Sample records for acellular dermal matrix

  1. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    Mario Cherubino


    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  2. Bovine versus Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix: A Comparison of Mechanical Properties

    David M. Adelman, MD, PhD, FACS


    Conclusions: Before implantation, BADM is inherently stronger than PADM at equivalent thicknesses and considerably stronger at increased thicknesses. These results corroborate clinical data from a previous study in which PADM was associated with a higher intraoperative device failure rate. Although numerous properties of acellular dermal matrix contribute to clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider initial mechanical strength properties when choosing acellular dermal matrices for load-bearing applications such as hernia repair.

  3. Coverage of Megaprosthesis with Human Acellular Dermal Matrix after Ewing's Sarcoma Resection: A Case Report

    Robert M. Whitfield


    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female with Ewing's Sarcoma underwent tibial resection and skeletal reconstruction using proximal tibial allograft prosthetic reconstruction with distal femur endoprosthetic reconstruction and rotating hinge. Human acellular dermal matrix, (Alloderm, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA, was used to wrap the skeletal reconstruction. Soft tissue reconstruction was completed with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap and skin graft. Despite prolonged immobilization, the patient quickly regained full range of motion of her skeletal reconstruction. Synthetic mesh, tapes and tubes are used to perform capsule reconstruction of megaprosthesis. This paper describes the role of human acellular dermal matrix in capsule reconstruction around a megaprosthesis.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of minimally invasive surgery using acellular dermal matrix for complex anorectal fistula

    Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang; A; ba-bai-ke-re; Er-Ha-Ti; Ai


    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) bioprosthetic material and endorectal advancement flap (ERAF) in treatment of complex anorectal fistula. METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients with complex anorectal fistulae admitted to Anorectal Surgical Department of First Affi liated Hospital, Xinjiang Medical University from March 2008 to July 2009, were enrolled in this study. Complex anorectal fistula was diagnosed following its clinical, radiographic, or endoscopic diagnostic cr...

  5. Delayed repair in a case of forearm fascial muscle herniation using non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix.

    Hartmann, Christoph E A; Branford, Olivier A; Floyd, David


    The options for treatment of symptomatic muscle herniation in the limbs traditionally include fasciotomy, direct repair, tendon weave graft (palmaris longus), fascial graft (tensor fascia lata), and synthetic mesh (prolene). A recent case report has described the use of acellular cadaveric dermal matrix to reconstruct fascial defects in 2 cases. We describe the use of Strattice, a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix, as a fascial underlay graft in a case of symptomatic upper limb muscle herniation. We propose that Strattice has the advantages over cadaveric dermal matrices in terms of avoiding the use of human donor tissue. It has suitable tensile properties to be used for reconstructing fascial defects.

  6. Treatment of amalgam tattoo with a subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix.

    Thumbigere-Math, Vivek; Johnson, Deborah K


    A 54-year-old female was referred for management of a large amalgam tattoo involving the alveolar mucosa between teeth #6 and #9. The lesion had been present for over 20 years following endodontic treatment of teeth #7 and #8. A two-stage surgical approach was used to remove the pigmentation, beginning with removal of amalgam fragments from the underlying bone and placement of a subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix to increase soft tissue thickness subadjacent to the amalgam. Following 7 weeks of healing, gingivoplasty was performed to remove the overlying pigmented tissue. At the 21-month follow-up appointment, the patient exhibited naturally appearing soft tissue with no evidence of amalgam tattoo.

  7. A novel porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold used in periodontal regeneration

    Jing Guo; Hui Chen; Ying Wang; Cheng-Bo Cao; Guo-Qiang Guan


    Regeneration of periodontal tissue is the most promising method for restoring periodontal structures. To find a suitable bioactive three- dimensional scaffold promoting cell proliferation and differentiation is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel porcine acellular dermal matrix as periodontal tissue scaffolds both in vitroand in vivo. The scaffolds in this study were purified porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) and hydroxyapatite-treated PADM (HA-PADM). The biodegradation patterns of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds in vivo was assessed by implanting them into the sacrospinal muscle of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The hPDL cells were cultured with PADM or HA-PADM scaffolds for 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Cell viability assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. In vitro, both PADM and HA-PADM scaffolds displayed appropriate biodegradation pattern, and also, demonstrated favorable tissue compatibility without tissue necrosis, fibrosis and other abnormal response. The absorbance readings of the WST-1 assay were increased with the time course, suggesting the cell proliferation in the scaffolds. The hPDL cells attaching, spreading and morphology on the surface of the scaffold were visualized by SEM, H&E staining, immnuohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, demonstrated that hPDL cells were able to grow into the HA-PADM scaffolds and the amount of cells were growing up in the course of time. This study proved that HA-PADM scaffold had good biocompatibility in animals in vivoand appropriate biodegrading characteristics in vitro. The hPDL cells were able to proliferate and migrate into the scaffold. These observations may suggest that HA-PADM scaffold is a potential cell carrier

  8. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold

    Yuping Feng; Jiao Wang; Shixin Ling; Zhuo Li; Mingsheng Li; Qiongyi Li; Zongren Ma; Sijiu Yu


    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells fol-lowing induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined speciifc neu-ronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuro-nal-speciifc proteins, includingβIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differen-tiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve ifbers that was composed of several parallel microifbers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sec-tioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, such as a large, round nucleus and a cytoplasm full of Nissl bodies. The data suggest that the biological scaffold fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix is capable of supporting human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into functional neurons and the subsequent formation of tissue engineered nerve.

  9. Human acellular dermal matrix for repair of abdominal wall defects: review of clinical experience and experimental data.

    Holton, Luther H; Kim, Daniel; Silverman, Ronald P; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Singh, Navin; Goldberg, Nelson H


    The use of prosthetic mesh for the tension-free repair of incisional hernias has been shown to be more effective than primary suture repair. Unfortunately, prosthetic materials can be a suboptimal choice in a variety of clinical scenarios. In general, prosthetic materials should not be implanted into sites with known contamination or infection because they lack an endogenous vascular network and are thus incapable of clearing bacteria. This is of particular relevance to the repair of recurrent hernias, which are often refractory to repair because of indolent bacterial colonization that weakens the site and retards appropriate healing. Although fascia lata grafts and muscle flaps can be employed for tension-free hernia repairs, they carry the potential for significant donor site morbidity. Recently, a growing number of clinicians have used human acellular dermal matrix as a graft material for the tension-free repair of ventral hernias. This material has been shown to become revascularized in both animal and human subjects. Once repopulated with a vascular network, this graft material is theoretically capable of clearing bacteria, a property not found in prosthetic graft materials. Unlike autologous materials such as fascial grafts and muscle flaps, acellular dermal matrix can be used without subjecting the patient to additional morbidity in the form of donor site complications. This article presents a thorough review of the current literature, describing the properties of human acellular dermal matrix and discussing both animal and human studies of its clinical performance. In addition to the review of previously published clinical experiences, we discuss our own preliminary results with the use of acellular dermal matrix for ventral hernia repair in 46 patients.

  10. Xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructs hypopharynx and cervical esophagus.

    Yin, Danhui; Tang, Qinglai; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shisheng; He, Xiangbo; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Yang, Mi; Yang, Xinming


    The aim of this study was to explore xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction. A total of five patients were treated with this surgical method to reconstruct hypopharynx and cervical esophagus in Second Xiangya Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Four of them had hypopharyngeal carcinoma with laryngeal and cervical esophageal invasion, while the fifth patient with hypopharyngeal cancer had developed scars and atresia after postoperative radiotherapy. The defect length after hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal resection was 6-8 cm, and was repaired by a combination of ADM and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap by our team. Interestingly, the four patients had primary healing and regained their eating function about 2-3 weeks after surgery, the fifth individual suffered from pharyngeal fistula, but recovered after dressing change about 2 months. Postoperative esophageal barium meals revealed that the pharynx and esophagus were unobstructed in all five patients. Xenogeneic ADM in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction is a simple, safe and effective method with fewer complications. Nevertheless, according to the defect length of the cervical esophagus, the patients need to strictly follow the medical advice.

  11. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013.

    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A


    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors' geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (p<0.001), with a mean productivity index of 36.3 (59.0). The mean impact factor of the nine journals increased significantly from 0.61 (0.11) to 2.47 (0.99) from 1993 to 2013 (p<0.001). Despite this increase in the global ADM literature, the majority of research was of weaker LOE (level I: 2.29% and level II: 9.17%). USA contributed the most research (87%), followed by Asia (4.76%) and Western Europe (4.71%). USA contributed the greatest volume of research. Regarding clinical application of ADM, the majority of publications focused on ADM use in breast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis.

  12. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo


    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball.

  13. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    Jessica F. Rose


    Full Text Available Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p<0.0001 and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p=0.0004; radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p=0.0085, and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p=0.0037. Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  14. Human Keratinocyte Growth and Differentiation on Acellular Porcine Dermal Matrix in relation to Wound Healing Potential

    Robert Zajicek


    Full Text Available A number of implantable biomaterials derived from animal tissues are now used in modern surgery. Xe-Derma is a dry, sterile, acellular porcine dermis. It has a remarkable healing effect on burns and other wounds. Our hypothesis was that the natural biological structure of Xe-Derma plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and formation of epidermal architecture in vitro as well as in vivo. The bioactivity of Xe-Derma was studied by a cell culture assay. We analyzed growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes cultured in vitro on Xe-Derma, and we compared the results with formation of neoepidermis in the deep dermal wounds treated with Xe-Derma. Keratinocytes cultured on Xe-Derma submerged in the culture medium achieved confluence in 7–10 days. After lifting the cultures to the air-liquid interface, the keratinocytes were stratified and differentiated within one week, forming an epidermis with basal, spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers. Immunohistochemical detection of high-molecular weight cytokeratins (HMW CKs, CD29, p63, and involucrin confirmed the similarity of organization and differentiation of the cultured epidermal cells to the normal epidermis. The results suggest that the firm natural structure of Xe-Derma stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human primary keratinocytes and by this way improves wound healing.

  15. Biopolymer gel matrix as acellular scaffold for enhanced dermal tissue regeneration.

    Judith, Rangasamy; Nithya, Mariappan; Rose, Chellan; Mandal, Asit Baran


    Biological grafts have drawbacks such as donor scarcity, disease transmission, tissue infection, while the scaffolds of either collagen or chitosan fabrics fail to become part of the tissue at the wound site, though they favor the formation of connective tissue matrix. This study developed a novel composite consisting of the combination of atelocollagen and chitosan in order to provide a biodegradable molecular matrix in gel form as a biomimetic surface for cell attachment, to promote the wound healing in excision wounds. We found that the topical application of biopolymer composite on the wound promoted cell proliferation, migration and collagen deposition overtime. The enhanced cellular activity in the collagen-chitosan treated wound tissue was also assed by increased levels of Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and Nerve growth factor (NGF) associated with elevated levels of antioxidants and decreased level of lipid peroxidation. The acellular matrix-like topical application material is designed to guide the eventual re-establishment of an anatomically normal skin. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of multi-cell regeneration on a molecular system that mimics tissue engineering in vivo.

  16. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  17. Abdominal wall repair with human acellular dermal autograft

    Roel E. Genders


    Full Text Available Repair of abdominal wall defects in the presence of contamination or infection is a significant problem. The loss of tissue warrants enforcement of the abdominal wall, preferably by autologous material. However, autologous repair often requires extensive surgery. This paper presents a review of available literature of placement of an acellular human dermis to repair an abdominal fascia defect, in contaminated as well as in non-contaminated surgical fields. It is illustrated with a case report that describes the successful reconstruction of an infected abdominal wall defect with a human acellular dermis allograft. A systematic literature review was undertaken with searches performed in the Pubmed and Cochrane databases for the period up till March 2009, using the search terms Alloderm [Substance Name], Hernia [Mesh] and the key words acellular dermis, acellular dermal matrix, human acellular dermal allograft and abdominal wall defect. To assess methodological quality, each article was subjected to a modification of the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS according to Slim et al. Two items from the original index were not included because none of the studies selected had an unbiased assessment of the study end points and in none of the studies was a prospective calculation of the study size performed. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Data were extracted regarding study design, number of patients, surgical technique, followup period, contaminated or non-contaminated area of the fascia defect, mortality and morbidity (hemorrhage, seroma, wound dehiscence, infection of the operative procedure, the longterm results (removal of the graft, reherniation and bulging and level of evidencey. A total of 169 short-term complications and 151 longterm complications occurred after 643 surgical procedures reconstructing both contaminated and clean abdominal wall defects by implantation of an HADA. Human acellular dermal allograft

  18. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga


    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care.

  19. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma


    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians.

  20. Acellular dermal matrix and negative pressure wound therapy: a tissue-engineered alternative to free tissue transfer in the compromised host.

    Menn, Zachary K; Lee, Edward; Klebuc, Michael J


    Free tissue transfer has revolutionized lower extremity reconstruction; however, its use in elderly patients with multiple medical problems can be associated with elevated rate s of perioperative morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and delayed skin graft application as an alternative to free tissue transfer in this compromised population. Bilayer, ADM (Integra, Plainsboro, NJ) was used in conjunction with NPWT (Wound V.A.C, Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) to achieve vascularized coverage of complex lower extremity wounds with denuded tendon and bone in elderly, medically compromised patients. Following incorporation, the matrix was covered with split-thickness skin graft. Four patients (age range, 50 to 76 years) with multiple medical comorbidities were treated with the above protocol. The average time to complete vascularization of the matrix was 29 days. Definitive closure with split-thickness skin graft was achieved in three patients and one wound healed by secondary intention. No medical or surgical complications were encountered and stable soft tissue coverage was achieved in all patients. This early experience suggests that dermal substitute and NPWT with delayed skin graft application can provide a reasonable tissue-engineered alternative to free tissue transfer in the medically compromised individual.

  1. The biomechanical behavior and host response to porcine-derived small intestine submucosa, pericardium and dermal matrix acellular grafts in a rat abdominal defect model.

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Guan Yu; Xiao, Yi Pin; Fan, Lie Ying; Wang, Qiang


    Several porcine-derived acellular biologic grafts are increasingly used in abdominal wall reconstruction due to the limitations of synthetic meshes in many clinical situations. However, relatively little is known so far about their comparative mechanical characteristics and performance after defect repair. We therefore investigated three most commonly used porcine-derived acellular biomaterials, small intestine submucosa (P-SIS), pericardium (P-PC) and acellular dermal matrix (P-ADM) immediately after prepared, and their effectiveness, biomechanical and histological characteristics in repairing full-thickness abdominal defect in a rat model. P-PC had the best native performance in the burst strength, tensile strength and ball burst among the three porcine-derived scaffolds. P-SIS showed a significantly higher water vapor transmission in comparison with P-PC or P-ADM. Abdominal wall defects in rats were all satisfied repaired with P-SIS, P-PC or P-ADM. No laxity or fistula was observed in the repaired abdominal wall in the P-SIS group up to 8 weeks after surgery. However, there was a tendency for high postoperative abdominal eventration in the P-ADM and P-PC groups as compared with the P-SIS group. With regard to overall aspects of the postoperative laxity, intra-abdominal adhesion formation, tensile stress, stretchability, and degree of tissue ingrowth in terms of collagen deposition and neovascularization, P-SIS exhibits clear advantages over P-PC as well as P-ADM after large abdominal wall defect reconstruction.

  2. Inguinal hernia repair using human acellular dermal matrix%脱细胞真皮基质修补腹股沟疝

    刘飞德; 李基业; 姚胜; 王世斌; 朱瑛梅


    BACKGROUND: Tension-free repair using polypropylene mesh is the standard technique for inguinal hernia repair at the present,but the prosthetic material maybe has harmful impact on the patient reproductive functions.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience and evaluate the clinical effect of human acellular dermal matrix in inguinal hernia repair.METHODS: Nineteen patients aged 5-38 years with inguinal hernia underwent hernia repair using human acelluar demall matrix.Of the patients, there were 15 male and 4 female. The wound healing was observed and regular follow-up was conducted.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 19 patients, all patients recovered with primary wound healing without infection of incisional wound or seroma. Eighteen patients were followed up. During a follow-up of 3-30 months, no chronic pain or discomfort at the incisional area or hernia recurrence occurred. It is feasible and safe to use human acellular dermal matrix patch in inguinal hernia repair, especially in young people or man with inguinal hernia willing to procreate.%背景:当前应用聚丙烯补片行腹股沟疝无张力修补已成为腹股沟疝修补的标准手段,但这些材料可能对患者生殖功能产生影响.目的:总结应用脱细胞真皮基质修补腹股沟疝的经验.方法:回顾性分析19例应用异体脱细胞真皮基质修补腹股沟疝患者的临床资料,男15例,女4例,年龄5~38岁.术后观察切口愈合情况,并定期随访.结果与结论:19例患者伤口均Ⅰ期愈合,无切口感染、皮下积液等并发症.18例患者获得随访,随访3~30个月,无局部疼痛、牵拉等不适感,无复发病例.提示脱细胞真皮基质材料为未成年人、尚未婚育及有生育要求的男性腹股沟疝患者的治疗提供一种新的选择.

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Novel Rifampin/Minocycline-Coated, Noncrosslinked Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Compared With Uncoated Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Repair.

    Majumder, Arnab; Scott, Jeffrey R; Novitsky, Yuri W


    Background Despite meticulous aseptic technique and systemic antibiotics, bacterial colonization of mesh remains a critical issue in hernia repair. A novel minocycline/rifampin tyrosine-coated, noncrosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix (XenMatrix AB) was developed to protect the device from microbial colonization for up to 7 days. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of this device against clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli. Methods XenMatrix AB was compared with 5 existing uncoated soft tissue repair devices using in vitro methods of zone of inhibition (ZOI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 24 hours following inoculation with MRSA or E coli These devices were also evaluated at 7 days following dorsal implantation and inoculation with MRSA or E coli (60 male New Zealand white rabbits, n = 10 per group) for viable colony-forming units (CFU), abscess formation and histopathologic response, respectively. Results In vitro studies demonstrated a median ZOI of 36 mm for MRSA and 16 mm for E coli for XenMatrix AB, while all uncoated devices showed no inhibition of bacterial growth (0 mm). SEM also demonstrated no visual evidence of MRSA or E coli colonization on the surface of XenMatrix AB compared with colonization of all other uncoated devices. In vivo XenMatrix AB demonstrated complete inhibition of bacterial colonization, no abscess formation, and a reduced inflammatory response compared with uncoated devices. Conclusion We demonstrated that XenMatrix AB possesses potent in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy against clinically isolated MRSA and E coli compared with uncoated devices.

  4. Application of acellular dermal matrix embedded in socket after wisdom tooth extraction%脱细胞异体真皮组织补片在智齿拔除中的应用

    白忠诚; 施生根; 李莉莉; 牛忠英; 张艳茹


    BACKGROUND: Few reports are found with J-1 acellular dermal matrix to prevent postoperative complications after impactedmandibular third molar extraction.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of acellular dermal matrix embedded in socket after wisdom tooth extraction.METHODS: 400 patients with impacted mandibular third molar were divided into two groups at random with 200 in each group. Ingroup A, the acellular dermal matrix was embedded in the sockets after wisdom tooth extraction; group B was the blank control.Postoperative complicati ons of the two groups were observed after treatment.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No acellular dermal matrix lost from wisdom tooth extraction sokets. Blooding after toothextraction decreased when acellular dermal matrix was embedded in the sokets, hemorrhage incidence rate was lower in group Athan in group B. Acellular dermal matrix could prevent blood clot lose from sockets, and also can prevent food residual enteringinto the sockets. Dry socket incidence rate was lower in group A than group B. Acellular embedded in the sockets had no effectson swelling incidence rate. Acellular dermal matrix embedded in socket after tooth extraction can prevent dry socket andhemorrhage, but can not prevent swelling.%背景:使用J-1型脱细胞异体真皮组织补片覆盖拔牙创口的报告较少.目的:探讨异体脱细胞组织补片置入拔牙窝对预防拔牙后并发症的影响.方法:将400例阻生智齿拔除患者随机分为2组,实验组智齿拔除后拔牙窝内放置医用组织补片;对照组智齿拔除后不放置医用组织补片.分别观察拔牙后组织补片脱落率、肿胀发生率、拔牙窝内血凝块存留和食物残渣残留情况、牙龈是否红肿、对拔牙后出血的影响以及干槽症的发生率.结果与结论:拔牙后出血的百分比,血凝块留存率,拔牙窝内食物残渣残留百分比,干槽症发生率实验组均明显低于对照组.放置组织补片对术后

  5. Comparison of Achilles tendon repair techniques in a sheep model using a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch and platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix for augmentation.

    Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Wang, Hali; Hackett, Eileen S; Yao, Jian Q; Shih, Mei-Shu; Ramsay, Heather L; Turner, A Simon


    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch (APD), as well as platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix (PRPFM), for repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a sheep model. The 2 surgically transected tendon ends were reapproximated in groups 1 and 2, whereas a gap was left between the tendon ends in group 3. APD was used to reinforce the repair in group 2, and autologous PRPFM was used to fill the gap, which was also reinforced with APD, in group 3. All sheep were humanely euthanized at 24 weeks after the repair, and biomechanical and histological testing were performed. Tensile strength testing showed a statistically significant difference in elongation between the operated limb and the unoperated contralateral limb in groups 1 and 3, but not in group 2. All operated tendons appeared healed with no apparent fibrosis under light and polarized microscopy. In group 1, all surgical separation sites were identifiable, and healing occurred via increasing tendon thickness. In group 2, healing occurred with new tendon fibers across the separation, without increasing tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals. Group 3 showed complete bridging of the gap, with no change in tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals. In groups 2 and 3, peripheral integration of the APD to tendon fibers was observed. These findings support the use of APD, alone or with PRPFM, to augment Achilles tendon repair in a sheep model.

  6. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

    Juhasz, I.; Kiss, B.; Lukacs, L.; Erdei, I.; Peter, Z.; Remenyik, E.


    Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the impl...

  7. Application effect comparison on allogenic acellular dermal matrix and xenogenic acellular dermal matrix in the treatment of burn wounds%异体脱细胞真皮和异种脱细胞真皮在烧伤创面治疗中的应用效果比较

    彭炳生; 柳晖


    Objective To compare the effect on allogenic acellular dermal matrix and xenogenic (pig) acellular dermal matrix in the treatment of burn wounds, to explore the feasibility of xenogeneic acellular dermal substitute acellular dermal. Methods In Bao’an People’s Hospital of Shenzhen City from May 2012 to June 2013 with deep second degree and third degree burn wounds of deep partial tangential excision and skin grafting for treatment of 30 patients of autologous skin at the same time, they were divided into two groups by the random digital table method, allograft +micro skin treatment were used in allograft group of 15 patients, xenogenic (pig) acellular dermal matrix + micro skin treatment were applied in heterogeneous group of 15 patients. The wound healing time, the healing quality between two groups were compared; the patients were followed up for 6 months, the self satisfaction of Vancouver scar scale and patient evaluation table were used to evaluate the healing effect. Results The short-term effect:there were 16 (51.61%) one type of healing and 15 (48.39%) two type of healing in 31 wounds of allograft group, there were 15 (50.00%) one type of healing and 15 (50.00%) two type of healing in 30 wounds of heterogeneous group, with no statistical difference (P>0.05). Drying time of wound healing, deep second degree burn wound healing time and third degree burn wound healing time between two groups was compared respectively, there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The long term effect: after 6 months of follow-up, color, blood vessel distribution, thickness and softness scores between two groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). The excellent and good rate of allograft group and heterogeneous group was 51.61%and 50.00% respectively, with no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The curative effects of two materials are similar, can replace each other, its clinical application can alleviate allograft skin source, at the same time, reduce

  8. Biocompatibility of acellular dermal matrix graft evaluated in culture of murine macrophages Avaliação da biocompatibilidade da matriz dérmica acelular em cultura de células

    Ana Paula Vendramini


    Full Text Available The acellular dermal matrix allograft has been used as an alternative to autogenous palatal mucosal graft. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the biocompatibility of an acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm® in culture of macrophages. For hydrogen peroxidase determination we used the method of Pick & Kesari, and the Griess method for nitric oxide determination,. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p A matrix dérmica acelular tem sido utilizada como alternativa para a substituição de enxerto gengival autógeno. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biocompatibilidade em cultura de células de macrófagos da matriz dérmica acelular (AlloDermâ. Foram utilizados os métodos de Pick & Kesari, para a determinação da presença de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e de Griess para a determinação de ácido nitroso (NO. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,05 no aumento da presença de NO e H2O2 quando macrófagos foram expostos na presença da matrix dérmica acelular quando comparado com o controle negativo. Pode-se concluir que a matrix dérmica acelular é biocompatível aos tecidos humanos.

  9. Antibacterial activity of acellular dermal matrix composite CMC%复合 CMC 脱细胞真皮基质的抗菌性能

    安祥莲; 郭泾


    目的:探讨脱细胞真皮基质(ADM)以戊二醛为交联剂复合羧甲基壳聚糖(CMC)后的抗菌性能。方法实验采用2×3析因设计,根据样本状态(湿润、干燥)和分组(复合样片组、单纯样片组、空白对照组)设计实验。应用烧瓶振荡法,利用优化的实验条件,在转速200 r/min、培养温度25℃、作用时间1 h 的条件下,对复合 CMC 的ADM进行抗菌性能检测。通过菌落平板计数获得实验前(0 h)、实验后(1 h)的菌落数,计算抑菌率。两组实验中细菌在振摇前后的菌落数差值均符合实验限定标准(差值变化不超过10%)。结果湿润状态下,复合样片组对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌率为61.17%,对白色念珠菌的抑菌率为39.79%;干燥状态下,复合样片组对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌率为0%,对白色念珠菌的抑菌率为15.17%。湿润与干燥两个因素比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。结论复合 CMC 的 ADM 这种交联复合物在湿润状态下有一定的抗菌性,干燥状态下不具备抗菌性能,交联效率较低,需进一步改良制备工艺。%Objective To explore the antibacterial activity of acellular dermal matrix (ADM)with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent composite carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC).Methods The 2 ×3 factorial design was adopted,and the experiments were designed according to the sample status (wet,dry)and groups (composite sample group,simple sample group,blank control group).Shaking-flask method was used and the optimized experimental conditions (rota-tional speed 200 r/min,culture temperature 25 ℃,culture time one hour)were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of acellular dermal matrix composite CMC.To get the bacterial inhibition rate,colony plate count was adopted to obtain the number of bacterial colonies before the experiment(0 h)and after the test(1 h).In the two experimental groups, the number

  10. Feasibility of eyelid reconstruction with acellular xenogenic dermal matrix%异种脱细胞真皮替代睑板材料重建眼睑的可行性

    张向荣; 周琼; 肖卫; 刘德伍; 彭燕


    背景:眼睑后层重建是眼睑重建的重点和难点,其中睑板替代物更是研究的焦点.异种脱细胞真皮作为一种新型的组织工程材料,在国内外烧伤整形领域,正得到广泛的研究和应用.目的:观察异种(猪)脱细胞真皮植入兔眼睑后的组织相容性极其组织病理学变化.方法:剥取健康小白猪全层皮肤20 cm×20 cm,制备异种(猪)脱细胞真皮基质.同时制备兔睑板全层缺损模型并植入脱细胞真皮基质,观察大体情况,并分别于第1,2,3周取移植交界处眼睑组织光镜下观察组织学的改变.结果与结论:大体观察未见明显排斥反应及眼睑的变形;光镜下1周时可见局部炎症细胞浸润,2周时炎症细胞减少,3周时正常纤维组织长入,逐渐分割代替植入的胶原纤维,炎症反应消失.提示异种脱细胞真皮免疫原性低,并可引导新生胶原的生长,是一种良好的睑板替代物.%BACKGROUND:Reconstruction of posterior lamella of eyelid is an important and difficult issue in eyelid reconstruction, and tarsal substitute is the focus of the study. Xenogenic acellular dermal matrix as a new tissue engineering material, is being widely studied and applied in the field of burn and plastic su rgery at home and abroad.OBJECTIVE:To observe histocompatibility and histopathological changes of xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix transplantation for eyelid reconstruction in rabbits.OBJECTIVE:Full skin at 20 cm×20 cm was stripped from healthy little white pigs, for preparation of xenogenic (porcine) acellular xenogenic dermal matrix. Model of rabbit tarsal defect was established in 8 New Zealand rabbits, then acellular dermal matrix was implanted.Samples of implanted materials were collected for histological examination at 1, 2, 3 weeks postoperation under light microscopy.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There were no obvious rejection and eyelid deformation observed. One week after implantation,partial inflammatory cells

  11. Guide bone regeneration with acellular dermal matrix in the maxillary anterior region%脱细胞真皮基质在上前牙GBR种植术中的临床研究

    董强; 夏茜; 马洪; 王小玲; 杨红; 周成菊; 毛久凤


    目的:研究采用脱细胞真皮基质进行引导骨组织再生技术(GBR)并同期种植体植入的短期临床效果。方法29例上前牙脱细胞真皮基质进行 GBR并同期植入种植体,经软组织塑形后,完成最终上部结构。随访3~9个月,对种植体周围软硬组织进行评价。结果29例均获得良好骨整合,种植体无松动脱落。种植体周围软硬组织状态良好,美学效果满意。结论采用脱细胞真皮基质进行上前牙 GBR并同期植入种植体,短期内可获得较满意的临床效果。%Objective To evaluate the clinical and aesthetic results of guide bone regeneration(GBR)with acellular dermal matrix and implant placement in the maxillary anterior region.Methods 29 cases in the maxillary anterior region were selected carefully, GBR with acellular dermal matrix were processed and the implants were placed immediately.Impressions were taken after soft tis-sue development with provisional implant restorations and the definitive restorations were finished.The follow-up time was 3 to 9 months.The evaluated indexes involved marginal bone level at mesial and distal aspects of the implants,the interproximal papilla in-dex score of Jemt′s classification and the level of the labial soft-tissue margin.Results 29 cases were good bone integration,implant without mobility.Hard and soft tissue around implants in good condition,aesthetic effect was satisfied.Conclusion Using acellular dermal matrix to come forward to tooth GBR and implanted implant during this period,can obtain satisfactory clinical effect in the short term.

  12. Reconstruction of the abdominal wall by using a combination of the human acellular dermal matrix implant and an interpositional omentum flap after extensive tumor resection in patients with abdominal wall neoplasm:A preliminary result

    Yan Gu; Rui Tang; Ding-Quan Gong; Yun-Liang Qian


    AIM:To present our trial using a combination of the human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) implant and an interpositional omentum flap to repair giant abdominal wall defects after extensive tumor resection.METHODS:Between February and October of 2007,three patients with giant defects of the abdominal wall after extensive tumor resection underwent reconstruction with a combination of HADM and omentum flap.Postoperative morbidities and signs of herniation were monitored.RESULTS:The abdominal wall reconstruction was successful in these three patients,there was no severe morbidity and no signs of herniation in the follow-up period.CONCLUSION:The combination of HADM and omentum flap offers a new,safe and effective alternative to traditional forms in the repair of giant abdominal wall defects.Further analysis of the long-term outcome and more cases are needed to assess the reliability of this technique.

  13. Aplicación clínica de la matriz dérmica acelular para prevenir recesiones gingivales Clinical application of acellular dermal matrix to prevent gingival recessions

    C.M. Ardila Medina


    Full Text Available Un objetivo primordial de la cirugía plástica periodontal es cubrir las superficies radiculares expuestas cuando esta condición causa al paciente problemas estéticos, hipersensibilidad dentinal, caries radicular o dificulta una adecuada remoción de la placa bacteriana. Muchas técnicas quirúrgicas se han propuesto para la corrección de exposiciones radiculares: autoinjerto gingival libre, injertos pediculados y técnicas bilaminares. La regeneración tisular guiada también se ha ofrecido como otra alternativa terapéutica en el manejo de recesiones gingivales. Un aloinjerto de matriz dérmica acelular (AMDA se ha reportado recientemente en la literatura periodontal, mostrando resultados clínicos favorables en el cubrimiento de recesiones gingivales. El objetivo de esta revisión es mostrar la composición del AMDA, sus características, antecedentes y predecibilidad comparado con otras técnicas para lograr cubrimiento de recesiones gingivales.The ultimate goal of periodontal surgery is the coverage of exposed root surface when this condition causes the patient esthetic troubles, dentinal hipersentivity, or root caries or when it hampers proper plaque removal. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for the correction of dental root exposition: free gingival grafts, pedicle soft tissue grafts and bilaminar techniques. Guided tissue regeneration has also been proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative in the management of gingival recession. Recently, an acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA has been reported to have a favorable clinical outcome in coverage of gingival recessions. The objective of this review is to show composition, qualitys, trajectory and mainly predictable of the acellular dermal matrix allograft to compare with others techniques to cover gingival recessions.


    马绍英; 王旭昇; 董丽; 李幼忱; 周沫; 赵亚平; 李宝兴


    matrix in the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects in rabbits, and to investigate the application feasibility of xeno-transplantation of acellular dermal matrix. Methods The porcine acellular dermal matrix was prepared from a health white pig. Twenty-six Japanese white rabbits (weighing 2.2-2.3 kg, female or male) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the control group (n=6) and the experimental group (?=20). In the control group, the full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 5.0 cm × 0.5 cm was made, and the defect was sutured directly, in the experimental group, the full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 5.0 cm × 2.5 cm was made, and the defect was repaired with porcine acellular dermal matrix patch at the same size as the defect. At 5 weeks after surgery, the incidence of hernia and the intra-abdominal adhesions were observed and the wound breaking strength was compared between the patch-fascia interface and the fascia-fascia interface. The graft vascularization was evaluated through histological analysis at 6 months after surgery in the experimental group. Results No hernia occurred in all rabbits of 2 groups. At 5 weeks after surgery, healing was observed between patch and the muscularfascia; the vascularization was seen in the porcine acellular dermal matrix patch. There was no significant difference in the adhesion grade (Z= -0.798, P=0.425) between the experimental group (grade 2 in 1 rabbit, grade 1 in 5, and grade 0 in 12) and the control group (grade 1 in 1 and grade 0 in 5). No significant difference was found (t= -0.410, P=0.683) in the breaking strength between the patch-fascia interface in the experimental group [(13.0 ± 5.5) N] and the fascia-fascia interface in control group [(13.6 ± 4.0) N]. In the experimental group, the small vessels and the infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the porcine acellular dermal matrix patch after 5 weeks through histological observations. The junctions of the patch-fascia interface healed with fibrous

  15. 微孔结构对猪脱细胞真皮基质血管化影响的初步观察%Effect of laser micropore structure on vascularization of porcine acellular dermal matrix

    曾逃方; 罗旭; 林才; 何勇; 曾元临; 辛国华


    Objective To observe the effect of laser micropore structure on vascularization of porcine acellular dermal matrix.Methods 36 healthy male nude mice were randomly divided into experimental group and control group.The experimental group were transplanted laser micropore porcine acellular dermal matrix (LPADM) and autologous thin skin,the control group were transplanted non-porous acellular dermal matrix and autologous thin skin,the surgery were completed by two-step.Each group select six nude mice to cut specimen for histology and electron microscopy at 1 d,3 d,14 d after operation.Results Scanning electron microscopy revealed new tissue ingrowth into LPADM by laser micropore structure of the experimental group at 1 d after operation,histological observation showed that there were vessel-like lumen structure in the new organization,and the new organization was obvious ingrowth at 3 d after operation.At 14 d after operation,the LPADM completed revascularization,the new organization in the laser microporous gradually changed into the collagen fiber-based dermal tissue.During the whole experiment,the was no blood vessels or vascular endothelial cells move in the control group.Conclusions The presence of laser microporous structure can improve the vascularization capacity of LPADM,provide a channel of the cells and organization ingrowth.%目的 初步观察激光微孔结构对猪脱细胞真皮基质(ADM)血管化的影响.方法 健康雄性裸鼠36只,随机分为实验组及对照组,实验组移植激光微孔猪脱细胞真皮基质(LPADM)加自体薄皮片,对照组移植无孔猪脱细胞真皮基质加自体薄皮片,手术分“二步法”完成.术后1d、3d、14 d每组各取6只裸鼠处死,切取标本行组织学及电镜检查.结果 实验组术后第1天,扫描电镜发现新生组织通过微孔结构长入ADM内部.组织学观察显示新生组织中有血管样管腔结构,其内有红细胞征象.术后第3天实验组LPADM中新生组织明显

  16. Clinical Study of Heterogeneous Acellular Dermal Matrix for Repairing Hard Palatal Fistula%异种脱细胞真皮基质整复硬腭部腭瘘的临床研究

    张波; 李健


    [Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix( Heal-All Oral Biofilm) for repairing hard palatal fistula. [Methods]Thirty-eight patients with hard palate fistula were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Palatal fistulas of patients in treatment group( n = 18) was repaired with heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix. Palatal fistulas of patients in control group( n = 20) was repaired with traditional method. The recurrence in the closed fistula and the incidence of buccal gingi-val sulcus becoming shallow in patients of two groups were observed 1~3 months after the operation. [Results]The recurrence rate of closed fistula in treatment group was 11. 1 % (2/18) 1 ~ 3 months after the operation, which was markedly lower than that in control group(25. 0%, 5/20) , and there was significant differ-ence( P <0. 05). The incidence of buccal gingival sulcus becoming shallow in treatment group was 5. 5% (1/ 18), which was markedly higher than that in control group(90% , 18/20), and there was significant difference ( P <0. 01). [Conclusion]The efficacy of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix(Oral Biofilm) for repairing hard palatal fistula is satisfactory, and has simple operation, little damage of surrounding tissue and no incidence of buccal gingival sulcus becoming shallow after the operation.%[目的]探讨异种脱细胞真皮基质(下称口腔修复膜)修补硬腭部腭瘘的临床疗效.[方法]38例硬腭部腭瘘的患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组18例患者采用口腔修复膜修补硬腭部腭瘘,对照组20例患者采用传统方法修复硬腭部腭瘘,观察两组患者术后1~3个月手术部位是否再次穿孔及龈颊沟是否变浅.[结果]治疗组在术后1~3个月再次穿孔的发生率为11.1%(2/18)显著低于对照组25.0%(5/20),其差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组龈颊沟变浅发生率为5.5%(1/18)显著低于对照组发生率为90%(18

  17. Clinical application of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix used in alveolar bone grafting%异种脱细胞真皮基质膜在齿槽裂植骨术中的临床应用

    李可兴; 刘曙光


    Objective To observe the effect of bone repair and evaluate its esthetic outcome with heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix cover the alveolar cleft bone grafting area in the alveolar cleft operation.Methods In 67 cases,unilateral cleft palate,were treated by alveolar cleft conventional surgical method.Cancellous iliac bone grafting were control group,heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix cover the alveolar cleft bone grafting area were treatment group.Radiographs was taken at 1 st,3 rd,6 th,12 th,18 th,24 th month postoperatively to observe the bone regeneration alveolar cleft zone.Results The alveolar cleft graft area new bone formation with Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ grade after 6 months in control group was 15,11,9,6 cases and in treatment group was 13,9,3,1 case.The graft survival rate and success rate (97.8%,84.3%) of treatment group were higher than that of control group (84.5%,63.7%),the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion The successful rate of operation could be warranted,by the joint application of autogenous iliac bone grafts and heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix in the alveolar cleft operation.%目的 在齿槽裂手术中,将异种脱细胞真皮基质膜覆盖齿槽裂植骨区,观察新骨形成状况,评价植骨修复效果.方法 选择67例单侧齿槽裂患者,按治疗方法不同分为对照组和试验组.对照组单纯应用髂骨骨松质移植41例,试验组应用异种脱细胞真皮基质膜加髂骨骨松质移植26例.术后1,3,6,12,18,24个月随访,X线片观察齿槽裂植骨区新骨生成情况.结果 对照组病例术后6个月齿槽裂植骨区新骨形成Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ级分别为15,11,9,6例,齿槽裂植骨成活率为84.5%,临床成功率为63.7%.而试验组病例植骨区新骨形成Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ级分别为13,9,3,1例.齿槽裂植骨成活率为97.8%,临床成功率为84.3%.两组植骨成活率、临床成功率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 自体髂骨加异

  18. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

    I. Juhasz


    Full Text Available Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the implants was 185 cm2. Among those, 15 implant sites of 14 patients were assessed at an average of 50 months after surgery. The scar function was assessed by using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale. We have found that the overall scar quality and function was significantly better over the implanted areas than over the surrounding skin. Also these areas received a better score for scar height and pliability. Our findings suggest that acellular dermal implants are especially useful tools in the treatment of full-thickness burns as well as postburn scar contractures.

