G1), although the regeneration speed was similar in the three groups. Group 1 showed the highest percentage of regeneration, but the variability of results prevents this difference reaching statistical significance. We found no significant differences between the two groups with polymer tubes. For the implantation of isogenic acellular nerve prosthesis, under our experimental conditions, the direct end-to-end suture was more effective than when it isprotected with biopolymer tubes. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower risk of atopic disorders in whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis study addressed whether whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children have a different risk of atopic disorders compared with children who did not receive this vaccination. Data on vaccination status, atopic disorders and child and family characteristics of the children

  20. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain 134 employed indigenous technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Shivanandappa

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The B. pertussis HLT could be purified through two phase with G50 and DEAE, cost effective techniques, the G50 purification has reduced the bioburden problems during DEAE purification and at the same time the quality of the product was high.

  1. Changes in genetic diversity of the Bordetella pertussis population in Serbia between 1953 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plješa Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass vaccination has significantly reduced the incidence of pertussis, however, the disease is re-emerging, even in some countries with high vaccination coverage. In Serbia, whole cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in 1957. To monitor changes in bacterial population, 77 isolates collected from 1953 to 2011 were studied. The methods included serotyping of fimbriae (Fim, genotyping of pertactin (prn and pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxA. A shift from ptxA2 to ptxA1 has been observed in isolates since the late of 1960s. In the period 1961-1979, the genotype ptxA1 became as common as genotype ptxA2. After that, during the period 1980-1989, the predominant ptx genotype was ptxA1. The reappearance of the ptxA2 allele followed an addition of the two strains harboring ptxA1 in the vaccine in 1985. The allele prn1 was predominant among the Serbian isolates, though prn3 and prn11 have been detected since 1981. The prn2 allele was only found in one strain isolated in 1984, two of the four strains isolated in 2000 and in three isolated strains from 2011. Serotype Fim2.3 disappeared before 1980 and serotype Fim2 became predominant thereafter. The results of this study indicate that the B. pertussis population in Serbia is different from other vaccinated populations and that this difference may be related to the vaccine used.

  2. Iron stress increases Bordetella pertussis mucin-binding capacity and attachment to respiratory epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Vidakovics, Maria L. A.; Lamberti, Yanina; Serra, Diego; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Pol, W.-Ludo; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Whooping cough is a reemerging infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella pertussis. The incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of host colonization hampers the efforts to control this disease. Among the environmental factors that commonly determine the bacterial

  3. [Features of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella spp. infection and whopping cough in Córdoba province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giayetto, Víctor O; Blanco, Sebastián; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Barbás, María G; Cudolá, Analía; Gallego, Sandra V

    2017-04-01

    Whooping cough is a re-emerging infection in the world and Latin America. It was considered relevant to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Bordetella spp. and Bordetella pertussis infection in Córdoba province, Argentina; evaluating, at the same time, the co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections that may be confused with whooping cough. All whooping cough suspected cases were studied by Polimerase Chain Reaction, amplifying the repeated insertion sequence (IS) 481 and the promoter gene encoding pertussis toxin, between 2011 and 2013. The data were obtained from the clinical and epidemiological records. From 2,588 whooping cough suspected cases, 11.59% was infected by Bordetella spp. and 9.16% was confirmed as Bordetella pertussis infection. The rate of infection was 7.22 and 1.84 per 100,000 for 2011 and 2012, respectively. The infection presented a seasonal tendency and it was mainly found on the group of children between 13 and 24 months old. The co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections, were uncommon. Paroxysmal cough, cyanosis and/or vomiting were predictors of the infection for Bordetella pertussis. To deal with the re-emergence of whooping cough is important the knowledge of the regional epidemiological situation. This paper shows the situation of these infections in the regional clinical and epidemiological context, and makes the information available for health decision-making.

  4. Constant specific growth rate in fed-batch cultivation of Bordetella pertussis using adaptive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Z.I.T.A.; Voogt, J.A.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring and control of production processes for biopharmaceuticals have become standard requirements to support consistency and quality. In this paper, a constant specific growth rate in fed-batch cultivation of Bordetella pertussis is achieved by a newly designed specific growth rate controller.

  5. Using age-stratified incidence data to examine the transmission consequences of pertussis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, J C; Cummings, D A T; Iamsirithaworn, S; Rohani, P

    2016-09-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination. Our analyses demonstrate decreases in incidence across all ages with increased vaccine uptake - an observation that is at odds with pertussis case notification data in a number of other countries. To explore whether these observations are consistent with a rise in herd immunity and a reduction in bacterial transmission, we analyze an age-structured model that incorporates contrasting hypotheses concerning the immunological and transmission consequences of vaccines. Our results lead us to conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the combined reduction in incidence and the shift to older age groups in the Thailand data is vaccine-induced herd immunity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lower risk of atopic disorders in whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis study addressed whether whole cell pertussis-vaccinated children have a different risk of atopic disorders compared with children who did not receive this vaccination. Data on vaccination status, atopic disorders and child and family characteristics of the

  7. Does whole-cell pertussis vaccine protect black South African infants?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-01

    cell pertussis vaccine as detailed above. Mothers and nursing staff were unaware of which vaccine was given. Each child was weighed and examined by a paediatrician. (H.M.C. and W.E.K.L.) at every visit before vaccination.

  8. Modelling the impact of extended vaccination strategies on the epidemiology of pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Vries, R.; Le, H.H.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal pertussis booster vaccination strategy for The Netherlands. A realistic age-structured deterministic model was designed. Assuming a steady-state situation and correcting for underreporting, the model was calibrated using notification data from the

  9. SNP-based typing: a useful tool to study Bordetella pertussis populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, M. van; Bart, M.J.; Heide, H.G. van der; Heuvelman, K.J.; Kallonen, T.; He, Q.; Mertsola, J.; Advani, A.; Hallander, H.O.; Janssens, K.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Mooi, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor changes in Bordetella pertussis populations, mainly two typing methods are used; Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing method, based on 87 SNPs, was developed

  10. Is diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) associated with increased female mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review...

  11. Immune Boosting Explains Regime-Shifts in Prevaccine-Era Pertussis Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavine, Jennie; King, Aaron A; Andreasen, Viggo

    2013-01-01

    of large multiannual epidemics interspersed between periods of smaller-amplitude cycles remain an enigma. It has been suggested that recent increases in pertussis incidence and shifts in the age-distribution of cases may be due to diminished natural immune boosting. Here we show that a model...

  12. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Immunity in Indian Adults and Immunogenicity of Td Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Raut, Sidram K.; Dhorje, Sanjay P.; Barde, Prajakt J.; Koli, Girish; Jadhav, Suresh S.