  19. The application of acellular dermal matrix combined with coralline hydroxyapatite in guided bone regeneration%异种脱细胞真皮基质联合珊瑚羟基磷灰石在GBR术中的应用

    汪竹红; 康博; 黄达鸿; 管红雨; 温玉洁; 林天赐; 林丽娥


    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix combined with coralline hydroxyapatite for guided bone regeneration. Methods: 17 patients with 27 lost teeth were included in this study. 10 anterior lost teeth area with the alveolar bone thickness about 4mm was placed ankylos implants using bone condensing technique followed by guided bone generation. The other lost teeth area with bone defect was placed ankylos implants using routine method followed by GBR. 6-8 months later, the second-stage operation was performed and the condition of the new bone was observed. Results: All implants showed good osseointegration and were covered by alveolar bone except one implant whose labial neck about 1.5mm height wasn't covered by bone. Conclusion:Acellular dermal matrix combined with coralline hydroxyapatite can achieve good bone formation in guided bone regeneration.%目的:评价异种脱细胞真皮基质联合珊瑚羟基磷灰石在引导骨组织再生术中的应用效果。方法:17例共27颗牙缺失患者作为研究对象,其中10颗上前牙牙槽骨宽度约4mm的延期种植先行骨挤压术植入种植体再行GBR术,其余12颗延期即刻种植上前牙及5颗环状骨缺损后牙常规植入种植体后行GBR术。6-8m后观察成骨效果。结果:除一例患者右上侧切牙植体颈部唇侧暴露约1.5mm左右,其余患者植体均被新生骨包绕,成骨效果显著。结论:异种脱细胞真皮基质联合珊瑚羟基磷灰石在牙种植术中引导骨组织再生效果良好。

  20. Meshed acellular dermal matrix:technique and application in implant based breast reconstruction

    Dino Zammit; Jonathan Kanevsky; Fan-Yi Meng; Tassos Dionisopoulos


    Alloderm was the first acellular dermal matrix used and remains a popular choice among plastic surgeons. However, while the overall surgical outcome of breast reconstruction using alloderm has been a success, the economic burden on the health care system makes it a subject of frequent re-evaluations in cost-effectiveness. Prompted by the high price of $3,700 USD for a 6 cm × 16 cm area, our group proposes the meshing of AlloDerm to decrease the total amount needed for breast reconstruction, while achieving comparable surgical outcomes as using unmeshed alloderm.

  1. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of subpedicle acellular dermal matrix allograft with subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of isolated marginal tissue recession: A clinical study

    Shori, Tony; Kolte, Abhay; Kher, Vishal; Dharamthok, Swarup; Shrirao, Tushar


    Introduction: The most common problem encountered in our day to day practice is exposed root surface or a tooth getting long. The main indication for root coverage procedures are esthetics and/or cosmetic demands followed by the management of root hypersensitivity, root caries or when it hampers proper plaque removal. Over the years, various techniques have been used to achieve root coverage. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of subpedicle acellular de...

  2. 异种(猪)无细胞真皮基质的制备及体外生物相容性%Preparation and in vitro biocompatibility of xenogenic(porcine)acellular dermal matrix

    马绍英; 李宝明; 董丽; 王旭昇; 李宝兴; 赵亚平; 康悦


    背景:人同种无细胞真皮基质作为一种永久性真皮支架,已成功应用于烧伤创面修复及美容医学等领域,但由于来源有限,限制了其应用.目的;研制异种(猪)无细胞真皮基质,并对其体外生物相容性进行评价.设计、时间及地点:体外细胞学对比观察实验,于2007-08/2008-06在中国辐射防护研究院生物材料与制药技术研究所实验室完成.材料:实验猪由中国辐射防护研究院实验动物中心提供;人成纤维细胞来自武警山西总队医院健康儿童包皮环切术切除的包皮组织.方法:无菌条件下获取健康小白猪猪皮,用高渗盐溶液-去污剂、胰酶消化及超声清洗的方法,制备猪无细胞真皮基质.体外培养人成纤维细胞,用猪无细胞真皮基质浸提液法及人成纤维细胞和猪无细胞真皮基质直接贴附法,评价猪无细胞真皮基质体外生物相容性.主要观察指标:①猪无细胞真皮基质的组织学形态.②猪无细胞真皮基质的体外生物相容性.结果:制备的猪无细胞真皮基质,完全去除了表皮和真皮中的细胞成分,保留了胶原基质.猪无细胞真皮基质浸提液对人成纤维细胞增殖无明显影响.人成纤维细胞可以在猪无细胞真皮基质上贴附、增殖.结论:此种方法制备的无细胞真皮基质完全去除了表皮和真皮中的细胞成分,有较好的体外生物相容性.%BACKGROUND: Human allogenic acellular dermal matrix, as a kind of permanent dermal scaffold, has widely used in the fields of burn wound reparation and aesthetic medicine. However, it is limited due to insufficient resources. OBJECTIVE: To prepare porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) dermal matrix, in addition, to estimate its in vitro biocompatibility. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An in vitro cytology contrast experiment. The Experiment was performed at the laboratory of Biomaterials and Pharmacy Technology Institute, China Institute for Radiation Protection

  3. Sterile Acellular Dermal Collagen as a Treatment for Rippling Deformity of Breast

    Brittany Busse


    Full Text Available Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal matrix product, AlloMax. The patient presented with visible rippling of bilateral prosthetic breast implants as well as significant asymmetry of the breasts after multiple excisional biopsies for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ. A 6×10 cm piece of AlloMax was placed on the medial aspect of each breast between the implant and the skin flap. Follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year following the procedure. The patient recovered well from the surgery and there were no complications. At her first postoperative follow-up the patient was extremely satisfied with the result. At her 3-month and 1-year follow-up she had no recurrence of her previous deformity and no new deformity.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix allograft and subepithelial connective tissue to coronally advanced flap alone in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions: A clinical study

    Pallavi Thakare


    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining predictable and esthetic root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. Several techniques have been developed to achieve these goals with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to appraise the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG compared to coronally advanced flap (CAF in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients aged between 18 and 50 years, with multiple Miller's Class I and II recessions on labial or buccal surfaces of teeth were selected for this study. The patients were randomly assigned to CAF + ADMA, CAF + SCTG and CAF groups with 10 patients in each group. The clinical parameters assessed were probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession (GR, width of keratinized tissue, plaque index and papilla bleeding index at base line and 6 months after surgery. Results: Statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA suggested that the root coverage obtained was greater in the ADMA + CAF (89.83 ± 15.29%, when compared to SCTG + CAF (87.73 ± 17.63% and CAF (63.77 ± 27.12% groups. The predictability for coverage of> 90% was greater in CAF + ADMA (65% when compared with SCTG + CAF (61.66% and CAF (31.17%. Improvements in the clinical parameters from baseline were found in all the three groups treated. Conclusion: It was concluded that all three techniques could provide root coverage in Miller's class I and II gingival recessions; but greater % root coverage and predictability for coverage of> 90% could be expected with CAF + ADMA and CAF + SCTG groups when compared with CAF alone.

  5. 缩水甘油改性pADM的亲水性与吸湿动力学研究%Hydrophility and Kenetic Analysis of Moisture Adsorption of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Modified by Glycidol

    但年华; 肖世维; 但卫华; 林海; 朱剑


    采用缩水甘油(Glycido1)对脱细胞猪真皮基质(pADM)进行改性,通过对改性前后材料的接触角和吸湿动力学的研究,探寻改性前后材料亲水性能的变化.研究结果表明:pADM经缩水甘油改性后,材料的接触角降低.材料的吸湿动力学特征符合二级吸附动力学方程,表明吸湿过程属于多分子层吸附;且平衡吸附量随着改性剂用量的增加而提高.两者均表明,改性后材料的亲水性能增加.从而论证了通过引入亲水基团,提高pADM亲水性能的可行性.为进一步制备出多功能pADM,奠定了实验基础.%The contact angle and moisture adsorption of the porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM) were mensurated after modified by Glycidol.The improvement of surface hydrophilicity was proved by the declined of contact angle in the surface of pADM.And the adsorption process could be characterized by the Second-Order Model of adsorption kinetic equation after kinetic analysis of moisture adsorption under RH85% and RH43%.The results inducated that the adsorption was belong to multilayer adsorption.The decreased contact angle and increased equilibrium adsorption capacity of water implied that the hydrophilicity of pADM could be developed by introducing more polar groups into pADM.

  6. 应用脱细胞真皮基质材料修补复杂腹壁切口疝%Repair of complex abdominal incisional hernia with acellular dermal matrix

    李小军; 王小强; 龙延滨; 邱健; 张瑞鹏


    目的 探讨脱细胞真皮基质材料对复杂的腹壁切口疝的修复治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至2010年6月间使用脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)材料修补的7例复杂的腹壁切口疝的治疗方法.其中男4例,女3例,年龄43~83岁,中位年龄53岁;7例中有2例伴有腹股沟斜疝,给予同时修补;5例同时进行了胃肠道手术,其中有2例伴有小肠瘘;疝环直径为9.2 ~16.5 cm,平均(11.6±2.8)cm;5例使用腹腔内修补(intraperitoneal onlay mesh,IPOM),2例为腹膜外修补(total extraperitoneal prothesis,TEP).结果 本组患者均手术顺利,放置ADM补片至关腹结束的平均手术时间(33±12) min;术中平均出血量(16±4) ml;住院时间7~12d.所有使用ADM的患者均痊愈出院,术后未发现有慢性疼痛、感觉异常、肺炎、尿路感染等并发症,手术切口无红肿、溃破、无血清肿.7例均获随访,随访时间5 ~26个月,中位随访时间为14个月,随访期间未发现浅部感染或深部感染,无疝复发.结论 脱细胞真皮基质材料作为一种新的生物补片,适用于复杂腹壁切口疝,尤其是伴有污染的腹壁切口疝的修补.%Objective To evaluate the repair of abdominal complicated incisional hernia using acellular dermal matrix (ADM).Methods Retrospective analysis was made on 7 cases with abdominal complicated incisional hernia treated by ADM in our hospital from January 2008 to June 2010,among them there were 4 males and 3 females.Age ranged from 43 to 83 years and the median age was 53 years.Two concurrent indirect inguinal hernia cases were repaired and concurrent gastrointestinal tract problems including 2 small bowd fistulas were operated one stage in 5 cases.Mean diameter of hernia ring was ( 11.6 ± 2.8 ) cm,ranged from 9.2 to 16.5 cm.5 cases were repaired by using intraperitoneal onlay mesh,others using total extraperitoneal prothesis.Results All patients were operated on successfully

  7. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Wei-ling Cui


    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  8. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Wei-ling Cui; Long-hai Qiu; Jia-yan Lian; Jia-chun Li; Jun Hu; Xiao-lin Liu


    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  9. 异种脱细胞真皮基质联合Bio-oss Collagen修复牙槽骨缺损的临床研究%Clinical application of acellular dermal matrix combined with Bio-oss Collagen to repair alveolar bone defects

    杨春羚; 林良缘; 庄亮亮; 曾金表


    Objective: To investigate the effect of guided bone regeneration of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) combined with Bio -oss Collagen in alveolar defect. Method: 18 cases patients with severe alveolar bone resorption or damage were included.Bone defect after teeth extraction were very serious and the residual height and width of the alveolar bone were very limited in all these cases. Bio-oss Collagen was delivered into the sockets immediately after tooth extraction and covered with acellular dermal matrix membrane.Suture was removed 2 weeks postop.and the alveolar bone was regularly examined at the 3rd month. Result:New bone was found to form well in both physical examination and X-ray examination in all the 18 cases in the 3rd month.The height and width of the alveolar bone were significantly increased, providing a good bone condition for later FPD prosthetic treatment. Conclusion: Acellular dermal matrix combined with Bio-oss Collagen can improve the bone condition before restoration in clinical.%目的:通过引导骨再生(GBR)技术评估异种脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)与Bio-oss Collagen联合应用在修复牙槽骨缺损中的作用.方法:选择拔牙术后牙槽骨缺损严重的病例18例,拔牙同期在拔牙创植入Bio-oss Collagen并覆盖异种脱细胞真皮基质(海奥生物膜),术后2周拆线,3个月复诊并拍摄X线片.结果:术后经临床检查和X线检查,18例患者植骨区新骨形成良好,牙槽骨高度与丰满度明显改善,术区骨生成良好.结论:临床上异种脱细胞真皮基质与Bio-oss Collagen联合应用能有效修复牙槽骨缺损,改善修复前的骨条件.

  10. 新型激光微孔化猪脱细胞真皮基质的制备及应用%Preparation and application of novel laser micropore porcine acellular dermal matrix

    罗旭; 万丽; 李安乐; 徐建军; 夏卫东; 李玉莉; 邓春林; 王平; 林才


    目的 介绍一种新型微孔化猪脱细胞真皮基质并验证其安全性、可行性.方法 取新鲜健康小白猪断层真皮,采用高渗盐-胰蛋白酶法脱细胞,经超声波充分震荡洗涤,获得猪脱细胞真皮基质,经特定激光微孔技术,在脱细胞真皮基质上贯穿打孔即获得新型激光微孔化猪脱细胞真皮基质.将24只SD大鼠均切除背部全层皮肤至深筋膜,造成大小2.0 cm×2.0 cm创面,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各12只,同步I期行自体中厚皮片与真皮材料复合移植于大鼠全层皮肤缺失创面,实验组采用移植真皮材料为激光微孔化猪脱细胞真皮基质(LPADM),对照组采用移植真皮材料为普通的猪皮脱细胞真皮基质(ADM),组织学检查、电镜观察两组真皮材料的物理性状、结构完整性、细胞残留及移植后皮片活性、血管化和移植后动物安全性变化.结果 制备的真皮基质材料LPADM和ADM均呈瓷白色,有光泽,柔软而有弹性;组织学检查未见上皮细胞、内皮细胞残留,结构完整性好;电镜检查胶原纤维排列整齐,保持较好的结构完整性.实验组术后7 d LPADM组织学检查显示移植真皮血管化充分,术后14 d复合移植皮片均存活;对照组术后7 d移植皮片色暗淡,多有起泡,并逐渐失活坏死,ADM组织学检查未见新生血管形成,术后14 d复合移植皮片干性坏死.两组实验动物均无异常死亡或感染,亦未见皮肤过敏反应,体重无减轻.结论 以特定激光微孔化等技术制备的新型猪脱细胞真皮基质动物移植实验中血管化充分、复合皮片愈合良好,获得满意的实验效果.%Objective To prepare a new type of micropore porcine acellular dermal matrix with the aid of laser (PLADM ), and validate the safety and practicability of the PLADM. Methods LPADM was prepared by a specific laser micropore technology with the punch worked in cycles and suspended in the midair on the harvested split

  11. 从脱细胞猪真皮基质材料的边角料中提取Ⅰ型胶原%Collagen Extracted from Offcut of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix

    刘新华; 路翠娟; 但年华; 刘婷; 胡杨; 但卫华


    以脱细胞猪真皮基质材料的边角料为原料,使用酸-酶结合法提取Ⅰ型胶原,并用SDS-PAGE电泳、DSC、FI-IR、SEM、AFM对Ⅰ型胶原进行了结构表征.研究表明:组织学观察发现,脱细胞猪真皮基质材料中不存在细胞和细胞碎片,且胶原纤维得到充分的分离和松散,非纤维成分大部分被水解,有利于Ⅰ型胶原的提取.提取得到的Ⅰ型胶原红外特征峰明显,分子质量大且分布窄,变性温度为69.4℃;SEM显示胶原呈现孔隙均匀的三维网状结构;AFM观察到胶原大部分排列紧密,相互编织缠绕,形成无规线团,小部分胶原直径较粗,且以线性分布,说明胶原已经发生自聚集现象.综合检测分析结果,可以认为所提取制备得到的确为具有天然三股螺旋结构的Ⅰ型胶原.%The histological changes of fresh pigskin after acellular were observed and analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and iron hematoxylin staining.Using the offcut of porcine acellular dermal matrix as a raw material,collagen was extracted with the method of acid swelling-pepsin digestion.Then the obtained collagen was characterized by SDS-PAGE,FT-IR spectra,Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC),Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM).The study shows that:the cells in fresh pigskin are removed completely after the treatment process,the collagen fibers are loosed well,and most of the non-fiber component is hydrolyzed,which is conducive to the extraction of collagen.The extracted type Ⅰ collagen has its characteristic peaks of FI-IR,and the molecular weight is of not only large,but also narrow distribution.The denaturation temperature is 69.4℃ ; the SEM displayed that the collagen remains three-dimensional mesh structure with uniform pore.We could also conclude that the collagen has closely arranged,mutually braided or wound to form a random coil.The diameter of the small portion of the collagen is coarse,and is in a

  12. 兔声带注射脱细胞真皮基质和自体脂肪的实验研究%Experimental Study on Acellular Dermal Matrix and Autologous Fat Injected into Rabbit Vocal Cords

    郝媛媛; 孙建军


    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of autologous fat and acellular dermal matrix (ADM ) in vocal fold medialization .Methods A total of 16 New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes were divided into two study groups (8 rabbits in each group) ,after unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve section ,autologous fat or ADM were injected into paralyzed vocal folds .Laryngoscopic exams were performed 2 ,4 ,8 ,and 12 weeks after implanta‐tion ;then larynx specimens were sampled and serially sectioned in axial plane from the false vocal fold to the sub ‐glottis .After section was stained with HE ,histologic behavior of the graft were evaluated by optical microscope , volume of remaining material were calculated by autoCAD software .Results The remaining volume of autologous fat and ADM reduced gradually ,there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups .In 2 weeks , fat cells survival was mass distribution ,as its necrosis and absorption ,intraimplant resulted in a plurality of cavitati‐on ,encapsulated by fibrous connective ,mixed with a little survival fat cells .In 12 weeks ,obvious capsule formation surrounded lipoma composed of fiber connective tissue .In the ADM group ,2 weeks after injection ,intra - implant fibroblast activity and neovascularization was noted ,later fibroblast infiltration increased gradually .In 12 weeks ,the implantation maintaun the basic outline and have compact organizational structure ,but not forming obvious bounda‐ries with the surrounding tissue .Conclusion Comparing degree of absorption ,there were no statistically significant differences between autologous fat and ADM in the study ,but histological outcome of ADM is closer to the original organization .In future ,ADM optimization or combination with other materials ,will have a larger development and clinical application value .%目的:探讨自体脂肪和脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix ,ADM )声带填充

  13. 烧伤变性脱细胞真皮基质可再生利用的实验研究%Experimental study on the recycling of denatured acellular dermal matrix after burn

    王晓川; 李川; 单菲; 王文婷; 朱旭国; 姜笃银


    Objective To explore the feasibility of burn denatured acellular dermal matrix (DADM) as dermal substitute in repairing wounds. Methods ( 1 ) Nine Wistar rats received a deep partial-thickness scald on the back.Full-thickness wounded skin was collected on post scald day (PBD) 1,2,and 3 (with 3 rats at each time point),and it was treated with 2.5 g/L trypsin/0.5% Triton X-100 to remove cells to prepare DADM,respectively called DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d.Another 3 rats without scald injury were treated with the same method as above to prepare acellular dermal matrix (ADM)to serve as control.Gross and histological observations and microbiological and biomechanical tests,including ultimate tensile strength,maximum tension,stretched length at breaking,stress-strain relationship,were conducted for the resulting ADM and DADM.(2) Another 64 rats were divided into ADM group and DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d groups according to the random number table,with 16 rats in each group.A skin flap in size of 2.0 cm× 1.8 cm was raised on the back of each rat.The above-mentioned ADM,DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d were cut into pieces in the size of 1.8 cm × 1.5 cm,and they were respectively implanted under the skin flaps of rats in corresponding group.At post surgery week (PSW) 1,3,5,or 9,4 rats in each group were used to observe wound healing condition and change in implants with naked eye,and histological observation of the implants was conducted.Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and t test. Results ( 1 ) The freshly prepared DADM was milky white,soft in texture with flexibility,but poor in elasticity as compared with ADM.No epithelial structure or cellular component was observed in ADM or DADM under light microscope.Collagen fibers of DADM were seen to be thickened unevenly and arranged in disorder and eosinophilic.All microbiological results of DADM were negative.There was no statistically significant difference among DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d in

  14. Clinical evaluation of an acellular dermal allograft for increasing the zone of attached gingiva.

    Shulman, J


    Grafting with autogenous tissue or freeze-dried skin is the generally accepted method for increasing and/or restoring the width of attached gingiva. This article describes the periodontal use of an acellular dermal allograft previously available for treating burn patients. When used as a gingival graft, this new dermal allograft has major potential advantages over the previously available periodontal graft materials, including improved color and contour match, elimination of multiple surgeries, and unlimited availability. The technique and results of acellular dermal grafting are presented and discussed. The learning objective of this article is to describe the principles and the clinical procedure of this technique. Several cases are used to illustrate this technique.

  15. 异种脱细胞真皮基质在口腔颌面部创面修复中的应用%Application of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix in repairing oral and maxillofacial defect

    邵小钧; 庞恋苏; 袁仕廷; 解涓; 席庆


    目的 评价异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜用于口腔颌面部创面修复中的临床效果.方法 收集2011 - 2014年解放军总医院海南分院口腔科59例因肿瘤、外伤、黏膜病变、瘢痕切除术等原因引起的口腔颌面部缺损,应用异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜进行修复,缺损部位为颊、腭、舌、口底、腮腺、牙龈、前庭沟等,术后随访2周~ 6个月,并进行术后追踪随访及修复效果评估.结果 共修复口腔颌面部各类创面59例,一期愈合52例,成功率达88.14%.7例因创面较大,且受植区创面不平整、不规则,与修复膜之间存在死腔,以及过早的张闭口运动等因素,导致修复膜与创面部分脱落.结论 异种脱细胞真皮基质在口腔颌面部各类创面修复中起到了创面覆盖、引导组织再生和支架作用,修复效果满意,值得临床推广.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix (H-ADM) in oral and maxillofacial defect repair. Methods Fifty-nine cases with oral and maxillofacial defects which were caused by tumor surgery, trauma, mucosal disease and scar resection were restored with H-ADM. The defects were located in buccal region, palate, tongue,floor mouth, parotid gland, gingiva, oral vestibular groove and so on. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks to 6 months postoperatively and the repair efficacy was assessed.Results Of the 59 cases undergoing transplantation, 52 cases were primary healing with the success rate of 88.14%, 7 cases failed due to large, tough and irregular wound, cavity existing between repair membrane and wound, early mouth movement and so on, which caused the falling off of partial repaired membrane.ConclusionH-ADM plays a role in wound coverage, guide tissue regeneration and biological scaffold during wound healing. The effect of repairing is satisfactory and it is worthy of clinical promotion.

  16. Correction of penile curvature by allogeneic acellular dermal matrix%同种异体脱细胞真皮补片移植矫正白膜型阴茎弯曲的临床价值

    董玉林; 吴小蔚; 田龙


    Objective To evaluate the effect of lengthening the short-side albuginea of the bending penis by the allogeneic acellular dermal matrix ( Allo-ADM ) for the treatment of penile curvature.Methods From Jun 2007 to Jun 2010,18 patients with penile curvature due to malformation of the albuginea cavernous body were treated.The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 26 years (mean,20 years).Twelve patients were married.The curvature degree ranged from 30° to 80° (mean,55°).There were 17cases of single curvature and 1 case of complex curvature.The grafts ( Allo-ADM ) of different sizes were sutured to the albuginea at the curvatus side of the penis according to the extent of penile curvature through a circumcision incision.The extent of penile curvature and complications were evaluated postoperatively.Results Penile curvature was corrected in all 18 patients after the operation.No infection,hematoma and abnormal erection occurred postoperatively. No erectile dysfunction and penile re-curvature was observed during the follow-up period of 3 to 24 months. Conclusion Lengthening the short-side albuginea of the bending penis by Allo-ADM could be a safe and effective way to correct penile curvature.%目的 评价应用同种异体脱细胞真皮补片移植矫正白膜型阴茎弯曲的安全性与疗效.方法 2007年6月至2010年6月收治白膜型阴茎弯曲患者18例,年龄15~26岁,平均20岁.已婚12例.阴茎弯曲度30°~80°,平均55°;单侧弯曲17例,复杂弯曲1例.硬膜外麻醉或全麻,包皮环切切口入路,应用同种异体脱细胞真皮补片移植,延长曲侧海绵体白膜的术式治疗. 结果 18例阴茎弯曲均得到勃起直视下矫正,矫正后阴茎弯曲度0°~10°,平均4°.术后无感染、血肿、局部结节等并发症.18例随访3~24个月,无勃起功能障碍,未见弯曲复发、勃起硬结和形态畸形. 结论 同种异体脱细胞真皮补片矫正白膜型阴茎弯曲具有手术安全、疗效可靠、并发症少等优点.

  17. 双氧水-氢氧化钠结合对脱细胞猪真皮基质材料高度纯化的作用%Effects of H2 O2-NaOH on highly-purification of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix

    肖世维; 但年华; 但卫华


    Using traceable pigskin as raw material,by observing the change of thickness,area,collagen content, non-collagen content in effluent and the histological morphology,the optimum alkali swelling scheme,H 2 O 2 4%-NaOH 6%,of preparing acellular dermal matrix has been harvested.After the preparation of highly-puri-fied porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix,a series of tests have been carried out.The tensile strength of the material was 7.2 MPa.It has good water absorption ability and no heavy metal.Animal experiments demonstra-ted no obvious acute peroral toxicity and the cytotoxicity was only 1 grade.These results lay the foundation for the application of the highly-purified porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix in biomedical materials area in the future with further research.%以可溯源性猪皮为原料,采用特殊的化学、物理及生化方法对猪皮进行高度纯化处理,通过观察实验中皮块厚度、面积、废液中胶原蛋白与非胶原蛋白含量及组织学形貌变化,得出脱细胞猪真皮基质碱膨胀的最佳方案为双氧水4%-氢氧化钠6%.并制备了高纯度脱细胞猪真皮基质,检测其抗张强度为7.2 MPa,吸湿性能好,不含重金属,无经口急毒,细胞除去干净且细胞毒性1级,为今后脱细胞猪真皮基质在生物医用材料领域的应用奠定基础.

  18. Evaluation of chemical cross-linking method of porcine acellular dermal matrix with oxidative chitosan oligosaccha-ride%氧化壳寡糖交联脱细胞猪真皮基质的研究

    王磊; 但年华; 陈一宁; 但卫华


    目的:对氧化壳寡糖(OCOS)交联脱细胞真皮基质(pADM)后的性能进行评价。方法将一定质量OCOS溶于缓冲溶液中,将pADM浸没在该体系中,在特定温度下交联改性一段时间。考察反应温度、pH值、用量和反应时间对基质材料收缩温度的影响,通过红外光谱、原子力显微镜、孔隙率、热稳定性、耐酶降解性、细胞毒性等对交联前后基质材料的结构、性能进行表征。结果最优交联改性条件为反应温度37℃,反应时间16 h,OCOS用量8%,pH 8.4。最优条件下交联改性,得到的材料(OCOS-pADM)收缩温度可以达到78.4℃,红外光谱中胶原的3个特征吸收峰仍然存在,原子力显微镜下可明显观察到纵向上的D周期明暗条纹,改性后材料孔隙率变大,差示扫描量热法表征改性后材料热变性温度达80.44℃,7 d后降解率仅为7.5%±1.7%,细胞毒性评级为1级。结论改性后基质各方面性能均有所提高,胶原天然结构没有遭到破坏,细胞毒性测试中细胞形态良好,初步具备作为生物材料所需的条件。%Objective To assess the properties of porcine acellular dermal matrix(pADM) before and affer cross-linked by ox-idative chitosan oligosaccharide (OCOS). Methods A certain quatity OCOS was dissolved into buffered solution, and pADM was soaked at certain temperature for a period of time. The effect of reaction temperature, pH, OCOS dosage and reaction time on shrinkage temperature(Ts) of matrix were observed. The structure and properties of the matrix material before and after cross-linking were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy(AFM), porosity, thermal stability, collagenase degrada-tion and cytotoxicity. Results The best reaction condition of reaction temperature was 37 ℃, reaction time was 16-hour, O-COS dosage was 8%and pH was 8.4. Under the best reaction condition, Ts of OCOS-pADM was 78.4

  19. 脱细胞真皮基质治疗伴高位盲瘘的复杂性肛瘘疗效观察(附39例报告)%Acellular Dermal Matrix treatment of high blind fistula of 39 Cases

    田颖; 于洪顺; 秦澎湃; 王彦芳; 田磊; 葛强; 刘智永


    目的 探讨高位盲瘘的微创治疗方法,研究脱细胞真皮基质在高位盲瘘治疗中的应用价值.方法 39例高位盲瘘患者,手术分2期进行,经括约肌或括约肌间肛瘘合并高位盲瘘Ⅰ期齿线下瘘管切开、内口挂线并高位盲瘘旷置引流,括约肌上肛瘘切开内口并高位盲瘘旷置引流;Ⅱ期高位盲瘘脱细胞真皮基质填塞治疗.观察Ⅱ期手术时间、术中出血、术后疼痛、住院总天数、住院总费用及复发率等临床及相关指标.结果 39例患者中有26例获得Ⅰ期治愈,13例患者治疗失败,改行肛瘘切开挂线术后痊愈.高位盲瘘脱细胞真皮填塞术手术治愈率66.7%.括约肌上并发高位盲瘘治愈2例,治愈率100%,经括约肌并发高位盲瘘治愈6例,治愈率50%,括约肌间并发高位盲瘘治愈18例,治愈率72%.结论 应用脱细胞真皮基质材料治疗高位盲瘘具有损伤小、愈合时间短、肛门失禁率低、外形保留好等优势,值得进一步推广.%Objective To investigate the minimally invasive treatment of high blind fistula, acellular dermal matrix in the high blind fistula treatment value. Methods high blind fistula two cases: 39 cases of patients with high blind fistula, anal sphincter, sphincter anal fistula complicated by high blind fistula of 12 cases, anal sphincter between concurrent high blind fistula of 25 cases. Operation in two, fistulotomy anal sphincter or sphincter merge high blind fistula I of the dentate line, inside the mouth hung high blind fistula exclusion drainage, anal sphincter incision inside the mouth and the high blind fistula exclusion fistula drainage; II high blind acellular dermal matrix filling treatment observation period II surgery time, blood loss, postoperative pain, total hospital days, hospital clinical and related indicators of the total cost and the relapse rate. Results 39 patients, 26 cases of a cure, 13 cases of treatment failure in patients diverted a-nal incision

  20. 引导种植牙区骨再生的异种脱细胞真皮基质%Acellular dermal matrix used for guiding bone regeneration in the dental implant area

    周静; 邓蔡; 张进锋


      BACKGROUND: Acel ular dermal matrix is a kind of prosthodontics membrane material which has been widely used due to the good biocompatibility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of acel ular dermal matrix in guiding bone regeneration in the dental implant area. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed, and the microscope was used to observe the microstructure and cel compatibility of acel ular dermal matrix, in order to evaluate the feasibility of acel ular dermal matrix in guiding bone regeneration. The dental implantation patients who received bone regeneration with acel ular dermal matrix were fol owed-up to evaluate the osteogenesis effect and the effect on soft tissue defects. Then, the effects of Bio-Gide membrane and Bot medical col agen membrane on guiding bone regeneration were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The microstructure of acel ular dermal matrix showed there was basement membrane surface and tissue surface. The stylode-like structure and hair fol icle could be observed on the basement membrane surface and the tissue surface was scaly structure, and acel ular dermal matrix had no influence on the proliferation activity osteoblast-like cel s and the alkaline phosphatase activity, but had good cel compatibility. The clinical researches showed that acel ular dermal matrix used in dental implantation was effective for bone regeneration, and there was no significant difference in the effect on guiding bone regeneration when compared with Bio-Gide membrane and Bot medical col agen membrane. The acel ular dermal matrix had good bone regeneration effect in repairing soft tissue deficiencies after bone augmentation.%  背景:异种脱细胞真皮基质属于口腔修复膜材料,因具有良好的生物相容性而被广泛应用。目的:评价异种脱细胞真皮基质在牙区引导牙种植骨再生的效果。方法:以免疫组化染色后显微镜观察异种脱细胞真皮基质的显微结构和细胞相容性,评

  1. Clinical study of nanosilver/porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing in the treatment of superficial second degree burn wounds%纳米银-猪脱细胞真皮基质敷料治疗浅Ⅱ度烧伤创面的临床观察

    胡晓文; 郝天智; 张华


    天的创面愈合率明显优于其余两组,差异均有统计学意义( P值均小于0.05);创面愈合时间显著短于其余两组,比较差异均有统计学意义(P值均小于0.05)。结论纳米银-猪脱细胞真皮基质敷料具有抗感染、促进创面愈合及减轻换药痛觉的作用。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of nanosilver/porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing on superficial second degree burn wounds. Methods From January 2014 to December 2015,90 patients with superficial second degree burn were treated and observed in the Department of Burns and Plastics Surgery, General Hospital of Beijing Military Region. According to the order of admission and random number table, the patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, nanosilver dressing group, porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing group and nanosilver/porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing group, each group of 30 patients. On the day of admission, the wounds areas were calculated by taking pictures and the wound secretion was taken for bacterial culture by using the throat swab, burn wounds were treated with debridement, then apply nanosilver dressing, porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing and nanosilver/porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing on the wounds. On the 5th day after treatment , the wound secretion was taken for bacterial culture by using the throat swab again. Pain score was assessed by asking and observing the changes of pain in patients after dressing change. On the 7th day after treatment, the wounds areas were calculated by taking pictures. The wound healing rate was calculated. Wound healing time was recorded. The data were compared by using one-way ANOVA test, SNK-q test and Chi-square test. Results On the 5th day after treatment, the wound bacterial culture results of nanosilver dressing group, porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing group and nanosilver/porcine acellular dermal matrix dressing group were 2(6.6%),9(30. 0%),1(3. 3%),there were

  2. Guided bone regeneration with acellular dermal matrix as a barrier for bone defects%脱细胞真皮基质膜引导骨缺损成骨变化

    贾仁杰; 任玉卿; 徐昊; 王维英; 弋中萍; 赵保东


    BACKGROUND:Acel ular dermal matrix has good biocompatibility and absorbability and exhibits superiority in the guided bone regeneration. OBJECTIVE:To compare the histological changes and osteogenic effects in bone defects after guided bone regeneration with acel ular dermal matrix and Bio-Gide membrane. METHODS:Mandibular second, third and fourth premolars and the first molars bilateral y were extracted from 12 beagle dogs. Three months later, four three-wal bone defect models in the mandible of each dog were made, and randomized into acel ular dermal matrix plus bone graft group (acel ular dermal matrix group), Bio-Gide plus bone graft group (Bio-Gide group), bone graft group, and blank control group (no treatment). In the former two groups, acel ular dermal matrix and Bio-Gide were used to cover the bone grafts, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After surgery, al the beagle dogs recovered wel . Al the groups except the control group showed dramatical improvement in histological changes and percentage of new bone area, and this improvement was more significant in the Bio-Gide and acel ular dermal matrix groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the Bio-Gide and acel ular dermal matrix groups. Therefore, the acel ular dermal matrix can be a candidate for bone repair instead of Bio-Gide membrane in the clinical practice.%背景:脱细胞真皮基质膜具有良好的生物相容性、可吸收性、引导骨再生性能。目的:比较脱细胞真皮基质膜和Bio-Gide膜引导骨缺损成骨的组织学变化及引导骨再生的效果的差异。  方法:12只比格犬拔除双侧下颌骨第二、三、四前磨牙及第一磨牙3个月后,在每只犬的下颌骨各建立4处标准的三壁骨缺损模型,随机分为脱细胞真皮基质膜联合骨修复材料组、Bio-Gide膜联合骨修复材料组、骨修复材料组、空白对照组。除空白对照组不做任何处理外,将骨修复材料充实于其余3组骨

  3. 无细胞异体真皮基质在烧伤后整形患者功能部位的应用%The application of acellular dermal matrix allograft in functional position of patients with post- burns plastic operation

    姜笃银; 杨银辉; 张玮; 付小兵


    AIM:To investigate the effect of allogeneic acellular dermal matrix(ADM) on cograft in joint functional positions of patients with post burn plastic operation. METHODS:9 patients with hypertrophic scar and joint dysfunction after severe burns were used. After pre treating with trypsin and TritonX 100, 13 reticulated ADM were overlapped with autogenous ultrathin split thickness skin grafts(USTS), and were transplanted to the scar excision wounds in the joints of four limbs at the same time. The neighbouring autogenous thin split thickness skin grafts(TSTS) were used as control.RESULTS:The composite skin grafts as well as the controls were all survived. The rejection and hypertrophic scars were not found during (1- 5) years follow up studies. The appearance, fiber and function of composite skin grafts were near to normal skins. CONCLUSION:The ADM could be used to joint functional positions of patients with post burn hypertrophic scars and could produce satisfactory plastic results as dermal substitute.

  4. 导入透明质酸猪脱细胞真皮基质的刺激性及致敏性研究%Skin irritation and sensitization of swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid

    宁少南; 赵筱卓; 王慧英; 张国安


    Objective To evaluate the skin irritation and sensitization potential of the swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid (SADM-HA).Methods (1) Skin irritation test.Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 4 rabbits in each group.Four test sites were designed on the back of each rabbit.Two test sites of each rabbit in the three groups were covered with SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,respectively.Another test site was covered with gauze containing 200 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate solution as positive control.The last test site was covered with gauze containing normal saline as negative control.The primary irritation index and cumulative irritation index of each material were calculated.(2) Skin closed-patch test.Sixty guinea pigs were used.Fifty-four guinea pigs were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 18 guinea pigs in each group.Twelve guinea pigs in each of the three groups were correspondingly induced and stimulated by SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,with 6 guinea pigs in each group treated with ethanol-soaked gauze to serve as negative control.The remaining 6 guinea pigs were treated with gauze containing 25% α-hexylcinnamaldehyde ethanol solution as positive control.The rating scales of Magnusson and Kligman were used to grade the condition of skin after being treated with above-mentioned materials to evaluate skin sensitivity to them at post stimulation hour 24 and 48.Data were processed with the nonparametric test of independent samples.Results (1) In the skin irritation test,the primary irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were respectively-0.04,0.13,and 0.08.The cumulative irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were

  5. 脱细胞真皮基质对骨质疏松大鼠骨缺损愈合影响%Effect of acellular dermal matrix on osteoporosis rats bone defect healing

    王晓晗; 赵志国; 王智明; 王文茉; 张力平


    Objective To observe the characteristics and capabilities of acellular dermal matrix( ADM) in osteoporosis rats cranial parietal bone defect repair guided bone regeneration( GBR) ,to explore the biocompatibility and effects on bone re-generation. Methods A total of 26 SD female rats were randomly divided into the control group(Sham group:n=13)and the ovariectomized group(VOX group:n=13). Conventional breeding for 3 months after the surgery,after the success of the building,in skull of rats,there were 2 defective holes with 5 mm preparation on both sides of central line,one side was cov-ered with ADM,the other side was control blank( CK) . In Sham group,the CK side was Group A,the ADM cover side was Group B. In the CK side in OVX group was Group C,the ADM cover side was Group D. In 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, the clinical features such as the bone defect healing,bone tissue HE and masson trichromatic dyeing,new bone lengths were compared,the mineralization rate,immunohistochemical method was to detect callus osteocalcin expression in different peri-ods. Results Among the gross observation experimental animals,there were 2 deaths caused by bowel bilges gas in. Other animals healed within a week without infection and wound dehiscence,visible sutures were not fallen off. 6 weeks after sur-gery,the blank defects naked eye obvious difference between the two groups,the defect area was covered with transparency, defect edge was clear. ADM cover side was with visible white ADM,defect edge was clear. After 12 weeks,there was no na-ked eye obvious difference between two groups of blank defect,the defect area was covered with transparency,defect edge was clear. ADM cover side with visible white ADM film was thinner,harder to hit,defect edge was obtuse. The tissue mor-phology observation 6 weeks when two groups of new bone gap defect was not obvious,the broken end by fibrous tissue pack-age. Sham group of bone defect end osteogenesis was dense, ADM retained membrane

  6. 脱细胞真皮基质对扩张器/假体乳房再造并发症影响的Meta分析%The impact of acellular dermal matrix on complications of breast reconstruction using tissue expander/implant: a Meta-analysis

    董洁; 吴小蔚; 田方兴


    Objective To analyze the effect of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) on complications of breast reconstruction using tissue expander/implant,and to offer preliminary evidences for ADM clinical application.Methods Articles published from Jan.2010 to Oct.2012 were searched in Pubmed,EMbase,Science Direct and CNKI database.Literatures were filtrated according to inclusive criteria.Values were extracted from included literatures; factors regarding complications were collected.Metaanalysis was performed with Stata 12.0.Results 10 researches were included.Comparing to control group,the pooled odds ratio (OR) of overall complications,infections,hematomas/seromas,explantations are 1.51(P=0.038),1.91(P=0.032),1.80(P=0.005) and 2.37 (P=0.138) in ADM group respectively.Conclusions In breast reconstruction using tissue expander/implant,ADM increases the occurrence of hematomas/saromas as well as risks of infections and overall complications.%目的 对在扩张器/假体乳房再造术中应用脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)是否增加术后并发症进行探讨,以为临床应用提供初步依据.方法 计算机检索2010年1月至2012年10月Pubmed、EMbase、Science Direct、中国生物医学文献数据库和中国期刊网全文数据库中发表的文献,设定文献纳入条件,对符合条件的文献进行并发症相关数据导出,然后使用Stata 12.0进行Meta分析.结果 共有10篇文献被纳入分析.与对照组相比,ADM组总并发症、感染,血肿/血清肿及扩张器/假体取出发生率的比值比(OR)分别为1.51(P =0.038)、1.91(P=0.032)、1.80(P =0.005)和2.37(P =0.138).结论 在扩张器/假体的乳房再造术中,使用ADM对血肿/血清肿的发生有促进作用,并有增加感染率及总并发症发生率的趋势.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Heterogeneous Acellular Dermal Matrix for Guided Tissue Regeneration in Periodontal Disease%异种脱细胞真皮基质膜在引导牙周组织再生中应用的临床效果评价

    章立群; 邓碧霞; 谢安琪; 孙辉


    Objective: To explore the clinical effectiveness of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix( AMD) membrane for guided tissue regeneration in treatment of periodontal defects. Methods: 30 periodontal defects were randomly assigned into two treatments; 20 for testing group using a combination of AMD and coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) grafting and 10 for control group using HA grafting alone. After six months of surgery, the change of clinical index and radiographic alveolar bone level were compared statistically. Results: The reduction of pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss and increasing level of alveolar bone of testing group were all higher than those in control group while the recession quantity was lower than that in control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion: Heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix membrane is effective for the treatment of periodontal defects.%目的:评价异种脱细胞真皮基质膜在引导牙周组织再生中应用的临床效果.方法:30例牙周缺损区患牙随机分两组:实验组20例,异种脱细胞真皮基质膜和羟基磷灰石修复;对照组10例仅羟基磷灰石修复.统计学比较6个月时两组各项临床指标和牙槽骨水平改变.结果:实验组牙周袋深度、临床附着丧失的减少量和牙槽骨水平的增加量均较对照组高(P<0.05),牙龈退缩量低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:异种脱细胞真皮基质膜应用于引导牙周组织再生有较好的临床效果,值得推广.

  8. Application of acellular dermal matrix and expandedflapin half auricular reconstructionwithrib cartilage grafts%脱细胞真皮及扩张皮瓣在肋软骨移植半耳缺损再造中的应用

    董海江; 王喜梅; 万程; 李想; 张琼阁


    BACKGROUND:Traumatic auricle defectsin upper 1/2 or lower 1/2,seriously involve theauricular cartilage and skin blood vessels. The autogenic rib cartilage graft and acelular dermal matrix have good histocompatibility, and expanded flapis a kind of thin and achromatic tissue for skin defect repair. OBJECTIVE:To explore theapplication ofacelular dermal matrix and expanded flap in half auricular reconstruction,and to find out the fine carving and anastomosis of autogenic rib cartilage graftas wel as its similarities with the ear and clinical significance. METHODS:Eight cases of half auricular defects were treated with expanded flap, autogenic rib cartilage graft, fine anastomosisofautogenic rib cartilage graft and residual earfor half auricular reconstruction,during which theacelular dermal matrixwas usedto promote residual ear docking and skul auricle angle formation. The reconstructionwasperformed in three stages:first,anexpander(volume, 80mL)wassubcutaneously implanted attheretro-auricular area;second, the auricular defects were reconstructed with fine rib cartilage graft, acelular dermal matrix and auriculoplasty;finaly, acelular dermal matrixwas usedto promote residual ear docking. Thenthehalf auricular reconstructionwas evaluatedby objective measurement and subjective rating. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Half auricular reconstruction was successful in al the eight caseswithout obvious complications, and the cartilage grafts were in good condition.During thefolow-up,thereconstructed auriclewasshapedwel andformed a good involution withtheresidualauricle. In addition, the flange was smooth withoutobviouscolor difference and edema, and its position, size and shape were consistent with those of thecontralateralone. Afterthefolow-up of 6 months, objective indicators showed that the affected side had no significant differencefromthe contralateralone(P> 0.05). In conclusion,theacelular dermal matrixcanobviously decrease the complications of the cartilage grafts

  9. Histological changes of acellular dermal matrix used as guided tissue regeneration barrier membrane in vivo%脱细胞真皮基质作为引导组织再生屏障膜在体内的组织学变化研究

    王乾锋; 刘宏伟; 郑秋林


    目的 观察脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)作为引导组织再生(guided tissue regeneration,GTR)屏障膜时的体内组织学变化,探索其作为GTR屏障膜的可行性.方法 在兔下颌前磨牙颊侧根面形成一开窗型牙周缺损模型,将ADM作为GTR屏障膜覆盖和固定于缺损区表面,观察术后4周和8周时ADM的降解、血管化、炎性反应等组织学变化情况.结果 术后4周时,ADM无明显降解,基本保持其原来完整结构;8周时,ADM出现轻中度降解,但结缔组织尚未突破整层ADM.结论 ADM可以作为GTR的屏障膜.

  10. In vitro investigation on morphological and physico-chemical properties of particulate acellular dermal matrix%颗粒状脱细胞真皮基质的形态学特征及理化性能体外研究

    左海斌; 彭代智; 郑必祥; 何升东; 周新; 刘敬


    目的 研究颗粒状脱细胞真皮基质(particulate acellular dermal matrix,PADM)的体外形态学特征与理化性能.方法 收集SD大鼠背部皮肤样本,采用本实验室的脱细胞方法制备片状脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)并分析其内胞核和DNA残留情况.将片状ADM切割成不同规格的PADM,并结合大体观察、组织学分析、电镜技术、激光粒度分析仪和傅里叶变换红外光谱仪检测其外观轮廓、形态学、粒径分布和胶原分子结构.并将其复合人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cells,HUVEC)体外培养24 h,观察PADM与HUVEC的黏附情况.结果脱细胞方法有效降低了ADM的DNA含量[(1.51±0.37) μg/mg vs (0.30±0.09) μg/mg].制备的PADM为白色颗粒,外形近似于长方体或立方体,显微镜下HE染色观察显示颗粒内部胶原纤维束结构疏松.扫描电镜显示颗粒断面结构疏松,透射电镜显示胶原原纤维周期性横纹结构和均匀分布的胶原原纤维间隙.激光粒度分析仪检测显示其粒度分布集中,例如,规格为0.2 mm 的PADM,其80%(d0.1 ~ d0.9)的粒径分布于233~487 μm.FTIR结果显示,PADM分别在1 659、1 549、1 239 cm-1处出现的特征吸收峰,表明其保留了胶原分子的α-helix、β-sheet和β-turn二级结构,且体外HUVEC较易黏附于PADM.结论室温条件下,切割法制备的新型PADM形态规则,粒径分布集中,胶原纤维束形态和胶原分子的二级结构保存良好.%Objective To investigate the morphological and physico-chemical properties of particulate acellular dermal matrix (PADM) in vitro. Methods Dorsal skin samples were collected from SD rats, and then were deeellularized to obtain acellular dermal matrix (ADM) sheets. The ADM sheets were cut into PADM in different sizes. Digital camera, light microscope (HE staining) and electron microscopes were used to observe the morphological properties of PADM. Laser diffraction and Fourier

  11. Exogenic Acellular Dermal Matrix in Guided Bone Regeneration of Dental Implant%异种脱细胞真皮基质在牙种植中引导骨再生的临床观察

    韦丽萍; 左陈启; 王远勤


    Objective: To identify the clinical effect of a homemade exogenic acelluar dermal matrix as a barrier membrane in guide bone regeneration (GBR) of dental implants. Methods: Seventy eight dental implants/cases with limited bone-bed were divided into 2 groups, and treated by GBR technology with different barrier membrane. Experiment group (38 cases) used homemade exogenic acelluar dermal matrix, while in the control group (40 cases) Bio-Gide biofilm was used. Results: The difference of bone harvested in two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). All patients were healed with first intention and the healing rate of 2 groups were all 100%. One case complicated with facial swelling in control group, which was cured after anti-inflammatory and symptomatic treatment. There was no statistically significant between two groups in the demographic basic information, such as, adverse events, healing of incision, bone growth effect,and the like. Conclusion: This alternative homemade material should be considered in GBR by practitioners.%目的:观察国产异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜作为屏障膜,在牙种植的引导骨再生中应用的临床效果.方法:78例需要引导骨再生的种植病例,均为前牙区或前磨牙区单牙或连续多牙位(3牙)缺失;其中前牙52颗,前磨牙26颗.缺牙区牙槽嵴主要为唇颊侧垂直性吸收,牙槽嵴顶宽度约1~3 mm,牙槽嵴水平吸收量在2 mm以内.分为2组,一组采用国产异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜作为GBR技术的屏蔽膜(38例),另一组采用Bio-Gide生物膜作为对照(40例),比较二者的临床效果.结果:2组在骨生长效果之间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组患者切口均甲级愈合,切口愈合率均为100%.术后3 d,对照组有1例发生面部肿胀,经抗感染治疗和对症处理后缓解.本研究的其他病例均未出现感染等不良事件.结论:使用国产异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜在牙种植术中进行骨引

  12. 异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜在口腔黏膜下纤维性变手术治疗中的应用%Clinical application of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix in the surgical treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    蒋灿华; 李超; 石芳琼; 陈新群; 唐瞻贵; 翦新春


    目的:评价异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜在口腔黏膜下纤维性变手术治疗中的应用效果.方法:8例重度口腔黏膜下纤维性变患者,经鼻腔气管捕管全麻下切除双侧颊部翼下颌韧带前方区域纵行的纤维条索,术中被动开口度达正常范围后,剪取相应大小的异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜覆盖黏膜缺损创面,间断缝合后,碘纺纱包加压固定.术后10~14d拆除纱包与缝线后开始开口训练,定期随访并进行类固醇皮质激素黏膜下局部注射等辅助治疗,通过伤口愈合、瘢痕软化及开口度改善等指标评价手术效果.采用SPSS16.0软件包对数据进行单因素方差分析.结果:8例患者双侧颊部纤维条索切除后形成的手术创面,采用异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜进行修复均获得成功.无感染或排异等并发症发生.术后随访6~18个月,患者颊部原手术区黏膜红润,质地柔软,开口困难明显改善.术前开口度为(12.04±2.93)mm,术中开口度为(35.46±3.17)mm,术后6个月时的开口度为(29.33±4.28)mm,经统计学分析,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论:应用异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜修复重度口腔黏膜下纤维性变手术治疗中的黏膜缺损创面,能够起到促进创面早期愈合、减轻瘢痕形成与改善开口困难的作用,其操作简单易行,值得临床推广应用.%PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix in the surgical treatment of advanced oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). METHODS: There were eight patients who had undergone surgical treatment of trismus caused by OSF. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia given through a nasoendotracheal tube using a fibreoptic bronchoscope. All the fibrous bands on the buccal mucosa were incised and bluntly dissected to stretch the mouth opening. Based on the defect, heterogeneous acellular dermal matrix graft was applied direcdy on the

  13. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman


    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity.

  14. Effects of hyaluronic acid on biomechanic performance of porcine acellular dermal matrix plus thin skin autograft after transplantation%透明质酸对复合移植皮肤组织生物力学性能影响的实验观察

    赵京玉; 柴家科; 宋慧锋; 许明火


    Objective To explore the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on biomechanical properties for porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) plus thin skin autograft after transplantation.Methods The dorsa of 10 Japanese white rabbits were symmetrically divided into four areas of A-D by random grouping.Full-thickness skin defects were created in Groups A-C while Group D was blank with normal skin.Operations were performed in Group A:implant with HA + PADM + thin skin autografts,Group B:implant with PADM + thin skin autografts and Group C:skin autografts group.Histological examination of specimen was performed at Day 56 postoperatively.And the biomechanical properties such as relaxation and stress-strain properties of grafts were recorded.Results The structure of PADM was found to be basically intact by hematoxylin and eosin E dyeing in Groups A and B.In Group A,dense fiber structure could be observed.Lots of regularly arranged collagenous fibers and new blood capillaries were grown into the dermal matrix with sparsely distributed inflammatory cells.In Group B,acellular dermal matrix became clustered with a small amount of invaded fibroblasts.And there was a high expression of inflammatory cells.The biomechanic pedormances of transplanted skin were:Group A's curve was mostly close to that of Group D's,Group B's curve was the most further from that of Group D's (P =0.001 ) and Group G's curve stayed between Groups A and B.Under the same strain,the stress of Groups A-D was ( 87 ± 8 ),( 115 ± 9 ),(60 ± 7 ) and (81 ± 4) kPa respectively.No significant difference of stress existed between these two groups (P=0.838).There was significant difference of stress between Groups B/C and D (P =0.001 and P =0.009).Conclusion Topical hyaluronic acid may be used to enhance the biomechanics pedormances of transplanted skin.%目的 探讨外用透明质酸(HA)对异种(猪)去细胞真皮基质( PADM)复合移植皮肤组织生物力学性能的影响.方法 选用10只日本大耳兔作为

  15. Progress in various crosslinking modification for acellular matrix

    Yang Haitang; Tan Qiang; Zhao Heng


    Objective To review the current crosslinking strategies for acelluar matrix scaffold,laying the foundation for subsequent experiment.Data sources Data were mainly obtained from recent papers published in PubMed or indexed by Web of Science,with keyword like crosslinking.Results Various crosslinking strategies,including chemical,physical and biological methods,have been introduced to facilitate the performance of fresh acellular matrix.Chemical crosslinking reagents,involved in synthetic and naturally derived agents,need to be eliminated before implantation in case of their potential biotoxicity,although several crosslinking agents with less toxicity and specific characteristics have been developed.Physical crosslinking methods present to be safe,additive-free and relatively controllable for rapid surface functionalization with no consideration of remaining radioactivity.Biological crosslinking strategies have attracted great interest,and have been demonstrated to enhance collagen-based crosslinking since their preparations do not need toxic or potentially biologically contaminated substances and can be carried out under physiological conditions.Conclusions Kinds of crosslinking methods with its potential advantages have been developed to modify raw acelluar matrix,of which the performance are promising after being crosslinked by several crosslinking treatments.Further preclinical and clinical evaluations should be taken to vertify their safety and efficacy for the tissues and organs substitutes in tissue and regenerative medicine.

  16. Acellular Dermal Matrix as GTR Barrier Membrane on Periodontal Regeneration in the Treatment of Class Ⅱ Furcation Defects%脱细胞真皮基质作为GTR屏障膜治疗Ⅱ度根分叉缺损的实验研究

    王乾锋; 刘宏伟


    目的:观察脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM) 作为引导组织再生(guided tissue regeneration,GTR)屏障膜在治疗Ⅱ度根分叉缺损时的牙周组织再生情况.方法:在犬的两侧下颌第三、四前磨牙制造Ⅱ度根分叉缺损模型,将ADM作为GTR屏障膜覆盖在根分叉缺损区表面,于术后8周观察和测量根分叉处牙周组织的再生情况,并与空白对照组作比较.结果:术后8周,ADM组和空白对照组的临床附着丧失(clinical attachment loss,CAL)平均分别为1.90 mm 和2.85 mm,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);ADM 组的新骨面积、新骨高度、新生牙骨质高度分别为8.23 mm2、4.52 mm、4.72 mm,明显大于对照组的1.75 mm2、0.91 mm、0.94 mm,而上皮和结缔组织面积则小于对照组,分别为0.02、0.54 mm2 和0.10、5.56 mm2,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:ADM 作为GTR屏障膜治疗下颌Ⅱ度根分叉缺损,能比空白对照组获得更多的临床附着和再生牙周组织.

  17. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties.

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen, Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen; Yeger, Herman


    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  18. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties

    Farhat, Walid A [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Toronto and Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8 (Canada); Chen Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Yeger, Herman [Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8 (Canada); Sherman, Christopher [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Derwin, Kathleen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute and Orthopaedic Research Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)], E-mail:


    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  19. Dual plane penile augmentation with human acellular dermal matrix through penile lengthening incision%阴茎延长同期行脱细胞异体真皮基质补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术

    吴小蔚; 简麒超; 董玉林; 龙道畴


    目的 探讨阴茎延长同期行脱细胞异体真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术的方法与效果.方法 采用阴茎根部倒V形切口,离断阴茎浅悬韧带后,沿阴茎纵轴切开Dartos筋膜,在其深面向远端分离.距冠状沟1.5~2.0 cm处环形切开Buck筋膜,将补片前部植于Buck筋膜与白膜间,后部植于Dartos筋膜与Buck筋膜间.缝合Dartos筋膜切口,V-Y成形术闭合阴茎根部切口.结果 35例术后无1例发生阴茎皮肤坏死、补片外露并发症.25例获随访6~24个月,对阴茎外形均感满意;无1例出现补片移位或皱褶、阴茎头感觉异常;其中21例已婚者均感性生活满意.结论 经阴茎根部切口行脱细胞异体真皮基质补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术,通过调整补片植入层次,在确保补片足够的组织覆盖及阴茎皮肤血供情况下,在Ⅰ期内行延长并增粗阴茎术,具有并发症少、疗效满意的优点.%Objective To illustrate the details and effects of a new technique of penile augmentation-a dual plane approach to enhance the penile girth with human acellular dermal matrix (ADM)through the incision on the dorsal penile root.Methods Firstly,a reversed V incision was made at the dorsal root of the penis and the superficial suspensory ligament of the penis was released.A Dartos fascia incision was then made and the plan between Dartos fascia and Buck's fascia was dorsally dissected toward the coronary sulcus.A Buck's fascia incision was made 1.5-2 cm from the coronary sulcus and the fascia was undermined distally.One or two sheets of ADM was dorsally placed by a dual plane method which combined partial sub-Buck's fascia plane and partial sub-Dartos fascia plane to enhance the penile circumference.Finally,the Dartos fascia incision was closed and followed by the closure of the wound with V-Y advancement.Results A total of 35 patients underwent dual plane penile augmentation No dorsal penile skin necrosis

  20. Evaluation of the biocompatibility and cell segregation performance of acellular dermal matrix as barrier membrane on guided tissue regeneration in vitro%脱细胞真皮基质作为屏障膜的细胞相容性及细胞封闭性的体外研究

    陈武; 王韦玮; 时新站; 陈宁


    目的:研究脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)对人牙周膜细胞增殖及上皮细胞的封闭性能的影响,评估其作为引导组织再生屏障膜的可行性.方法:取因正畸需要拔除的新鲜第一前磨牙,刮取根中1/3牙周膜组织,组织块法进行人牙周膜细胞(human periodontal ligament cells,HPDLCs)的原代培养.将ADM膜、膨体聚四氟乙烯(expanded polytetrafluoroethylene,e-PTFE)膜预处理后与HPDLCs共培养,MTT法检测1、3、5、7d的细胞增殖活性.将Tca8113细胞接种于膜材料一侧表面,培养5、10d后,采用DAPI细胞核染色,在荧光显微镜下观察细胞在膜材料两面的分布情况,接种细胞面记为ADM组与e-PTFE组,另一面记为ADM’组与e-PTFE’组.数据采用SPSS 13.0软件包进行t检验.结果:3、5、7d时,ADM组和空白对照组的OD值显著高于e-PTFE组(P<0.05),ADM组与空白对照组的OD值差异无显著性(P>0.05).ADM组与ADM’组、e-PTFE组与e-PTFE’组在5、10d时细胞计数均有显著差异(P<0.05);ADM’组与e-PTFE’组在5、10 d时细胞计数无显著差异(P>0.05).结论:ADM膜比e-PTFE更有利于HPDLCs的增殖,且两者对上皮细胞的封闭作用相似.与e-PTFE相比,ADM更适合用于引导牙周组织再生术.%PURPOSE:To investigate the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cell on acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and the epithelial cell segregation performance of ADM and evaluate the feasibility of ADM as barrier membrane of guided tissue regeneration.METHODS:Human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) of the 3rd to 5th passage were seeded onto 96-well plates(with ADM and e-PTFE inside) with 2000 cells per well.The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM).The MTT colorimetric assay method was performed at day 1,3,5 and 7 after incubation.The optical density (OD) of each well was measured spectrophotometrically at 490 nm to monitor effects on cell proliferation.The data was analyzed using

  1. Production of an acellular matrix from amniotic membrane for the synthesis of a human skin equivalent.

    Sanluis-Verdes, Anahí; Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Maria Teresa; García-Barreiro, Juan Javier; García-Camba, Marta; Ibáñez, Jacinto Sánchez; Doménech, Nieves; Rendal-Vázquez, Maria Esther


    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has useful properties as a dermal matrix substitute. The objective of our work was to obtain, using different enzymatic or chemical treatments to eliminate cells, a scaffold of acellular HAM for later use as a support for the development of a skin equivalent. The HAM was separated from the chorion, incubated and cryopreserved. The membrane underwent different enzymatic and chemical treatments to eliminate the cells. Fibroblasts and keratinocytes were separately obtained from skin biopsies of patients following a sequential double digestion with first collagenase and then trypsin-EDTA (T/E). A skin equivalent was then constructed by seeding keratinocytes on the epithelial side and fibroblasts on the chorionic side of the decellularizated HAM. Histological, immunohistochemical, inmunofluorescent and molecular biology studies were performed. Treatment with 1% T/E at 37 °C for 30 min totally removed epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The HAM thus treated proved to be a good matrix to support adherence of cells and allowed the achievement of an integral and intact scaffold for development of a skin equivalent, which could be useful as a skin substitute for clinical use.

  2. Engineering 3D bio-artificial heart muscle: the acellular ventricular extracellular matrix model.

    Patel, Nikita M; Tao, Ze-Wei; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Hogan, Matt K; Gutierrez, Laura; Birla, Ravi K


    Current therapies in left ventricular systolic dysfunction and end-stage heart failure include mechanical assist devices or transplant. The development of a tissue-engineered integrative platform would present a therapeutic option that overcomes the limitations associated with current treatment modalities. This study provides a foundation for the fabrication and preliminary viability of the acellular ventricular extracellular matrix (AVEM) model. Acellular ventricular extracellular matrix was fabricated by culturing 4 million rat neonatal cardiac cells around an excised acellular ventricular segment. Acellular ventricular extracellular matrix generated a maximum spontaneous contractile force of 388.3 μN and demonstrated a Frank-Starling relationship at varying pretensions. Histologic assessment displayed cell cohesion and adhesion within the AVEM as a result of passive cell seeding.

  3. 脱细胞真皮基质用于前牙即刻种植扩增角化龈的临床研究%Clinical Observation of Peri-implants Keratinized Tissue Augmented in Anterior Teeth with Acellular Dermal Matrix Xerograft

    彭国光; 谢建雅; 夏炜; 严鑫; 吴俊伟; 沈琳; 吴美珍; 谭玉莲


    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) xerograft in increasing the width and esthetics of keratinized gingiva around anterior immediate dental implants. Methods Twenty patients received ADM xerograft with/without guided bone regeneration ( GBR ) after immediate implants in maxillary or mandibular anterior regions. The width of keratinized gingiva was recorded at 3 and 6 months after final porcelain crown restoration. The parameter was compared to the mean width of adjacent teeth, and the implant gingival papilla was evaluated with Jemt' s classification. Results ADM xerografts provided satisfactory results. The width and esthetics of the gingival/papilla in immediate implants were no difference (P >0.05) with them in the natural adjacent teeth, and the position before operation. Conclusion The width of keratinized tissues was augmentation by using the ADM xerograft.%目的 研究脱细胞真皮基质用于前牙即刻种植扩增角化龈的临床效果.方法 唇侧骨板垂直缺损不超过牙根长度1/3的单颗前牙即刻种植病例20例,拔除患牙即刻种植,利用异种脱细胞真皮基质双层封闭植牙创口,并与周围黏膜加压严密缝合,2~3周拆线,8~12周行冠修复.冠修复后3、6个月,从龈缘高点到膜龈联合线测量种植牙角化龈的宽度,和邻牙及术前角化龈的宽度进行比较,并对种植牙的龈乳头进行美学评价.结果 20颗种植牙的角化龈宽度与种植前相比无明显差异,与相邻牙也无明显差异,膜龈联合线自然;17例种植牙的龈乳头达到Jemt氏分类的2级、3级.种植前,20颗种植牙的角化龈宽度为(4.460±0.220) mm,冠修复后3个月为(4.451±0.245) mm,正常邻牙是(4.410±0.189) mm.冠修复后3个月,种植位点角化龈平均宽度与正常邻牙比较(t =1.283,P=0.215)、与术前比较(=0.584,P=0.566),差异均无统计学意义.冠修复后6个月,种植位点角化龈宽度为(4.448±0.223) mm

  4. Effectiveness of Acellular Dermal Matrix Prophylaxis in Mandibular Impacted Molars Extraction :A Meta-analysis%脱细胞真皮基质预防下颌阻生磨牙拔除术后并发症效果的Meta分析

    解龙川; 徐晓明; 曾宪涛


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) prophylaxis in mandibular impacted molars (IM) extraction by performing a meta-analysis. Methods The PubMed, CENTRAL, SinoMed.CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched from 1999 to July 2012,in order to retrieve relevant studies. Manual searching was also performed. After assessing the methodological quality and data extraction, a meta-analysis was conducted by using the Meta-Analyst 3. 13 software;and the levels of evidences were assessed according to GRADE system by using GRADEpro 3. 6 software. Results Twelve RCTs and CCTs involing 1 267 teeth(ADM group) were included. The meta-analysis showed that compared with blank control group,the ADM could obviously decrease the rate of dry socket(RR=0.14,95%CI =0.09 ~0.24,P< 0. 001) ,rebleeding(RR = 0. 34,95% CI =0. 20 ~ 0. 60,P < 0. 001) ,swelling( RR = 0. 58,95% CI =0. 35 ~ 0. 96,P = 0.04) ,and trismus( RR =0.72,95%CI =0.52~0.99,P =0.04) ;in sequence,the levels of evidences were high,morder-ate,very low,and low.Conclusions Based on current evidences,ADM can effectively reduce the complications after mandibular IM extraction.However,large sample,randomised,controlled,as an index of 'cost-benefit analysis' ,and according to CONSORT statement trails are suggested,before recommending ADM as a routine protocol.%目的:采用Meta分析的方法综合评价脱细胞真皮基质(ADM)预防下颌阻生磨牙拔除术后并发症的效果.方法:计算机检索PubMed、CENTRAL、SinoMed、CNKI、VIP和万方数据库中1999年至2012年7月发表的相关研究,并辅以手检.对符合纳入标准的研究进行质量评价和资料提取后,采用Meta-Analyst 3.13软件进行Meta分析,并遵照GRADE系统采用GRADEpr0 3.6软件进行证据等级评定.结果:共纳入12个(半)随机临床对照试验,共1267例使用ADM的患者.Meta分析结果表明,与空白对照相比,脱细胞真皮基质可以显著降低86%发生干槽症的风险(RR =0.14,95

  5. 珊瑚羟基磷灰石与异体脱细胞真皮基质联合修复牙根尖周组织缺损%Acellular dermal matrix allograft combined with coralline hydroxyapatite repair periapical tissue defects

    徐隽; 王进涛; 李刚; 史芳川; 钟良军


      结果与结论:修复1个月后,实验组患者异体脱细胞真皮基质全部存活,因修整瘘管口周围炎性的肉芽组织导致的牙龈组织缺损已经愈合。在修复12个月后,实验组患者的修复有效率明显高于对照组(P <0.05)。实验组患者修复6个月后骨缺损区阴影基本消失,珊瑚羟基磷灰石颗粒间的透射影减小,出现有一定致密度的影像,提示有新骨长入;12个月后珊瑚羟基磷灰石颗粒密度已接近正常的骨组织密度,与正常骨组织之间有密度移行改变,逐渐与牙槽骨形成骨融合。异体脱细胞基质与珊瑚羟基磷灰石的生物相容性良好。提示异体脱细胞真皮基质与珊瑚羟基磷灰石联合修复根尖周组织缺损具有良好的临床疗效。%Chronic periapical periodontitis often causes periapical tissue defects and ultimately leads to the loss of teeth if the inflammation is not promptly cleared to terminate bone resorption and destruction of gingival tissue. Acelular dermal matrix alograft and coraline hydroxyapatite are the common materials to repair periodontal injury. To evaluate clinical efficacy of acelular dermal matrix alograft combined with coraline hydroxyapatite in repairing periapical tissue defects. A total of 76 patients of chronic apical periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups, with 38 cases in each group. In the experimental group, periapical tissue defects were treated with acelular dermal matrix alograft and coraline hydroxyapatite. In the control group, tissue defects were not treated. Al the involved patients underwent apicectomy and retrograde filing. Clinical parameters and radiographic film were recorded at 1 week, 6 months and 3 years folow-up visits to evaluate the repairing effects. After 1 month of treatment, al acelular dermal matrix alografts survived, and the defect of gingival tissues that caused by repairing fistula had been healed. After 3 years, the repairing

  6. Clinical application of cultured epithelial autografts on acellular dermal matrices in the treatment of extended burn injuries.

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Sailes, Frederick C; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng


    Achieving permanent replacement of skin in extensive full-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn injuries and chronic wounds remains one of the fundamental surgical problems. Presently, split-thickness skin grafts are still considered the best material for surgical repair of an excised burn wound. However, in burns that affect greater than 50% of total body surface area, the patient has insufficient areas of unaffected skin from which split-thickness skin grafts can be harvested. The use of cultured epithelial (or epidermal) autografts (CEAs) has achieved satisfactory results. But the take rate of CEAs is poor in full-thickness bed or in chronically infected area. Providing temporary cover with allograft skin, or a more permanent allodermis, may increase clinical take. This review aims to (1) describe the use of CEAs in the regeneration of the epidermis, (2) introduce the application of the acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in the clinics, and (3) enhance understanding of the CEAs applied with ADM as an appropriate strategy to treat the extended burn injuries. The current evidence regarding the cultured epithelial cell or keratinocyte autograft and dermal grafts applied in the treatment of burn injuries was investigated with an extensive electronic and manual search (MEDLINE and EMBASE). The included literature (N=136 publications) was critically evaluated focusing on the efficacy and safety of this technique in improving the healing of the deep dermal and full-thickness burn injuries. This review concluded that the use of ADM with CEAs is becoming increasingly routine, particularly as a life-saving tool after acute thermal trauma.

  7. Carbodiimide crosslinked collagen from porcine dermal matrix for high-strength tissue engineering scaffold.

    Li, Jianhua; Ren, Na; Qiu, Jichuan; Jiang, Huaidong; Zhao, Hongshi; Wang, Guancong; Boughton, Robert I; Wang, Yingjun; Liu, Hong


    Naturally-derived collagens for tissue engineering are limited by low mechanical strength and rapid degradation. In this study, carbodiimide is used to chemically modify the collagen derived from porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM). The results show that the strength and resistance of PADM to enzymatic digestion can be adjusted by the reconnection of free amino and carboxyl groups of the collagen fibers. The cytocompatibility of the crosslinked PADM was evaluated by cell adhesion and proliferation assays. The cell culture studies on crosslinked and uncrosslinked PADM showed that the modification does not affect the scaffold's biocompatibility. These results demonstrate that the PADM collagen materials can be strengthened through a low-cost, non-toxic crosslinking method for potential use in biomedical applications.

  8. A new candidate substrate for cell-matrix adhesion study: the acellular human amniotic matrix.

    Guo, Qianchen; Lu, Xuya; Xue, Yuan; Zheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaotao; Zhao, Huajian


    In vivo adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix play a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration as well as tissue remodeling. Natural three-dimensional (3D) matrices, such as self-assembling matrices and Matrigel, have limitations in terms of their biomechanical properties. Here, we present a simple method to produce an acellular human amniotic matrix (AHAM) with preserved biomechanical properties and a favorable adhesion potential. On the stromal side of the AHAM, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) attached and extended with bipolar spindle-shaped morphology proliferated to multilayer networks, invaded into the AHAM, and migrated in a straight line. Moreover, αV integrin, paxillin, and fibronectin were observed to colocalize after 24 h of HFF culture on the stromal side of the AHAM. Our results indicate that the AHAM may be an ideal candidate as a cell-matrix adhesion substrate to study cell adhesion and invasion as well as other functions in vitro under a tensile force that mimics the in vivo environment.

  9. A New Candidate Substrate for Cell-Matrix Adhesion Study: The Acellular Human Amniotic Matrix

    Qianchen Guo


    Full Text Available In vivo adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix play a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration as well as tissue remodeling. Natural three-dimensional (3D matrices, such as self-assembling matrices and Matrigel, have limitations in terms of their biomechanical properties. Here, we present a simple method to produce an acellular human amniotic matrix (AHAM with preserved biomechanical properties and a favorable adhesion potential. On the stromal side of the AHAM, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs attached and extended with bipolar spindle-shaped morphology proliferated to multilayer networks, invaded into the AHAM, and migrated in a straight line. Moreover, αV integrin, paxillin, and fibronectin were observed to colocalize after 24 h of HFF culture on the stromal side of the AHAM. Our results indicate that the AHAM may be an ideal candidate as a cell-matrix adhesion substrate to study cell adhesion and invasion as well as other functions in vitro under a tensile force that mimics the in vivo environment.

  10. 脱细胞组织工程真皮基质修复供皮区创面的临床观察%Clinical observation on repairing of wounds of skin graft donor site with acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix

    邱学文; 王甲汉; 王颖; 刘亮; 吴起; 马军


    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix (ATDM) in repairing wounds of skin graft donor site.Methods Sixty patients with burn or chronic wounds hospitalized from January 2011 to April 2012 received autologous skin grafting.One wound [with size larger than 55 cm2,and thickness of (0.33 ± 0.03) mm] out of multiple skin graft donor sites of every patient was selected,and it was divided into two parts in accordance with self-control principle.A part of wound close to the wound edge with diameter of 5 cm was taken as trial area (treated with ATDM),and the remaining wound was taken as control area (treated with vaseline gauze) according to the random number table.Blood and urine routine,liver and kidney function,and levels of IgG and IgM in blood of patients were measured one day before operation and on the 1 st day after wound healing.Vital signs of patients were recorded on the operation day and the wound healing day.Gross condition of the wounds was observed during dressing change.Wound healing time was recorded.The healed wound was observed histologically.Data were processed with Logrank test or t test.Results Leucocyte count was lowered on the 1st day after wound healing [(7.1 ± 1.2) × 109/L] as compared with that one day before operation [(10.1 ± 1.5) ×109/L,t =-12.10,P <0.01].The differences were not statistically significant in red blood cell count,haemoglobin level,platelet count,urine routine,levels of indexes of liver and kidney function,levels of IgG and IgM in blood between one day before operation and the 1st day after wound healing,or in vital signs (including body temperature,pulse,respiration,systolic pressure,and diastolic pressure) between the operation day and the wound healing day (with t values from-1.43 to 1.88,P values all above 0.05).No adverse effects such as abnormal exudation,itching,redness and swelling,and exanthema were observed in the wound.The median wound healing time in trial area

  11. Follow-up review on the long-term effect of composite transplantation of allogeneic acellular dermal matrix and split thickness skin autograft%异体脱细胞真皮基质加自体刃厚皮复合移植远期随访评价

    潘云川; 徐家钦; 袁素; 梁尊鸿; 陈思环; 陈茹妹; 林思燕


    目的 评价异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植的临床远期效果.方法 选择2001年3月-2008年10月,笔者单位收治的19例行异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植患者为复合移植组(34个创面),同期9例行自体刃厚皮移植患者为对照组(11个创面).患者术后均随访2年以上.随访时,在曼彻斯特瘢痕量表的基础上设计随访对象评估表,评估移植皮肤的颜色、平整度、质地、挛缩、感觉、并发症情况,分值1~4分,得分越高、情况越差;采用温哥华瘢痕量表评估供皮区瘢痕形成情况;发放问卷调查患者满意度、移植期内健康记录;组织病理学方法观察其中4例患者皮肤组织结构.采用中立位法描述术前、术后及随访时患者关节活动范围.对数据进行非参数秩和检验、t检验或x2检验.结果 (1)复合移植组皮肤平整度、挛缩、质地评分分别为(1.6±0.5)、(1.8±0.8)、(1.5±0.8)分,显著低于对照组的(2.0±0.7)、(2.2±0.9)、(2.3±0.7)分(Z值分别为-2.058、-2.220、-2.323,P值均小于0.05);2组皮肤颜色、感觉、并发症评分结果相近(Z值分别为-0.628、-0.428、-2.520,P值均大于0.05).(2)复合移植组仅1个供皮区部分区域有轻度瘢痕.(3)复合移植组和对照组患者在疼痛、瘙痒和满意度方面比较,差异均无统计学意义(x2值分别为0.187、0.019、2.628,P值均大于0.05).(4)病理结果显示,手部复合移植后2年可见神经纤维结构,ADM在受体内未引起强烈的炎症反应.(5)复合移植组11处关节部位功能得到恢复或改善,另2处需再次手术.对照组2处关节部位均明显挛缩.结论 异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植在防止瘢痕挛缩,改善功能及外观方面效果明显,长期存留于成人和儿童患者体内均未出现安全问题.%Objective To review the long-term clinical effect of composite transplantation of allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and split thickness skin autograft (STSG). Methods

  12. Tissue-engineered graft constructed by self-derived cells and heterogeneous acellular matrix

    HUANG Hui-min; WU Shao-feng; REN Hong


    Background: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells were used as seeding cells and heterogeneous acellularized matrix was used as scaffold to construct the tissue-engineered graft. Methods: A 2 weeks piglet was selected as a donor of seeding cells. Two-centimetre length of common carotid artery was dissected. Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were harvested by trypsin and collagenase digestion respectively. The isolated cells were cultured and expanded using routine cell culture technique.An adult sheep was used as a donor of acellularized matrix. The thoracic aorta was harvested and processed by a multi-step decellularizing technique to remove the original cells and preserve the elastic and collagen fibers. The cultured smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were then seeded to the acellularized matrix and incubated in vitro for another 2 weeks. The cell seeded graft was then transplanted to the cell-donated piglet to substitute part of the native pulmonary artery. Results: The cultured cells from piglet were characterized as endothelial cells by the presence of specific antigens vWF and CD31, and smooth muscle cells by the presence of specific antigen α-actin on the cell surface respectively with immunohistochemical technique. After decellularizing processing for the thoracic aorta from sheep, all the cellular components were extracted and elastic and collagen fibers kept their original morphology and structure. The maximal load of acellular matrix was decreased and 20% lower than that of untreated thoracic aorta, but the maximal tensions between them were not different statistically and they had similar load-tension curves. Three months after transplantation, the animal was sacrificed and the graft was removed for observation. The results showed that the inner surfaces of the graft were smooth, without thrombosis and calcification. Under microscopy, a great number of growing cells could be seen and elastic and collagen fibers were abundant. Conclusion

  13. Results of Acellular Dermis Matrix Graft Used for Tympanoplasty in Guinea Pig Model

    Farhad Farahani


    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the underlay tympanoplasty technique using an acellular dermal graft(AlloDerm for tympanic membrane (TM reconstruction in a guinea pig model and to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique using AlloDerm tissue harvested from the prepuce as a source of tissue for future grafting in human TM reconstruction.   Materials and Methods: The prepuce was divided during circumcision and the acellular dermis was prepared using a number of standard processes. Two groups of guinea pigs were prepared. In the case group (20 guinea pigs and 40 ears removal of TM was performed with tympanoplasty using AlloDerm, and in the control group (eight guinea pigs and 16 ears, removal of TM was performed without tympanoplasty. In each group, the TM was completely removed in one ear and partially removed on the other side, and the integrity of the TMs was re-evaluated after 8 weeks.   Results: In the case group, the healing rates in the completely and partially removed TMs were 83.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The difference in healing rate (0% and 66.7%, respectively was statistically significant (P

  14. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    A. M. Eweida


    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  15. Acellular dermal matrix for repair of porcine bile duct defects:to promote vascular and bile duct epithelial regeneration%脱细胞真皮基质修复猪胆管缺损:促进血管及胆管上皮再生

    陈刚; 白建华; 朱新锋; 曹俊; 刘其雨; 赵英鹏; 李立


    BACKGROUND:Acelular dermal matrix is a cel-free natural tissue scaffold similar to human soft tissue, which is easy to shape and has non-toxic side effects. It has been used to repair the urethra and ureter. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of acelular dermal matrix on the repair of bile duct injury. METHODS:Thirty Diannan miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups: in blank group, the bile duct was resected folowed by end to end anastomosis; in experimental group, bile duct defect model was made folowed by repair with acelular dermal matrix; in control group, bile duct defect model was made folowed by repair with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. At 6 and 24 weeks after repair, bile duct patches and surrounding tissues were taken for immunohistochemical observation and RT-PCR detection. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control and blank group, the expression of cytokeratin was higher, but the expression of transforming growth factor β1 was lower in the experimental group. Within 24 weeks after repair, the total mRNA level of transforming growth factor β1 was lower in the experimental group than the other two groups (P < 0.05), but the total mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor were higher in the experimental group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the acelular dermal matrix for repair of bile duct injury can promote angiogenesis and bile duct epithelial regeneration, but not increase the formation of scars.%背景:脱细胞真皮基质是无细胞的天然组织支架,与人体软组织十分相近,易于塑形,无毒副作用,已被用于修补尿道与输尿管。目的:观察脱细胞基质修补胆管损伤的效果。方法:将30头滇南小耳猪随机均分为3组,空白对照组切断胆管后行端端吻合,实验组人为制作胆管缺损后以脱细胞真皮基质修补,对照组人为制作胆管缺损后以膨体聚四氟乙烯修补。修补后6,24

  16. Tissue engineering of rat bladder using marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bladder acellular matrix.