    2011-01-01

    Rise of diphtheria cases in adults is a cause of concern worldwide. Pertussis is also now affecting adults. We assessed serum levels of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis antibodies in 62 adults in Pune, India, who had missed their primary immunization. All adults were then given three doses of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months. All adults were immune to tetanus but 78% had long-term protection. For diphtheria, 88% were protected but only 9% had long term immunity. Only 60% were immune to pertussis. After three doses of the vaccine, long term immunity to both tetanus and diphtheria increased to 87% and 97%, respectively (P < 0.05). Geometric mean titres (GMT) of both antibodies also increased significantly. The vaccine caused minor local reactions and mild fever in a few subjects. There is need of three doses of Td vaccination in those Indian adults, who missed their primary immunization. Susceptibility to pertussis also needs to be further explored. PMID:23724309

  13. Vaccinations for healthcare personnel: update on influenza, hepatitis B, and pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsas, Anna; Sepkowitz, Kent

    2013-08-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk for exposure to and transmission of potentially life-threatening vaccine preventable diseases to patients and colleagues. The Centers for Disease Control and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommend routine influenza immunization and maintenance of immunity to hepatitis B and pertussis, among others. In this article, we aim to review recently approved influenza vaccines, as well as address some of the issues regarding hepatitis B and pertussis vaccinations in HCP. Several new formulations of influenza vaccines are now available, including quadrivalent vaccines and non-egg-based vaccines; their use in HCP requires further study. An alarming rise in pertussis rates has led to a revision of ACIP guidelines recommending vaccination for women during each pregnancy. Persistent lack of immunity to hepatitis B after vaccine series remains a problem for many HCP. Inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines remain the safest and most widely studied influenza vaccinations for healthcare workers. A pertussis booster in the form of Tdap is now recommended for most HCP. More studies are needed regarding the issue of nonresponders in HCP who receive the three-dose hepatitis B vaccine series, as there are some promising strategies available that may boost immune responses.

  14. Serological response to filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G; Baraff, L J; Peppler, M S; Leake, R D; St Geme, J; Manclark, C R

    1983-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis after vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, adsorbed, were assayed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of early immunization, during the first week of life, on the antibody response also was determined. After vaccination, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM directed against both the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected. Generally, antibody titers increased with subsequent injections and the age of the children. Maternal antibodies against filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected in cord blood. The ability of an infant to produce serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin after vaccination with pertussis vaccine was inversely related to the cord blood serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin titer at birth. A good antibody response was observed in infants with low cord blood titers, and a poor antibody response was seen in infants with high cord blood values. The IgM anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin response was good in groups with both low and high cord blood titer, with no significant difference observed between the two groups. No IgA anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin or IgA anti-filamentous hemagglutinin titers were observed in vaccines. IgA antibodies were observed in convalescent sera from two adults and may be presumptive evidence of infection with B. pertussis. PMID:6309662

  15. Does whole-cell pertussis vaccine protect black South African infants?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole-cell pertussis vaccine currently used in South Africa has not been adequately evaluated for post-vaccination events and immunogenicity. A trial of this vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP) was undertaken in 115 black babies who received primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age.

  16. Pertussis infections and vaccinations in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico from 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Colleen M; Czachor, John S

    2013-01-01

    Global coverage with three doses of the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP3) increased from less than 5% in 1974 to 82% in 2009 due to worldwide focus on universal vaccination. Nonetheless, pertussis remains the fifth-leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths. This study examines DTP3 vaccination from 1980 through 2009 in three countries within Latin America, Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico, selected for their distinct health care systems and vaccination strategies. Similar to global trends, these nations have achieved dramatic improvements in pertussis immunization. In Bolivia, immunization rates increased from 11% to 85%; in Brazil, rates increased from 37% to 97%; and in Mexico, the immunization rates increased from 44% to 72%. Pertussis infections have concomitantly decreased from 1980 to 2009. In Bolivia, cases decreased from 44.4 per 100,000 people to zero reported cases. In Brazil, the incidence decreased from 37.6 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. The incidence in Mexico decreased from 8.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,000. In order to increase vaccination rates further, health systems must continue to raise awareness about disease prevention, expand health surveillance systems, and improve access to health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schleifenbaum

    Full Text Available Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens.Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for soft tissues was standardized, including the adaption of the tissue's water content and partial plastination to minimize material slippage as well as templates for normed sample dimensions and precise cross-section measurements. The native and acellular tissues were compared at the microscopic and ultrastructural level with a focus on type I collagens.Increased elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress values were quantified in acellular esophagi and ureters compared to the native condition. In contrast, these values were strongly decreased in the skin after acellularization. Acellularization-related decreases in maximum strain were found in all tissues. Type I collagens were well-preserved in these samples; however, clotting and a loss of cross-linking type I collagens was observed ultrastructurally. Elastins and fibronectins were preserved in the esophagi and ureters. A loss of the epidermal layer and decreased fibronectin content was present in the skin.Acellularization induces changes in the tensile properties of soft tissues. Some of these changes appear to be organ specific. Loss of cross-linking type I collagen may indicate increased mechanical strength due to decreasing transverse forces acting upon the scaffolds, whereas fibronectin loss may be related to decreased load-bearing capacity. Potentially, the alterations in tissue mechanics are linked to organ function and to the interplay of cells and the extracellular matrix, which is different in hollow organs when compared to skin.

  18. Real-time PCR-based detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in an Irish paediatric population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grogan, Juanita A

    2011-06-01

    Novel real-time PCR assays targeting the Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence IS481, the toxin promoter region and Bordetella parapertussis insertion sequence IS1001 were designed. PCR assays were capable of detecting ≤10 copies of target DNA per reaction, with an amplification efficiency of ≥90 %. From September 2003 to December 2009, per-nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted for B. pertussis culture from patients ≤1 month to >15 years of age were examined by real-time PCR. Among 1324 patients, 76 (5.7 %) were B. pertussis culture positive and 145 (10.95 %) were B. pertussis PCR positive. Of the B. pertussis PCR-positive patients, 117 (81 %) were aged 6 months or less. A total of 1548 samples were examined, of which 87 (5.6 %) were culture positive for B. pertussis and 169 (10.92 %) were B. pertussis PCR positive. All culture-positive samples were PCR positive. Seven specimens (0.5 %) were B. parapertussis culture positive and 10 (0.8 %) were B. parapertussis PCR positive, with all culture-positive samples yielding PCR-positive results. A review of patient laboratory records showed that of the 1324 patients tested for pertussis 555 (42 %) had samples referred for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) testing and 165 (30 %) were positive, as compared to 19.4 % of the total 5719 patients tested for RSV in this period. Analysis of the age distribution of RSV-positive patients identified that 129 (78 %) were aged 6 months or less, similar to the incidence observed for pertussis in that patient age group. In conclusion, the introduction of the real-time PCR assays for the routine detection of B. pertussis resulted in a 91 % increase in the detection of the organism as compared to microbiological culture. The incidence of infection with B. parapertussis is low while the incidence of RSV infection in infants suspected of having pertussis is high, with a similar age distribution to B. pertussis infection.