    Daniel L Coutu

    Full Text Available Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration.

  17. Clinical efficacy of negative-pressure wound therapy combined with porcine acellular dermal matrix for repairing deep burn wounds in limbs%负压伤口疗法联合猪脱细胞真皮基质修复四肢深度烧伤创面的临床疗效

    刘伟; 李峰; 陈鑫; 潘青


    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in combination with porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) dressing for repairing deep burn wounds in limbs of patients with non-surgical treatment.Methods Thirty-two patients with deep partial-thickness burn to full-thickness burn on the limbs admitted to our ward from June 2012 to December 2015,conforming to the inclusion criteria,were divided into group NPWT (n =10,treated with interval negative pressure drainage at-16.6 kPa),group ADM (n =7,treated with porcine ADM dressing),and group NPWT + ADM (n =15,treated with interval negative pressure drainage and porcine ADM dressing as above) according to the random number table and patient's consent.After being treated for 21 d,residual wounds were cured by routine dressing change using sulfadiazine silver.On post treatment day (PTD) 7,14,and 21,wound gross observation was conducted,wound drainage fluid volume was recorded,and wound healing rate was calculated.Wound secretion was collected for bacterial culture before treatment and on PTD 21,and bacterial clearance effect was recorded.The wound healing time was also recorded.Measurement data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement,one-way analysis of variance,and LSD test.Eenumeration data were processed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.Results (1) On PTD 7,the wounds of patients in group NPWT and group NPWT + ADM were significantly shrinked as compared with those before treatment.Skin paddle scattered on the wounds of patients in group NPWT + ADM on PTD 7.The wounds of patients in group ADM were slightly shrinked on PTD 7 as compared with those before treatment.On PTD 14,the wounds of patients in group NPWT were slightly shrinked as compared with those on PTD 7,while those in group NPWT + ADM were significantly shrinked as compared with those on PTD 7.Skin paddle on the wounds of patients in group NPWT + ADM on PTD 14 were increased and fused

  18. Xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium.

    Haifeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium has been widely used in the reconstruction of the ocular surface. However, it often degrades too early to ensure the success of the transplanted corneal epithelium when treating patients with severe ocular surface disorders. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix (aCM and evaluated its efficacy and safety as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium. Native porcine conjunctiva was decellularized with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS for 12 h at 37°C and sterilized via γ-irradiation. Compared with native conjunctiva, more than 92% of the DNA was removed, and more than 90% of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen remained after the decellularization treatment. Compared with denuded amniotic membrane (dAM, the aCM possessed favorable optical transmittance, tensile strength, stability and biocompatibility as well as stronger resistance to degradation both in vitro and in vivo. The corneal epithelial cells seeded on aCM formed a multilayered epithelial structure and endured longer than did those on dAM. The aCM-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was more effective in the reconstruction of the ocular surface in rabbits with limbal stem cell deficiency. These findings support the application of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold for reconstructing the ocular surface.

  19. Suppression of α Smooth Muscle Actin Accumulation by Bovine Fetal Dermal Collagen Matrix in Full Thickness Skin Wounds.

    Lineaweaver, William; Bush, Katie; James, Kenneth


    The suppression of elements associated with wound contracture and unfavorable scarring is a potentially important strategy in clinical wound management. In this study, the presence of α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a protein involved in wound contraction, was analyzed in a series of wounds in which bovine fetal collagen (BFC) acellular dermal matrix (PriMatrix) was used in staged split thickness skin graft procedures. The results obtained through histological and quantitative image analyses of incidental biopsies from these wounds demonstrated a suppression of αSMA in the wound regions occupied by assimilated BFC relative to increased levels of αSMA found in other areas of the wound. The αSMA levels found in assimilated BFC were similar to αSMA levels in uninjured human dermis. These findings suggest a mechanism by which application of BFC could decrease contraction of full thickness skin wounds.

  20. Porcine vesical acellular matrix graft of tunica albuginea for penile reconstruction

    Kwan-Joong Joo; Byung-Soo Kim; Jeong-Ho Han; Chang-Ju Kim; Chil-Hun Kwon; Heung-Jae Park


    Aim: To characterize the feasibility of the surgical replacement of the penile tunica albuginea (TA) and to evaluate the value of a porcine bladder acellular matrix (BAM) graft. Methods: Acellular matrices were constructed from pigs'bladders by cell lysis, and then examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Expression levels of the mRNA of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 receptor, neuregulin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the acellular matrix and submucosa of the pigs' bladders were determined through the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 5 mm × 5 mm square was excised from the penile TA of nine rabbits. The defective TA was then covered in porcine BAM. Equal numbers of animals were sacrificed and histochemically examined at 2, 4 and 6 months after implantation. Results: SEM of the BAM showed collagen fibers with many pores. VEGF receptor, FGF-1 receptor and neuregulin mRNA were expressed in the porcine BAM; BDNF mRNA was not detected. Two months after implantation, the graft sites exhibited excellent healing without contracture, and the fusion between the graft and the neighboring normal TA appeared to be well established. There were no significant histological differences between the implanted tunica and the normal control tunica at 6 months after implantation. Conclusion: The porcine BAM graft resulted in a structure which was sufficiently like that of the normal TA. This implantation might be considered applicable to the reconstruction of the TA in conditions such as trauma or Peyronie's disease.

  1. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A


    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  2. A anorectal fistula treatment with acellular extracellular matrix: A new technique

    Wei-Liang Song; Zhen-Jun Wang; Yi Zheng; Xin-Qing Yang; Ya-Ping Peng


    AIM:To investigate a new technique of the anorectal fistula treatment with acellular extracellular matrix (AEM).METHODS: Thirty patients with anorectal fistula were treated with AEM.All fistula tracts and primary openings were identified using conventional fistula probe.All tracts were curetted with curet and irrigated with hydrogen peroxide and metronidazole.The AEM was pulled into the fistula tract from secondary to primary opening.The material was secured at the level of the primary opening.The excess AEM was trimmed at skin level at the secondary opening.RESULTS: All of the 30 patients had successful closure of their fistula after a 7-14 d follow-up.The healing rate of anal fistula in treatment group was 100%.The ache time,healing time and anal deformation of treatment group were obviously superior to traditional surgical methods.CONCLUSION: Using AEM anal fistula plug in treatment that causes the anorectal fistula is safe and successful in 100% of patients.It can reduce pain,shorten disease course and protect anal function.

  3. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  4. The effects of acellular amniotic membrane matrix on osteogenic differentiation and ERK1/2 signaling in human dental apical papilla cells.

    Chen, Yi-Jane; Chung, Min-Chun; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Young, Tai-Horng


    The amniotic membrane (AM) has been widely used in the field of tissue engineering because of the favorable biological properties for scaffolding material. However, little is known about the effects of an acellular AM matrix on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, it was found that both basement membrane side and collagenous stroma side of the acellular AM matrix were capable of providing a preferential environment for driving the osteogenic differentiation of human dental apical papilla cells (APCs) with proven stem cell characteristics. Acellular AM matrix potentiated the induction effect of osteogenic supplements (OS) such as ascorbic acid, β-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of APCs, as seen by increased core-binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa-1) phosphorylation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes, and mineralized matrix deposition. Even in the absence of soluble OS, acellular AM matrix also could exert the substrate-induced effect on initiating APCs' differentiation. Especially, the collagenous stroma side was more effective than the basement membrane side. Moreover, the AM-induced effect was significantly inhibited by U0126, an inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Taken together, the osteogenic differentiation promoting effect on APCs is AM-specific, which provides potential applications of acellular AM matrix in bone/tooth tissue engineering.

  5. Influence of covering of auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel in combination with xenogenic acellular dermal matrix on healing of full-thickness skin defect wound in pig%自交联透明质酸钠凝胶联合异种脱细胞真皮基质覆盖对猪全层皮肤缺损创面愈合的影响

    邱宇轩; 张国安; 万江波; 赵筱卓


    .0±3.8)%,明显低于其余3组(P值均小于0.05). 结论 自交联透明质酸钠凝胶联合羊ADM作为猪全层皮肤缺损创面微粒皮移植覆盖物延长了羊ADM在创面上的存留时间,促进了创面愈合.%Objective To explore the influence of covering of auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel in combination with xenogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) on healing of full-thickness skin defect wound in pig.Methods Totally four 10 cm × 10 cm full-thickness skin defect wounds were reproduced symmetrically on both sides of spine on the back of each one of the six Chinese experimental minipigs.After autologous microskin grafting,the 4 wounds in each pig were divided into 4 groups according to the random number table,with 6 wounds in each group.Wounds in allogenic skin group (AS) were covered by fullthickness skin from one (not the recipient) of the 6 pigs;wounds in xenogenic skin group (XS) were covered by full-thickness skin of sheep;wounds in xenogenic ADM group (XA) were covered by ADM of sheep;wounds in combination group (C) were covered by ADM of sheep combined with auto-crosslinked sodium hyaluronate gel.The wounds were bound up with pressure,and the dressing was changed once every 7 days.On post surgery day (PSD) 7,14,21,28,35,and 42 when changing dressing,the condition of wounds and the exfoliation of the covering on microskin were observed,and the complete exfoliation time of the covering was recorded.On PSD 28,35,and 42,the wound healing rate was calculated.Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK test.Results (1) On PSD 7,no fluid appeared under the covering of wounds in groups AS and C,while plenty of fluid appeared under the covering of wounds in groups XS and XA.From PSD 14 to 35,most of the full-thickness skin of pig in group AS did not exfoliate.All the full-thickness skin of sheep in group XS exfoliated,leaving a lot of crusts on the surface of the wounds on PSD 14.Most of the ADM of sheep in group XA separated

  6. Using porcine acellular collagen matrix (Pelvicol® in bladder augmentation: experimental study

    Ayyildiz Ali


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the rabbit augmented bladder with PelvicolÒ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups. Bladder augmentation was performed using a 10 x 10 mm sized porcine acellular collagen matrix. The material was placed on the dome of the bladder wall as a patch with 5-0 polyglycolic sutures. The bladder was resected on the 7th, 14th day, 30th and 90th days, and processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: No stone formation was found in the first, second and fourth weeks. In the first week, there was inflammatory appearance and roughness in the reconstructed area when compared to other sites on the bladder wall. The material could not be seen in some bladders because of acute inflammatory reaction. The normal bladder epithelium was found on the part of the bladder wall that follows the surface of the eroded material. In the second week, edema was observed through the bladder wall. Perivesical fat tissue increased and it was not easy to distinguish it from the surrounding area. In the fourth week, the bladder wall was thickened and there was a sensation of hardness present. The inner and outer surface of the material was darker than in the other bladders. In the third month, there was no inflammatory reaction; however, there was micro calcification and irregular detrusor regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: PelvicolÒ cannot be suitable material for bladder augmentation because of the resultant micro calcification, thickening of the bladder wall and irregular development of detrusor regeneration.

  7. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm®) for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    Agarwal, Chitra; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Mehta, Dhoom Singh


    Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of inflammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm) were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifies that Alloderm® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts. PMID:26015676

  8. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm ® for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    Chitra Agarwal


    Full Text Available Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of infl ammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm ® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm ® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3 rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifi es that Alloderm ® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts.

  9. Direct delayed breast reconstruction with TAP flap, implant and acellular dermal matrix (TAPIA)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Udesen, Ann;


    BACKGROUND: The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is considered one of the working horses within the field of breast reconstruction and it offers several advantages. However, donor-site morbidity may pose a problem. This article describes a new and modified technique for delayed breast reconstruction co...... there is a learning curve, this simple modified technique does not demand any perforator or other vessel dissection. Any trained plastic surgeon should be able to adopt the technique into the growing armamentarium of breast reconstruction possibilities....

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim, MD


    Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours.

  11. Sustained release of VEGF from PLGA nanoparticles embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in full-thickness porcine bladder acellular matrix

    Song Hua


    Full Text Available Abstract We fabricated a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-nanoparticles (NPs-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine bladder acellular matrix allograft (BAMA system, which is designed for achieving a sustained release of VEGF protein, and embedding the protein carrier into the BAMA. We identified and optimized various formulations and process parameters to get the preferred particle size, entrapment, and polydispersibility of the VEGF-NPs, and incorporated the VEGF-NPs into the (poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide (Pluronic® F127 to achieve the preferred VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system. Then the thermal behavior of the system was proven by in vitro and in vivo study, and the kinetic-sustained release profile of the system embedded in porcine bladder acellular matrix was investigated. Results indicated that the bioactivity of the encapsulated VEGF released from the NPs was reserved, and the VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system can achieve sol-gel transmission successfully at appropriate temperature. Furthermore, the system can create a satisfactory tissue-compatible environment and an effective VEGF-sustained release approach. In conclusion, a novel VEGF-loaded PLGA NPs-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine BAMA system is successfully prepared, to provide a promising way for deficient bladder reconstruction therapy.

  12. High matrix metalloproteinase levels are associated with dermal graft failure in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Uccioli, Luigi


    The aim of our study is to analyze factors, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels, that could influence the integration of dermal grafts in diabetic foot ulcers. From September 2012 to September 2013, 35 diabetic patients with IIA lesion (Texas Wound Classification) and an extensive foot tissue loss were considered suitable for dermal graft. Before the enrollment we ensured the best local conditions: adequate blood supply, control of infection, and offloading. The MMP level of each lesion was evaluated blindly before the application of dermal substitutes. At 1-month follow-up, we analyzed the correlation between clinical patient characteristics, local wound features including MMP levels, dermal substitute applied, and the outcome expressed in terms of dermal graft integration. We observed dermal graft integration in 28/35 patients (80% of our population). In multivariate analysis high MMP level was the only negative predictor for dermal graft integration (P < .0007). In addition, we divided the patients into 2 groups according to MMP levels: group 1 with low protease activity (24 patients) and group 2 with elevated protease activity (11 patients). The integration of the dermal graft was 100% in group 1 (n = 24 patients) and 36.4% in group 2 (n = 4patients), P < .0001. According to our data, the evaluation of MMP levels may be useful to choose the right strategy to get the best results in terms of clinical success and cost saving. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  13. Tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas usando tecido dérmico acelular porcino com e sem cobertura impermeável Porcine acellular dermal graft with and without impermeable dressing to treat extensive wounds

    Erika Hoyama


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino é alternativa para o tratamento de feridas cutâneas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a resposta clínica e inflamatória do implante de tecido dérmico acelular porcino, com e sem cobertura impermeável. MÉTODOS: Estudo pareado, longitudinal, criando-se duas feridas cutâneas no dorso de 16 ratos (quatro animais/grupo, em que foi implantado tecido dérmico acelular coberto ou não por impermeável. Os animais foram avaliados e sacrificados sete, 15, 30 e 60 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removidos os tecidos acelulares e adjacentes para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: A cobertura impermeável permaneceu sobre o tecido acelular porcino até cerca de 15 dias. O grupo sem impermeável apresentou maior desidratação, com crosta fibrinoleucocitária, edema e reação inflamatória na derme. Sessenta dias após a cirurgia, animais do grupo sem impermeável ainda apresentavam ulcerações, afinamento do epitélio e ausência de queratina, enquanto nos do grupo com impermeável a pele já se encontrava normal. CONCLUSÃO: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino com cobertura impermeável apresentou resultados clínicos e histológicos melhores do que os do tecido dérmico acelular porcino sem impermeável para tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas.BACKGROUND: The porcine acellular dermal graft is an alternative for the treatment of skin wounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and inflammatory response elicited by a porcine derived acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. METHODS: A matched-pair longitudinal study was conducted by creating two skin wounds along the dorsal midline of 16 rats (4 rats/group with implantation of a porcine acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. At the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th postoperative days the animals were evaluated and sacrificed. The acellular tissue and surrounding tissues were removed for histological and

  14. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin.

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I


    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  15. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    Couchman, J R


    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  16. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    Marta Pokrywczynska


    Full Text Available Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM. In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  17. Changes in dermal matrix in the absence of Rac1 in keratinocytes

    Stanley, Alanna; Pedersen, Esben; Brakebusch, Cord


    Keratinocytes, in response to irritants, secrete pro-inflammatory mediators which recruit and activate immune and mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts, to repair the skin. Fibroblasts respond by synthesising collagen and promoting the crosslinking extracellular matrix (ECM). We recently showed...... of ICD on the tissue localisation and arrangements of dermal collagen. Qualitative analysis did not reveal evidence for the formation of pathologies in the dermis. However, quantitative analysis did reveal some perturbations in the dermal matrix, namely that only the combination of the lack of Rac1...... and ICD affects the architectural organisation of the dermal collagen, and that a higher inflammatory state in the tissue (i.e. when Rac1 is deleted in the keratinocytes or ICD is induced in the skin, or a combination of both) influences the diameter of the collagen fibrils. It is proposed...

  18. Construction and evaluation of acellular matrix for ureter tissue engineering%输尿管无细胞基质移植物的制备和评价

    沈海波; 潘俊; 陈方


    的种子细胞具备一定的生长能力.%BACKGROUND:Compared to small-intestine submucosa,acellular vascular grafts have natural tubic structure,which is similar to ureter.When it is used as replacement for ureter,end-to-end anastomosis is used.It is characterized by simple operation,smooth vessel wall,collection and preparation method.OBJECTIVE:To prepare acellular vascular matrix as scaffold in tissue-engineered ureter in vitro.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The observational experiment was performed at the Animal Experimental Center of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to School of Medicine,Shanghai Jiao Tong University from September 2006 to June 2008.MATERIALS:Swines were supplied by Shanghai Song Lian experimental animals company.Eight healthy adult rats were supplied by Animal Experimental Center Affiliated to School of Medicine,Shanghai Jiao Tong University for the animal toxicity study of acellular vascular matrix.METHODS:Swine carotid artery membrana was removed and placed in phosphate-buffed saline(PBS,pH 7.1).The tissue was stirred at 4 ℃ with 0.5%sodium dodecylsulfate for 24 hours.Then the tissue was treated by double distilled water for 1 week at 4 ℃.Double distilled water was changed twice every day.Vessel with muscle were digested in mixed digestive juice at 37 ℃ for 2 hours before washing.The acellular matrix was stored in penicillin and streptomycin solution at 4 ℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The components of acellular scaffold was investigated by optical and electron microscopes.Allogenic endothelial progenitor cells following proliferation were transplanted into acellular vascular matrix to observe cell growth.Animal toxicity study of acellular vascular matrix was performed.Tensile force study was employed to understand the contractility of acellular vascular matrix.RESULTS:Acellular vascular matrix was without cell component.Acellular vascular matrix was mainly composed of collagen.Under scanning electron microscope,cells and cell debris were not found

  19. Red blood cell lysate modulates the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dermal fibroblasts.

    Akbari, Amir; Li, Yunyuan; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Ghahary, Aziz


    During the early stage of wound healing process, blood clots can be served as a temporary extracellular matrix (ECM) to let skin cell migration and proliferation. The red blood cells are generally thought as inert bystanders in the early and inflammatory phase of wound healing. Here, we provide evidence that red blood cells (RBC) also play an important role in modulation of key ECM components such as type-I collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we used western blot analysis and showed a significant increase in the level of MMP-1, 2, 3. Furthermore, we found that RBC lysate significantly down-regulates type-I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin while up-regulates fibronectin expression in dermal fibroblasts. To further explore the mechanism by which RBC lysate modulates MMP-1 expression, the effect of inhibitors for three MAPK signaling pathways on RBC inducing MMP-1 expression by dermal fibroblasts were tested. The result showed that the inhibitor of ERK1/2 could abrogate the stimulatory effect of RBC lysate on MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts. Consistently, RBC treatment results in an increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in dermal fibroblast. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RBC lysate can modulate the expression of MMPs and key ECM components which are important in healing process.

  20. Replacement of animal-derived collagen matrix by human fibroblast-derived dermal matrix for human skin equivalent products.

    El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Commandeur, Suzan; Rietveld, Marion H; Mulder, Aat A; Willemze, Rein


    Reconstructed human skin equivalents (HSEs) are representative models of human skin and widely used for research purposes and clinical applications. Traditional methods to generate HSEs are based on the seeding of human keratinocytes onto three-dimensional human fibroblast-populated non-human collagen matrices. Current HSEs have a limited lifespan of approximately 8 weeks, rendering them unsuitable for long-term studies. Here we present a new generation of HSEs being fully composed of human components and which can be cultured up to 20 weeks. This model is generated on a primary human fibroblast-derived dermal matrix. Pro-collagen type I secretion by human fibroblasts stabilized during long-term culture, providing a continuous and functional human dermal matrix. In contrast to rat-tail collagen-based HSEs, the present fibroblast-derived matrix-based HSEs contain more continuity in the number of viable cell layers in long-term cultures. In addition, these new skin models exhibit normal differentiation and proliferation, based on expression of K10/K15, and K16/K17, respectively. Detection of collagen types IV and VII and laminin 332 was confined to the epidermal-dermal junction, as in native skin. The presence of hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils was demonstrated by electron microscopy. Finally, we show that the presented HSE contained a higher concentration of the normal moisturizing factor compared to rat-tail collagen-based skin models, providing a further representation of functional normal human skin in vitro. This study, therefore, demonstrates the role of the dermal microenvironment on epidermal regeneration and lifespan in vitro.

  1. Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial

    Lev-Tov Hadar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs represent a significant source of morbidity and an enormous financial burden. Standard care for DFUs involves systemic glucose control, ensuring adequate perfusion, debridement of nonviable tissue, off-loading, control of infection, local wound care and patient education, all administered by a multidisciplinary team. Unfortunately, even with the best standard of care (SOC available, only 24% or 30% of DFUs will heal at weeks 12 or 20, respectively. The extracellular matrix (ECM in DFUs is abnormal and its impairment has been proposed as a key target for new therapeutic devices. These devices intend to replace the aberrant ECM by implanting a matrix, either devoid of cells or enhanced with fibroblasts, keratinocytes or both as well as various growth factors. These new bioengineered skin substitutes are proposed to encourage angiogenesis and in-growth of new tissue, and to utilize living cells to generate cytokines needed for wound repair. To date, the efficacy of bioengineered ECM containing live cellular elements for improving healing above that of a SOC control group has not been compared with the efficacy of an ECM devoid of cells relative to the same SOC. Our hypothesis is that there is no difference in the improved healing effected by either of these two product types relative to SOC. Methods/Design To test this hypothesis we propose a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial with three arms: SOC, SOC plus Dermagraft® (bioengineered ECM containing living fibroblasts and SOC plus Oasis® (ECM devoid of living cells in patients with nonhealing DFUs. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects that achieved complete wound closure by week 12. Discussion If our hypothesis is correct, then immense cost savings could be realized by using the orders-of-magnitude less expensive acellular ECM device without compromising patient health outcomes. The article describes the protocol proposed to test

  2. Tissue-engineered conduit using bladder acellular matrix and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits

    LIAO Wen-biao; SONG Chao; LI Yong-wei; YANG Si-xing; MENG Lin-chao; LI Xin-hui


    Background For muscle invasive bladder cancer,radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment now and urinary diversion is often necessary.The use of intestinal tissue for urinary diversion is frequently associated with complications.In this study,we aimed to make a tissue-engineered conduit (TEC) using bladder epithelial cells and bladder acellular matrix (BAM) for urinary diversion in rabbits.Methods Bladder epithelial cells of rabbit were cultivated and expanded in vitro,then seeded on BAM,and cultured for 7 days.Then cell-seeded graft was used to make TEC.In the experimental group,most of bladder of the rabbit was removed while bladder trigone was retained.The proximal end of TEC was anastomosed with bladder trigone and the distal end was anastomosed with the abdominal stoma.In the control group,TEC was made using unseeded BAM.Haematoxylin and eosin staining was conducted,respectively,at 1,2,4,and 8 weeks postoperatively.Immunohistochemistry was performed 8 weeks postoperatively.Intravenous urography,retrograde pyelography,and cystoscopy of TEC were made at 12 weeks postoperatively.Results All animals were alive in the experimental group.Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed epithelial coverage in TEC.Immunohistochemistry showed anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody and anti-ZO1 antibody positive,confirming there were mature and functional epithelial cells on the lumen of TEC.Retrograde pyelography and intravenous urography showed that TEC developed well and that there was no obstruction.In the control group,four rabbits were dead within 2 weeks and scar formation,atresia,and severe hydronephrosis were found.Conclusions We successfully made TEC using BAM and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits.The lumen of this new TEC covered mature epithelial cells and could prevent urinary extravasation.

  3. 以活性复合真皮基质为载体构建组织工程皮肤的研究%Construction of tissue-engineering skin with carrier of active composite dermal matrix

    马忠锋; 柴家科; 杨红明; 梁黎明; 许明火


    Objective To construct of tissue engineering skin including active composite dermal ma- trix. Methods The human fibroblasts and bovine collagen with type Ⅰ were inoculated on the surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix ( PADM ) for construction of active dermal substitute, then epidermal cells were inoculated on the dermal matrix for gas-liquid interface culture. The tissue-engineering skin was ob- served by histological examinations. Results The structure of fibroblasts in collagen was intact,which was used to construct composite dermal matrix with PADM . The epithelial structure of tissue-engineering skin was similar to that of normal skin with good cell differentiation. Some phenomena were showed in epidermis: basic layer, stratum spinosum , granular layer and stratum corneum, desmosomes. Conclusion Fibroblasts-Col- lagen-PADM can be an optimal dermal matrix for construction of tissue-engineering skin.%目的 构建含活性真皮基质的组织工程皮肤. 方法将人成纤维细胞(Fb)与Ⅰ型牛胶原混合接种于猪脱细胞真皮基质(PADM)的表面,构建活性真皮替代物.其上接种人表皮细胞进行气-液面培养,获得组织工程皮肤,进行组织学观察. 结果 Fb在胶原内结构完整,与PADM形成复合真皮基质.所构建的组织工程皮肤表皮层结构与人正常皮肤相似,具备基底层、棘层、颗粒层和角质层,细胞之间有桥粒连接,细胞分化良好. 结论 Fb-胶原-PADM真皮替代物可作为较好的构建组织工程皮肤的真皮支架.

  4. Time-dependent bladder tissue regeneration using bilayer bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin scaffolds in a rat bladder augmentation model.

    Zhao, Yang; He, Yi; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, Jian-hua; Wu, Jia-sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Juan; Xiao, Dong-dong; Wang, Zhong; Sun, Kang; Zhu, Ying-jian; Lu, Mu-jun


    With advances in tissue engineering, various synthetic and natural biomaterials have been widely used in tissue regeneration of the urinary bladder in rat models. However, reconstructive procedures remain insufficient due to the lack of appropriate scaffolding, which should provide a waterproof barrier function and support the needs of various cell types. To address these problems, we have developed a bilayer scaffold comprising a porous network (silk fibroin [SF]) and an underlying natural acellular matrix (bladder acellular matrix graft [BAMG]) and evaluated its feasibility and potential for bladder regeneration in a rat bladder augmentation model. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining) and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold promoted smooth muscle, blood vessel, and nerve regeneration in a time-dependent manner. At 12weeks after implantation, bladders reconstructed with the BAMG-SF matrix displayed superior structural and functional properties without significant local tissue responses or systemic toxicity. These results demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold may be a promising scaffold with good biocompatibility for bladder regeneration in the rat bladder augmentation model.

  5. 透明质酸对复合移植皮肤组织顺应性影响的实验观察%Experimental study of Hyaluronic acid on the biomechanical compliance of porcine acellular dermal transplantation

    赵京玉; 柴家科; 宋慧锋; 许明火


    Objective To iexplore the effect on biomechanical compliance after an addition of hyaluronic acid(HA)in transplantation of porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) with skin autograft.Methods Ten Japanese white rabbits were used as experimental animal,the dorsa of rabbits was symmetrically divided into four area,and then grouping was randomized.Full-thickness skin defects were created in Group A to Group C,and Group D was blank group with normal skin.The following procedures were performed:Group A:implanted with HA + PADM + thin skin autografts,GroupB:implanted with PADM + thin skin autografts and Group C:skin autografts,except for Group D. The wound tissue specimens were harvested at 70 days postoperatively,and they were recorded contracture rates of the grafts and the biomechanical compliance by Instron biomechanics tensiometer.The expression of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ in dermal fibroblasts of each group was determined by Western blot.Results On postoperation day 70,the grafts contracture rates in Group A to Group C were 10.2%±0.6%,36.6%±0.8%,32.7%±1.4% respectively,there were notable significant difference among three groups ( P =0.000 ).Under the same tension,there was no significant difference in strain between Groups A and D ( (83±8) vs (81±5)kPa,P=0.552).Some significant difference in strain existed between Groups B and D ((215±9) vs (81±5 ) kPa,P=0.000).The strain of Group C ( ( 106±7 ) kPa) was between Groups B and D,and significant strain difference existed among them (P=0.000).The expressions of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ in Group A were higher than those in Group B,while the ratio of collagens Ⅰ to Ⅲ in Group A was lower than that in Group B.Conclusion Topical HA may be used to increase the expressions of type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen,decrease the ratio of collagen type Ⅰ / Ⅲ,and enhance the biomechanics performances of transplanted skin.%目的 探讨透明质酸(HA)对复合移植皮肤组织生物力学顺应性的影响.方法

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells seeded on cross-linked and noncross-linked acellular porcine dermal scaffolds for long-term full-thickness hernia repair in a small animal model.

    Mestak, Ondrej; Matouskova, Eva; Spurkova, Zuzana; Benkova, Kamila; Vesely, Pavel; Mestak, Jan; Molitor, Martin; Pombinho, Antonio; Sukop, Andrej


    Biological meshes are biomaterials consisting of extracellular matrix that are used in surgery particularly for hernia treatment, thoracic wall reconstruction, or silicone implant-based breast reconstruction. We hypothesized that combination of extracellular matrices with autologous mesenchymal stem cells used for hernia repair would result in increased vascularization and increased strength of incorporation. We cultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells harvested from the inguinal region of Wistar rats on cross-linked and noncross-linked porcine extracellular matrices. In 24 Wistar rats, a standardized 2×4 cm fascial defect was created and repaired with either cross-linked or noncross-linked grafts enriched with stem cells. Non-MSC-enriched grafts were used as controls. The rats were sacrificed at 3 months of age. The specimens were examined for the strength of incorporation, vascularization, cell invasion, foreign body reaction, and capsule formation. Both materials showed cellular ingrowth and neovascularization. Comparison of both tested groups with the controls showed no significant differences in the capsule thickness, foreign body reaction, cellularization, or vascularization. The strength of incorporation of the stem cell-enriched cross-linked extracellular matrix specimens was higher than in acellular specimens, but this result was statistically nonsignificant. In the noncross-linked extracellular matrix, the strength of incorporation was significantly higher in the stem cell group than in the acellular group. Seeding of biological meshes with stem cells does not significantly contribute to their increased vascularization. In cross-linked materials, it does not ensure increased strength of incorporation, in contrast to noncross-linked materials. Owing to the fact that isolation and seeding of stem cells is a very complex procedure, we do not see sufficient benefits for its use in the clinical setting.

  7. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of cell free dermal substitutes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method

    NING Fang-gang; ZHANG Guo-an


    Background The cytotoxicity of dermal substitutes may be increased by the very processes used to deplete the cells. The present research aimed to investigate the method for monitoring the cytotoxicity of cell-free dermal substitutes using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method.Methods The cytotoxicity of four dermal substitutes was evaluated using the MTT method according to the standards set by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Swine acellular dermal matrix (SADM) and goat acellular dermal matrix (GADM) were produced using a repeated freeze-thaw method. Human dermal matrix glutaraldehyde composite (HADM-G) and SADM cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (SADM-G) were produced using conventional methods. Results The cytotoxicity of all dermal substitutes ranged from Grade 0 to Grade 1, meeting the standards of the Chinese FDA. The OD_(490) of both SADM and GADM was higher than that of either HADM-G or SADM-G (P<0.05). Conclusion Dermal substitutes produced by the freeze-thaw method are less cytotoxic than those produced using conventional methods.

  8. Preservation of micro-architecture and angiogenic potential in a pulmonary acellular matrix obtained using intermittent intra-tracheal flow of detergent enzymatic treatment

    Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Georgiades, Fanourios; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Totonelli, Giorgia; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Shangaris, Panicos; Lange, Peggy; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Burns, Alan J.; Cenedese, Angelo; Sebire, Neil J.; Turmaine, Mark; Guest, Brogan N.; Alcorn, John F.; Atala, Anthony; Birchall, Martin A.; Elliott, Martin J.; Eaton, Simon; Pierro, Agostino; Gilbert, Thomas W.; De Coppi, Paolo


    Tissue engineering of autologous lung tissue aims to become a therapeutic alternative to transplantation. Efforts published so far in creating scaffolds have used harsh decellularization techniques that damage the extracellular matrix (ECM), deplete its components and take up to 5 weeks to perform. The aim of this study was to create a lung natural acellular scaffold using a method that will reduce the time of production and better preserve scaffold architecture and ECM components. Decellularization of rat lungs via the intratracheal route removed most of the nuclear material when compared to the other entry points. An intermittent inflation approach that mimics lung respiration yielded an acellular scaffold in a shorter time with an improved preservation of pulmonary micro-architecture. Electron microscopy demonstrated the maintenance of an intact alveolar network, with no evidence of collapse or tearing. Pulsatile dye injection via the vasculature indicated an intact capillary network in the scaffold. Morphometry analysis demonstrated a significant increase in alveolar fractional volume, with alveolar size analysis confirming that alveolar dimensions were maintained. Biomechanical testing of the scaffolds indicated an increase in resistance and elastance when compared to fresh lungs. Staining and quantification for ECM components showed a presence of collagen, elastin, GAG and laminin. The intratracheal intermittent decellularization methodology could be translated to sheep lungs, demonstrating a preservation of ECM components, alveolar and vascular architecture. Decellularization treatment and methodology preserves lung architecture and ECM whilst reducing the production time to 3 h. Cell seeding and in vivo experiments are necessary to proceed towards clinical translation. PMID:23727263

  9. Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis.

    Proksch, E; Schunck, M; Zague, V; Segger, D; Degwert, J; Oesser, S


    Dietary consumption of food supplements has been found to modulate skin functions and can therefore be useful in the treatment of skin aging. However, there is only a limited number of clinical studies supporting these claims. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effectiveness of the specific bioactive collagen peptide (BCP) VERISOL® on eye wrinkle formation and stimulation of procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin biosynthesis in the skin was assessed. A hundred and fourteen women aged 45-65 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g of BCP or placebo, once daily for 8 weeks, with 57 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin wrinkles were objectively measured in all subjects, before starting the treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks as well as 4 weeks after the last intake (4-week regression phase). A subgroup was established for suction blister biopsies analyzing procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin at the beginning of the treatment and after 8 weeks of intake. The ingestion of the specific BCP used in this study promoted a statistically significant reduction of eye wrinkle volume (p oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides (Verisol®) reduced skin wrinkles and had positive effects on dermal matrix synthesis.

  10. Multiphoton microscopy of engineered dermal substitutes: assessment of 3-D collagen matrix remodeling induced by fibroblast contraction

    Pena, Ana-Maria; Fagot, Dominique; Olive, Christian; Michelet, Jean-François; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Leroy, Frédéric; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Colonna, Anne; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire


    Dermal fibroblasts are responsible for the generation of mechanical forces within their surrounding extracellular matrix and can be potentially targeted by anti-aging ingredients. Investigation of the modulation of fibroblast contraction by these ingredients requires the implementation of three-dimensional in situ imaging methodologies. We use multiphoton microscopy to visualize unstained engineered dermal tissue by combining second-harmonic generation that reveals specifically fibrillar collagen and two-photon excited fluorescence from endogenous cellular chromophores. We study the fibroblast-induced reorganization of the collagen matrix and quantitatively evaluate the effect of Y-27632, a RhoA-kinase inhibitor, on dermal substitute contraction. We observe that collagen fibrils rearrange around fibroblasts with increasing density in control samples, whereas collagen fibrils show no remodeling in the samples containing the RhoA-kinase inhibitor. Moreover, we show that the inhibitory effects are reversible. Our study demonstrates the relevance of multiphoton microscopy to visualize three-dimensional remodeling of the extracellular matrix induced by fibroblast contraction or other processes.

  11. Evaluation of dermal substitute in a novel co-transplantation model with autologous epidermal sheet.

    Guofeng Huang

    Full Text Available The development of more and more new dermal substitutes requires a reliable and effective animal model to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In this study we constructed a novel animal model using co-transplantation of autologous epidermal sheets with dermal substitutes to repair full-thickness skin defects. Autologous epidermal sheets were obtained by digesting the basement membrane (BM and dermal components from rat split-thickness skins in Dispase II solution (1.2 u/ml at 4 °C for 8, 10 and 12 h. H&E, immunohistochemical and live/dead staining showed that the epidermal sheet preserved an intact epidermis without any BM or dermal components, and a high percentage of viable cells (92.10 ± 4.19% and P63 positive cells (67.43 ± 4.21% under an optimized condition. Porcine acellular dermal matrixes were co-transplanted with the autologous epidermal sheets to repair full-thickness skin defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. The epidermal sheets survived and completely re-covered the wounds within 3 weeks. Histological staining showed that the newly formed stratified epidermis attached directly onto the dermal matrix. Inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularization of the dermal matrix were not significantly different from those in the subcutaneous implantation model. Collagen IV and laminin distributed continuously at the epidermis and dermal matrix junction 4 weeks after transplantation. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the presence of continuous lamina densa and hemidesmosome structures. This novel animal model can be used not only to observe the biocompatibility of dermal substitutes, but also to evaluate their effects on new epidermis and BM formation. Therefore, it is a simple and reliable model for evaluating the safety and efficacy of dermal substitutes.

  12. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J.


    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin d...

  13. Acellular nerve allograft promotes selective regeneration

    Haili Xin; Guanjun Wang; Xinrong He; Jiang Peng; Quanyi Guo; Wenjing Xu


    Acellular nerve allograft preserves the basilar membrane tube and extracellular matrix, which pro-motes selective regeneration of neural defects via bridging. In the present study, a Sprague Dawley rat sciatic nerve was utilized to prepare acellular nerve allografts through the use of the chemical extraction method. Subsequently, the allograft was transplanted into a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect in Wistar rats, while autologous nerve grafts from Wistar rats served as controls. Compared with autologous nerve grafts, the acellular nerve allografts induced a greater number of degenerated nerve fibers from sural nerves, as well as a reduced misconnect rate in motor fibers, fewer acetyl-choline esterase-positive sural nerves, and a greater number of carbonic anhydrase-positive senso-ry nerve fibers. Results demonstrated that the acellular nerve allograft exhibited significant neural selective regeneration in the process of bridging nerve defects.

  14. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J


    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin diseases, such as delayed wound healing and skin cancer development. This review describes cellular mechanisms that give rise to self-perpetuating, collagen fibril fragmentation that creates an age-associated dermal microenvironment (AADM), which contributes to decline of human skin function. PMID:25660807

  15. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs: Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2 in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2 in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5±6.6 vs. 361.75±8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7±16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130±9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD.  Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control

  16. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs): Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Falak, Reza; Pezeshki, Mohammad; Safavifar, Farnaz; Mansouri, Parvin; Ghahary, Aziz; Saadat, Farshid; Varshokar, Kamran


    This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2) in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD) patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2) in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5+/-6.6 vs. 361.75+/-8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7+/-16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130+/-9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD. Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control signals are also

  17. TCDD induces dermal accumulation of keratinocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-10 in an organotypic model of human skin

    De Abrew, K. Nadira [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thomas-Virnig, Christina L.; Rasmussen, Cathy A. [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolterstein, Elyse A. [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Schlosser, Sandy J. [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn, E-mail: [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    The epidermis of skin is the first line of defense against the environment. A three dimensional model of human skin was used to investigate tissue-specific phenotypes induced by the environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Continuous treatment of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes with TCDD resulted in intracellular spaces between keratinocytes of the basal and immediately suprabasal layers as well as thinning of the basement membrane, in addition to the previously reported hyperkeratinization. These tissue remodeling events were preceded temporally by changes in expression of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10). In organotypic cultures MMP-10 mRNA and protein were highly induced following TCDD treatment. Q-PCR and immunoblot results from TCDD-treated monolayer cultures, as well as indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures, showed that MMP-10 was specifically contributed by the epidermal keratinocytes but not the dermal fibroblasts. Keratinocyte-derived MMP-10 protein accumulated over time in the dermal compartment of organotypic cultures. TCDD-induced epidermal phenotypes in organotypic cultures were attenuated by the keratinocyte-specific expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a known inhibitor of MMP-10. These studies suggest that MMP-10 and possibly other MMP-10-activated MMPs are responsible for the phenotypes exhibited in the basement membrane, the basal keratinocyte layer, and the cornified layer of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the epithelial–stromal microenvironment is altered in a tissue-specific manner thereby inducing structural and functional pathology in the interfollicular epidermis of human skin. - Highlights: • TCDD causes hyperkeratosis and basement membrane changes in a model of human skin. • TCDD induces MMP-10 expression in organotypic cultures

  18. Acellular Lung Scaffolds Direct Differentiation of Endoderm to Functional Airway Epithelial Cells: Requirement of Matrix-Bound HS Proteoglycans

    Sharareh Shojaie


    Full Text Available Efficient differentiation of pluripotent cells to proximal and distal lung epithelial cell populations remains a challenging task. The 3D extracellular matrix (ECM scaffold is a key component that regulates the interaction of secreted factors with cells during development by often binding to and limiting their diffusion within local gradients. Here we examined the role of the lung ECM in differentiation of pluripotent cells in vitro and demonstrate the robust inductive capacity of the native lung matrix alone. Extended culture of stem cell-derived definitive endoderm on decellularized lung scaffolds in defined, serum-free medium resulted in differentiation into mature airway epithelia, complete with ciliated cells, club cells, and basal cells with morphological and functional similarities to native airways. Heparitinase I, but not chondroitinase ABC, treatment of scaffolds revealed that the differentiation achieved is dependent on heparan sulfate proteoglycans and its bound factors remaining on decellularized scaffolds.

  19. 交联剂对脱细胞膀胱基质生物力学性能的影响%Effects of different crosslinking agents on biomechanical properties of acellular bladder matrix

    范雪梅; 李胜平; 徐惠成


    目的 研究不同交联剂对猪脱细胞膀胱基质的组织结构影响,并比较其生物力学性能,为盆底修复替代材料的选择提供依据.方法 采用表面活性剂+酶消化法去除新鲜猪膀胱的细胞成分,将脱细胞膀胱基质随机分为3组,A组经0.25%戊二醛交联,B组经0.625%京尼平交联,C组未交联.对各组材料进行HE染色,观察纤维的变化情况.使用生物力学性能测试系统检测抗拉强度、断裂伸长率、弹性模量,并进行统计学分析.结果 京尼平交联脱细胞膀胱基质后呈深蓝色,保持了天然组织构架的完整,纤维更加致密.戊二醛交联脱细胞膀胱基质后呈浅黄色,纤维排列紊乱且有断裂.新鲜猪膀胱经上述三种方法处理后,其弹性模量增大、断裂伸长率减小,而其中京尼平交联处理的脱细胞膀胱基质力学性能与新鲜膀胱组织更为相近.结论 京尼平交联的脱细胞膀胱基质组织结构的形态佳,同时较大限度地保留膀胱组织的力学性能,可能是较理想的盆底重建材料.%Objective To compare the effects of different crosslinking agents on structures and biomechanical properties of porcine acellular bladder matrix.This could provide the basic selection of ideal biomaterials for the reconstruction of female pelvis.Methods Cellular components of fresh porcine bladder were removed by detergent-enzymatic method.They were randomly divided into three groups,and group A was crosslinked with 0.25%glutaraldehyde,group B was crosslinked with 0.625% genipin,group C wasn't crosslinked.Then all samples were examined the morphology with hematoxylin and eosin staining,and biomechanical tests were also performed and evaluated the biomechanical properties by statistical analysis.Results The genipin-crosslinked acellular bladder matrix was dark blue,with very well preserved collagen fiber.The glutaraldehyde-crosslinked acellular bladder matrix was light yellow,with disordered and fracture

  20. 灌注法制备肺脱细胞基质%Pulmonary perfusion for preparation of the acellular matrix



    背景:对组织器官进行脱细胞,细胞外基质在经过去除细胞和可溶性蛋白处理之后,可维持正常的器官外形及组织结构基质成分.目的:利用灌注法制备肺脱细胞基质.方法:将 40 只 Wistar 大鼠随机均分为 2 组,常规麻醉处理后打开胸腔,获得完整的肺组织,实验组利用Langendorff灌注模型构建大鼠全肺脱细胞基质支架,对照组不予以特殊处理.动态观察和记录实验组肺脏颜色和形态变化,分别从 2 组大鼠肺脏不同部位获取小块组织,利用电子显微镜进行组织学观察,观察两组的Weigert弹力纤维联合Von Gieson结缔组织染色和苏木精-伊红染色情况.结果与结论:经1%脱氧胆酸钠溶液灌注后,实验组大鼠肺脏颜色逐渐发生改变,表现为从内至外呈分段分叶状逐渐变为白色半透明状,并可观察到清晰肺叶结构,最终肺脏呈现出均一的白色半透明状.经 Weigert 弹力纤维联合Von Gieson结缔组织染色和苏木精-伊红染色发现,对照组新鲜肺组织切片中含有大量细胞,其中包括毛细血管和成纤维细胞及内皮细胞等,细胞呈整齐排列状,具有完整的肺泡结构,弹性纤维结构清晰,胶原纤维也呈整齐排列状,结构较为紧凑;实验组肺组织细胞基本已消失,仍具有完整的肺泡形态结构,但呈较为疏松的状态且裂隙增大,弹性纤维保存良好,胶原纤维呈较疏松排列状.表明利用灌注法课可有效构建大鼠全肺组织基质支架.%BACKGROUND:The extracelular matrix with removal of cels and soluble proteins can maintain the normal shape of organs and matrix components. OBJECTIVE:To prepare the acelular matrix of lung tissue using perfusion method. METHODS:Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: under routine anesthesia, the chest was open to obtain complete lung tissue for construction of rat lung acelular matrix scaffold using Langendorff perfusion model in experimental group

  1. Abnormal secretion or extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin by dermal fibroblasts from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Milewicz, D.; Cao, S.; Cosselli, J. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)


    Abnormal synthesis, secretion, and extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin is observed in the majority of fibroblast cell strains obtained from individuals with the Marfan syndrome (>85%). These fibrillin protein abnormalities are due to mutations in the FBN1 gene. We have screened fibroblast cell strains from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) without skeletal or ocular features of the Marfan syndrome for defects in fibrillin synthesis or processing. Dermal fibroblasts obtained from biopsies were pulse labeled with [{sup 35}S]cysteine for 30 minutes and then chased for 0, 4, and 20 hours. The media, cell lysate and extracellular matrix were harvested separately, then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. We selected fibroblasts from 17 TAA patients to study based on the development of a TAA at a young age or a family history of TAAs. Cells from 3 patients synthesized and secreted fibrillin normally, but did not incorporate the fibrillin in the extracellular matrix. None of the cell strains were found to have diminished synthesis of fibrillin when compared with control cells. We were unable to detect abnormalities in the synthesis, secretion, or matrix incorporation of fibrillin by cells from 9 of the 17 patients. These results indicate that fibrillin protein defects are found in a significant number of patients with TAAs who are young or have a family history of TAAs. Analysis of the FBN1 gene for mutations in these patients with fibrillin protein defects will determine if the observed protein abnormalities are the result of FBN1 gene mutations.

  2. TCDD induces dermal accumulation of keratinocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-10 in an organotypic model of human skin.

    De Abrew, K Nadira; Thomas-Virnig, Christina L; Rasmussen, Cathy A; Bolterstein, Elyse A; Schlosser, Sandy J; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn


    The epidermis of skin is the first line of defense against the environment. A three dimensional model of human skin was used to investigate tissue-specific phenotypes induced by the environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Continuous treatment of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes with TCDD resulted in intracellular spaces between keratinocytes of the basal and immediately suprabasal layers as well as thinning of the basement membrane, in addition to the previously reported hyperkeratinization. These tissue remodeling events were preceded temporally by changes in expression of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10). In organotypic cultures MMP-10 mRNA and protein were highly induced following TCDD treatment. Q-PCR and immunoblot results from TCDD-treated monolayer cultures, as well as indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures, showed that MMP-10 was specifically contributed by the epidermal keratinocytes but not the dermal fibroblasts. Keratinocyte-derived MMP-10 protein accumulated over time in the dermal compartment of organotypic cultures. TCDD-induced epidermal phenotypes in organotypic cultures were attenuated by the keratinocyte-specific expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a known inhibitor of MMP-10. These studies suggest that MMP-10 and possibly other MMP-10-activated MMPs are responsible for the phenotypes exhibited in the basement membrane, the basal keratinocyte layer, and the cornified layer of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the epithelial-stromal microenvironment is altered in a tissue-specific manner thereby inducing structural and functional pathology in the interfollicular epidermis of human skin.

  3. 脱细胞基质补片在腹股沟疝修补术中的应用%Acellular tissue matrix mesh for inguinal herniopasty

    李绍杰; 唐健雄; 黄磊; 蔡昭; 陈革


    Objective To evaluate acellular tissue matrix mesh in inguinal hernioplasty in young male patients.Methods Clinical outcome and sexual function were evaluated on 12 young male inguinal hernia patients undergoing inguinal hernioplasty by ACTM mesh.Results The mean operation time was 62 minutes.Postoperative analgesics were needed for an average of 1.45 days (range,0 -4 days).The average postoperative hospital stay was 3.9 days,and patients were able to return to normal activity,after a mean 11.8 days.All patients were followed-up for a mean duration of 9.54 months(range,6 - 16 months).Two patients complained pain one month after surgery and the pain disappeared later without any medical treatment.There was no hernia recurrence and foreign body feelings,nor sexual and reproductive problems.Conclusions The ACTM mesh is a safe and effective material for inguinal hernioplasty,especially in young male patients.%目的 研究脱细胞基质生物补片(ACTM)在中青年男性腹股沟疝修补术中的应用价值.方法 采用脱细胞基质生物补片(ACTM)对12例中青年男性单侧腹股沟疝患者实施腹股沟疝无张力修补术,观察其临床疗效、副反应以及对患者生殖情况的影响.结果 12例患者平均手术时间(62±18) min,服用止痛药时间0~4d,平均(1.4±0.8)d.出院时间为术后2~5d,平均(3.9±0.4)d.12例患者恢复日常工作及活动时间为术后5~21 d,平均(11.8±2.5)d.12例患者术后随访6~16个月,平均(9.5±1.3)个月.其中2例(2/12,18.3%)在术后1个月有疼痛不适感,未经特殊处理,术后3个月疼痛均好转.所有患者无异物感及局部积液等表现,均无性功能障碍.结论 脱细胞基质生物补片用于腹股沟疝修补术安全有效,无严重的短期并发症,适用于有生育要求的中青年男性患者.

  4. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    Caroline A. Yao, MD


    Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy.

  5. Interactions of human tenascin-X domains with dermal extracellular matrix molecules.

    Egging, D.; Berkmortel, F. van den; Taylor, G.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.


    Tenascin-X (TNX) is a large 450 kDa extracellular matrix protein expressed in a variety of tissues including skin, joints and blood vessels. Deficiency of TNX causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome characterized by joint hypermobility, skin fragility and hyperextensible skin. Skin of TNX

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki


    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  7. A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix for pelvic reconstructive surgery

    Aguirre Oscar A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA during vaginal reconstructive surgery. Methods Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20, sexual function (PISQ-12, and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery. The significance of symptom score changes at 6 months and 1 year were determined by the t-test for paired data. Forty-three of the 45 patients completed the 12 month study. Results The majority of the subjects had cystocele (98% and/or rectocele (84% defects at study entry. At 12 months, 74% of the defects had improved to a stage 0 or 1. Mean PFDI-20 scores improved by 72% (p ®. One subject had severe pyelonephritis resulting in dialysis. This subject had a previous history of pyelonephritis, sepsis and acute renal failure. The third subject had a reported recurrent cystocele of moderate severity, possibly related to the device. No graft related erosions or pain lasting more than 30 days were reported. No subjects withdrew due to an adverse event. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the use of Xenform® Matrix in vaginal reconstructive surgery among patients with POP. Significant improvement was maintained at 12 months utilizing both objective and subjective assessment tools, confirming the safety and efficacy of this material in vaginal surgery. Trial Registration NCT01244165

  8. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  9. SMAS folded flap and allograft dermal matrix repairing parotid bed following parotidectomy to prevent facial deformity and Frey's syndrome


    PURPOSE:This study evaluates the outcome of superficial musculoaponeurotic system(SMAS)and allograft dermal matrix(ADM)in preventing facial deformity and Frey's syndrome following parotidectomy.METHODS:Forty-six patients with benign parotid tumors were randomly assigned to 4 groups.The control group consisted of 12 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy;The AMD group consisted of 10 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and underwent intraoperative placement of ADM within the parotid bed;SMAS group consisted of 11patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and SMAS folded flaps to repair parotid bed;and SMAS plus AMD group consisted of 13 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and intraoperative placement of ADM to repair parotid bed with SMAS folded flaps.All 46 patients were evaluated via a short questionnaire regarding perception of a facial contour deformity,Frey's syndrome,modified Minor's starch-Iodine test (MSIT),and clinical examination.RESULTS:Twelve months of follow-up was conducted after the treatment,the rates of satisfaction with the post-operative facial contour were 33.3%(4/12),40.0%(4/10),91.9%(10/11)and 100%(13/13)respectively in the control group,AMD group,SMAS group and SMAS plus AMD group,and the difference between the SMAS plus AMD group and the former two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).The incidences of objective Frey's syndrome by MSIT were 50.0%(6/12),20.0%(2/10),27.3%(3/11)and 7.7%(1/1 3)respectively,and the difference between the SMAS plus AMD group and the control groups was statistically significant(P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The SMAS folded flap is clinically simple to perform,which can prevent depressed facial deformity.Combination of SMAS folded flap and ADM can reduce the incidence of Frey's syndrome in patients undergoing parotidectomy.

  10. Impaired dermal wound healing in discoidin domain receptor 2-deficient mice associated with defective extracellular matrix remodeling

    Olaso Elvira


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wounding response relies on tightly regulated crosstalk between recruited fibroblasts and the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 is a tyrosine kinase receptor for fibrillar collagen expressed during pathologic scarring, for example wound healing, arthritis and cancer. We have previously shown that DDR2 phosphorylation drives key wounding responses in skin fibroblasts including proliferation, chemotactic migration and secretion of both metalloproteinases and fibrillar collagen. In this study we compared healing of cutaneous wounds in DDR2+/+ and DDR2-/- mice and analyzed specific fibroblast responses. Results Cutaneous wound healing was significantly delayed in DDR2-/- mice compared with DDR2+/+ animals. Reduced α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA expression and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 activity in the DDR2-/- wound extracts indicated defective recruitment of skin fibroblasts. DDR2-/- wounds showed decreased tensile strength during healing, which correlated with a significant reduction in collagen content and defective collagen crosslinking. Non-wounded skin in DDR2-/- mice expressed less mRNA of the crosslinking enzymes lysyl oxidase (LOX, lysyl hydroxylase1 (LH1 and matricellular 'secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine' (SPARC; also known as osteonectin. Skin fibroblasts isolated from DDR2-/- mice displayed altered mRNA expression of a cluster of collagens, proteoglycans, integrins and MMPs that have been previously correlated with DDR2 expression, and reduced LOX, LH1 and SPARC mRNA levels and proteins. Stable reconstitution of wild-type DDR2 by retroviral infection restored LOX, LH1 and SPARC mRNA and protein levels in DDR2-/- fibroblasts. Contraction of collagen gels was reduced in DDR2-/- fibroblasts, accompanied by significantly reduced phosphorylated SrcY418. Inhibition of either LOX activity by β-aminoproprionitrile or MMP activity by N-[(2R-2-(hydroxamido

  11. Reduction of facial wrinkles by hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane associated with reduction of free radical stress and support of matrix production by dermal fibroblasts

    Jensen, Gitte S; Shah, Bijal; Holtz, Robert; Patel, Ashok; Lo, Donald C


    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on wrinkle reduction in a clinical pilot study and to elucidate specific mechanisms of action using primary human immune and dermal cell-based bioassays. Methods To evaluate the effects of topical application of WSEM (8%) on human skin, an open-label 8-week study was performed involving 20 healthy females between the age of 45 years and 65 years. High-resolution photography and digital analysis were used to evaluate the wrinkle depth in the facial skin areas beside the eye (crow’s feet). WSEM was tested for total antioxidant capacity and effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species by human polymorphonuclear cells. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the antioxidant response element genes Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1. Evaluation of effects on human primary dermal fibroblasts in vitro included cellular viability and production of the matrix components collagen and elastin. Results Topical use of a WSEM-containing facial cream for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of wrinkle depth (Pantioxidants and reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells in vitro. Despite lack of a quantifiable effect on Nrf2, WSEM induced the gene expression of downstream Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1 in human keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with WSEM produced more collagen and elastin than untreated cells or cells treated with dbcAMP control. The increase in collagen production was statistically significant (Pskin significantly reduced the wrinkle depth. The underlying mechanisms of this effect may be related to protection from free radical damage at the cellular level and induction of several antioxidant response elements, combined with stimulation of human dermal fibroblasts to secrete high levels of matrix components. PMID:27789968

  12. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging: A Mini-Review.

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J


    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin diseases, such as delayed wound healing and skin cancer development. This mini-review describes cellular mechanisms that give rise to self-perpetuating, collagen fibril fragmentation that creates an age-associated dermal microenvironment, which contributes to decline of human skin function.

  13. Evaluation of cultured human dermal- and dermo-epidermal substitutes focusing on extracellular matrix components: Comparison of protein and RNA analysis.

    Oostendorp, Corien; Meyer, Sarah; Sobrio, Monia; van Arendonk, Joyce; Reichmann, Ernst; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H


    Treatment of full-thickness skin defects with split-thickness skin grafts is generally associated with contraction and scar formation and cellular skin substitutes have been developed to improve skin regeneration. The evaluation of cultured skin substitutes is generally based on qualitative parameters focusing on histology. In this study we focused on quantitative evaluation to provide a template for comparison of human bio-engineered skin substitutes between clinical and/or research centers, and to supplement histological data. We focused on extracellular matrix proteins since these components play an important role in skin regeneration. As a model we analyzed the human dermal substitute denovoDerm and the dermo-epidermal skin substitute denovoSkin. The quantification of the extracellular matrix proteins type III collagen and laminin 5 in tissue homogenates using western blotting analysis and ELISA was not successful. The same was true for assaying lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in crosslinking of matrix molecules. As an alternative, gene expression levels were measured using qPCR. Various RNA isolation procedures were probed. The gene expression profile for specific dermal and epidermal genes could be measured reliably and reproducibly. Differences caused by changes in the cell culture conditions could easily be detected. The number of cells in the skin substitutes was measured using the PicoGreen dsDNA assay, which was found highly quantitative and reproducible. The (dis) advantages of assays used for quantitative evaluation of skin substitutes are discussed.


    田春祥; 范雪娇; 陈晓禾; 邓力; 秦廷武; 罗静聪; 李秀群; 吕青


    Objective Extracellular matrix is one of the focus researches of the adipose tissue engineering. To investigate the appropriate method to prepare the porcine skeletal muscle acellular matrix and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the matrix. Methods The fresh skeletal muscle tissues were harvested from healthy adult porcine and were sliced into 2-3 mm thick sheets, which were treated by hypotonic-detergent method to remove the cells from the tissue. The matrix was then examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The toxic effects of the matrix were tested by MTT. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were isolated from adipose tissue donated by patients with breast cancer, and identified by morphology, flow cytometry, and differentiation ability. Then, hADSCs of passage 3 were seeded into the skeletal muscle acellular matrix, and cultured in the medium. The cellular behavior was assessed by calcein-AM (CA) and propidium iodide (PI) staining at 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days after culturing. Results Histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the muscle fibers were removed completely with the basement membrane structure; a large number of collagenous matrix presented as regular network, porous-like structure. The cytotoxicity score of the matrix was grade 1, which meant that the matrix had good cytocompatibil ity. The CA and PI staining showed the seeded hADSCs had the potential of spread and proliferation on the matrix. Conclusion Porcine skeletal muscle acellular matrix has good biocompatibility and a potential to be used as an ideal biomaterial scaffold for adipose tissue engineering.%目的 细胞外基质是脂肪组织工程材料的研究热点之一.通过探讨骨骼肌无细胞基质的制作方法及生物相容性,为其在脂肪组织工程中的应用奠定基础. 方法 取健康成年小香猪新鲜骨骼肌组织,横切成厚2~3mm的组织块,采用低渗-去垢剂法脱细胞

  15. Induction of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by cholesterol depletion leads to the conversion of proMMP-2 into active MMP-2 in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Kim, Sangmin; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Youngae; Lee, Jeongyoon; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho


    Cholesterol is one of major components of cell membrane and plays a role in vesicular trafficking and cellular signaling. We investigated the effects of cholesterol on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation in human dermal fibroblasts. We found that tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression and active form MMP-2 (64 kD) were dose-dependently increased by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a cholesterol depletion agent. In contrast, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation were suppressed by cholesterol repletion. Then we investigated the regulatory mechanism of TIMP-2 expression by cholesterol depletion. We found that the phosphorylation of JNK as well as ERK was significantly increased by cholesterol depletion. Moreover, cholesterol depletion-induced TIMP-2 expression and MMP-2 activation was significantly decreased by MEK inhibitor U0126, and JNK inhibitor SP600125, respectively. While a low dose of recombinant TIMP-2 (100 ng/ml) increased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD), the high dose of TIMP-2 (>or=200 ng/ml) decreased the level of active MMP-2 (64 kD). Taken together, we suggest that the induction of TIMP-2 by cholesterol depletion leads to the conversion of proMMP-2 (72 kD) into active MMP-2 (64 kD) in human dermal fibroblasts.

  16. A titanium surface with nano-ordered spikes and pores enhances human dermal fibroblastic extracellular matrix production and integration of collagen fibers.

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kato, Eiji; Yamamoto, Akiko; Sakurai, Kaoru


    The acquisition of substantial dermal sealing determines the prognosis of percutaneous titanium-based medical devices or prostheses. A nano-topographic titanium surface with ordered nano-spikes and pores has been shown to induce periodontal-like connective tissue attachment and activate gingival fibroblastic functions. This in vitro study aimed to determine whether an alkali-heat (AH) treatment-created nano-topographic titanium surface could enhance human dermal fibroblastic functions and binding strength to the deposited collagen on the titanium surface. The surface topographies of commercially pure titanium machined discs exposed to two different AH treatments were evaluated. Human dermal fibroblastic cultures grown on the discs were evaluated in terms of cellular morphology, proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, and physicochemical binding strength of surface-deposited collagen. An isotropically-patterned, shaggy nano-topography with a sponge-like inner network and numerous well-organized, anisotropically-patterned fine nano-spikes and pores were observed on each nano-topographic surface type via scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to the typical spindle-shaped cells on the machined surfaces, the isotropically- and anisotropically-patterned nano-topographic titanium surfaces had small circular/angular cells containing contractile ring-like structures and elongated, multi-shaped cells with a developed cytoskeletal network and multiple filopodia and lamellipodia, respectively. These nano-topographic surfaces enhanced dermal-related ECM synthesis at both the protein and gene levels, without proinflammatory cytokine synthesis or reduced proliferative activity. Deposited collagen fibers were included in these surfaces and sufficiently bound to the nano-topographies to resist the physical, enzymatic and chemical detachment treatments, in contrast to machined surfaces. Well-organized, isotropically

  17. Reduction of facial wrinkles by hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane associated with reduction of free radical stress and support of matrix production by dermal fibroblasts

    Jensen GS


    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Bijal Shah,2 Robert Holtz,3 Ashok Patel,4 Donald C Lo2 1NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, OR, 2Department of Neurobiology, Center for Drug Discovery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 3BioInnovation Laboratories, Inc., Lakewood, CO, 4Centre Manufacturing LLC, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM on wrinkle reduction in a clinical pilot study and to elucidate specific mechanisms of action using primary human immune and dermal cell-based bioassays.Methods: To evaluate the effects of topical application of WSEM (8% on human skin, an open-label 8-week study was performed involving 20 healthy females between the age of 45 years and 65 years. High-resolution photography and digital analysis were used to evaluate the wrinkle depth in the facial skin areas beside the eye (crow’s feet. WSEM was tested for total antioxidant capacity and effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species by human polymorphonuclear cells. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the antioxidant response element genes Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1. Evaluation of effects on human primary dermal fibroblasts in vitro included cellular viability and production of the matrix components collagen and elastin.Results: Topical use of a WSEM-containing facial cream for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of wrinkle depth (P<0.05. WSEM contained antioxidants and reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells in vitro. Despite lack of a quantifiable effect on Nrf2, WSEM induced the gene expression of downstream Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1 in human keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with WSEM produced more collagen and elastin than untreated cells or cells treated with dbcAMP control. The increase in collagen production was statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: The topical use

  18. Study of histology in accellular dermal matrix after being transplanted in vivo over time%脱细胞真皮基质移植后组织学转归的实验研究

    廖婷; 邹瑞; 闫璟; 汤珊; 朴正国


    Objective To demonstrate the histology in acellular dermal matrix(ADM)after being transplanted in vivo over time. Methods Forty male SD rats were recruited for the experiment. Subcutaneous implantation of an 1 cm × 1 cm ADM was given in the left sides on the back of the rat for the experimental group, while only dissection and suturing were performed in right side of the back for the control group. All the animals will be sacrificed at appointed time after operation, Five ADM samples were harvested in each time point. The content and proportion of collagen type were examined with HE staining, Picrosirius staining, Masson′s trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemical staining (targets: pan macrophage, M1 macrophage and M2 macrophage). Results All rats survived after operative without any complications. Significant differences of thickness were not observed at the end of 5 months; HE scores suggested that ADM increased in cell infiltration scores in 2 weeks before the plateau , vascularity also showed a similar trend; Collagen trichrome staining showed a substantial increase in density of collagen bundles with time. The comparison of the proportion of collagen among days showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining of M1 and M2 showed that macrophages had distinct polarization profiles in materials. Furthermore, the comparison of M1 vs M2 response associated with different materials showed significant differences in all time points (P < 0.05). Conclusions The chemically cross-linked ADM could keep long time in the body; ADM significantly stimulated proinflammatory of M2 differentiation from M1 in constructive remodeling.%目的::研究脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)植入体内后的长期组织学转归规律。方法:取成年雄性SD 大鼠40只于脊柱双侧分别形成1.5 cm ×1.5 cm大小U形切口,左侧(试验组)植入ADM,右侧(阴性对照组)切断后仅原位缝合。于术

  19. Interleukin-1β attenuates myofibroblast formation and extracellular matrix production in dermal and lung fibroblasts exposed to transforming growth factor-β1.

    Masum M Mia

    Full Text Available One of the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokines is transforming growth factor (TGFβ. TGFβ is involved in the activation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, resulting in the hallmark of fibrosis: the pathological accumulation of collagen. Interleukin-1β (IL1β can influence the severity of fibrosis, however much less is known about the direct effects on fibroblasts. Using lung and dermal fibroblasts, we have investigated the effects of IL1β, TGFβ1, and IL1β in combination with TGFβ1 on myofibroblast formation, collagen synthesis and collagen modification (including prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. We found that IL1β alone has no obvious pro-fibrotic effect on fibroblasts. However, IL1β is able to inhibit the TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast formation as well as collagen synthesis. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1, the Hedgehog transcription factor that is involved in the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is upregulated by TGFβ1. The addition of IL1β reduced the expression of GLI1 and thereby also indirectly inhibits myofibroblast formation. Other potentially anti-fibrotic effects of IL1β that were observed are the increased levels of MMP1, -2, -9 and -14 produced by fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1/IL1β in comparison with fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1 alone. In addition, IL1β decreased the TGFβ1-induced upregulation of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in collagen cross-linking. Furthermore, we found that lung and dermal fibroblasts do not always behave identically towards IL1β. Suppression of COL1A1 by IL1β in the presence of TGFβ1 is more pronounced in lung fibroblasts compared to dermal fibroblasts, whereas a higher upregulation of MMP1 is seen in dermal fibroblasts. The role of IL1β in fibrosis should be reconsidered, and the differences in phenotypical properties of fibroblasts derived from different organs should be taken into account in future

  20. 脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞治疗肛瘘的临床体会%Clinical study on anal fistula treatment with acellular extracellular matrix

    安少雄; 黄斌


    Objective To observe the effects of the efficacy of acellular extracellular matrix (AEM) treatment for anal fistula. Methods Twelve patients with anal fistula were treated with AEM. The clinical effects were observed. Results Nine cases were cured, but 3 failed and 1 case relapsed after 6 months. The heal rate of anal fistula was 75%. Conclusions This method has advantages of mild traumas and less pain, rapid recovery rapidly, and the most important is that this treatment could protect anal function and appearance. However, the long-term effect needs further study.%目的 探讨脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞治疗肛瘘的临床疗效.方法 采用脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞治疗12例肛瘘患者,观察其临床效果.结果 本组患者瘘管愈合时间7~18 d,平均(13.0±3.3)d.12例患者中治愈9例,治愈率为75%,失败3例,随访6个月复发1例,复发率为8.3%.本组无肛门失禁、肛门畸形发生.结论 脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞治疗肛瘘具有创伤小、疼痛轻、恢复快、不损害肛门功能和外形的优点,但远期效果需进一步观察.

  1. The curative effect of acellular allodermis matrix on scar proliferation of patients with deep burn wounds of function positions%脱细胞异体真皮对功能部位深度烧伤创面愈合瘢痕增生的改善作用

    蒙诚跃; 王润秀; 梁自乾; 张立明; 汪永连


    @@ BACKGROUND:Because there was no thick skin for skin grafting supplied by enough area of supplying skin of patients with extensive area burn only autograft skin particle,split thickness autologous skin graft or cultural autograft can be applied in repairing wound,which cannot resolve the problems of contracture and deformity caused by scar proliferation after healing of wounds and dysfunction of joint.Acellular allodermis matrix of J 1 type is a kind of tissue with lowest antigenicity and thought as an ideal substituted material for resolving difficult problem of scar proliferation and dysfunction.

  2. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei


    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  3. Allogenic acellular extracellular matrix repairs high anal fistula%脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞修复高位肛瘘

    王健诚; 王炜; 张科; 邹世镇


    背景:治疗高位肛瘘的方法有瘘管剔除、切开挂线、选择性黏膜瓣推移、生物蛋白胶封堵、括约肌间瘘管结扎等,大都存在创面愈合间长、一次成功率较低、复发率偏高的不足,术后并发症发生率高。  目的:观察应用脱细胞异体真皮基质治疗高位肛瘘的临床疗效,探讨治疗高位肛瘘的微创治疗新方法。  方法:选择100例高位肛瘘患者,根据患者意愿分2组治疗,治疗组采用脱细胞异体真皮基质填塞治疗,对照组采用传统的肛瘘低位切开并高位挂线治疗,比较两组手术时间、术中出血量、术后目测类比评分、术后疼痛持续时间、肛门失禁严重程度评分、创面愈合时间、一期手术成功率、治愈率及复发率。  结果与结论:治疗组手术时间、术中出血量、创面愈合时间、术后目测类比评分、术后疼痛持续时间、肛门失禁严重程度评分均低于对照组(P OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical effect of acelular extracelular matrix in the treatment of high anal fistula, and to explore a minimaly invasive treatment for high anal fistula. METHODS: Totaly 100 cases of high anal fistula were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Treatment group were treated with alogenic acelular extracelular matrix, and control group were treated with traditional low incision with high thread-drawing. Then, we observed and compared the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative pain score (visual analog scale score), postoperative pain duration, anal incontinence severity score (Wexner score), wound healing time, one-stage success rate, cure rate, recurrence rate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the treatment group showed lower scores in the operation time, bleeding volume, wound healing time, visual analog scale score, postoperative pain duration, and anal incontinence severity score

  4. Porcine acellular dermis-based breast reconstruction: complications and outcomes following adjuvant radiotherapy

    Ng, Cho Ee; Pieri, Andrew; Fasih, Tarannum


    Background Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) such as StratticeTM are increasingly used in UK during implant-based reconstruction. However, there are mixed opinions regarding the compatibility of radiotherapy treatment in pre- and post-reconstructed breasts. The aims of this study are to audit the rates of radiation induced complications in patients who underwent breast reconstruction using StratticeTM and establish whether there is an association between timing of radiotherapy and complication ...

  5. 利用脂肪脱细胞基质构建组织工程化脂肪的实验研究%A Study on Human Acellular Adipose Tissue Matrix in Construction of Tissue Engineered Fat

    宋玫; 刘毅; 惠玲


    Objective To investigate the possibility of human acellular adipose tissue matrix ( ACAM) in con-struction of tissue-engineered fat. Methods The adipose tissues were harvested from discarded human adipose tissue in abdominal skin graft operation, and ACAM was obtained after treatment of repeated freeze-thaw, organic solvent extrac-tion and enzyme digestion. The decellularization effect and microstructure of matrix was examined using histological stai-ning and scanning electron microscopy. The third-generation human adipose derived stromal cells ( hADSCs) were la-beled with DiI, and were cultivated with ACAM. The complexes biocompatibility was detected, and then cell-scaffold complexes were subcutaneously transplanted in the back of Wistar rats. The adipogenic capacity in vivo was judged using general and fluorescence microscopy, wet-weight determination, histological detection and oil red O staining. Results The obtained ACAM consisted completely of extracellular matrix without any cell remains. General and Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the acellular matrix had porous structure and good cell compatibility. The new adipose tis-sues formed 8 weeks after transplantation in experiment and control groups. The wet-weight of transplants in the experi-ment group was significantly heavier than that in the control group (P<0. 01). HE and red oil O staining confirmed that the graft was mature adipose tissue, and DiI fluorescent staining proved that it was exogenous ADSCs. Conclusion Hu-man ACAM has good biocompatibility and biodegradability, and therefore it is suitable for cell proliferation and differenti-ation. ACAM scaffold combined with hADSCs may successfully form tissue-engineered adipose tissue in vivo. It can be used as an ideal method to construct tissue-engineered adipose tissues.%目的 探讨以人脂肪组织脱细胞基质( ACAM )作为支架材料构建组织工程化脂肪组织的可行性. 方法 取腹部取皮术后的剩余人脂肪组

  6. Surgical therapy by sandwich transplantation using a dermal collagen-elastin matrix and full thickness split grafts and gait rehabilitation with individualized orthesis

    Uwe Wollina


    Full Text Available Painful callosities of the feet (PCOF are a rare complaint in children with severe impairment of mobility and quality of life. There is no medical treatment available.We investigated the usefulness of a recently developed combined transplant technique-the sandwich transplantation with dermal collagen-elastin template in this rare condition. A 14-year-old boy suffered from PCOF for several years without any improvement by topical therapy, dermabrasion, and oral retinoids. He was unable to walk normally and suffered from severe pain. We performed a complete deep excision of the hyperkeratotic plantar tissue in general anaesthesia in combination with sandwich transplantation in the same setting. Dry sheets of collagen-elastin matrix (1 mm thickness were placed on the soft tissue defects and covered by full-thickness mesh graft transplants from the upper leg. An individualized orthosis was produced for gait rehabilitation. Two weeks after surgery the gait-related pain was reduced remarkably. Using the orthosis, the boy was able to walk pain-free even on staircase. Surgery of PCOF with sandwich transplantation and gait rehabilitation appears to be a promising strategy for this rare condition.