  19. Differential expression of alpha 4 integrins on effector memory T helper cells during Bordetella infections. Delayed responses in Bordetella pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, a respiratory disease that is reemerging worldwide. Mechanisms of selective lymphocyte trafficking to the airways are likely to be critical in the immune response to this pathogen. We compared murine infection by B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and a pertussis toxin-deleted B. pertussis mutant (BpΔPTX to test the hypothesis that effector memory T-helper cells (emTh display an altered pattern of trafficking receptor expression in B. pertussis infection due to a defect in imprinting. Increased cell recruitment to the lungs at 5 days post infection (p.i. with B. parapertussis, and to a lesser extent with BpΔPTX, coincided with an increased frequency of circulating emTh cells expressing the mucosal-associated trafficking receptors α4β7 and α4β1 while a reduced population of these cells was observed in B. pertussis infection. These cells were highly evident in the blood and lungs in B. pertussis infection only at 25 days p.i. when B. parapertussis and BpΔPTX infections were resolved. Although at 5 days p.i., an equally high percentage of lung dendritic cells (DCs from all infections expressed maturation markers, this expression persisted only in B. pertussis infection at 25 days p.i. Furthermore, at 5 days p.i with B. pertussis, lung DCs migration to draining lymph nodes may be compromised as evidenced by decreased frequency of CCR7(+ DCs, inhibited CCR7-mediated in vitro migration, and fewer DCs in lung draining lymph nodes. Lastly, a reduced frequency of allogeneic CD4(+ cells expressing α4β1 was detected following co-culture with lung DCs from B. pertussis-infected mice, suggesting a defect in DC imprinting in comparison to the other infection groups. The findings in this study suggest that B. pertussis may interfere with imprinting of lung-associated trafficking receptors on T lymphocytes leading to extended survival in the host and a prolonged course of disease.

  20. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and pertussis in Beijing, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Tiegang; Li, Juan; Zeng, Yang; Lu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of humoral immunity against diphtheria and pertussis by measuring IgG to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and pertussis toxin (PT) in general population of Beijing. A total of 2147 subjects aged 0-74 y were selected with a random sample of resident population in Beijing. The information of socio-demographic characteristics, vaccination history, disease history of diphtheria and pertussis were collected for each subject by questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies to DT and PT by using commercial ELISA kits. The overall positivity rate of anti-DT IgG was 66.28% with the mean concentration of 2.169 IU/ml. Age stratified data showed that the highest positivity rate of 97.63% was observed in 1-4 y and the rates decreased with age. The positivity rates were only around 50% or below since 25 y old. The positivity rate of anti-PT IgG was 12.34% with the mean concentration of 15.163 IU/ml. The highest level of positivity rate (22.23%) and antibody level (23.101 IU/ml) was seen in diphtheria was observed at 1 y and 6 y respectively, which was consistent with the current immunization schedule. But there was no significant increase of immunity to pertussis observed after booster immunization at 18-24 months, but the proportions of undetectable were lowest in diphtheria and all the age groups showed a low immunity to pertussis indicating the potential risk of transmission and outbreaks of the 2 diseases in Beijing.

  1. Low seroprevalence of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in ambulatory adult patients: the need for lifelong vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Soyler, Canan; Ascioglu, Sibel; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Unal, Serhat

    2014-07-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles are vaccine preventable diseases that have been reported to cause morbidity and mortality in adult population in the recent years. We aimed to document the seropositivity rates and vaccination indication for these four vaccine preventable diseases among adult and elderly patients who were seen as outpatients in a university hospital. Blood samples for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles antibodies were obtained. Results were evaluated with regards to protection levels and booster vaccine indications according to the cut-off values. A total of 1367 patients consented for the study and 1303 blood samples were available for analysis at the end of the study. The antibody levels against measles conferred protection in 98% of patients. However, 65% of the patients had no protection for diphtheria, 69% had no protection for tetanus and 90% of the patients had no protection for pertussis. Only 1.3% of the study population had seropositivity against three of the diseases-Tdap booster was indicated in 98.7%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that tetanus protection decreased with increasing age. Having a chronic disease was associated with a lower rate of protective antibodies for pertussis. We demonstrated very low rates of protection against three of the vaccine preventable diseases of childhood-diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. Booster vaccinations are required in adult life in accordance with national and international adult vaccination guidelines. The concept of "lifelong vaccination" should be implemented and every encounter with the patient should be regarded as a chance for catch-up. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of Real Time PCR Cycle Threshold Cut-Off with Bordetella pertussis Clinical Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis testing performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is interpreted based on a cycle threshold (Ct value. At Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL, a Ct value <36 is reported as positive, and Ct values ≥36 and <40 are reported as indeterminate. PHOL reported indeterminate results to physicians and public health units until May 2012, after which these results were only reported to physicians. We investigated the association between Ct value and disease symptom and severity to examine the significance of indeterminate results clinically, epidemiologically and for public health reporting. B. pertussis positive and indeterminate RT-PCR results were linked to pertussis cases reported in the provincial Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS, using deterministic linkage. Patients with positive RT-PCR results had a lower median age of 10.8 years compared to 12.0 years for patients with indeterminate results (p = 0.24. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower Ct values than non-hospitalized patients (median Ct values of 20.7 vs. 31.6, p<0.001. The proportion of patients reporting the most indicative symptoms of pertussis did not differ between patients with positive vs. indeterminate RT-PCR results. Taking the most indicative symptoms of pertussis as the gold-standard, the positive predictive value of the RT-PCR test was 68.1%. RT-PCR test results should be interpreted in the context of the clinical symptoms, age, vaccination status, prevalence, and other factors. Further information on interpretation of indeterminate RT-PCR results may be needed, and the utility of reporting to public health practitioners should be re-evaluated.

  3. Immunological Signatures after Bordetella pertussis Infection Demonstrate Importance of Pulmonary Innate Immune Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H M Raeven

    Full Text Available Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B. pertussis challenge. Pre-existing systemic memory Th1/Th17 cells, memory B-cells, and mucosal IgA specific for Ptx, Vag8, Fim2/3 were detected in the protected mice 56 days after an experimental infection. In addition, pre-existing high activity and reactivation of pulmonary innate cells such as alveolar macrophages, M-cells and goblet cells was detected. The pro-inflammatory responses in the lungs and serum, and neutrophil recruitment in the spleen upon an infectious challenge of unprotected mice were absent in protected mice. Instead, fast pulmonary immune responses in protected mice led to efficient bacterial clearance and harbored potential new gene markers that contribute to immunity against B. pertussis. These responses comprised of innate makers, such as Clca3, Retlna, Glycam1, Gp2, and Umod, next to adaptive markers, such as CCR6+ B-cells, CCR6+ Th17 cells and CXCR6+ T-cells as demonstrated by transcriptome analysis. In conclusion, besides effective Th1/Th17 and mucosal IgA responses, the primary infection-induced immunity benefits from activation of pulmonary resident innate immune cells, achieved by local pathogen-recognition. These molecular signatures of primary infection-induced immunity provided potential markers to improve vaccine-induced immunity against B. pertussis.