  7. Solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation induces histone 3 methylation changes in the gene promoters of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 in primary human dermal fibroblasts.

    Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max


    Molecular signalling pathways delineating the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are currently well-defined; however, the effects of UVR on epigenetic mechanisms of MMP induction are not as well understood. In this study, we examined solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR)-induced gene expression changes and alterations to histone methylation in the promoters of MMP1 and MMP3 in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Gene expression changes, including the increased expression of MMP1 and MMP3, were observed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays and confirmed by qRT-PCR. Using ChIP-PCR, we showed for the first time that in HDF irradiated with 12 J/cm(2) ssUVR, the H3K4me3 transcriptional activating mark increased and the H3K9me2 transcriptional silencing mark decreased in abundance in promoters, correlating with the observed elevation of MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA levels following ssUVR exposure. Changes in mRNA levels due to a single exposure were transient and decreased 5 days after exposure.

  8. Full incorporation of Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix in a reinforced hiatal hernia repair: a case report

    Freedman Bruce E


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix was used to reinforce an esophageal hiatal hernia repair. A second surgery was required 11 months later to repair a slipped Nissen; this allowed for examination of the hiatal hernia repair and showed the graft to be well vascularized and fully incorporated. Case presentation A 71-year-old Caucasian woman presented with substernal burning and significant dysphagia. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed a type III complex paraesophageal hiatal hernia. She underwent laparoscopic surgery to repair a hiatal hernia that was reinforced with a xenograft (Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA along with a Nissen fundoplication. A second surgery was required to repair a slipped Nissen; this allowed for examination of the hiatal repair and graft incorporation 11 months after the initial surgery. Conclusion In this case, a porcine acellular dermal matrix was an effective tool to reinforce the crural hiatal hernia repair. The placement of the mesh and method of fixation are believed to be crucial to the success of the graft. It was found to be well vascularized 11 months after the original placement with no signs of erosion, stricture, or infection. Further studies and long-term follow-up are required to support the findings of this case report.

  9. Adipose tissue regeneration in vivo using micronized acellular allogenic dermis as an injectable scaffold.

    Lee, Hee Young; Yang, Hyun Jin; Rhie, Jong Won; Han, Ki Talk


    Over the past few years, the clinical use of injectable artificial materials in plastic surgery has increased. In addition, autologous lipoimplantation is being performed for volume replacement of soft tissue for aesthetic purposes. In this study, acellular allogenic dermis was utilized as a scaffold for the culturing of preadipocytes, confirming the possibility of three-dimensional proliferation of progenitor cells, the eventual differentiation of stromal cells in adipose tissue into the adipocytes, and the in vivo implantation of such adipocytes to form fat tissue. Preadipocytes, recently called ASCs (adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells), were cultured in acellular allogenic dermis, successfully attached to the dermal particles in a three-dimensional structure, and proliferated, differentiated, and eventually formed a cluster. For the in vivo implantation, four groups were formed: the first group was cultured within the dermal scaffold for 24 h before implantation (24-h preconditioned group), the second group was induced for differentiation for 10 days before implantation (10-day preconditioned group), the third group was implanted immediately after cell propagation (nonpreconditioned group), and the control group was implanted with only dermal scaffold. In vivo implanted preadipocytes showed great differentiation into adipocytes within the dermal scaffolds. Also, the 10-day preconditioned group showed a greater volume of fat tissue compared to the 24-h preconditioned group. From these results, we confirmed that after a three-dimensional culture in acellular allogenic dermis, implanted preadipocytes formed a greater amount of fat tissue and that this could be a possible effective method for future soft tissue restoration.

  10. 无细胞异种真皮基质动物移植实验和临床应用观察%Fabrication and Observation of Clinical Application of Xenogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix

    钱春华; 杜国强; 姜笃银; 张玮


    目的 为降低异种(猪)真皮组织的抗原性,探讨其临床复合移植的可行性.方法 健康小猪中厚皮,半数经戊二醛交联,采用胰蛋白酶和TritonX-100等处理,分别制成未交联(sADM0)和交联型(sADM1)网状脱细胞真皮基质,通过动物实验和临床应用,观察二种sADM移植效果和组织学变化情况.结果 (1)兔皮下埋植sADM0早期自体组织细胞侵入迅速,炎症反应重,皮片降解和收缩明显,8周后外观和组织学均难辨别,而sADM1早期组织相容性较差,炎性反应轻,皮片降解和收缩均不明显,至30周时,其外观和组织学结构仍较完整.(2)10例烧伤患者Ⅲ度创面和1例胸部瘢痕切除后,以自体薄中厚皮(TTS)和自体刃厚皮或超薄皮(OTS)为对照,进行sADM+OTS复合移植,19块复合皮平均成活率为78.9%,与TTS组无显著差异.其中sADM0+OTS组早期炎症反应和创面收缩明显,外观效果与OTS组相当;在sADM1+OTS组,早期炎症反应和创面收缩较轻,外观平整,触软,与TTS组相当,但其中有3例患者的6块创面在术后13~20周时,复合皮出现破溃、sADM1外露及组织学异物巨噬细胞等排异反应.结论 临床用交联型sADM作复合皮的真皮替代物,能减缓早期免疫反应,提高OTS移植效果,但仍不能完全防止迟发性异种排异反应,提示sADM的制备工艺有待改进.

  11. The manufacturing and clinical application of heterogenous acellular dermal matrix%异种脱细胞真皮基质的制作和临床应用观察

    姜笃银; 陈璧; 徐明达; 胡大海; 汤朝武; 朱雄翔


    目的降低异种(猪)真皮组织的抗原性,探讨在临床复合移植的可行性.方法健康小猪中厚皮,半数经戊二醛交联后采用胰蛋白酶和TritonX-100等脱细胞处理,制成未交联(sADM0)和交联型(sADM1)网状脱细胞真皮基质,通过动物实验和临床应用,观察2种sADM组织学变化和移植效果.结果 (1)兔皮下埋植sADM0宿主细胞侵入迅速,炎症反应和组织降解明显,而sADM1炎症反应轻,皮片降解和收缩不明显;(2)10例烧伤患者Ⅲ度创面和1例胸部瘢痕切除后,以自体薄中厚皮(ATS)和自体刃厚皮或超薄皮(UTS)为对照,进行sADM+UTS复合移植,19块复合皮平均成活率为78.9%,与ATS组无显著差异.其中sADM0+UTS组早期炎症反应和创面收缩明显,外观效果与UTS组相当;在sADM1+UTS组,早期炎症反应和创面收缩较轻,外观平整,触软,与ATS组移植效果相当,但有3例患者的6块创面在术后平均(12.8±6.9)周时,出现表皮破溃、sADM1外露和组织学严重的异物巨噬细胞反应.结论临床用交联型sADM作复合皮的真皮替代物,能减缓早期免疫反应,提高UTS移植效果,但仍不可避免迟发性异种排异反应.

  12. Aplicación clínica de la matriz dérmica acelular para prevenir recesiones gingivales Clinical application of acellular dermal matrix to prevent gingival recessions

    C.M. Ardila Medina


    Un objetivo primordial de la cirugía plástica periodontal es cubrir las superficies radiculares expuestas cuando esta condición causa al paciente problemas estéticos, hipersensibilidad dentinal, caries radicular o dificulta una adecuada remoción de la placa bacteriana. Muchas técnicas quirúrgicas se han propuesto para la corrección de exposiciones radiculares: autoinjerto gingival libre, injertos pediculados y técnicas bilaminares. La regeneración tisular guiada también se ha ofrecido como ot...

  13. 异种(猪)脱细胞真皮基质移植对皮肤弹性的影响%Influence on the viscoelasticity of wound healing using composite xenogeneic(porcine)acellular dermal matrix grafts

    赵京玉; 柴家科; 宋慧锋; 许明火; 赖琳英


    目的 比较异种(猪)脱细胞真皮基质(PADM)与自体薄厚皮、自体薄厚皮覆盖缺损创面后,与正常皮肤在黏弹性方面的差异性.方法 选用10只清洁级日本大耳白兔,每只白兔背部制作3个全层缺损创面,根据创面不同处理方式分为三组:PADM+自体薄厚皮(PADM组)、自体薄厚皮(TS组)和正常皮肤组(NS组).术后30 d时测量愈合创面挛缩率,行病理观察、离体松弛和应力应变生物力学测定.对结果进行统计学分析.结果 术后30 d,PADM组创面挛缩率低,与TS组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05),PADM组较NS组与TS组差(P 0. 05 ). However, PADM group was worse ( P < 0. 05 ) than other groups. PADM group' curve was most deviated from normal skin, TS group curve was closed mostly to normal skin. Conclusions Compare with normal skin,the elastic of TS group is much better than that of Group PADM .

  14. Study of compatibility of acellular cartilage extracellular matrix-derived porous scaffolds with sheep nucleus pulposus cells%软骨脱细胞细胞外基质多孔支架与山羊髓核细胞生物相容性研究

    伍耀宏; 徐宝山; 杨强; 李秀兰; 张杨; 夏群; 张春秋; 许海委


    Objective To study the compatibility of acellular cartilage extracellular matrix-derived porous scaffolds with sheep nucleus pulposus cells.Methods Articular cartilage derived from pigs was physically shattered and decellularized,and then made into porous scaffolds with freeze-drying techniques.Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated from the goat lumbar intervertebral disc,and P1 generation were obtained after culturing.The toxicity of leaching liquor from scaffolds was tested by MTT assay.The cells were seeded onto scaffolds with a density of 5 x 106/ml and cultured for 48h in vitro,activity and adhesion for cells on scaffolds were evaluated by inverted microscope,HE staining,LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy.Results Acellular cartilage extracellular matrix-derived porous scaffolds were smooth and transparent,isolated nucleus pulposus cells showed typical chondrocyte-like morphology.MTT assay demonstrated that proliferation among the groups has no significant difference(P>0.05).Cells showed spherical or short-spindle morphology and attached to the scaffolds evenly under the inverted microscope and scanning electron microscopy,and HE staining confirmed the even attachment of the cells.All the cells showed green fluorescence (live cells) while no red fluorescence (dead cells) was observed after staining with LIVE/DEAD dye.Conclusion The acellular cartilage extracellular matrix-derived porous scaffolds can be used as the nucleus pulposus tissue for sharing similar extracellular matrix composition with nucleus pulposus tissue and possess good cell compatibility with the sheep nucleus pulposus cells.%目的 制备软骨脱细胞细胞外基质多孔支架,并探讨其与山羊髓核细胞的生物相容性.方法 猪关节软骨经研磨、脱细胞、冷冻干燥技术等处理制成三维多孔支架;从山羊腰椎间盘中分离出髓核细胞,培养后获取P1代细胞;四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)检测支架浸提

  15. Morphology of spinal cord extracellular matrixderived acellular scaffolds fabricated in rats

    Wenhua Yin; Kaiwu Lu; Dadi Jin


    Acellular peripheral allograft scaffolds can be fabricated using chemical extraction techniques, but methods for producing acellular scaffold derived from spinal cord tissue are not currently available.The present study demonstrated that chemical extraction using Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate could be used to completely remove the cells, axons and neural sheaths in spinal cord extracellular matrix-derived scaffolds. The matrix fibers were longitudinally arranged in a wave-like formation, and were connected by fiber junctions. Lattice-shaped fiber cages appeared and developed into bone trabecula-like changes. The natural structure of matrix fibers in the scaffolds was maintained; this helps to guide the differentiation and migration of implanted stem cells. Decellularized spinal cord extracellular matrix-derived scaffolds can provide an ideal substance for fabricating tissue-engineered spinal cord.

  16. 人肺癌H460细胞在脱细胞化鼠肺基质支架中的生长%Human lung cancer cells grow on acellular rat lung matrix

    朱海波; 张倩; 王秀丽; 徐小玉; 王宏; 王玲


    Objective To explore the feasibility of human lung canccr cells grown in a decellularized rat lung matrix by perfusion.Methods Lungs were harvested from adult SD rats.Native cells of rat lungs were removed using 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% Triton X-100 by perfusion to create a decellularized rat lung matrix.After decellularization,Human lung cancer H460 cells were implauted into the decellularized rat lung matrix and grown in a customized bioreactor with perfusion of oxygenated media for 1-2 weeks.Results Decellularized rat lung matrix showed preservation of matrix architecture devoid of all rat cells.H460 cells could grow in the bioreactor.Conclusions Human lung cancer H460 cells can grow in a customized bioreactor on a decellularized rat lung matrix.This ex vivo model can be used potentially to gain a deeper understanding of the biologic processes involved in human lung cancer.%目的 探索人肺癌细胞在用灌注法脱细胞的鼠肺基质支架中生长的可行性.方法 取成年SD大鼠心肺组织,利用0.1%十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)溶液及1% TritonX-100溶液对离体的鼠肺行灌注法脱细胞,将人肺癌H460细胞株种植于脱细胞化鼠肺基质中,并将其置于特制的生物反应器中灌注培养l~2周.结果 脱细胞化后的鼠肺基质去除了大鼠自身细胞,保留了细胞外基质结构.H460细胞在脱细胞化鼠肺基质支架中生长.结论 人肺癌H460细胞株能在去细胞化的鼠肺基质支架中生长,这种间接体内模型的成功建立对人类肺癌的生物学进展研究有重要的意义.

  17. 脱细胞软骨基质来源的多孔支架复合山羊髓核细胞体内初步构建组织工程髓核的实验研究%Construction of tissue engineering nucleus pulposus in vivo by combining acellular cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds with goat nucleus pulposus cells

    伍耀宏; 徐宝山; 杨强; 李秀兰; 张杨; 夏群; 许海委


    [Objective] To evaluate the feasibility of construction of tissue engineering nucleus pulposus in vivo by combining acellular cartilage matrix porous scaffolds with PKH26 labeled goat nucleus pulposus cells.[Methods] Porous scaffolds were made of acellular cartilage matrix and evaluated through SEM,Sirius red and HE staining,and toxicity of the scaffolds was assessed by MTT test.P1 generation goat nucleus pulposus cells were identified by safranin O staining and collagen type Ⅱ immunocytochemistry staining.PKH26 labeled cells were seeded onto scaffolds.After 3 d culture in vitro,cell-scaffold hybrids were assessed by LIVE/DEAD staining,then implanted into nude mice subcutaneously for 6w culture.In vivo hybrids were assessed by fluorescence microscope,safranin O staining and collagen type Ⅰ,Ⅱ immunocytochemistry staining.[Results] Pores in scaffold were evenly distributed and connected under SEM,Sirius red and HE staining showed evenly distributed pores.MTT assay demonstrated proliferation among the groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05).P1 generation cells showed chondrocyte-like morphology and stained positively for safranin O and collagen type Ⅱ immunocytochemistry.PKH26 labeled cells showed red fluorescence,cells on scaffolds in vitro showed green fluorescence by LIVE/DEAD staining.After 6w in vivo culture,through fluorescence microscope,safranin O staining and collagen type Ⅰ,Ⅱ immunocytochemistry staining showed positive.[Conclusion] Hybrid of acellular cartilage matrix and goat nucleus pulposus cells can produce nucleus pulposus tissue in vivo.%[目的]探讨脱细胞软骨基质多孔支架复合PKH26标记的山羊髓核细胞体内异位构建组织工程髓核的可行性.[方法]制备脱细胞软骨基质来源的多孔支架,扫描电镜(scanning electron microscope,SEM)观察、天狼星红染色、HE染色观察、MTT毒性检测;分离山羊髓核细胞,通过倒置显微镜观察、番红O染色、Ⅱ型胶原免疫组

  18. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Extracellular Matrix Microstructures in Engineered Tissue: A Whole-Field Spectroscopic Imaging Approach.

    Xu, Zhengbin; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Kim, Young L; Han, Bumsoo


    Quality and functionality of engineered tissues are closely related to the microstructures and integrity of their extracellular matrix (ECM). However, currently available methods for characterizing ECM structures are often labor-intensive, destructive, and limited to a small fraction of the total area. These methods are also inappropriate for assessing temporal variations in ECM structures. In this study, to overcome these limitations and challenges, we propose an elastic light scattering approach to spatiotemporally assess ECM microstructures in a relatively large area in a nondestructive manner. To demonstrate its feasibility, we analyze spectroscopic imaging data obtained from acellular collagen scaffolds and dermal equivalents as model ECM structures. For spatial characterization, acellular scaffolds are examined after a freeze/thaw process mimicking a cryopreservation procedure to quantify freezing-induced structural changes in the collagen matrix. We further analyze spatial and temporal changes in ECM structures during cell-driven compaction in dermal equivalents. The results show that spectral dependence of light elastically backscattered from engineered tissue is sensitively associated with alterations in ECM microstructures. In particular, a spectral decay rate over the wavelength can serve as an indicator for the pore size changes in ECM structures, which are at nanometer scale. A decrease in the spectral decay rate suggests enlarged pore sizes of ECM structures. The combination of this approach with a whole-field imaging platform further allows visualization of spatial heterogeneity of EMC microstructures in engineered tissues. This demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method that nano- and micrometer scale alteration of the ECM structure can be detected and visualized at a whole-field level. Thus, we envision that this spectroscopic imaging approach could potentially serve as an effective characterization tool to nondestructively, accurately

  19. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues.

    Stefan Schleifenbaum

    Full Text Available Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens.Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for soft tissues was standardized, including the adaption of the tissue's water content and partial plastination to minimize material slippage as well as templates for normed sample dimensions and precise cross-section measurements. The native and acellular tissues were compared at the microscopic and ultrastructural level with a focus on type I collagens.Increased elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress values were quantified in acellular esophagi and ureters compared to the native condition. In contrast, these values were strongly decreased in the skin after acellularization. Acellularization-related decreases in maximum strain were found in all tissues. Type I collagens were well-preserved in these samples; however, clotting and a loss of cross-linking type I collagens was observed ultrastructurally. Elastins and fibronectins were preserved in the esophagi and ureters. A loss of the epidermal layer and decreased fibronectin content was present in the skin.Acellularization induces changes in the tensile properties of soft tissues. Some of these changes appear to be organ specific. Loss of cross-linking type I collagen may indicate increased mechanical strength due to decreasing transverse forces acting upon the scaffolds, whereas fibronectin loss may be related to decreased load-bearing capacity. Potentially, the alterations in tissue mechanics are linked to organ function and to the interplay of cells and the extracellular matrix, which is different in hollow organs when compared to skin.

  20. Evaluation of an extracellular matrix-derived acellular biphasic scaffold/cell construct in the repair of a large articular high-load-bearing osteochondral defect in a canine model

    YANG Qiang; MA Xin-long; HU Yong-cheng; XU Bao-shan; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; ZHAO Bin; ZHANG Li; WANG Ai-yuan; XU Weng-jing; XIA Qun


    Background Osteochondral lesion repair is a challenging area of orthopedic surgery.Here we aimed to develop an extraceliular matrix-derived,integrated,biphasic scaffold and to investigate the regeneration potential of the scaffold loaded with chondrogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the repair of a large,high-load-bearing,osteochondral defect in a canine model.Methods The biphasic scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).Osteochondral constructs were fabricated in vitro using chondrogenically-induced BMSCs and a biphasic scaffold,then assessed by SEM for cell attachment.Osteochondral defects (4.2 mm (diameter) x 6 mm (depth)) were created in canine femoral condyles and treated with a construct of the biphasic scaffold/chondrogenically-induced BMSCs or with a cell-free scaffold (control group).The repaired defects were evaluated for gross morphology and by histological,biochemical,biomechanical and micro-CT analyses at 3 and 6 months post-implantation.Results The osteochondral defects of the experimental group showed better repair than those of the control group.Statistical analysis demonstrated that the macroscopic and histologic grading scores of the experimental group were always higher than those of the control group,and that the scores for the experimental group at 6 months were significantly higher than those at 3 months.The cartilage stiffness in the experimental group (6 months) was (6.95±0.79)N/mm,70.77% of normal cartilage; osteochondral bone stiffness in the experimental group was (158.16±94.30) N/mm,74.95% of normal tissue; glycosaminoglycan content of tissue-engineered neocartilage was (218±21.6) μg/mg (dry weight),84.82% of native cartilage.Micro-CT analysis of the subchondral bone showed mature trabecular bone regularly formed at 3 and 6 months

  1. Acellular dermis combined with sodium hyaluronate in the reconstruction of tendon sheath%脱细胞异体真皮结合玻璃酸钠在腱鞘重建中的应用



    BACKGROUND:Acellular al ogeneic dermis that is replaced by autologous tissue is not considered as foreign body, and can reduce local inflammation and cellinfiltration, to achieve the possibility of permanent retention in the body after reconstruction of the tendon sheath. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix combined with sodium hyaluronate to prevent adhesiolysis after adhesions of tendon during the procedure of tendon sheath reconstruction. METHODS:A total of 56 patients who required secondary adhesiolysis to repair tendon adhesions after repair of wrist tendon injury were randomly separated into experimental group (26 cases) and control group (30 cases). Experimental group:after tendon release, the sleeve-shaped acellular dermal matrix with a large diameter than the tendon was sewn into the site of tendon adhesions, 1 cm distant to the distal and proximal ends of non-adhesion tendon, to reconstruct the tendon sheath that was fixed at the both ends of surrounding tissue. Then, the incision was sutured after injection of sodium hyaluronate via the sleeve. Control group:after tendon release, the wound was sutured directly. Al of the patients were fol owed-up for 6 months, to compare the efficacy of tendon release and reoccurrence of adhesions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:For 51 tendons from 26 patients in the experimental group, valid treatment was in 49 tendons and invalid in 2 tendons, with the effective rate of 96%;for 58 tendons from 30 patients in the control group, effective treatment was in 46 tendons, and invalid in 12 tendons, with the effective rate of 79%. There was a significant difference in the effective rate between the two groups (P  目的:探寻脱细胞异体真皮重建腱鞘结合玻璃酸钠预防肌腱粘连松解后再粘连的效果。  方法:将腕部肌腱损伤修复后粘连需要再次手术行肌腱松解的56例患者随机分为试验组(n=26)与对照组(n=30)。试验组肌腱粘连行肌腱松解

  2. 人脂肪来源干细胞与膀胱脱细胞基质-丝素蛋白双层支架的生物相容性研究%Human Adipose-De rived Stem Cells and its Biocompatibility with Bladder Acellular Matrix Graft-Silk Fibroin Bilayer Scaffold

    赵阳; 吴稼晟; 周哲; 周娟; 张明; 李伟; 王忠; 孙康; 卢慕峻


    Objective To observe the growth of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin (BAMG-SF) bilayer scaffold and to analyze the biological compatibility of BAMG-SF with hASCs. Methods hASCs were isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue after collagenase digesting, filtrating and centrifuging, then cultured in the leaching solution of BAMG-SF. The cytotoxicity of scaffold was evaluated by CCK-8 cell viability assay, and the growth curves were also observed. Surface morphology on BAMG-SF was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hASCs of passage 3 were seeded onto the BAMG-SF bilayer scaffolds for 1 week, then the BAMG-SF bilayer scaffolds seeded with hASCs were transplanted into nude mouse for 1 week or 2 weeks. The growth of cells in BAMG-SF biomaterials was observed by HE staining. The species origin of these cells in the BAMG-SF scaffolds cultured in vivo was detected by Immunofluorescence. Results hASCs maintained high proliferation rate in the leaching solution of BAMG-SF and the BAMG-SF scaffolds were nontoxic absolutely. According to the growth curves of hASCs cultured in the leaching solution of the BAMG-SF and DMEM, BAMG-SF scaffolds were conducive to the growth of hASCs. The histological study found that hASCs could grow into the space of the BAMG-SF scaffolds after cultured in vitro and in vivo. There were more cells in the scaffolds cultured in vivo than in vitro. Immuno-fluorescence suggested that some of the cells inside the scaffolds were hASCs. Conclusion BAMG-SF bilayer scaffolds are nontoxic and have a good biocompatibility with hASCs, which can be used as a vehicle for hASCs in bladder defect reconstruction.%目的:观察人脂肪来源干细胞(Human adipose derived stem cells,hASCs)在膀胱黏膜下脱细胞基质-丝素蛋白(Bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin,BAMG-SF)双层支架材料中的生长情况,分析其生物相容性。方法取hASCs,置

  3. The Effectiveness of Porcine Dermal Collagen (Permacol(®)) on Wound Healing in the Rat Model.

    Kalin, Murat; Kuru, Serdar; Kismet, Kemal; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Akgun, Yusuf Akif; Astarci, Hesna Muzeyyen; Ustun, Huseyin; Ertas, Ertugrul


    Porcine acellular dermal collagen (PDC), which is a biological material derived from processing porcine dermis, has already been used for urologic, gynecologic, plastic, and general surgery procedures up to now. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of PDC on wound healing as a dermal substitute in the rat model. Twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. Standard full-thickness skin defects were created on the back of the rats. In the control group (Group 1), the dressings moisturized with saline were changed daily. In the study group (Group 2), porcine dermal collagen was implanted onto each wound and fixed with 4-0 polypropylene sutures. Contraction percentages of wound areas were calculated on the third, seventh, tenth, and fourteenth days by using the planimetric program. On fourteenth day, the wound areas were excised for histopathological examination, inflammatory scoring, and evaluation of collagen deposition. The study group was superior to the control group in terms of inflammatory scoring, type I/type III collagen ratio, and wound contraction rates. Porcine dermal collagen may be used effectively and safely on full-thickness wounds as a current dermal substitute.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    ... Home Health Conditions focal dermal hypoplasia focal dermal hypoplasia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Focal dermal hypoplasia is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the ...

  5. 异体脱细胞真皮基质对大鼠反肤瘢痕形成的影响%Experimental study on accelular dermal matrix inhibiting skin scar

    张烨峰; 郑锦标; 白肃; 杨丽娜; 陈楚义; 徐继庆


    目的 了解异体说细胞真皮基质(accelular dermal matrix,ADM)对SD大鼠皮肤切口愈合后瘢痕形成的影响.方法 4%NaOH溶液消蚀脱细胞法制备ADM,选用SD大鼠56只,每只大鼠背部脊柱两侧共做两道平行切口,建立皮肤切口模型.按自身对照分为实验组及对照组,实验组:将修剪成的ADM(3 cm×0.3 cm×0.1 cm)植入切口,丝线缝合切口;对照组则原位缝合.术后3天、5天、7天、14天、21天、28天、63天(每个时相点8只)处死大鼠,取切口皮肤组织做HE、Masson染色,进行生物组织学检测,RT-PCR方法检测各组切口中成纤维细胞内I型前胶原mRNA的表达水平.结果 术后实验组未见明显瘢痕组织,而对照组愈合后见明显线性瘢痕形成.镜下观察实验组切口中ADM逐渐被改建成自体组织,3天、5天、7天、14天及21天实验组中成纤维细胞数量较对照组减少(P<0.05);实验组切口中胶原的生成在各个时间点较对照组均减少,其中7天、14天、21天、28天及63天实验组切口中胶原的生成较对照组明显减少(P<0.01);RT-PCR检测组织中成纤维细胞内I型前胶原mRNA相对表达量对照组(0.809±0.042)比实验(0.540±0.026)增高.结论 ADM能抑制切口中成纤维细胞的增生和胶原的赳度分泌,减少瘢痕的形成.%Objective ADM was prepared by NaOH-maceration.This study Aimed to investigate the feasibility of the ADM inhibiting scar on the wound healing of SD rat and explore a modus operandi to prevent and cure the scar clinically.Metheds ADM was prepared by the combination of 4% NaOH sclution method.To establish the model of skin Wound,each rat was operated full-thicknessly in skin on two sides of back after haemostasis completely.All the wounds were assigned to two groups,one group was treated by transplantation of ADM,the other was interrupted suture.On days 3,5,7,14,21,28 and 63 after operation.the process of wound healing was observep to make post-operative evaluation




    The use of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDIC) as a crosslinking agent for dermal sheep collagen (DSC) was studied. Because HMDIC is on ly slightly water soluble, a surfactant was used to obtain a clear and micellar crosslinking solution and to promote the penetration of HMDIC in the DSC matrix. Usin

  7. Crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen using hexamethylene diisocyanate

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.


    The use of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDIC) as a crosslinking agent for dermal sheep collagen (DSC) was studied. Because HMDIC is only slightly water soluble, a surfactant was used to obtain a clear and micellar crosslinking solution and to promote the penetration of HMDIC in the DSC matrix. Using

  8. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Harpa Marius Mihai


    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  9. Dermal route in systemic exposure

    Benford, D.J.; Cocker, J.; Sartorelli, P.; Schneider, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Firth, J.G.


    To evaluate risk from dermal exposure, the amount of material on the skin must first be measured. The potential for dermal uptake must then be assessed for the potential health effects from systemic exposure. No standard methods exist for studying these processes, and published data are not comparab

  10. Generalized mid dermal elastolysis

    Maria João Cruz


    Full Text Available Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling.

  11. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham


    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  12. 异体脱细胞真皮基质与珊瑚羟基磷灰石联合修复尖周组织缺损的临床研究%A clinical study of acellular dermal matrix allograft combined with coralline hydroxyapatite on repairing of periapical tissue defects

    王进涛; 李刚; 史芳川; 钟良军



  13. 外源性透明质酸影响脱细胞真皮基质复合移植组织Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原蛋白表达的实验研究%Effects on collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ after transplantation of porcine acellular dermal matrix with hyaluronic acid

    赵京玉; 柴家科; 宋慧锋; 孙天骏; 李东杰; 刘玲英; 高全文; 梁黎明


    目的 探讨外源性透明质酸(HA)对异种(猪)脱细胞真皮基质(PADM)复合移植后组织中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原蛋白的影响.方法 以30只日本大耳白兔为实验动物,在其背部制作伞层皮肤缺损动物模型,随机分为HA+PADM+薄自体皮移植组(A组)、PADM+薄自体皮移植组(B组)和薄自体皮移植组(C组)3组.术后50 d取材,采用病理学、免疫组化、Western印迹等方法检测Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原蛋白的变化并进行统计学对比分析.结果 A、B、C组植皮后面积分别为(13.3 4±1.2)、(9.5.4±0.9)、(10.0±1.4)cm2,A组明显大于B组和C组(P0.05).3组Ⅰ型胶原蛋白表达分别为1894±164、515±38、395±43,A组明显高于B、C组(均PC组>B组(均P0.05).The expressions of collagen Ⅰ were 1894±164,515±38 and 395±43 in Groups A,B and C respectively.Group A was higher than Groups B and C(P<0.01).And the expressions of collagen Ⅲ were 5411±435,874±70 and 2078±175 in Groups A,B and C respectively.Group C was higher than Group B and yet lower than Group A(all P<0.01).The ratios of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ in Group A(0.39)and Group B(0.59)were higher than that of Group C(O.19)(all P<0.01).Conclusion The addition of hyaluronic acid may boost the expression of collagens Ⅰ andⅢand decrease the ratio of collagen Ⅰ/collagenⅢ.Thus it facilitates wound healing and basilar membrane remodeling and alleviates the contraction of skin transplant.

  14. Biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve after acellular treatment

    MA Xin-long; SUN Xiao-lei; YANG Zhao; LI Xiu-lan; MA Jian-xiong; ZHANG Yang; YUAN Zhen-zhen


    Background Peripheral nerve injury causes a high rate of disability and a huge economic burden,and is currently one of the serious health problems in the world.The use of nerve grafts plays a vital role in repairing nerve defects.Acellular nerve grafts have been widely used in many experimental models as a peripheral nerve substitute.The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of acellular nerve grafts.Methods Thirty-four fresh sciatic nerves were obtained from 17 adult male Wistar rats (age of 3 months) and randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control group,nerve segments underwent no treatment and were put in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and stored at 4℃ until further use; physical method group,nerve segments were frozen at -196℃ and then thawed at 37℃; and chemical method group,nerve segments were chemically extracted with the detergents Triton X-200,sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10) and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16).After the acellularization process was completed,the structural changes of in the sciatic nerves in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy,then biomechanical properties were tested using a mechanical apparatus (Endura TEC ELF 3200,Bose,Boston,USA).Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effects of acellularization,demyelination,and integrity of nerve fiber tube of the chemical method were better than that of the physical method.Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve grafts treated with the chemical method resulted in some decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load,ultimate stress,ultimate strain,and mechanical work to fracture) compared with normal control nerves,but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusion Nerve treated with the chemical method may be more appropriate for use in implantation than nerve treated with the physical method.

  15. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccination during childhood (Spain).

    Plans, P; Toledo, D; Sala, M R; Camps, N; Villanova, M; Rodríguez, R; Alvarez, J; Solano, R; García-Cenoz, M; Barrabeig, I; Godoy, P; Minguell, S


    Pertussis vaccination with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines is recommended in Spain to all children at 2 months to 6 years of age. The effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccination was assessed in this study by comparing the incidence of secondary pertussis in vaccinated (4-5 doses) and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated (0-3 doses) household contacts 1-9 years old of confirmed cases of pertussis in Spain in 2012-13. Eighty-five percent of contacts had been vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccines. During the 2-year study period, 64 cases of secondary pertussis were detected among 405 household contacts 1-9 years old: 47 among vaccinated and 17 among unvaccinated or partially vaccinated contacts. The effectiveness for preventing secondary pertussis, calculated as 1 minus the relative risk (RR) of secondary pertussis in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated/partially vaccinated contacts, was 50 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 19-69 %, p Spain.

  16. Nanopatterned acellular valve conduits drive the commitment of blood-derived multipotent cells

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Aguiari, Paola; Barbon, Silvia; Bertalot, Thomas; Mandoli, Amit; Tasso, Alessia; Schrenk, Sandra; Iop, Laura; Gandaglia, Alessandro; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Gerosa, Gino


    Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC) on acellular aortic (AVL) and pulmonary (PVL) valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition. Isolated by our group from Vietnamese pigs before heart valve prosthetic implantation, porcine CMC revealed high proliferative abilities, three-lineage differentiative potential, and distinct hematopoietic/endothelial and mesenchymal properties. Their interaction with valve extracellular matrix nanostructures boosted differential messenger RNA expression pattern and morphologic features on AVL compared to PVL, while promoting on both matrices the commitment to valvular and endothelial cell-like phenotypes. Based on their origin from peripheral blood, porcine CMC are hypothesized in vivo to exert a pivotal role to homeostatically replenish valve cells and contribute to hetero- or allograft colonization. Furthermore, due to their high responsivity to extracellular matrix nanostructure signaling, porcine CMC could be useful for a preliminary evaluation of heart valve prosthetic functionality. PMID:27789941

  17. A Simplified Approach for Arthroscopic Repair of Rotator Cuff Tear with Dermal Patch Augmentation

    Anthony C. Levenda


    Full Text Available Here, we describe an arthroscopic method specifically developed to augment rotator cuff repair using a flexible acellular dermal patch (ADP. In this method, an apparently complex technique is simplified by utilizing specific steps to augment a rotator cuff repair. In this method, using a revised arthroscopic technique, rotator cuff repair was performed. This technique allowed easy passage of the graft, excellent visualization, minimal soft tissue trauma, and full four-corner fixation of an ADP. Twelve patients underwent rotator cuff repair with augmentation using the combination of this method and ADP. Due to the technique and biomechanical characteristics of the material, the repairs have been stable and with high patient satisfaction.

  18. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery

    Bruno Zanotti


    Full Text Available Introduction: To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. Objectives: The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to confirm dermal integrity. Results: Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were

  19. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang


    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  20. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A


    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years.

  1. Development and preclinical evaluation of acellular collagen scaffolding and autologous artificial connective tissue in the regeneration of oral mucosa wounds.

    Espinosa, Lady; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R


    This work assessed wound healing response in rabbit oral lesions grafted with autologous artificial connective tissue or acellular collagen scaffolds. Autologous artificial oral connective tissue (AACT) was produced using rabbit fibroblasts and collagen I scaffolds. Before implantation, AACT grafts were assayed to demonstrate the presence of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components, as well as the expression of characteristic genes and secretion of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. AACT grafts were tested in the rabbits from which the fibroblasts were obtained, whereas acellular collagen type I scaffolds (CS) were evaluated in a separate group of rabbits. In both cases, contralateral wounds closed by secondary intention were used as controls. In a separate experiment, AACT-grafted wounds were directly compared with contralateral CS-grafted wounds in the same animals. Wound contraction and histological parameters were examined to evaluate closure differences between the treatments in the three animal experiments performed. Contraction of wounds grafted with AACT and CS was significantly lower than in their controls (p oral mucosa.

  2. Human Dermal Stem/Progenitor Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium Improves Senescent Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Ji-Yong Jung


    Full Text Available Adult skin stem cells are recognized as potential therapeutics to rejuvenate aged skin. We previously demonstrated that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs with multipotent capacity could be enriched from human dermal fibroblasts using collagen type IV. However, the effects of hDSPCs on cellular senescence remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether conditioned medium (CM collected from hDSPC cultures (hDSPC-CM exhibits beneficial effects on senescent fibroblasts. We found that hDSPC-CM promoted proliferation and decreased the expression level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase in senescent fibroblasts. In addition, p53 phosphorylation and p21 expression were significantly reduced in senescent fibroblasts treated with hDSPC-CM. hDSPC-CM restored the expression levels of collagen type I, collagen type III, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and antagonized the increase of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that hDSPC-CM significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels by specifically up-regulating the expression level of superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these data suggest that hDSPC-CM can be applied as a potential therapeutic agent for improving human aged skin.

  3. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C


    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  4. A Case of “en bloc” Excision of a Chest Wall Leiomyosarcoma and Closure of the Defect with Non-Cross-Linked Collagen Matrix (Egis®

    Marco Rastrelli


    Full Text Available Sarcomas arising from the chest wall account for less than 20% of all soft tissue sarcomas, and at this site, primitive tumors are the most frequent to occur. Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant smooth muscle tumor and the best outcomes are achieved with wide surgical excision. Although advancements have been made in treatment protocols, leiomyosarcoma remains one of the more difficult soft tissue sarcoma to treat. Currently, general local control is obtained with surgical treatment with wide negative margins. We describe the case of a 50-year-old man who underwent a chest wall resection involving a wide portion of the pectoralis major and minor muscle, the serratus and part of the second, third and fourth ribs of the left side. The full-thickness chest wall defect of 10 × 8 cm was closed using a non-cross-linked acellular dermal matrix (Egis® placed in two layers, beneath the rib plane and over it. A successful repair was achieved with no incisional herniation and with complete tissue regeneration, allowing natural respiratory movements. No complications were observed in the postoperative course. Biological non-cross-linked matrix, derived from porcine dermis, behaves like a scaffold supporting tissue regeneration; it can be successfully used as an alternative to synthetic mesh for chest wall reconstruction.

  5. Tissue-engineered acellular matrix material:preparation and application in articular cartilage repair%脱细胞基质材料制备方法及在骨关节软骨损伤修复中的应用

    赵玉果; 李明明


      结果与结论:①脱细胞基质组织工程材料交联后呈现为深蓝色,疏松多孔,直径为5 mm,硬度适中,具备一定的弹性;②苏木精-伊红染色不含有细胞碎屑及蓝染的核物质,不存在残留的细胞外基质;③甲苯胺蓝染色为蓝色材料支架孔隙率为90%,溶胀率为(1314±337)%;④脱细胞基质组织组材料1,3,5,7,9 d的A值显著高于纤维样组织组(P OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of tissue-engineered acelular matrix in articular cartilage repair. METHODS:Totaly 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly alottedto fibroid tissue andacelular matrix groups (n=15 per group), and then articular cartilage defect models,4mmin diameter,were established at the white rabbitfemoral condyle. Acelular cartilage matrix scaffold was prepared using bovine knee cartilage, and model rats in the acelular matrix group were repaired with acelular cartilage matrix scaffold and the others in the fibroid tissue group repaired with fibroid tissues. Finaly, repair effects between two groups were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The dark blue and porous tissue-engineered acelular matrix material could be found, with a diameter of 5mm and moderate hardness, and exhibited certain flexibility after cross-linking. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that cel debris,blue-stainednuclear materials and residual extracelular matrix disappeared. Toluidine blue staining found that the porosity of the blue scaffold was 90%, and the sweling ratio was (1314±337)%. The absorbance value in the acelular matrix group was significantly higher than that in the fibroid tissue group at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days (P< 0.05). In the fibroid tissue group,defectsfiled withnewborn fibrous scars were overt. By contrast, in the acelularmatrix group, the white tissuescovered the defect regionwith smooth surface,and the woundwas basicaly healed,withanunclearboundaryafter 12weeks. Moreover, blue-stained, smal flattened cels appeared

  6. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G


    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer.