  4. Strategy for effective collaboration in the control of pertussis outbreaks that involve schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of pertussis are increasing in size and frequency in the US. Experts believe that this is due in part to differing protective characteristics of pertussis vaccines currently in use as compared to pertussis vaccines used previously. Pertussis outbreak control requires use of antibiotics to prevent or treat infection among persons exposed or ill regardless of immunization history. It also may be necessary to provide vaccines to the exposed groups--often outside of the typical immunization schedule. Primary care providers (PCPs) are crucial in the diagnosis of cases and early identification of an outbreak. Prompt notification of public health authorities allows rapid initiation of outbreak investigation and response activities. Partners in outbreak investigation and response will include school nurses, PCPs, local public health authorities, and parents. Larger outbreaks may also involve state public health authorities, school administrators, county health officers, local elected officials, emergency management officials, other community leaders, and/or various mass media outlets. Strong relationships of local public health nurses with school nurses and PCPs can greatly aid the timeliness and effectiveness of a response. Clear consistent messages are critical to prevent confusion or panic as well as misuse of limited resources. State and local public health communications experts are willing and available to assist school administrators or local leaders with effective messaging. In summation, controlling a pertussis outbreak involving a school is complicated. It requires strong collaborative efforts and excellent communication between school nurses and administrators, PCPs, and public health authorities. When all involved partners understand each others' roles and responsibilities, opportunity for rapid and successful control of the outbreak is maximized.

  5. A case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting newborn infants in England and Wales, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrera, Gavin; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Andrews, Nick; Campbell, Helen; Ribeiro, Sonia; Kara, Edna; Fry, Norman K; Ramsay, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Infants with pertussis infection are at risk of severe clinical illness and death. Several countries, including the United Kingdom, have introduced maternal pertussis vaccination during pregnancy to protect infants from infection following national increases in pertussis notifications. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting infants against laboratory-confirmed pertussis infection. A case-control study was undertaken in England and Wales between October 2012 and July 2013. Cases were infants aged case were asked to identify healthy infants born consecutively after the case in each practice, to act as controls. Fifty-eight cases and 55 controls were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the association between maternal vaccination and infant pertussis infection. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as 1 - OR. This was adjusted for sex, geographical region, and birth period. Mothers of 10 cases (17%) and 39 controls (71%) received pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. This gave an unadjusted VE of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77%-97%). Adjusted VE was 93% (95% CI, 81%-97%). Maternal pertussis vaccination is effective in preventing pertussis infection in infants aged <8 weeks and may be considered in other countries experiencing high levels of pertussis notifications. © Crown copyright 2014.

  6. Possible role of dentin matrix in region-specific deposition of cellular and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshiro; Sakai, Hideo; Watanabe, Eiko; Ideguchi-Ohma, Noriko; Jayawardena, Chantha K; Arai, Kazumi; Asawa, Yukiyo; Nakano, Yukiko; Shuda, Yoko; Sakamoto, Yujiro; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism whereby a region-specific deposition of the two types of cementum (cellular cementum and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum) is regulated on the growing root surface was tested using bisphosphonate-affected teeth of young rats and guinea pigs. The animals were injected subcutaneously with 8 or 10 mg P x kg body weight(-1) x day(-1) of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) for 1 or 2 weeks. In rat molars, HEBP prevented mineralization of newly formed root dentin matrix and totally inhibited de novo deposition of acellular extrinsic fibre cementum. Instead, thick cellular cementum was induced on the non-mineralized root dentin surface, irrespective of the position of the root. In both animals, cellular cementum was also induced on the non-mineralized surface of root analogue dentin in HEBP-affected incisors, where only acellular extrinsic fibre cementum is deposited under normal conditions. In normal rat molars, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was concentrated along the dentin-cellular cementum border, but not that of dentin and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum. In HEBP-affected rat incisors, DSP was shown to penetrate through the non-mineralized dentin into the surrounding tissues, but not through the mineralized portions. These data suggest that, at the site of cellular cementum formation, putative inducing factors for cellular cementum might diffuse into the periodontal space through the newly deposited mantle dentin matrix before it is mineralized. At earlier stages of root formation, mantle dentin might mineralize more promptly not to allow such diffusion. The timing of mineralization of mantle dentin matrix might be the key determinant of the types of the cementum deposited on the growing root surface.

  7. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuping; Wang, Jiao; Ling, Shixin; Li, Zhuo; Li, Mingsheng; Li, Qiongyi; Ma, Zongren; Yu, Sijiu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells following induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined specific neuronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuronal-specific proteins, including βIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differentiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve fibers that was composed of several parallel microfibers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sectioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, such as a large, round nucleus and a cytoplasm full of Nissl bodies. The data suggest that the biological scaffold fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix is capable of supporting human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into functional neurons and the subsequent formation of tissue engineered nerve. PMID:25598779

  8. A Multiplex PCR for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis in Clinical Specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonough, E. A; Barrozo, C. P; Russell, K. L; Metzgar, D

    2005-01-01

    ..., and Bordetella pertussis in uncultured patient specimens. These organisms cause similar symptomologies and are often not diagnosed because they are difficult to identify with classical methods such as culture and serology...

  9. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using irradiated acellular cornea with amniotic membrane transplantation for intractable ocular surface diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sung Wook; Choi, Sang Uk; Kim, Jae Chan

    2015-04-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) when sterile gamma-irradiated acellular corneal tissues (VisionGraft) are used in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for intractable ocular surface diseases. The medical records of fifteen patients who had DALK with AMT were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery included ocular burn, bacterial keratitis, herpes simplex virus keratitis, corneal opacity with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Mooren's ulcer, idiopathic myxoid degeneration of corneal stroma, and recurrent band keratopathy. DALK was performed using partial-thickness acellular corneal tissue and a temporary amniotic membrane patch was added at the end of the operation. All cases that underwent DALK with AMT became epithelialized within 2 postoperative weeks. Twelve patients showed favorable outcomes without graft rejection, corneal opacification, or neovascularization. The other three grafts developed corneal opacification and neovascularization, and required additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Unlike the results of previous PKs, there were no graft rejections and the graft clarity was well-maintained in these three cases for at least 8 months after PK. DALK using sterile acellular corneal tissues in combination with AMT may be a good therapeutic strategy for treating intractable ocular surface diseases because of lowered immune rejection, fibroblast activation, and facilitation of epithelialization. Furthermore, DALK can help stabilize the ocular surface, prolong graft survival, and may allow better outcomes when combined with subsequent PK.

  10. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  11. Využití zvířecích modelů pro studium patogeneze Bordetella pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Traganová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a strictly human pathogen and a causative agent of whooping cough. The study of bacterial transmission, virulence factors and vaccine efficacy testing became a very relevant topic, due to the disease resurgence in well-vaccinated populations during the past decades. Detailed investigation of bacterial interactions in vivo requires a suitable animal model. The most common used animal for B. pertussis testing is a laboratory mouse, however mice are unable to develop the ...

  12. Evaluating a Social Network Analytic Tool to Support Outbreak Management and Contact Tracing in an Outbreak of Pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Munene, Esther; Mottice, S.; Reid, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility and value of a social network analysis tool to support pertussis outbreak management and contact tracing in the state of Utah. Introduction Pertussis (i.e., whooping cough) is on the rise in the US. To implement effective prevention and treatment strategies, it is critical to conduct timely contact tracing and evaluate people who may have come into contact with an infected person. We describe a collaborative effort between epidemiologists and public heal...

  13. Differential expression of type III effector BteA protein due to IS481 insertion in Bordetella pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ja Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the last three decades, strains of Bordetella pertussis in circulation have shifted from the vaccine-type to the nonvaccine-type in many countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of the strains was performed to identify protein(s involved in the type shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Proteomic analysis identified one differentially expressed protein in the B. pertussis strains: the type III cytotoxic effector protein BteA, which is responsible for host cell death in Bordetella bronchiseptica infections. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the prominent expression of BteA protein in the nonvaccine-type strains but not in the vaccine-type strains. Sequence analysis of the vaccine-type strains revealed an IS481 insertion in the 5' untranslated region of bteA, -136 bp upstream of the bteA start codon. A high level of bteA transcripts from the IS481 promoter was detected in the vaccine-type strains, indicating that the transcript might be an untranslatable form. Furthermore, BteA mutant studies demonstrated that BteA expression in the vaccine-type strains is down-regulated by the IS481 insertion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The cytotoxic effector BteA protein is expressed at higher levels in B. pertussis nonvaccine-type strains than in vaccine-type strains. This type-dependent expression is due to an insertion of IS481 in B. pertussis clinical strains, suggesting that augmented expression of BteA protein might play a key role in the type shift of B. pertussis.

  14. Obtención de mutantes de Bordetella pertussis carentes de la toxina adenilato ciclasa-hemolisina

    OpenAIRE

    Yunier Serrano-Rivero; Gardenia Payne-Delíz; Lourdes Proenza-Alfonso; Rafael Fando-Calzada

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis es el agente causal de la tosferina o pertussis, una enfermedad respiratoria muy contagiosa. Este micro organismo produce un grupo de factores de virulencia entre los que se encuentran la toxina adenilato ciclasa hemolisina (CyaA) y la pertactina (Prn). El primero le permite a la bacteria inhibir la fagocitosis y la respuesta inflamatoria en el hospedero, m ientras que el segundo es una adhesina que frecuentemente es incluida como un componente en las vacunas acelulares c...

  15. Estimating the role of casual contact from the community in transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Charles

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of pertussis transmission due to casual contact using demographic and clinical data from a study of 95 infant pertussis cases and their close contacts enrolled at 14 hospitals in France, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. between February 2003 and September 2004. A complete case analysis was conducted as well as multiple imputation (MI to account for missing data for participants and close contacts who did not participate. By considering all possible close contacts, the MI analysis estimated 66% of source cases were close contacts, implying the minimum attributable proportion of infant cases due to transmission from casual contact with community members was 34% (95% CI = 24%, 44%. Estimates from the complete case analysis were comparable but less precise. Results were sensitive to changes in the operational definition of a source case, which broadened the range of MI point estimates of transmission from casual community contact to 20%–47%. We conclude that casual contact appears to be responsible for a substantial proportion of pertussis transmission to young infants. Medical subject headings (MeSH: multiple imputation, pertussis, transmission, casual contact, sensitivity analysis, missing data, community.

  16. A cocktail of humanized anti-pertussis toxin antibodies limits disease in murine and baboon models of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annalee W; Wagner, Ellen K; Laber, Joshua R; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Harvill, Eric T; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Padlan, Eduardo A; Bristol, Andy; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2015-12-02

    Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis rates are rising in industrialized countries and remain high worldwide. With no specific therapeutics to treat disease, pertussis continues to cause considerable infant morbidity and mortality. The pertussis toxin is a major contributor to disease, responsible for local and systemic effects including leukocytosis and immunosuppression. We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the Bordetella pertussis-induced rise in white blood cell counts and decreased bacterial colonization. When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated, but not untreated control animals, experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell counts and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. These preliminary findings support further investigation into the use of these antibodies to treat human neonatal pertussis in conjunction with antibiotics and supportive care. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. [Clinical and epidemiological differences between Bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: a matched case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Sánchez-Forte, Miguel; López-Sánchez, María Ángeles; González-Jiménez, Yolanda; Azor-Martínez, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    An increase in cases of pertussis, mainly in young infants, has been reported in the last few years. The clinical presentation of this disease is very similar to that produced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which makes the diagnosis difficult. To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics between Bordetella pertussis and RSV infections in infants admitted to hospital. An analytical matched case-control study was conducted during the period 2008-2011. Cases were defined as infants admitted with pertussis confirmed by PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirate. Each case was matched by age, sex and date of admission to two controls defined as patients with RSV infection detected by immunochromatography in nasal aspirate. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were compared. Seventy eight patients (26 cases of pertussis and 52 controls RSV+) were included. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Cases had more days of symptoms prior to admission, longer hospital stays, and increased frequency of epidemic family environment. Apnoea and cyanosis were more frequent. Cases of pertussis were more likely to have apnoea, cyanosis, and lymphocytosis while RSV infections had more frequent fever, vomiting and respiratory distress. The clinical presentations of pertussis and RSV infection are similar, but there are some characteristics that can help to distinguish between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. High prevalence of Bordetella pertussis in children under 5 years old hospitalized with acute respiratory infections in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic-Espinoza, Ivana; Bendezú-Medina, Sandy; Herrera-Alzamora, Angella; Weilg, Pablo; Pons, María J; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Verónica; del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2015-12-02

    Pertussis diagnosis may go unrecognized when other pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) circulate. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from January 2009 to September 2010. A total of 596 children under 5 years old admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were test for B. pertussis and RSV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The pertussis toxin and IS481 genes were detected in 19.12% (114/596) of the cases and the respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV-A and RSV-B) were identified in 17.28% (103/596) of patients. Infants under 3 months old were the most frequently affected by this pathogens in 43% (49/114) and 35.9% (37/103) respectively. An increase of B. pertussis was observed from February to March and from October to November with a Seasonal index between 1.32 and 1.51 and 1.24-3.5 respectively. Epidemiologic surveillance for B. pertussis is essential in Peru, especially in children that could most benefit from the vaccine. B. pertussis should be suspected in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms for early treatment and prevent complications.