  7. Biocompatibility and superiority of lyophilized acellular ligament scaffolds%冻干韧带脱细胞支架材料的生物相容性及优势

    王辉; 陈雄生; 周盛源; 黄俊俊; 蔡弢艺


    BACKGROUND: Acellular matrix ligament removes the cellular components within the ligament tissue and reduce the immunogenicity through a variety of acellular ways. Simultaneously, the damage to scaffold structure is mild in the process of decellularization, and it retains the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix.OBJECTIVE: To verify the biocompatibility and superiority of rabbit patellar tendon acellular scaffold after frozen and lyophilized processing.METHODS: Patellar ligaments were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate for preparation of acellular ligaments with or without lyophilization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No residual nuclear component was detected in all ligaments. Collagen structure was maintained.No significant differences in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were found between non-lyophilized acellular scaffolds and lyophilized ones. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed the cells grew well in all groups with or without extracts from lyophilized acellular scaffold. No significant difference was found between the control group and the experiment group. Toxicity symptoms were not obvious.Pyrogen detection experiment showed that no pyrogen was found in the lyophilized acellular scaffold extracts. Percutaneous stimulation test was negative as primary stimulation index was 0. In vivo implantation experiment showed that lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold showed the characteristics of little immunogenicity and light inflammation. Lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold treated with 1% DCA method not only maintains the mechanical characteristics of the non-lyophilized ones, but also has good biological compatibility. Because of its preparation, disinfection, packaging and preservation was easy and convenient, the lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold will be an ideal scaffold for tissue engineering ligament.%背景:韧带脱细胞基质是通过各种脱细胞方法将韧带组织内的细胞成分清除,降低免疫

  8. Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X.

    Egging, D.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Starcher, B.; Gijsen, Y.; Zweers, M.C.; Blankevoort, L.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.


    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints. It is not known whether the observed alterations of dermal collagen fibrils and elastic fibers in these patients are c

  9. Deficiency of tenascin-X causes abnormalities in dermal elastic fiber morphology

    Zweers, MC; van Vlijmen-Willems, IM; van Kuppevelt, TH; Mecham, RP; Steijlen, PM; Bristow, J; Schalkwijk, J


    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) was recently described as the molecular basis of a new, recessive type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Here we report gross abnormalities of the elastic fibers and microfibrils in the dermis of these patients, and reduced dermal collagen con

  10. Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X

    D.F. Egging; I. van Vlijmen; B. Starcher; Y. Gijsen; M.C. Zweers; L. Blankevoort; J. Bristow; J. Schalkwijk


    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints. It is not known whether the observed alterations of dermal collagen fibrils and elastic fibers in these patients are c

  11. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming


    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  12. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal bioavailabi

  13. Risk of Brain Damage Following Pertussis Immunization with Whole-Cell cf Acellular Vaccines

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Serious neurological disorders reported following whole-cell (WC in comparison to acellular (AC pertussis vaccines (PV were evaluated by the Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, MD.

  14. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating

  15. Acellular matrix scaffold for tissue-engineered intervertebral disc which is closest to the normal three-dimensional structure of the nucleus pulposus%去细胞基质支架构建组织工程椎间盘:最为接近正常髓核三维结构

    谭伟; 吕海; 周初松


    背景:目前临床上对椎间盘退变疾病无特效治疗,组织工程技术的发展为它提供了新的治疗思路。目的:综述了去细胞基质支架构建组织工程椎间盘的研究的研究进展。方法:应用计算机检索PubMed、中国知网、万方、中国生物医学文献库数据库2005至2014年文献,检索关键词为“椎间盘退变,去细胞基质,组织工程,支架,髓核,纤维环;Intervertebral disc degeneration, Extracelular matrix,Tissue Engineering,Scaffold,nucleus pulposus,annulus fibrosus”。结果与结论:组织工程椎间盘构建包括3要素:细胞支架、种子细胞及细胞因子,支架是其中的关键。去细胞基质是其中一类重要支架,近年来成为组织工程椎间盘支架的研究热点,可分为去细胞纤维环支架、去细胞髓核支架及一体化椎间盘支架,其中不同支架具有多种制备方法。相对各种人工材料来源及单一天然蛋白成分来源的支架,去细胞基质具有自己显著的优点,抗原性小、生物相容性高、最为接近正常髓核三维结构,可提供细胞生长所需微环境。但去细胞基质做为组织工程椎间盘支架同时仍存在少量不足,亟待进一步改进。%BACKGROUND:At present there is no specific therapy for the treatment of degenerateive disc diseases. The development of tissue engineering technology provides a new therapy idea for it. OBJECTIVE:To review the research progress of acelular matrix scaffold to construct tissue-engineered intervertebral disc. METHODS:A computer-based online search of PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and Chinese Biomedical Database was performed for relevant articles published between 2005 to 2014 using the keywords of “intervertebral disc degeneration, extracelular matrix, tissue engineering, scaffold, nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus” in English and Chinese, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Construction of tissue

  16. Improved epidermal barrier formation in human skin models by chitosan modulated dermal matrices

    Mieremet, Arnout; Rietveld, Marion; Absalah, Samira; van Smeden, Jeroen


    Full thickness human skin models (FTMs) contain an epidermal and a dermal equivalent. The latter is composed of a collagen dermal matrix which harbours fibroblasts. Current epidermal barrier properties of FTMs do not fully resemble that of native human skin (NHS), which makes these human skin models less suitable for barrier related studies. To further enhance the resemblance of NHS for epidermal morphogenesis and barrier formation, we modulated the collagen dermal matrix with the biocompatible polymer chitosan. Herein, we report that these collagen-chitosan FTMs (CC-FTMs) possess a well-organized epidermis and maintain both the early and late differentiation programs as in FTMs. Distinctively, the epidermal cell activation is reduced in CC-FTMs to levels observed in NHS. Dermal-epidermal interactions are functional in both FTM types, based on the formation of the basement membrane. Evaluation of the barrier structure by the organization of the extracellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum revealed an elongated repeat distance of the long periodicity phase. The ceramide composition exhibited a higher resemblance of the NHS, based on the carbon chain-length distribution and subclass profile. The inside-out barrier functionality indicated by the transepidermal water loss is significantly improved in the CC-FTMs. The expression of epidermal barrier lipid processing enzymes is marginally affected, although more restricted to a single granular layer. The novel CC-FTM resembles the NHS more closely, which makes them a promising tool for epidermal barrier related studies. PMID:28333992

  17. Bladder tissue regeneration using acellular bi-layer silk scaffolds in a large animal model of augmentation cystoplasty.

    Tu, Duong D; Chung, Yeun Goo; Gil, Eun Seok; Seth, Abhishek; Franck, Debra; Cristofaro, Vivian; Sullivan, Maryrose P; Di Vizio, Dolores; Gomez, Pablo; Adam, Rosalyn M; Kaplan, David L; Estrada, Carlos R; Mauney, Joshua R


    Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a porcine model of augmentation cystoplasty. Two bi-layer matrix configurations were fabricated by solvent-casting/salt leaching either alone (Group 1) or in combination with silk film casting (Group 2) to yield porous foams buttressed by heterogeneous surface pore occlusions or homogenous silk films, respectively. Bladder augmentation was performed with each scaffold group (6 × 6 cm(2)) in juvenile Yorkshire swine for 3 m of implantation. Augmented animals exhibited high rates of survival (Group 1: 5/6, 83%; Group 2: 4/4, 100%) and voluntary voiding over the course of the study period. Urodynamic evaluations demonstrated mean increases in bladder capacity over pre-operative levels (Group 1: 277%; Group 2: 153%) which exceeded nonsurgical control gains (144%) encountered due to animal growth.In addition, animals augmented with both matrix configurations displayed increases in bladder compliance over pre-operative levels(Group 1: 357%; Group 2: 338%) similar to growth-related elevations observed in non-surgical controls (354%) [corrected]. Gross tissue evaluations revealed that both matrix configurations supported extensive de novo tissue formation throughout the entire original implantation site which exhibited ultimate tensile strength similar to nonsurgical counterparts. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that both implant groups promoted comparable extents of smooth muscle regeneration and contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α) expression within defect sites similar to controls. Parallel evaluations demonstrated the formation of a transitional, multi-layered urothelium with prominent cytokeratin, uroplakin, and p63 protein expression in both matrix groups. De novo innervation and vascularization processes were evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal

  18. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon


    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate.

  19. Dermal administration of manganese porphyrin by iontophoresis.

    Ito, Fuminori; Imamura, Shinya; Asayama, Shoichiro; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi


    The present study describes a technique for dermal administration of cationic manganese porphyrin (Mn-porphyrin), an antioxidant with superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in hairless mouse. In general, the stratum corneum on the surface of the skin represents a barrier to passive diffusion of therapeutic agents by standard dermal administration. The present study investigated whether, dermal administration of Mn-porphyrin solution using iontophoresis, the electrical dermal administration technique, could overcome this barrier. We visually confirmed that Mn-porphyrin had penetrated to the reverse side of the hairless mouse skin after iontophoresis for a short period. With prolonged iontophoresis, the ratio of detectable Mn-porphyrin solution on the reverse side of the hairless mouse skin increased. In the future, this technique could provide an innovative approach for delivery of this antioxidant in intractable disease.

  20. Dermal benefits of topical D-ribose

    Linda M Shecterle


    Full Text Available Linda M Shecterle, John A St. CyrJacqmar, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Our aging skin undergoes changes with reductions in collagenous and elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, and macrophages with free radical production, which can result in reduced skin tone and wrinkle formation. Fibroblasts are important for dermal integrity and function with a decrease in function producing less skin tone, thinning, and wrinkle formation. Dermal levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP decline with aging, potentially altering dermal function. Supplemental D-ribose, a natural occurring carbohydrate, enhances ATP regeneration. D-ribosebased studies demonstrated benefits in both cell culture fibroblastic activities and a subsequent clinical study in women with decreased skin tone with wrinkles. Supplemental D-ribose may offer this needed cellular benefit.Keywords: dermal, fibroblast, ATP, aging, wrinkles

  1. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

    Uwe Wollina


    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  2. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Hegerle, N; Dore, G; Guiso, N


    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough and has been the target of vaccination for over fifty years. The latest strategies include the use of acellular pertussis vaccines that induce specific immunity against few virulence factors amongst which pertactin is included in three and five component acellular pertussis vaccines. Recently, it has been reported that B. pertussis clinical isolates loose the production of this adhesin in regions reaching high vaccine coverage with vaccines targeting this virulence factor. We here demonstrate that isolates not producing pertactin are capable of sustaining longer infection as compared to pertactin producing isolates in an in vivo model of acellular pertussis immunization. Loosing pertactin production might thus provide a selective advantage to these isolates in this background, which could account for the upraise in prevalence of these pertactin deficient isolates in the population.

  3. Acellular comet assay: a tool for assessing variables influencing the alkaline comet assay.

    Kennedy, Erin K; McNamee, James P; Prud'homme Lalonde, Louise; Jones, Trevor; Wilkinson, Diana


    In this study, an acellular modification to the alkaline comet assay to further evaluate key variables within the assay that may influence the outcome of genotoxicity studies is described. This acellular comet assay can detect differences of 0.2 Gy of (60)Co gamma-ray radiation between 0 and 1 Gy and differences of 1 Gy between 0 and 8 Gy; thus, this assay is applicable for a wide range of DNA damage levels. It is also shown that DNA damage from different radiation energies was not significantly different from (60)Co gamma-ray. This assay displayed a statistical increase in DNA damage due to uncontrolled exposure to natural light; however, the slope of the dose-response curve for light-exposed samples was similar to that for samples protected from light. A comparison of the alkaline comet assay with the acellular comet assay allowed for the intrinsic repair capacity of the alkaline comet assay to be quantified.

  4. Tissue engineering of the small intestine by acellular collagen sponge scaffold grafting.

    Hori, Y; Nakamura, T; Matsumoto, K; Kurokawa, Y; Satomi, S; Shimizu, Y


    Tissue engineering of the small intestine will prove a great benefit to patients suffering from short bowel disease. However cell seeding in tissue engineering, such as fetal cell use, is accompanied by problems of ethical issues, rejection, and short supply. To overcome these problems, we carried out an experimental study on tissue engineering of the small intestine by acellular collagen sponge scaffold grafting. We resected the 5 cm long jejunum from beagle dogs and reconstructed it by acellular collagen sponge grafting with a silicon tube stent. The graft was covered with the omentum. At 1 month after operation, the silicon stent was removed endoscopically. Animals were sacrificed 1 and 4 months after operation, and were examined microscopically. Neo-intestinal regeneration was observed and the intestinal mucosa covered the luminal side of the regenerated intestine across the anastomosis. Thus, the small intestine was regenerated by tissue engineering technology using an acellular collagen sponge scaffold.

  5. AGEs and Glucose Levels Modulate Type I and III Procollagen mRNA Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts Cells Culture

    Serban Iren Andreea


    Full Text Available In the dermis, fibroblasts play an important role in the turnover of the dermal extracellular matrix. Collagen I and III, the most important dermal proteins of the extracellular matrix, are progressively altered during ageing and diabetes. For mimicking diabetic conditions, the cultured human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with increasing amounts of AGE-modified BSA and D-glucose for 24 hours. The expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our data revealed that the treatment of fibroblasts with AGE-modified BSA upregulated the expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose levels mildly induced a profibrogenic pattern, increasing the procollagen α2(I mRNA expression whereas there was a downregulation tendency of procollagen α1(III mRNA.

  6. Acellular biological tissues containing inherent glycosaminoglycans for loading basic fibroblast growth factor promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration.

    Lai, Po-Hong; Chang, Yen; Chen, Sung-Ching; Wang, Chung-Chi; Liang, Huang-Chien; Chang, Wei-Chun; Sung, Hsing-Wen


    It was found in our previous study that acellular tissues derived from bovine pericardia consist primarily of insoluble collagen, elastin, and tightly bound glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). It is speculated that the inherent GAGs in acellular tissues may serve as a reservoir for loading basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. This study was therefore designed to investigate effects of the content of GAGs in acellular bovine pericardia on the binding of bFGF and its release profile in vitro while its stimulation in angiogenesis and tissue regeneration in vivo were evaluated subcutaneously in a rat model. To control the content of GAGs, acellular tissues were treated additionally with hyaluronidase for 1 (Hase-D1), 3 (Hase-D3), or 5 days (Hase-D5). The in vitro results indicated that a higher content of GAGs in the acellular tissue resulted in an increase in bFGF binding and in a more gradual and sustained release of the growth factor. The in vivo results obtained at 1 week postoperatively showed that the density and the depth of neo-vessels infiltrated into the acellular tissue loaded with bFGF (acellular/bFGF) were significantly greater than the other test samples. At 1 month postoperatively, vascularized neo-connective tissues were found to fill the pores within each test sample, particularly for the acellular/bFGF tissue. These results suggested that the sustained release of bFGF from the acellular/ bFGF tissue continued to be effective in enhancing angiogenesis and generation of new tissues. In conclusion, the inherent GAGs present in acellular tissues may be used for binding and sustained release of bFGF to enhance angiogenesis and tissue regeneration.

  7. Decellularization of porcine skeletal muscle extracellular matrix for the formulation of a matrix hydrogel: a preliminary study.

    Fu, Yuehe; Fan, Xuejiao; Tian, Chunxiang; Luo, Jingcong; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Qin, Tingwu; Lv, Qing


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels are used as scaffolds to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of tissues. This study aimed to optimize the decellularization process of porcine skeletal muscle ECM and to formulate a matrix hydrogel scaffold. Five multi-step methods (methods A-E) were used to generate acellular ECM from porcine skeletal muscle [rinsing in SDS, trypsin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Triton X-100 and/or sodium deoxycholate at 4-37°C]. The resulting ECM was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin, 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and DNA quantification. Acellular matrix was dissolved in pepsin and gelled at 37°C. Hydrogel response to temperature was observed in vivo and in vitro. ECM components were assessed by Masson, Sirius red, and alcian blue staining, and total protein content. Acellular porcine skeletal muscle exhibited a uniform translucent white appearance. No intact nuclear residue was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, while DAPI staining showed a few nuclei in the matrixes produced by methods B, C, and D. Method A generated a gel that was too thin for gelation. However, the matrix obtained by rinsing in 0.2% trypsin/0.1% EDTA, 0.5% Triton X-100, and 1% Triton X-100/0.2% sodium deoxycholate was nuclei-free and produced a viscous solution that formed a structurally stable white jelly-like hydrogel. The residual DNA content of this solution was 49.37 ± 0.72 ng/mg, significantly less than in fresh skeletal muscle, and decreased to 19.22 ± 0.85 ng/mg after gelation (P collagen and glycosaminoglycan, with a total protein concentration of 64.8 ± 6.9%. An acellular ECM hydrogel from porcine skeletal muscle was efficiently produced.

  8. Site-specific rectocele repair with dermal graft augmentation: comparison of porcine dermal xenograft (Pelvicol) and human dermal allograft.

    Biehl, Roger C; Moore, Robert D; Miklos, John R; Kohli, Neeraj; Anand, Indu S; Mattox, T Fleming


    This study is a retrospective chart review comparing 195 women who underwent rectocele repair with either a porcine dermal xenograft or human allogenic cadaveric dermal graft augmentation over a two year period. A site-specific defect repair was completed prior to augmentation with the graft. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Questionnaires were used to assess constipation and dyspareunia. De novo dyspareunia and cure rates for constipation and dyspareunia were not statistically different between the two groups. Site-specific fascial rectocele repairs with xenograft or allograft augmentation were found to have similar complication rates as well as objective and subjective cure rates.

  9. Biomechanical properties of acellular sciatic nerves treated with a modified chemical method

    Xinlong Ma; Zhao Yang; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Xiulan Li; Zhenzhen Yuan; Yang Zhang; Honggang Guo


    Nerve grafts are able to adapt to surrounding biomechanical environments if the nerve graft itself exhibits appropriate biomechanical properties (load, elastic modulus, etc.). The present study was designed to determine the differences in biomechanical properties between fresh and chemically acellularized sciatic nerve grafts. Two different chemical methods were used to establish acellular nerve grafts. The nerve was chemically extracted in the Sondell method with a combination of Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent) and sodium deoxycholate (anionic detergent), and in the modified method with a combination of Triton X-200 (anionic detergent), sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10, amphoteric detergents), and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16, amphoteric detergents). Following acellularization, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effect of acellularization via the modified method was similar to the traditional Sondell method. However, effects of demyelination and nerve fiber tube integrity were superior to the traditional Sondell method. Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve graft treated using the chemical method resulted in decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and mechanical work to fracture) compared with fresh nerves, but the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated no significant effect on biomechanical properties of nerves treated using the chemical method. In conclusion, nerve grafts treated via the modified method removed Schwann cells, preserved neural structures, and ensured biomechanical properties of the nerve graft, which could be more appropriate for implantation studies.

  10. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de


    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, Kp, of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite

  11. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.


    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental meth

  12. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Sahana M Srinivas


    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  13. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dermal toxicity. 798.2250 Section 798.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... animals of each sex with healthy skin shall be used at each dose level. (B) The females shall...

  14. Acellular bone marrow extracts significantly enhance engraftment levels of human hematopoietic stem cells in mouse xeno-transplantation models.

    Kazem Zibara

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC derived from cord blood (CB, bone marrow (BM, or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34(+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG. These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells.

  15. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice.

    Godin, Lindsay M; Sandri, Brian J; Wagner, Darcy E; Meyer, Carolyn M; Price, Andrew P; Akinnola, Ifeolu; Weiss, Daniel J; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela


    The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs) and lung fibroblasts (hLFs). Native aged (1 year) lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week) lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases.

  16. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice.

    Lindsay M Godin

    Full Text Available The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs and lung fibroblasts (hLFs. Native aged (1 year lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases.

  17. Utilizing biologic assimilation of bovine fetal collagen in staged skin grafting.

    Neill, James; James, Kenneth; Lineaweaver, William


    Seven patients underwent 2-stage skin grafting with bovine fetal collagen (BFC) as an initial wound cover. Split-thickness skin grafts were successfully placed on the wounds after completion of interval management. BFC proved to be a resilient acellular dermal matrix that could proceed to assimilation and skin grafting under a variety of wound conditions. BFC may prove to be a valuable material, as the role of acellular dermal matrices in skin grafting becomes better defined.

  18. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects.

  19. Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R; Roff, M; Delgado, P; Eriksson, K; Fransman, W; Gijsbers, J H J; Hughson, G; Mäkinen, M; van Hemmen, J J


    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus induces hypoxia and cellular damage in porcine dermal explants.

    Lone, Abdul G; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Call, Douglas R


    We developed a porcine dermal explant model to determine the extent to which Staphylococcus aureus biofilm communities deplete oxygen, change pH, and produce damage in underlying tissue. Microelectrode measurements demonstrated that dissolved oxygen (DO) in biofilm-free dermal tissue was 4.45 ± 1.17 mg/liter, while DO levels for biofilm-infected tissue declined sharply from the surface, with no measurable oxygen detectable in the underlying dermal tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that biofilm-free dermal tissue had a significantly lower relative effective diffusion coefficient (0.26 ± 0.09 to 0.30 ± 0.12) than biofilm-infected dermal tissue (0.40 ± 0.12 to 0.48 ± 0.12; P < 0.0001). Thus, the difference in DO level was attributable to biofilm-induced oxygen demand rather than changes in oxygen diffusivity. Microelectrode measures showed that pH within biofilm-infected explants was more alkaline than in biofilm-free explants (8.0 ± 0.17 versus 7.5 ± 0.15, respectively; P < 0.002). Cellular and nuclear details were lost in the infected explants, consistent with cell death. Quantitative label-free shotgun proteomics demonstrated that both proapoptotic programmed cell death protein 5 and antiapoptotic macrophage migration inhibitory factor accumulated in the infected-explant spent medium, compared with uninfected-explant spent media (1,351-fold and 58-fold, respectively), consistent with the cooccurrence of apoptosis and necrosis in the explants. Biofilm-origin proteins reflected an extracellular matrix-adapted lifestyle of S. aureus. S. aureus biofilms deplete oxygen, increase pH, and induce cell death, all factors that contribute to impede wound healing.

  1. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)


    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  2. Association of versican with dermal matrices and its potential role in hair follicle development and cycling

    du Cros, D L; LeBaron, R G; Couchman, J R


    Versican is a member of the group of aggregating proteoglycans involved in matrix assembly and structure and in cell adhesion. We examined changes in the distribution of versican in mammalian skin, with emphasis on hair follicle development and cycling. In adult human skin, immunostaining...... for versican appeared predominantly in the dermis, with intense staining of the reticular dermis. Weak staining was observed at the dermoepidermal junction and the connective tissue sheath of hair follicles. Versican expression was also noted in the reticular dermis of rat skin, within dermal papillae......, and possibly associated with follicle basement membranes. During mouse hair follicle development, versican was not expressed until the hair follicles were beginning to produce fibers. With follicle maturation, versican expression intensified in the dermal papillae, reaching a maximum at the height...


    Avantaggiato, A; Pascali, M; Lauritano, D; Cura, F; Pezzetti, F; Palmieri, A


    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of hyaluronic acid in bio-revitalization by testing several extracellular matrix biological parameters in cultured dermal fibroblasts. To this aim, fibroblastic expressed genes after exposition to three hyaluronic acid medical devices were evaluated. Cells were seeded on a layer of three different medical devices containing 6.2, 10 and 20 mg/ml of hyaluronic acid for 24 h. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to investigate gene expressions. Genes encoding hyaluronic acid synthesis and degradation, Metalloproteinases 2 and 3 and Desmoplakin production as well as GDF6, and IGF1 were activated by hyaluronic acid products. The in vitro study showed similar effects on tested genes despite a different concentration of hyaluronic acid contained in the medical devices and the simultaneous presence of other additives. Based on the reported data, gene activations are an aspect of metabolic modulation of signalling pathways rather than the proportional production of a specific connective tissue molecule. Indeed different hyaluronic acid concentration and the presence of other additives did not change the overall effect on the studied genes. We believe that the optimization of extracellular matrix micro-environment, obtained by enhanced structural support with hyaluronic acid, leads to functional and metabolic improvement.

  4. Dermal fillers for tissue augmentation: an overview

    Zeplin, Philip H.


    Full Text Available [english] Treatments with dermal fillers for tissue augmentation constitute the majority of all non-surgical procedures in plastic surgery. Newly developed products get launched and the market grows continuously, but the “ideal” substance has yet not been found. The substances used these days are high molecular compounds. They have substantial differences in their physicochemical properties and are suspended in complex matrices. This overview describes the latest history of dermal fillers and the commonly used substances of different origin and formalizes the need for the development of systematic procedures of standardized pre-clinical tests with subsequent certification as well as the establishment of interdisciplinary clinical guidelines to ensure custumer’s safety.

  5. Resorbable extracellular matrix grafts in urologic reconstruction

    Richard A. Santucci


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is an increasingly large body of literature concerning tissue-engineering products that may be used in urology. Some of these are quite complex (such as multilayer patient-specific cell-seeded implants yet the most simple and successful products to date are also the most uncomplicated: resorbable acellular extra-cellular matrices (ECMs harvested from animals. ECMs have been used in a variety of difficult urologic reconstruction problems, and this review is intended to summarize this complex literature for the practicing urologist. METHODS: Medline search of related terms such as "SIS, small intestinal submucosa, ECM, extracellular matrix, acellular matrix and urologic reconstruction". Manuscripts missed in the initial search were taken from the bibliographies of the primary references. RESULTS: Full review of potential clinical uses of resorbable extra-cellular matrices in urologic reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, the "state of the art" in tissue engineering solutions for urologic reconstruction means resorbable acellular xenograft matrices. They show promise when used as a pubovaginal sling or extra bolstering layers in ureteral or urethral repairs, although recent problems with inflammation following 8-ply pubovaginal sling use and failures after 1- and 4-ply SIS repair of Peyronie's disease underscore the need for research before wide adoption. Preliminary data is mixed concerning the potential for ECM urethral patch graft, and more data is needed before extended uses such as bladder augmentation and ureteral replacement are contemplated. The distant future of ECMs in urology likely will include cell-seeded grafts with the eventual hope of producing "off the shelf" replacement materials. Until that day arrives, ECMs only fulfill some of the requirements for the reconstructive urologist.

  6. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas


    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  7. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    G. Bernard Taylor


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  8. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)


    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  9. Simulating strange attraction of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephaum to herbal tablets

    Adamatzky, Andrew


    Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum exhibits traits of wave-like behaviour. The plasmodium's behaviour can be finely tuned in laboratory experiments by using herbal tablets. A single tablet acts as a fixed attractor: plasmodium propagates towards the tablet, envelops the tablet with its body and stays around the tablet for several days. Being presented with several tablets the plasmodium executes limit cycle like motions. The plasmodium performs sophisticated routines of...

  10. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M


    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.


    刘坡; 祁少海; 舒斌; 谢举临; 徐盈斌; 刘旭盛


    Objective To investigate the impact of dermal papillary cells on vascularization of tissue engineered skin substitutes consisting of epidermal stem cells and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix. Methods Human foreskins from routine circumcisions were collected to separate epidermal cells by using dispase with trypsogen. Collagen type IV was used to isolate epidermal stem cells from the 2nd and 3rd passage keratinocytes. Dermal papilla was isolated by the digestion method of collagenase I from fetus scalp and cultured in routine fibroblast medium. Tissue engineered skin substitutes were reconstructed by seeding epidermal stem cells on the papillary side of allogeneic acellular dermis with (the experimental group) or without (the control group) seeding dermal papillary cells on the reticular side. The two kinds of composite skin substitutes were employed to cover skin defects (1 cm×1 cm in size) on the back of the BALB/C-nu nude mice (n=30). The grafting survival rate was recorded 2 weeks after grafting. HE staining and immunohistochemistry method were employed to determine the expression of CD31 and calculate the microvessel density at 2 and 4 weeks after grafting. Results Those adhesion cells by collagen type IV coexpressed Keratin 19 and β1 integrin, indicating that the cells were epidermal stem cells. The cultivated dermal papillary cells were identified by expressing high levels of a-smooth muscle actin. The grafting survival rate was significantly higher in experimental group (28/30, 93.3%), than that in control group (24/30, 80.0%). HE staining showed that the epithelial layer in experimental group was 12-layered with large epithelial cells in the grafted composite skin, and that the epithelial layer in control group was 4-6-layered with small epithelial cells. At 2 and 4 weeks after grafting, the microvessel density was (38.56 ± 2.49)/mm2 and (49.12 ± 2.39)/mm2 in experimental group and was (25.16 ± 3.73)/mm2 and (36.26 ± 3.24)/mm2 in control group

  12. File list: Unc.Epd.50.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Epd.50.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts mm9 Unclassified Epidermis Dermal fibroblasts h...ttp:// ...

  13. File list: Unc.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts mm9 Unclassified Epidermis Dermal fibroblasts h...ttp:// ...

  14. Calcification preceding new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix gelatin.

    Yamashita, K; Takagi, T


    Demineralized bone matrix gelatin (BMG) was implanted into the skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley (S.D.) rats, and histological changes were examined 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days later. Before bone formation, a specific calcification process was found in most of the BMG from day 5 and 7 after implantation. The heterotopic calcified sites were not always consistent with the sites of the alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that this calcification progresses without any cellular components, and we distinguished this type of calcification as "acellular mineral deposition" from the calcification which occurs in new bone formation. This "acellular mineral deposition" was first observed as small spherical calcified deposits in the BMG on day 7 after implantation; these deposits then gradually grew and fused with each other. Some multinucleated cells appeared near the site of calcification on day 7 after implantation, but osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells were scarcely observed around the calcified deposits in BMG until day 7. Vascularization was often observed near the "acellular mineral deposition" and the new bone formation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the calcified deposits in BMG were composed of hydroxyapatite, carbonateapatite and other calcium phosphate components, and that the first two components became prominent with time. It is believed that the "acellular mineral deposition" is due to the deposition of calcium and phosphate into the BMG by a process of heterogenic nucleation that does not involve osteoblasts or matrix vesicles. Bone formation induced by the BMG occurred after the "acellular mineral deposition." The experimental calcification shown in this paper seems a useful model for the study of biocalcification.

  15. Aberrations of dermal connective tissue in patients with cervical artery dissection (sCAD).

    Uhlig, Phillip; Bruckner, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Hansen, Uwe


    Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a common cause of stroke in patients below 55 years of age. Hereditary connective tissue disorders, including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, have been associated with sCAD and suprastructural abnormalities of both collagen fibrils and elastic fibers have been found by transmission electron microscopy in the dermis of about 50% of sCAD patients. Here, we investigated dermal connective tissue abnormalities using a novel method. Transmission and immunogold electron microscopy were used to study mechanically generated fragments of dermal matrix suprastructures, in particular collagen fibrils. Analysis of dermal tissue of sCAD patients revealed structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregularly contoured surfaces and increased diameters, often associated with a faint or absent banding pattern. Interestingly, only a small number of fibrils displayed short abnormal sections along the length of the fibril. Collagens I and III were present in normal as well as abnormal sections of the fibrils.However, immunogold labeling for the two proteins was strongly increased in abnormal sections.A systematic blinded investigation of skin biopsies of 31 sCAD patients and 17 controls revealed abnormal collagen fibrils in 7 sCAD patients but none of the controls. We conclude that approximately 20% of sCAD patients show collagen fibril alterations, establishing a promising basis for further investigation of connective tissue aberrations in skin biopsies of sCAD patients.

  16. Differential expression of wound fibrotic factors between facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts.

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kaminishi-Tanikawa, Akiko; Niikura, Mamoru; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori


    Clinically, wounds on the face tend to heal with less scarring than those on the trunk, but the causes of this difference have not been clarified. Fibroblasts obtained from different parts of the body are known to show different properties. To investigate whether the characteristic properties of facial and trunk wound healing are caused by differences in local fibroblasts, we comparatively analyzed the functional properties of superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts obtained from the facial and trunk skin of seven individuals, with an emphasis on tendency for fibrosis. Proliferation kinetics and mRNA and protein expression of 11 fibrosis-associated factors were investigated. The proliferation kinetics of facial and trunk fibroblasts were identical, but the expression and production levels of profibrotic factors, such as extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-β1, and connective tissue growth factor mRNA, were lower in facial fibroblasts when compared with trunk fibroblasts, while the expression of antifibrotic factors, such as collagenase, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, showed no clear trends. The differences in functional properties of facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts were consistent with the clinical tendencies of healing of facial and trunk wounds. Thus, the differences between facial and trunk scarring are at least partly related to the intrinsic nature of the local dermal fibroblasts.

  17. Evaluating acellular versus cellular perfusate composition during prolonged ex vivo lung perfusion after initial cold ischaemia for 24 hours.

    Becker, Simon; Steinmeyer, Jasmin; Avsar, Murat; Höffler, Klaus; Salman, Jawad; Haverich, Axel; Warnecke, Gregor; Ochs, Matthias; Schnapper, Anke


    Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has developed as a powerful technique to evaluate particularly marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. In this study, acellular and cellular perfusate compositions were compared in an identical experimental setting as no consensus has been reached on a preferred technique yet. Porcine lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h on the basis of an acellular or a cellular perfusate composition after 24 h of cold ischaemia as defined organ stress. During perfusion, haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored. After EVLP, the lung condition was assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Aerodynamic parameters did not show significant differences between groups and remained within the in vivo range during EVLP. Mean oxygenation indices were 491 ± 39 in the acellular group and 513 ± 53 in the cellular group. Groups only differed significantly in terms of higher pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance in the cellular group. Lung histology and ultrastructure were largely well preserved after prolonged EVLP and showed only minor structural alterations which were similarly present in both groups. Prolonged acellular and cellular EVLP for 12 h are both feasible with lungs prechallenged by ischaemic organ stress. Physiological and ultrastructural analysis showed no superiority of either acellular or cellular perfusate composition.

  18. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty.

    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of urethra repair. A bi-layer silk fibroin matrix was fabricated by a solvent-casting/salt leaching process in combination with silk fibroin film casting to generate porous foams buttressed by homogeneous silk fibroin films. Ventral onlay urethroplasty was performed with silk fibroin grafts (Group 1, N = 4 (Width × Length, 1 × 2 cm(2 in adult male rabbits for 3 m of implantation. Parallel control groups consisted of animals receiving small intestinal submucosa (SIS implants (Group 2, N = 4 or urethrotomy alone (Group 3, N = 3. Animals in all groups exhibited 100% survival prior to scheduled euthanasia and achieved voluntary voiding following 7 d of initial catheterization. Retrograde urethrography of each implant group at 3 m post-op revealed wide urethral calibers and preservation of organ continuity similar to pre-operative and urethrotomy controls with no evidence of contrast extravasation, strictures, fistulas, or stone formation. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that both silk fibroin and SIS scaffolds promoted similar extents of smooth muscle and epithelial tissue regeneration throughout the original defect sites with prominent contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α and cytokeratin expression, respectively. De novo innervation and vascularization were also evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal cells and vessels lined with CD31 expressing endothelial cells. Following 3 m post-op, minimal acute inflammatory reactions were elicited by silk fibroin scaffolds characterized by the presence of eosinophil granulocytes while SIS matrices promoted chronic inflammatory responses indicated by mobilization of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The results

  19. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  20. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S


    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  1. Lipid nanoparticles for dermal drug delivery.

    Kakadia, Pratibha G; Conway, Barbara R


    Lipid based drug delivery systems have been widely studied and reported over the past decade and offer a useful alternative to other colloidal drug delivery systems. Skin is a popular route of drug delivery for locally and systemically acting drugs and nanoparticles are reported as a potential formulation strategy for dermal delivery. Although the skin acts as a natural physical barrier against penetration of foreign materials, including particulates, opportunities exist for the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles, especially in diseased and damaged skin and via appendageal routes such as the openings of hair follicles. The extent and ability of nanoparticles to penetrate into the underlying viable tissue is still the subject of debate although recent studies have identified the follicular route as the most likely route of entry; this influences the potential applications of these dosage forms as a drug delivery strategy. This paper reviews present state of art of lipid-based nanocarriers focussing on solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsions, their production methods, potential advantages and applications in dermal drug delivery.

  2. [Cerebellar abscesses secondary to infection of an occipital dermal sinus].

    García Galera, A; Martínez León, M I; Pérez da Rosa, S; Ros López, B


    A dermal sinus is a congenital defect arising from a closure failure of the neural tube that results in different degrees of communication between the skin and the central nervous system. A dermal sinus can occur anywhere from the root of the nose to the conus medullaris, and the occipital location is the second most common. Dermal sinuses are often found in association with dermoid or epidermoid cysts and less frequently with teratomas. Patients with an occipital dermoid cyst associated with a dermal sinus can develop meningitis and/or abscesses as the first clinical manifestation of the disease due to the dermoid cyst itself becoming abscessed or to the formation of secondary abscesses; few cases of the formation of secondary abscesses have been reported. We present a case of a dermoid cyst associated with an infected dermal sinus and posterior development of cerebellar abscesses and hydrocephalus.

  3. Late-onset Ito's nevus: an uncommon acquired dermal melanocytosis.

    Mataix, Javier; López, Norberto; Haro, Rosario; González, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; Requena, Luis


    Dermal melanocytoses comprise a variety of congenital and acquired conditions characterized by a sparse population of intradermal dendritic, variably pigmented, spindle-shaped melanocytes. While Mongolian spot, Ota's and Ito's nevi are usually present at birth or appear around puberty; acquired dermal melanocytoses that appear in adult life are extremely rare. They include the facial lesions of acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules, also named Hori's nevus, and the acquired unilateral nevus of Ota, also known as Sun's nevus. Uncommon extrafacial examples of acquired dermal melanocytoses include lesions involving upper extremities, wrist, back, lower extremities and dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. They are more prevalent among Asian women. In general, dermal melanocytoses are rare lesions in Caucasian patients and acquired variants are exceedingly uncommon. We report a rare example of acquired Ito's nevus that appeared in a Caucasian elderly woman and review the literature about acquired dermal melanocytoses.

  4. Hypocellular Plaque-Like CD34-Positive Dermal Fibroma (Medallion-Like Dermal Dendrocyte Hamartoma) Presenting as a Skin-Colored Dermal Nodule.

    Mutgi, Krishna A J; Chitgopeker, Pooja; Ciliberto, Heather; Stone, Mary S


    Plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibromas, also known as medallion-like dermal dendrocyte hamartomas (MDDHs), are a recently recognized group of congenital and acquired spindle cell neoplasms that may appear histologically similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Recognizing the clinical heterogeneity of this neoplasm and the subtle pathologic differences are crucial to making the correct diagnosis and avoiding the aggressive surgical intervention required to treat a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. We present the case of a 9-year-old girl with an acquired variant of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma without clinical epidermal change. Our case expands the clinical spectrum to include an acquired variant of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma without clinical epidermal change. Examination of more cases is needed to determine whether all clinical variants are truly subtypes of the same neoplasm or represent distinct CD34-positive spindle cell proliferations.