  19. Prospective evaluation of an Australian pertussis toxin IgG and IgA enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meryta L; Doi, Suhail A; King, David; Evans, Jenny; Robson, Jennifer M

    2012-02-01

    Serological diagnosis of recent pertussis infection is an important part of both clinical assessment and epidemiological documentation of this disease. Standardization of serological testing and interpretation remains challenging despite international efforts to improve it. Currently, determining the anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG titer is recommended as the most accurate serological test in Europe and the United States, while Australia relies predominantly on measurement of Bordetella pertussis IgA antibody responses. Using B. pertussis PCR and the WHO clinical case definition as reference standards, the diagnostic utility of in-house anti-PT IgG and anti-PT IgA assays was evaluated prospectively in an Australian community-based cohort (n = 327). Patients provided up to four consecutive serum samples to document the kinetics of antibody response and decay. Previously validated cutoffs for positivity were converted to international units by using WHO-approved reference sera. At currently used cutoffs, both anti-PT IgG (>94 IU/ml) and anti-PT IgA (>20 IU/ml) assays had good specificity (80% [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 68 to 88%] and 87% [95% CI, 77 to 94%]), but anti-PT IgG assay was consistently more sensitive than anti-PT IgA assay across a range of cutoffs (60 to 79% [95% CI, 53 to 84%] versus 41 to 62% [95% CI, 34 to 69%]). The combination of anti-PT IgG and anti-PT IgA assays performed no better than anti-PT IgG assay alone. The anti-PT IgA response in children under 12 years of age was poor. The accuracy of serology was optimal between 2 and 8 weeks after symptom onset. Cutoffs of >94 IU/ml for anti-PT IgG and >20 IU/ml for anti-PT IgA correlated well with recent pertussis infection and were consistent with recent recommendations from the EU Pertstrain group. Anti-PT IgG assay was superior to anti-PT IgA assay as the test of choice for the diagnosis of pertussis from a single sample.

  20. Ventral hernia repair using allogenic acellular dermal matrix in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, R P; Li, E N; Holton, L H; Sawan, K T; Goldberg, N H

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the long-term efficacy of allogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) used as an interpositional graft for ventral hernia repair in a swine model. We created 12x4-cm full-thickness abdominal wall defects in 22 Yucatan miniature pigs. The defect was repaired with either two 6x4-cm pieces of AlloDerm (acellular dermal matrix processed from pig skin in order to avoid a xenogenic response, LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ USA) (n = 12), or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene mesh (ePTFE) (Gore-Tex, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Newark, DE USA) (n = 10). In six pigs, a separate 3-cm fascial incision was made, which was then suture repaired as a control for tensiometry testing. The surgical sites were evaluated at either 3 months or 9 months for the presence of a hernia, stretching of the implant, adhesions, vascularity, and biomechanical strength. Two hernias occurred in both the ADM and the ePTFE groups. There was minimal stretching of the implants and minimal adhesions in both groups. Fluorescein testing and histology indicated vascular ingrowth into the ADM. There was no statistical difference between the mean breaking strengths of the ADM-fascial interface (106.5 N +/- SD 40.1), the interface between two pieces of ADM (149.1 N +/- SD 76.7), and the primary fascial repair (108.1 N +/- SD 20.9) at 9 months. The ADM-fascial interface had a significantly higher breaking strength than that of the ePTFE-fascia interface (66.1 N +/- SD 30.1) (P = 0.017, t-test, P = 0.043 Wilcoxon rank sum test). In this study, we were unable to demonstrate a difference between ADM and ePTFE in their ability to repair ventral hernias at 9 months in a swine model. The ADM additionally supports vascular ingrowth and exhibits increased breaking strength at the fascia-implant interface.

  1. Changes in the genomic content of circulating Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from the Netherlands, Sweden, Japan and Australia: adaptive evolution or drift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Lee Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of human whooping cough (pertussis and is particularly severe in infants. Despite worldwide vaccinations, whooping cough remains a public health problem. A significant increase in the incidence of whooping cough has been observed in many countries since the 1990s. Several reasons for the re-emergence of this highly contagious disease have been suggested. A particularly intriguing possibility is based on evidence indicating that pathogen adaptation may play a role in this process. In an attempt to gain insight into the genomic make-up of B. pertussis over the last 60 years, we used an oligonucleotide DNA microarray to compare the genomic contents of a collection of 171 strains of B. pertussis isolates from different countries. Results The CGH microarray analysis estimated the core genome of B. pertussis, to consist of 3,281 CDSs that are conserved among all B. pertussis strains, and represent 84.8% of all CDSs found in the 171 B. pertussis strains. A total of 64 regions of difference consisting of one or more contiguous CDSs were identified among the variable genes. CGH data also revealed that the genome size of B. pertussis strains is decreasing progressively over the past 60 years. Phylogenetic analysis of microarray data generated a minimum spanning tree that depicted the phylogenetic structure of the strains. B. pertussis strains with the same gene content were found in several different countries. However, geographic specificity of the B. pertussis strains was not observed. The gene content was determined to highly correlate with the ptxP-type of the strains. Conclusions An overview of genomic contents of a large collection of isolates from different countries allowed us to derive a core genome and a phylogenetic structure of B. pertussis. Our results show that B. pertussis is a dynamic organism that continues to evolve.

  2. CFP-10 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis selectively activates human neutrophils through a pertussis toxin-sensitive chemotactic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welin, Amanda; Björnsdottir, Halla; Winther, Malene; Christenson, Karin; Oprea, Tudor; Karlsson, Anna; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes; Bylund, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, neutrophils are massively recruited to the lungs, but the role of these cells in combating the infection is poorly understood. Through a type VII secretion system, M. tuberculosis releases a heterodimeric protein complex, containing a 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) and a 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10), that is essential for virulence. Whereas the ESAT-6 component possesses multiple virulence-related activities, no direct biological activity of CFP-10 has been shown, and CFP-10 has been described as a chaperone protein for ESAT-6. We here show that the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex induces a transient release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores in human neutrophils. Surprisingly, CFP-10 rather than ESAT-6 was responsible for triggering the Ca(2+) response, in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein-coupled receptor. In line with this, the response was accompanied by neutrophil chemotaxis and activation of the superoxide-producing NADPH-oxidase. Neutrophils were unique among leukocytes in responding to CFP-10, as monocytes and lymphocytes failed to produce a Ca(2+) signal upon stimulation with the M. tuberculosis protein. Hence, CFP-10 may contribute specifically to neutrophil recruitment and activation during M. tuberculosis infection, representing a novel biological role for CFP-10 in the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex, beyond the previously described chaperone function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The Use of an Acellular Oxygen Carrier in a Human Liver Model of Normothermic Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Richard W; Bhogal, Ricky H; Wallace, Lorraine; Boteon, Yuri; Neil, Desley A H; Smith, Amanda; Stephenson, Barney T F; Schlegel, Andrea; Hübscher, Stefan G; Mirza, Darius F; Afford, Simon C; Mergental, Hynek

    2017-11-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions while maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers. Perfusion parameters, oxygen extraction, metabolic activity, and histological features were compared during 6 hours of NMP-L. The cytotoxicity of Hemopure was also tested on human hepatic primary cell line cultures using an in vitro model of ischemia reperfusion injury. The vascular flow parameters and the perfusate lactate clearance were similar in both groups. The HBOC-perfused livers extracted more oxygen than those perfused with RBCs (O2 extraction ratio 13.75 vs 9.43 % ×10 per gram of tissue, P = 0.001). In vitro exposure to Hemopure did not alter intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and there was no increase in apoptosis or necrosis observed in any of the tested cell lines. Histological findings were comparable between groups. There was no evidence of histological damage caused by Hemopure. Hemopure can be used as an alternative oxygen carrier to packed red cells in NMP-L perfusion fluid.

  4. Influence of acellular natural lung matrix on murine embryonic stem cell differentiation and tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiella, Joaquin; Niles, Jean; Cantu, Andrea; Brettler, Andrea; Pham, Anthony; Vargas, Gracie; Winston, Sean; Wang, Jennifer; Walls, Shannon; Nichols, Joan E

    2010-08-01

    We report here the first attempt to produce and use whole acellular (AC) lung as a matrix to support development of engineered lung tissue from murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We compared the influence of AC lung, Gelfoam, Matrigel, and a collagen I hydrogel matrix on the mESC attachment, differentiation, and subsequent formation of complex tissue. We found that AC lung allowed for better retention of cells with more differentiation of mESCs into epithelial and endothelial lineages. In constructs produced on whole AC lung, we saw indications of organization of differentiating ESC into three-dimensional structures reminiscent of complex tissues. We also saw expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, an immature lung epithelial cell marker; pro-surfactant protein C, a type II pneumocyte marker; PECAM-1/CD31, an endothelial cell marker; cytokeratin 18; alpha-actin, a smooth muscle marker; CD140a or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha; and Clara cell protein 10. There was also evidence of site-specific differentiation in the trachea with the formation of sheets of cytokeratin-positive cells and Clara cell protein 10-expressing Clara cells. Our findings support the utility of AC lung as a matrix for engineering lung tissue and highlight the critical role played by matrix or scaffold-associated cues in guiding ESC differentiation toward lung-specific lineages.

  5. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft.

  6. Confocal laser scanning microscopy evaluation of an acellular dermis tissue transplant (Epiflex®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dominic Roessner

    Full Text Available The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and biologically safe substrate. Its biomechanical parameters do not change significantly during the processing.

  7. Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Kirsty

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The “Staying Healthy in Child Care” Australian guidelines provide for illness and disease exclusions and encourage vaccination of staff in child care settings, however these requirements are not subject to accreditation and licensing, and their level of implementation is unknown. This study aimed to describe pertussis vaccination coverage in child care workers in a regional area of northern NSW during 2010; review current staff pertussis vaccination practices; and explore barriers to vaccination. Methods A cross sectional survey of all child care centre directors in the Hunter New England (HNE area of northern NSW was conducted in 2010 using a computer assisted telephone interviewing service. Results Ninety-eight percent (319/325 of child care centres identified within the HNE area participated in the survey. Thirty-five percent (113/319 of centres indicated that they had policies concerning respiratory illness in staff members. Sixty-three percent (202/319 of centres indicated that they kept a record of staff vaccination, however, of the 170 centre’s who indicated they updated their records, 74% (125/170 only updated records if a staff member notified them. Of centres with records, 58% indicated that fewer than half of their staff were vaccinated. Conclusion Many childcare workers have not had a recent pertussis immunisation. This potentially places young children at risk at an age when they are most vulnerable to severe disease. With increasing use of child care, national accreditation and licensing requirements need to monitor the implementation of policies on child care worker vaccination. Higher levels of vaccination would assist in reducing the risk of pertussis cases and subsequent outbreaks in child care centres.

  8. SNP-based typing: a useful tool to study Bordetella pertussis populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein van Gent

    Full Text Available To monitor changes in Bordetella pertussis populations, mainly two typing methods are used; Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing method, based on 87 SNPs, was developed and compared with PFGE and MLVA. The discriminatory indices of SNP typing, PFGE and MLVA were found to be 0.85, 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis, using SNP typing as Gold Standard, revealed false homoplasies in the PFGE and MLVA trees. Further, in contrast to the SNP-based tree, the PFGE- and MLVA-based trees did not reveal a positive correlation between root-to-tip distance and the isolation year of strains. Thus PFGE and MLVA do not allow an estimation of the relative age of the selected strains. In conclusion, SNP typing was found to be phylogenetically more informative than PFGE and more discriminative than MLVA. Further, in contrast to PFGE, it is readily standardized allowing interlaboratory comparisons. We applied SNP typing to study strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which have a worldwide distribution and which have replaced the resident ptxP1 strains in the last 20 years. Previously, we showed that ptxP3 strains showed increased pertussis toxin expression and that their emergence was associated with increased notification in The Netherlands. SNP typing showed that the ptxP3 strains isolated in the Americas, Asia, Australia and Europe formed a monophyletic branch which recently diverged from ptxP1 strains. Two predominant ptxP3 SNP types were identified which spread worldwide. The widespread use of SNP typing will enhance our understanding of the evolution and global epidemiology of B. pertussis.

  9. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomanen, E

    1986-12-01

    Two proteins secreted by Bordetella pertussis are known to mediate adherence of these bacteria to mammalian respiratory cilia. When either ciliated cells or other pathogenic bacteria were pretreated with these adhesins, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus acquired the ability to adhere to cilia in vitro and in vivo. Such piracy of adhesins may contribute to superinfection in mucosal diseases such as whooping cough.

  10. Estimates of Pertussis Vaccine Effectiveness in United States Air Force Pediatric Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    Pentacel®, and Kinrix®) and Tdap (Adacel® and Boostrix®) vaccinations were included in a child’s vaccination count if the child received vaccination ...not be validated on their accuracy. Notation indicating whether a child was truly unvaccinated or missing vaccination records was unavailable in our...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2014 – Jun 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimates of pertussis vaccine effectiveness in United States Air Force

  11. Protective Role of Passively Transferred Maternal Cytokines against Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Van Kessel, Jill; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal vaccination represents a potential strategy to protect both the mother and the offspring against life-threatening infections. This protective role has mainly been associated with antibodies, but the role of cell-mediated immunity, in particular passively transferred cytokines, is not well understood. Here, using a pertussis model, we have demonstrated that immunization of pregnant sows with heat-inactivated bacteria leads to induction of a wide range of cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, and IL-12/IL-23p40) in addition to pertussis-specific antibodies. These cytokines can be detected in the sera and colostrum/milk of vaccinated sows and subsequently were detected at significant levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of piglets born to vaccinated sows together with pertussis-specific antibodies. In contrast, active vaccination of newborn piglets with heat-inactivated bacteria induced high levels of specific IgG and IgA but no cytokines. Although the levels of antibodies in vaccinated piglets were comparable to those of passively transferred antibodies, no protection against Bordetella pertussis infection was observed. Thus, our results demonstrate that a combination of passively transferred cytokines and antibodies is crucial for disease protection. The presence of passively transferred cytokines/antibodies influences the cytokine secretion ability of splenocytes in the neonate, which provides novel evidence that maternal immunization can influence the newborn's cytokine milieu and may impact immune cell differentiation (e.g., Th1/Th2 phenotype). Therefore, these maternally derived cytokines may play an essential role both as mediators of early defense against infections and possibly as modulators of the immune repertoire of the offspring. PMID:28167667

  12. Protective Role of Passively Transferred Maternal Cytokines against Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Shokrollah; Thompson, David R; Van Kessel, Jill; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Maternal vaccination represents a potential strategy to protect both the mother and the offspring against life-threatening infections. This protective role has mainly been associated with antibodies, but the role of cell-mediated immunity, in particular passively transferred cytokines, is not well understood. Here, using a pertussis model, we have demonstrated that immunization of pregnant sows with heat-inactivated bacteria leads to induction of a wide range of cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, and IL-12/IL-23p40) in addition to pertussis-specific antibodies. These cytokines can be detected in the sera and colostrum/milk of vaccinated sows and subsequently were detected at significant levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of piglets born to vaccinated sows together with pertussis-specific antibodies. In contrast, active vaccination of newborn piglets with heat-inactivated bacteria induced high levels of specific IgG and IgA but no cytokines. Although the levels of antibodies in vaccinated piglets were comparable to those of passively transferred antibodies, no protection against Bordetella pertussis infection was observed. Thus, our results demonstrate that a combination of passively transferred cytokines and antibodies is crucial for disease protection. The presence of passively transferred cytokines/antibodies influences the cytokine secretion ability of splenocytes in the neonate, which provides novel evidence that maternal immunization can influence the newborn's cytokine milieu and may impact immune cell differentiation (e.g., Th1/Th2 phenotype). Therefore, these maternally derived cytokines may play an essential role both as mediators of early defense against infections and possibly as modulators of the immune repertoire of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Pertussis may be the cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults in the interepidemic period

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel,Analíria Moraes; Baptista, Paulo Neves; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Vera MAGALHÃES; Silva, Andrea Rosane Sousa; Souza,Nadjla Ferreira; Matos,Deize Gomes Cavalcanti de; Pessoa,Ana Kelly Lins

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pertussis in adolescents and adults with cough lasting more than 14 days and less than 30 days.Methods:This is a prospective observational study in interepidemic period of pertusis. Ten public health outpatient clinics in the city of Recife, Brazil, were randomly selected for the study. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10 years and over with cough that had lasted between 14 and 30 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were co...

  14. Outbreak investigation of pertussis in an elementary school: a case-control study among vaccinated students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sukhyun; Kim, Joon Jai; Chen, Meng-Yu; Jin, Hyunju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Chun, Byung Chul

    2018-01-01

    A pertussis patient from an elementary school, in Gyeonggi Province, Korea, was notified to public health authority on July 25, 2017. Epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify the magnitude, possible source of infection and risk factors for this outbreak on August 17, 2017. A case was defined as the school student experiencing cough for more than two weeks with or without paroxysmal, whoop, or post-tussive vomiting. Control was defined as the student polymerase chain reaction-negative at the school. School based surveillance was implemented to identify additional cases. From June 29 to August 27, 2017, nine patients of pertussis were identified from an elementary school. Among nine cases, eight were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction positive. All cases had cough, one (11%) had post-tussive vomiting, and one (11%) had fever. Eight cases had macrolide for 7 days in outpatient clinic, and one case admitted in a hospital. There was no significant difference of demographic factors including gender (p=0.49), age group (p=0.97), number of series of vaccination of pertussis (p=0.52), the number of participation of after school activity (p=0.28), and the time elapsed since last vaccination (p=0.42). However, we found the history of contact within the classroom or after-school activity was only the independent risk factor among all the demographic factors collected (odds ratio, 63.61; 95% confidence interval, 4.35 to 930.79). The contributing factor for transmission is associated with the case-contact. Immediate identification of pertussis with use of appropriate diagnostic test may help to avoid a large number of cases.

  15. Inaccurate diagnosis in infants with pertussis. An eight-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, J; Weiner, L B; McMillan, J A

    1985-07-01

    A review was conducted of all patients seen at Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY, from June 1975, to June 1983, whose nasopharyngeal specimens were positive by specific Bordetella pertussis-fluorescent antibody stain. Sixty-one patients were identified; 46 were hospitalized and 15 were outpatients. The age and immunization status of the two groups were compared. Admission diagnosis, indices of illness severity, and clinical course were assessed for the hospitalized patients. Review of the house officers' initial differential diagnoses disclosed that pertussis was considered in the diagnosis in only 45% of the cases. Bronchiolitis was the next most commonly listed diagnosis. Frequent vomiting and severe coughing were the most helpful clinical findings leading to an accurate diagnosis. Abnormal chest roentgenograms and elevated white blood cell counts were present in a minority of our patients, whether the initial diagnosis was correct or not. Younger and less-immunized patients had more severe and prolonged clinical courses. This study demonstrates that the diagnosis of pertussis is often missed or delayed because clinical findings are similar to those of other respiratory infections in infancy. Suspicion of the diagnosis in children with nonspecific respiratory illness is required for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of spread to susceptible individuals.

  16. Insertion sequences shared by Bordetella species and implications for the biological diagnosis of pertussis syndrome.