  5. Matrix compliance and the regulation of cytokinesis

    Savitha Sambandamoorthy


    Full Text Available Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM regulates many physiological processes in part by controlling cell proliferation. It is well established that many normal cells require integrin-mediated adhesion to enter S phase of the cell cycle. Recent evidence indicates that integrins also regulate cytokinesis. Mechanical properties of the ECM can dictate entry into S phase; however, it is not known whether they also can affect the successful completion of cell division. To address this issue, we modulated substrate compliance using fibronectin-coated acrylamide-based hydrogels. Soft and hard substrates were generated with approximate elastic moduli of 1600 and 34,000 Pascals (Pa respectively. Our results indicate that dermal fibroblasts successfully complete cytokinesis on hard substrates, whereas on soft substrates, a significant number fail and become binucleated. Cytokinesis failure occurs at a step following the formation of the intercellular bridge connecting presumptive daughter cells, suggesting a defect in abscission. Like dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells require cell-matrix adhesion for successful cytokinesis. However, in contrast to dermal fibroblasts, they are able to complete cytokinesis on both hard and soft substrates. These results indicate that matrix stiffness regulates the successful completion of cytokinesis, and does so in a cell-type specific manner. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate that matrix stiffness can affect cytokinesis. Understanding the cell-type specific contribution of matrix compliance to the regulation of cytokinesis will provide new insights important for development, as well as tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  6. 京尼平交联脱细胞猪膀胱的体外生物学性能研究%In vitro biological characteristics of acellular porcine bladder crosslinked with genipin

    范雪梅; 王颖楠; 陈卫军; 徐惠成


    Objective To investigate the characteristics and cytocompatibility of acellular porcine bladder fixed with genipin in vitro in order to provide ideal biomaterials for the reconstruction of female pelvis. Methods Cellular components of porcine bladder were removed by detergent-enzymatic method. The acellular porcine bladder was crosslinked with 0. 625% genipin for 72 h. The morphology of the obtained bladder was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining, elastin/van Gieson staining and observed with scanning electron microscopy. Properties of the crosslinked acellular matrix were evaluated for tissue thickness, water absorption and in vitro enzymatic degradation. The cytotoxicity of the genipin-fixed materials was evaluated in vitro by MTT assay using a murine fibroblast cell line L-929. Results The genipin-crosslinked acellular porcine bladder was dark blue, with very well preserved collagen fibers. Cosslinked tissues had strong hydrophilicity and good mechanical properties, with a degradation ratio of only 2% after collagenase degradation for 28 d. While, the acellular porcine bladder was degradated completely at 7 d after collagenase treatment. The cytotoxicity of the materials was scored as grade 0 to 1. Conclusion The genipin-fixed acellular porcine bladder possesses the ability of good hydrophilia, cytocompatibility and resistance to enzymatic degradation. It can be used as an ideal tissue engineering material for the reconstruction of female pelvis.%目的 探讨新型生物交联剂京尼平对脱细胞猪膀胱性能的影响,为女性盆底功能重建提供理想的组织工程补片.方法 采用表面活性剂±酶消化法对猪膀胱进行脱细胞处理后,用0.625%京尼平溶液交联脱细胞膀胱72 h.通过HE、Weigert弹力纤维±VanGieson结缔组织(ET± VG)染色及扫描电镜进行组织形态观察,使用万能材料试验机检测材料生物力学性能,并对交联前后的脱细胞猪膀胱进行厚度、吸水性、体外胶

  7. Acellular pertussis booster in adolescents induces Th1 and memory CD8+ T cell immune response.

    Nikolaus Rieber

    Full Text Available In a number of countries, whole cell pertussis vaccines (wcP were replaced by acellular vaccines (aP due to an improved reactogenicity profile. Pertussis immunization leads to specific antibody production with the help of CD4(+ T cells. In earlier studies in infants and young children, wcP vaccines selectively induced a Th1 dominated immune response, whereas aP vaccines led to a Th2 biased response. To obtain data on Th1 or Th2 dominance of the immune response in adolescents receiving an aP booster immunization after a wcP or aP primary immunization, we analyzed the concentration of Th1 (IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 cytokines in supernatants of lymphocyte cultures specifically stimulated with pertussis antigens. We also investigated the presence of cytotoxic T cell responses against the facultative intracellular bacterium Bordetella pertussis by quantifying pertussis-specific CD8(+ T cell activation following the aP booster immunization. Here we show that the adolescent aP booster vaccination predominantly leads to a Th1 immune response based on IFNgamma secretion upon stimulation with pertussis antigen, irrespective of a prior whole cell or acellular primary vaccination. The vaccination also induces an increase in peripheral CD8(+CD69(+ activated pertussis-specific memory T cells four weeks after vaccination. The Th1 bias of this immune response could play a role for the decreased local reactogenicity of this adolescent aP booster immunization when compared to the preceding childhood acellular pertussis booster. Pertussis-specific CD8(+ memory T cells may contribute to protection against clinical pertussis.

  8. Lack of association between mannose binding lectin and antibody responses after acellular pertussis vaccinations.

    Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.

  9. Reconstruction of an Anterior Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Defect Using a Biodegradable Polyurethane Dermal Substitute

    Wagstaff, Marcus JD; Caplash, Yugesh


    Introduction: Although we have previously described the use of a novel polyurethane biodegradable dermal substitute in the reconstruction of 20 free flap donor sites, and extensive cutaneous defects, including a large area of exposed calvarium secondary to burn injury, our experience with this material now extends to 35 free flap donor site reconstructions and 13 major or complex burns. Methods: The polyurethane material (NovoSorb BTM; PolyNovo Biomaterials Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) was recently employed in another complex wound scenario, implanted into a large anterior cervical cutaneous and soft-tissue defect remaining after serial radical debridement for necrotizing fasciitis. Results: Implantation, integration, delamination, and split-skin graft application proceeded without complication, mirroring our previous experience in other wounds (including major burns). The result was a robust, supple, mobile, and well-contoured reconstruction over the deep tissues of the neck. The functional and cosmetic outcomes exceeded all expectation. Discussion: The wound environment created after necrotizing fasciitis infection and debridement is austere. In this particular case, reconstructive options were limited to large free flap repair, skin graft alone, and skin graft augmented by commercially available collagen/glycosaminoglycan dermal matrix. Each option was discarded for various reasons. Our previous success with NovoSorb BTM, developed at our center, prompted its use following regulatory approval. The patient was physiologically stronger after the temporization afforded by the biodegradable temporizing matrix over 4 weeks of integration. Conclusion: This is the first description of the successful use of an entirely synthetic biodegradable dermal substitute for the reconstruction of both necrotizing fasciitis and an anterior cervical defect. PMID:28197297

  10. Reconstruction of an Anterior Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Defect Using a Biodegradable Polyurethane Dermal Substitute.

    Wagstaff, Marcus Jd; Caplash, Yugesh; Greenwood, John E


    Introduction: Although we have previously described the use of a novel polyurethane biodegradable dermal substitute in the reconstruction of 20 free flap donor sites, and extensive cutaneous defects, including a large area of exposed calvarium secondary to burn injury, our experience with this material now extends to 35 free flap donor site reconstructions and 13 major or complex burns. Methods: The polyurethane material (NovoSorb BTM; PolyNovo Biomaterials Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) was recently employed in another complex wound scenario, implanted into a large anterior cervical cutaneous and soft-tissue defect remaining after serial radical debridement for necrotizing fasciitis. Results: Implantation, integration, delamination, and split-skin graft application proceeded without complication, mirroring our previous experience in other wounds (including major burns). The result was a robust, supple, mobile, and well-contoured reconstruction over the deep tissues of the neck. The functional and cosmetic outcomes exceeded all expectation. Discussion: The wound environment created after necrotizing fasciitis infection and debridement is austere. In this particular case, reconstructive options were limited to large free flap repair, skin graft alone, and skin graft augmented by commercially available collagen/glycosaminoglycan dermal matrix. Each option was discarded for various reasons. Our previous success with NovoSorb BTM, developed at our center, prompted its use following regulatory approval. The patient was physiologically stronger after the temporization afforded by the biodegradable temporizing matrix over 4 weeks of integration. Conclusion: This is the first description of the successful use of an entirely synthetic biodegradable dermal substitute for the reconstruction of both necrotizing fasciitis and an anterior cervical defect.

  11. Amelogenin is phagocytized and induces changes in integrin configuration, gene expression and proliferation of cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Almqvist, Sofia; Werthén, Maria; Johansson, Anna


    or down-regulation of genes, of which most are involved in cellular growth, migration and differentiation. The effect of amelogenin was exemplified by increased proliferation over 7 days. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of amelogenin on wound healing are possibly conducted by stimulating fibroblast......Fibroblasts are central in wound healing by expressing important mediators and producing and remodelling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms of action of the ECM protein amelogenin on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Amelogenin at 100...... signalling, proliferation and migration via integrin interactions. It is hypothesized that amelogenin stimulates wound healing by providing connective tissue cells with a temporary extracellular matrix....

  12. Histological observation on acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells for repairing defects of the sciatic nerve

    Xiaohong Sun; Jiangyi Tian; Xiaojie Tong; Xu Zhang; Zheng He


    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments and clinical studies about tissue engineering method applied to repair nerve injury mainly focus on seeking ideal artificial nerve grafts, nerve conduit and seed cells. Autologous nerve, allogeneic nerve and xenogeneic nerve are used to bridge nerve defects, it is one of the methods to promote the repair of nerve injury by culturing and growing Schwann cells, which can secrete various neurotrophic factor activities, in the grafts.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells in repairing defects of sciatic nerve.DESIGN: An observational comparative study.SETTING: Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University between April 2004 and April 2005. Forty neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of 5-8 days (either males or females) and 24 male Wistar rats of 180-220 g were provided by the experimental animal center of China Medical University.METHODS: ① Culture of Schwann cells: The bilateral sciatic nerves and branchial plexus were isolated from the 40 neonatal SD rats. The sciatic nerves were enzymatically digested with collagenase and dispase, isolatd, purified and cultured with the method of speed-difference adhersion, and identified with the SABC immunohistochemical method. ② Model establishment: In vitro Schwann cells were microinjected into 10-mm long acellular nerve grafts repairing a surgically created gap in the rat sciatic nerve.According to the different grafted methods, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: autografts (n=8), acellular nerve grafts (n=8), or acellular nerve grafts with Schwann cells (n=8). ③ The regenerated nerve fiber number and average diameter of myeline sheath after culture were statistically anlayzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The regenerated nerve ultrastructure, total number and density of myelinated nerve fibers, and the thickness of

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Sharif Sakr


    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  14. Dermal graft correction of extraordinary chordee.

    Kogan, S J; Reda, E F; Smey, P L; Levitt, S B


    Severe degrees of primary chordee and persistent or recurrent chordee following previous surgical attempts at correction present a challenging problem. Inadequate resection of involved tissues, which may involve all layers of the penile investiture, or recurrent scarring of the ventral skin, Buck's fascia and tunica albuginea is usually the cause. Reoperation to achieve penile straightening often is unsuccessful unless all chordee-bearing tissue is resected extensively. Excision of large segments of tunica albuginea or wide separation of the margins creates a defect that tends to heal by dense scarring unless the defect is bridged by a graft. Various autogenous materials have been used, including blood vessel, fascia, free fat graft, dermis and tunica albuginea, as well as prosthestic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, with varying results. A series of patients with extensive chordee is presented in whom tunical resection was necessary to achieve penile straightening. The results of free dermal graft replacement of the tunica are reported.

  15. Dermal and Ophthalmic Findings in Pseudohypoaldosteronism

    Korkut, Sabriye; Gökalp, Emir; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Demirtaş, Şafak; Gül, Ülkü; Baştuğ, Osman


    Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is defined as a state of resistance to aldosterone, a hormone crucial for electrolyte equilibrium. The genetically transmitted type of PHA is primary hypoaldosteronism. Secondary hypoaldosteronism develops as a result of hydronephrosis or hydroureter. PHA patients suffer from severe hyponatremia and a severe clinical condition due to severe loss of salt can be encountered in the neonatal period. Dermal findings in the form of miliaria rubra can also develop in these patients. With the loss of salt, abnormal accumulation of sebum in the eye due to a defect in the sodium channels can also occur. In this paper, a case of PHA in a newborn showing typical dermatological and ophthalmological findings is presented. PMID:26316441

  16. [Generalized granuloma annulare or diffuse dermal histiocytosis?].

    Kretzschmar, L; Biel, K; Luger, T A; Goerdt, S


    Generalized granuloma annulare is a rare variant of granuloma annulare affecting the trunk and extremities with a multitude of lesions. In contrast to localized granuloma annulare, generalized granuloma annulare occurs in older patients, shows a stronger association with diabetes, and is characteristically chronic. Like our 55-year-old patient, most patients present with papules and annular plaques; less often, macular or non-annular lesions may be encountered. Histology often fails to show necrobiotic or necrotic connective tissue changes demarcated by a palisading granuloma. Instead, there are diffuse dermal, band-like or nodular aggregations of histiocytes intermingled with some multinucleated giant cells and a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate in the periphery. Because of its special characteristics, it has been suggested that generalized granuloma annulare might constitute a separate disease entity and that it should be classed among the primary cutaneous histiocytoses as a diffuse dermal histiocytosis. Using immunohistochemistry to determine the macrophage phenotype of the lesional histiocytes, we have shown that generalized granuloma annulare is not a cutaneous histiocytosis. Neither MS-1 high-molecular-weight protein, a new specific marker for cutaneous non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses, nor CD1a, the well-known marker for Langerhans cells and Langerhans cell histiocytoses, is expressed by the lesional histiocytes of our patient. In contrast, the antigen expression pattern was diagnostic for non-infectious granulomas and was highly similar to that in localized granuloma annulare. In contrast to the successful treatment of localized granuloma annulare reported with intralesional interferon beta-1, systemic treatment with interferon alpha-2b (9 x 10(6) units three times a week) was ineffective.

  17. Dermal grafts for correction of severe chordee associated with hypospadias.

    Horton, C E; Gearhart, J P; Jeffs, R D


    We report on 24 patients with hypospadias and severe chordee that could not be straightened with conventional techniques. We used small dermal grafts to augment the ventral tunica albuginea, which resulted in a completely straight, normal appearing erection in all patients. Subsequent urethroplasty was not complicated by the presence of the dermal graft. This procedure is technically straightforward and consistently results in a completely straight penis. Although required only rarely in hypospadias surgery, we recommend the dermal graft technique of tunica albuginea augmentation for cases of refractory chordee.

  18. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.


    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p collagen fiber bundle enlargement, occur prior to epidermal thickness changes due to hyperplasia and dermal thickness changes due to edema. Dermal reflectivity positively correlated with epidermal hyperplasia (repi2 = 0.78) and dermal edema (rderm2 = 0.86). Our results suggest that dermal reflectivity as measured by OCT can be utilized to quantify a psoriasis-like disease in mice, and thus has the potential to aid in the quantitative assessment of psoriasis in humans.

  19. T-Cell Responses before and after the Fifth Consecutive Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in 4-Year-Old Dutch Children

    Schure, Rose-Minke; Hendrikx, Lotte H.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Ozturk, Kemal; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie


    Immunization with acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) induces higher specific antibody levels and fewer adverse reactions than does immunization with the whole-cell vaccine (wP). However, antibody levels in infants induced by both types of pertussis vaccines wane already after 1 year. Therefore, long-t

  20. Myoblast seeding in a collagen matrix evaluated in vitro

    vanWachem, PB; vanLuyn, MJA; daCosta, MLP


    Collagens may be used as biomaterials for soft tissue reconstruction, e.g., the abdominal wall. We previously developed a biocompatible dermal sheep collagen (DSC), which in an abdominal wall reconstruction model showed controlled biodegradation and functioned as a matrix for ingrowth of fibroblasts

  1. Effect of formaldehyde on acellular-nuclear DNA%甲醛对脱细胞DNA的影响

    杨丽娟; 王越越; 朱海燕


    目的 探索甲醛对脱细胞DNA的影响,并初步建立脱细胞-核DNA检测加合物的新模型.方法 用染毒缓冲液配制浓度分别为4%、1%、0.25%和0%的甲醛,用羟自由基损伤的脱细胞-核DNA作为检测加合物的试验模型,每组6张脱细胞-核DNA板,用彗星实验检测各组脱细胞-核DNA损伤情况,组间差异用SPSS 11.0软件统计分析.结果 甲醛染毒的DNA损伤顺序为:0%=0.25%>1%组>4%,呈现明显的剂量-反应关系.结论 甲醛可直接和脱细胞DNA片段形成加合物和/或DNA-DNA交联,脱细胞-核DNA模型可用于DNA加合物和/或交联物的检测.%Objective To explore the impact of formaldehyde on acellular-nuclear DNA, and initially to establish a new model of acellular nuclear DNA to test adducts. Methods The acellular-nuclear DNA used as a test model, sealed boxes pre-positioned slides fixed with acellular-nuclear DNA. Different concentrations (4% , 1% , 0. 25% and 0% ) of formaldehyde were added to boxes. Six acellular-nuclear DNA slides were used in each group. DNA damage was measured with comet assay, and statistical analysis of the difference between the groups with SPSS 11.0 software. Results DNA damage exposed to formaldehyde in such sequences; 0% =0.25% > 1% > 4% with significant dose-response relationship. Conclusion Formaldehyde can directly react with acellular DNA, and form adducts and/or DNA-DNA crosslinking, acellular-Nuclear DNA model can be used to detect DNA adducts and cross-linked.

  2. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    Kreilgaard, Mads


    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  3. Acquired ichthyosis and impaired dermal lipogenesis in Hodgkin's disease.

    Cooper, M F; Wilson, P D; Hartop, P J; Shuster, S


    Epidermal lipid biosynthesis was normal in patients with mild ichthyosis due to Hodgkin's disease, but greatly reduced in one patient with severe ichthyosis. Dermal (sebaceous) lipid synthesis was decreased in all patients with Hodgkin's disease, whether or not they had ichthyosis, and was greatly reduced in the patient with severe ichthyosis. Neither the mechanism nor the possible relationship between the dermal and epidermal changes is understood.

  4. Focal dermal hypoplasia: Unusual presentation in Saudi Arabia

    Awadh Alamri


    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem characterized by multiple abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. It is found predominantly in females. We report a case of a two month-old baby girl who had dermal hypoplasia, atrophic skin lesions with telangiectasia in a linear pattern, fat herniations, papillomas and cleft of the upper lip, ectrodactyly, claw hands, microphthalmia and unusual association of gastrointestinal omphalocele.

  5. Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery.

    van der Maaden, Koen; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke


    Microneedles have been used for the dermal and transdermal delivery of a broad range of drugs, such as small molecular weight drugs, oligonucleotides, DNA, peptides, proteins and inactivated viruses. However, until now there are no microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery systems on the market. In the past decade various types of microneedles have been developed by a number of production processes. Numerous geometries of microneedles have been designed from various materials. These microneedles have been used for different approaches of microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery. Following a brief introduction about dermal and transdermal drug delivery, this review describes different production methods for solid and hollow microneedles as well as conditions that influence skin penetration. Besides, the four microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery approaches are discussed: "poke and flow", "poke and patch", "poke and release", and "coat and poke". A separate section of this review is devoted to the use of microneedles for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. Finally, we give our view on research and development that is needed to render microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery technologies clinically useful in the near future.

  6. Acellular spinal cord scaffold seeded with mesenchymal stem cells promotes long-distance axon regeneration and functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Jian; Liu, Bin; Yang, Cuilan; Xie, Denghui; Zheng, Xiaochen; Xu, Song; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Zhongmin; Bai, Xiaochun; Jin, Dadi


    The stem cell-based experimental therapies are partially successful for the recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds which mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM) have been successfully prepared. This study aimed at investigating whether the spinal cord lesion gap could be bridged by implantation of bionic-designed ASC scaffold alone and seeded with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) respectively, and their effects on functional improvement. A laterally hemisected SCI lesion was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=36) and ASC scaffolds seeded with or without hUCB-MSCs were implanted into the lesion immediately. All rats were behaviorally tested using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test once a week for 8weeks. Behavioral analysis showed that there was significant locomotor recovery improvement in combined treatment group (ASC scaffold and ASC scaffold+hUCB-MSCs) as compared with the SCI only group (pspinal cord cavity and promote long-distance axon regeneration and functional recovery in SCI rats.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Parikshaa Gupta


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  8. Emotional intelligence and electro-dermal activity.

    Zysberg, Leehu


    Emotional intelligence (EI) is a promising concept in our understanding of emotional regulation, related behaviors and pathologies. However, research linking EI to underlying physiological and biological structure and responses is meager. This study explored potential associations of EI with electro-dermal activity (EDA) responses to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. It was hypothesized that higher levels of EI will associate with more efficient emotional regulation as reflected by EDA. Eighty-four healthy participants were exposed to stimuli consisting of a series of 12 images designed to evoke positive or negative emotional responses, presented in a counterbalanced order. A self-report questionnaire and a computer based test of EI were administered along with a demographic questionnaire. EDA measures were taken during the exposure to the above stimuli using BIOPACK MP150. EI test scores (Beta = .35, .32; p self-report measure of EI and other demographics (e.g., gender. ethnicity) did not show any associations with the outcome measures. The results support the relevance of the concept to our understanding of emotional responses and regulation. The findings are briefly discussed within the context of underlying mechanisms of EI as well as measure validity and relevance.

  9. Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination of adults in the USA.

    Gidengil, Courtney A; Sandora, Thomas J; Lee, Grace M


    Pertussis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and its incidence has been increasing in adolescents and adults over the past two decades. Waning immunity in adolescents and adults may be partially responsible. Adults can suffer significant illness from pertussis and its complications, such as pneumonia, rib fractures and syncope. Moreover, adults serve as a source of disease for infants, who are more vulnerable to severe complications and even death. The economic burden of pertussis is substantial, in terms of both medical and nonmedical costs. Fortunately, the burden of pertussis disease can now be safely and effectively reduced by vaccinating adults with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of vaccination in pregnant women and those over 65 years of age, and also to determine whether further booster doses of Tdap are needed.

  10. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W


    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  11. Effect of schedule on reactogenicity and antibody persistence of acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines: value of laboratory tests as predictors of clinical performance.

    Miller, E; Ashworth, L A; Redhead, K; Thornton, C; Waight, P A; Coleman, T


    The performance of four acellular pertussis vaccines containing between two and five pertussis antigens combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids was compared with that of British whole-cell diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) vaccine both in laboratory assays for potency, toxicity and immunogenicity, and for reactogenicity and immunogenicity in infants. Clinical responses were evaluated in double blind randomized Phase II trials using 3/5/9 month and 2/3/4 month schedules. The acellular DTPs had much lower toxicity than whole-cell DTP in laboratory tests and were significantly less pyrogenic than whole-cell DTP under both schedules. Local reactions were not consistently lower in acellular than whole-cell vaccinees and varied with the source of the diphtheria and tetanus antigens used. Differences in endotoxin level and content of active pertussis toxin (PT) between acellular DTP vaccines were not clinically significant. The reactogenicity advantage of the acellular vaccines was substantially reduced under the 2/3/4 month schedule due to the reduced reactogenicity of the whole-cell DTP vaccine when given at a younger age. There was no relationship between antigen content measured in micrograms per dose and ELISA antibody responses to filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and PT in infants, nor was murine immunogenicity predictive of immunogenicity in humans. Antibody response to PT was attenuated in the whole-cell group under the 2/3/4 month schedule but was unaffected in the group receiving acellular vaccines with individually purified components; antibody response to pertactin (69 kDa antigen) was similar in recipients of the whole-cell and component acellular vaccines under the 2/3/4 month schedule. PT antibody persistence until 4-5 years of age was significantly better in recipients of the component acellular than either the whole-cell vaccine or the co-purified acellular vaccine under the 3/5/9 month schedule. However, diphtheria antitoxin levels were reduced in

  12. Side effects of cellular and acellular DPT vaccine in children aged from 3 months to 5 years

    Durmišević Smajil


    Full Text Available Introduction Both mild and severe local and systemic postvaccination reactions are seen more rarely in infants immunized with DTPa than in those immunized with DTPw vaccine. Material and methods By analysis of medical records and follow-up of patients, the authors searched for sings of adverse effects of DPT vaccines, comparing cellular and acellular vaccines in children aged from three months to five years. The results of investigation were analyzed using X2. Results Out of the total number of 940 applied vaccines, 329 were cellular and 611 were acellular. Body temperature over 38.5oC occurred in 3% of children immunized with cellular DTPw, and vomiting occurred in 0.8% of those immunized with acellular DTPa vaccine. Vomiting occurred (more than five times in 0.9% of children immunized with DPTw and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa. Other undesirable symptoms like swelling, redness and pain in the arm were found in 0.6% of children immunized with DPTw, and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa; prolonged crying (three hours or longer was registered in 0.3% of cases immunized with DPTw, and in 0.16% of immunized with DPTa vaccine. Convulsions and collapse appeared only in 0.3% of children immunized with DPTw. Discussion Our investigation shows that local and generalized undesirable postvaccination reactions occurred in 5.4% of children immunized with DPTw and in 1.64 of children immunized with DPTa. The latest clinical investigations show that acellular pertussis vaccines are successful in prevention of pertussis and that they are quite safe for infants; in our investigations, local and generalized reactions were markedly rare in children immunized with DPTa. Conclusion Undesirable postvaccination reactions after application of acellular DPT vaccines are less frequent than it is described in relevant references. The most frequent postvaccination reactions was raised body temperature (38.5oC. Convulsions and collapses were not

  13. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Chayanin Kiratipaiboon


    Full Text Available Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  14. Comparative Study of Acellular Small Intestinal Submucosa and Acellular Pericardium for Repairing Abdominal Wall Defects in Rats%脱细胞小肠黏膜下层与脱细胞心包修复大鼠腹壁缺损的对比研究

    肖毅频; 王冠宇; 王强; 张剑


    Objective: To investigate the effects of small intestinal submucosa (SIS)and acellular pericardium (PC)on repairing wall defeats in rats, to compare compatibility of the two biological materials. Methods: A full-thickness 3cm × 2cm abdominal wall defeat was created in 40 rats weight from 200 to 250g, then they were repaired with an interpositional implant( SIS,n=20; PC,n=20). And the rats were harvested at week 1, week 2, week 4,and week 8 after operation. Animal general state of health, intra-abdominal adhesions and tensile strength were investigated. Results:All rats survived and the defeats were completely repaired by the materials without fistula or hernia. There were leas adhesion in SIS group than that in PC group 4、8 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of abdominal wall in SIS group is stronger than that in PC group (p <0.05). No obvious immunoreaction was observed in two groups by histology.Remodeling and regeneration and vascularization of the abdominal wall were better in SIS group compared with PC group. There was not difference of inflammatory reaction of the two groups. Conlusion:Both SIS and PC were feasible to repair full-thickness abdominal wall defeat and SIS is superior to PC in regards to tissue compatibility.%目的:观察小肠黏膜下层(small intestinal submucosa,SIS)和脱细胞心包(pericardium,PC)修复大鼠腹壁缺损的效果,比较两种生物材料相容性.方法:SD大鼠40只,体重200~250g,手术造成3cmx2cm全层腹壁缺损,随机分为二组(n=20),分别采用相同面积的小肠黏膜下层(small intestinal submucosa,SIS)和脱细胞真皮基质(acellular dermal matr,ADM)补片进行修补.术后1、2、4和8周分批取出腹壁修复材料,行动物一般情况观察、腹腔内粘连情况评价、力学强度测定及组织学观察.结果:术后动物都成活,两种材料术后8周均无疝瘘发生,缺损得到完整修复.术后各期SIS组的腹腔粘连评分明显低于PC组.术后4、8周,SIS组

  15. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.


    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  16. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G


    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  17. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Stefan Gysin


    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  18. Dermal Exposure during Filling, Loading and Brushing with Products Containing 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol

    Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Tielemans, E.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Introduction: Limited quantitative information is available on dermal exposure to chemicals during various industrial activities. Therefore, within the scope of the EU-funded RISKOFDERM project, potential dermal exposure was measured during three different tasks: filling, loading and brushing. DEGBE

  19. Evaluation of respiratory model employing conventional NIH mice to access the immunity induced by cellular and acellular pertussis vaccines

    Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira Dias


    Full Text Available The increasing number of pertussis cases reported on the last twenty years and the existence of new acellular vaccines reinforce the need of research for experimental models to assure the quality of available pertussis vaccines. In this study, allotments of whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines were tested through the Intranasal Challenge Model (INM using conventional NIH mice. The results have been compared to those achieved by the "Gold standard" Intracerebral Challenge Model (ICM. In contrast to ICM, INM results did not show intralaboratorial variations. Statistical analysis by Anova and Ancova tests revealed that the INM presented reproducibility and allowed identification and separation of different products, including three-component and four-component accellular pertussis vaccines. INM revealed differences between pertussis vaccines. INM provides lower distress to the mice allowing the reduction of mice number including the possibility of using conventional mice (less expensive under non-aseptic environment. Thus, INM may be used as an alternative method of verifying the consistence of allotment production, including acellular pertussis vaccines.

  20. Collaborative study on a Guinea pig serological method for the assay of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    Winsnes, R; Sesardic, D; Daas, A; Terao, E; Behr-Gross, M-E


    An international collaborative study (coded BSP083) was performed under the aegis of the Biological Standardisation Programme supported by the Council of Europe and the European Commission, with the aim of replacing the in vivo challenge assays for potency determination of combined acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines by a refined procedure also allowing reduction of animal use. This study investigates whether the immunogenicity of aP vaccine components could be assayed in a guinea pig (gp) serology model, using the same vaccine immunising doses as for D and T components potency testing, instead of using separate animals as is currently done. The BSP83 project is a follow up of 3 former collaborative studies (coded BSP019, BSP034 and BSP035) on serological methods for the potency testing of tetanus (T) and diphtheria (D) vaccines for human use. The use of gp instead of mice serology has the advantage of providing a larger volume of good quality antiserum for the assay of several vaccine components in the same sample, hence providing the opportunity for animal sparing. The results of Phase I of the study demonstrated that gp serology may be a useful method for the immunogenicity assay of acellular pertussis vaccines. This was confirmed in Phase II of the study, using 7 different combined aP vaccines in an international collaborative study involving 17 laboratories from both public and private sectors. Clear dose-response relationships were observed for different vaccines by ELISA, for antibodies against aP antigens, i.e. pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), fimbrial agglutinogens-2/3 (Fim 2/3) and pertactin (PRN). Intra- and inter-laboratory variations of aP ELISA results were found to be within an acceptable range. For some combined vaccines, however, the range of vaccine dilutions for immunisation confirmed to be optimal for D and T potency testing may not provide optimal dose-response for all aP components. Method adjustments may thus be required

  1. File list: ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts mm9 All antigens Epidermis Dermal fibroblasts S...26,SRX310225,SRX310224,SRX388187 ...

  2. File list: InP.Epd.50.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblast [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.50.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblast hg19 Input control Epidermis Dermal fibroblast S...,SRX200045,SRX864096,SRX200053,SRX200051,SRX447389,SRX447386 ...

  3. File list: Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts mm9 TFs and others Epidermis Dermal fibroblasts... SRX247302,SRX382120,SRX247301,SRX247303,SRX382119,SRX310229,SRX310227,SRX310225 ...

  4. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de


    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  5. File list: InP.Epd.10.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblast [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Epd.10.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblast hg19 Input control Epidermis Dermal fibroblast S...,SRX447386,SRX666594,SRX447389,SRX200051,SRX864096,SRX200053 ...

  6. File list: NoD.Epd.05.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Epd.05.AllAg.Dermal_fibroblasts mm9 No description Epidermis Dermal fibroblasts... ...

  7. 蛋白多糖在脱细胞猪肺动脉带瓣管道中抗钙化的作用%Role of proteoglycan in anti-calcification of porcine acellular valved pulmonary artery conduits

    郭海平; 史海峰; 李温斌; 许秀芳; 郭俊平; 靳振生; 张素玲


    AIM; To study the role of extracellular proteoglycan in anti-calcification of porcine acellular valved pulmonary conduits for trituration of better tissue-engineered pulmonary valve conduits. METHODS: Fresh porcine pulmonary valve conduits were used in Group A, acellular porcine pulmonary valve conduits in Group B and acellular deproteoglycan porcine pulmonary valve conduits in Group C. HE staining observation under light microscope, scanning electron microscopy and proteoglycan content mensuration were used. Samples were subcutaneously buried in rats for 6 weeks and then the samples extracted from rats were quantitatively analyzed for calcification using Van Kossa silver staining and qualitatively using atomic absorption photometer. RESULTS; Pathological results under optical microscopy and electron microscopy showed that porcine pulmonary artery tissue cells were well removed and collagen fibers andelastic fibers were completely maintained. Compared with Group A and Group B, proteoglycan content of extracellular matrix in Group C significantly decreased and less calcification reaction was found in Group C. Calcium content in Group C also decreased significantly. CONCLUSION; Acellular trypsin + Triton X-100 achieves cell removal. Reduction of extracellular matrix proteoglycan by hyaluronidase digestion decreases further calcification reaction of acellular porcine pulmonary valve conduits, which may provide better acellular de-matrix scaffolds for building up tissue-engineered pulmonary valve conduits.%目的:证实去除细胞外基质蛋白多糖对提高脱细胞猪肺动脉带瓣管道抗钙化性能的作用,为研制组织工程化肺动脉带瓣管道做准备.方法:实验分为3组,即A组:为新鲜猪肺动脉带瓣管道组织,B组:用胰蛋白酶+Triton X-100处理的脱细胞猪肺动脉带瓣管道组织和C组:在B组处理的基础上再经透明质酸酶消化,去除细胞外蛋白多糖基质成分的猪肺动脉带瓣管道组织,每组4份(n=4

  8. Inhomogeneity of local stiffness in the extracellular matrix scaffold of fibrotic mouse lungs.

    Melo, Esther; Cárdenes, Nayra; Garreta, Elena; Luque, Tomas; Rojas, Mauricio; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon


    Lung disease models are useful to study how cell engraftment, proliferation and differentiation are modulated in lung bioengineering. The aim of this work was to characterize the local stiffness of decellularized lungs in aged and fibrotic mice. Mice (2- and 24-month old; 14 of each) with lung fibrosis (N=20) and healthy controls (N=8) were euthanized after 11 days of intratracheal bleomycin (fibrosis) or saline (controls) infusion. The lungs were excised, decellularized by a conventional detergent-based (sodium-dodecyl sulfate) procedure and slices of the acellular lungs were prepared to measure the local stiffness by means of atomic force microscopy. The local stiffness of the different sites in acellular fibrotic lungs was very inhomogeneous within the lung and increased according to the degree of the structural fibrotic lesion. Local stiffness of the acellular lungs did not show statistically significant differences caused by age. The group of mice most affected by fibrosis exhibited local stiffness that were ~2-fold higher than in the control mice: from 27.2±1.64 to 64.8±7.1kPa in the alveolar septa, from 56.6±4.6 to 99.9±11.7kPa in the visceral pleura, from 41.1±8.0 to 105.2±13.6kPa in the tunica adventitia, and from 79.3±7.2 to 146.6±28.8kPa in the tunica intima. Since acellular lungs from mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis present considerable micromechanical inhomogeneity, this model can be a useful tool to better investigate how different degrees of extracellular matrix lesion modulate cell fate in the process of organ bioengineering from decellularized lungs.

  9. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.


    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  10. Novel System for Testing Dermal and Epidermal Toxicity in Vitro


    months of this contract, we have been successful at establishing primary culture from 20 neonatal foreskin samples (from routine circumcisions ) and 6...objectives: 1. Established an inventory of neonatal and adult keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Modified the procedure for establishing and passing these...thymidine incorporation into adherent cell populations. Substrates utilized included neonatal fibroblast dermal equivalents (from foreskin) and adult

  11. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  12. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of ne

  13. Review of dermal effects and uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Kezic, S.; Kruse, J. [Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jakasa, I. [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)


    This report serves as an update to and an extension of a previous CONCAWE report on dermal absorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (Petroleum hydrocarbons: their absorption through and effects on the skin, CONCAWE Report 84/54, 1984). To contribute to health risk assessments associated with dermal exposure, this report evaluates experimental data to determine the extent to which petroleum hydrocarbons pass through the skin. These data strongly suggest that dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even following long-term exposures such as in occupational settings, will not cause systemic toxicity under normal working conditions and assuming an intact skin barrier. Skin contact with some petroleum products may cause skin irritation, leading to dermatitis, particularly after repeated or prolonged exposure. In addition to these irritating effects, the skin barrier function may be affected following repeated contact with petroleum hydrocarbons, making the skin potentially more susceptible to other irritants, sensitizing agents, and bacteria. In addition, the impaired skin barrier may lead to increased dermal penetration of hydrocarbons and other substances. To avoid this there is a need to minimise skin contact.

  14. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W


    , formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal...

  15. Cerebellair abces door een occipitale dermale sinus bij een zuigeling

    Groen, R J; van Ouwerkerk, W J


    A 7.5-month-old girl was admitted with the clinical signs and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. This was caused by an obstructive hydrocephalus, due to cerebellar abscesses induced by an infected contiguous complete occipital dermal sinus. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured. The patient was

  16. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute dermal toxicity. 799.9120 Section 799.9120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) Preparations. Healthy young adult animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for at least 5...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity. 799.9325 Section 799.9325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... healthy animals as soon as possible after weaning and acclimatization. (B) Dosing should generally...

  18. Purification design and practice for pertactin, the third component of acellular pertussis vaccine, from Bordetella pertussis.

    Li, Zenglan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhengjun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Songping; Zhang, Guifeng; Ma, Guanghui; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo


    Development of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) requires purification of several components from Bordetella pertussis. While the components pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) have been successfully purified, the third component, pertactin, proves to be a difficult target due to its very low concentration. In order to solve its purification problem, we performed the surface potential analysis with GRASP2 program. The results demonstrated that there are two major charge patches, one negative and one positive, which are located separately on this linear protein. For this special feature, we designed a dual ion exchange chromatography strategy including an anionic exchange and a cationic exchange process for separation of pertactin from the heat extract of B. pertussis. The initial anionic exchange chromatography concentrated the product from 1.7% to 14.6%, with recovery of 80%. The second cationic exchange chromatography increased the purity to 33%, with recovery of 83%. The final purification was accomplished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding a purity of 96%. The total recovery of the three columns was 61%. Characterization of the purified antigen was performed with CD, intrinsic fluorescence, HP-SEC and western-blot, showing that the purified protein kept its natural conformation and immune-reactivity. The rationally designed process proved to be feasible, and it is suitable for large-scale preparation of the third aPV component pertactin.

  19. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian


    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft. PMID:27476584

  20. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A


    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy.

  1. Does tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination interfere with serodiagnosis of pertussis infection?

    Pawloski, Lucia C; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Baughman, Andrew L; Martin, Monte D; Talbot, Elizabeth A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Tondella, Maria Lucia


    An anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was analytically validated for the diagnosis of pertussis at a cutoff of 94 ELISA units (EU)/ml. Little was known about the performance of this ELISA in the diagnosis of adults recently vaccinated with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, which contains PT. The goal of this study was to determine when the assay can be used following Tdap vaccination. A cohort of 102 asymptomatic health care personnel (HCP) vaccinated with Tdap (Adacel; Sanofi Pasteur) were aged 19 to 79 years (median, 47 years) at vaccination. For each HCP, specimens were available for evaluation at 2 to 10 time points (prevaccination to 24 months postvaccination), and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for the cohort were calculated at each time point. Among 97 HCP who responded to vaccination, a mixed-model analysis with prediction and tolerance intervals was performed to estimate the time at which serodiagnosis can be used following vaccination. The GMCs were 8, 21, and 9 EU/ml at prevaccination and 4 and 12 months postvaccination, respectively. Eight (8%) of the 102 HCP reached antibody titers of ≥94 EU/ml during their peak response, but none had these titers by 6 months postvaccination. The calculated prediction and tolerance intervals were <94 EU/ml by 45 and 75 days postvaccination, respectively. Tdap vaccination 6 months prior to testing did not confound result interpretation. This seroassay remains a valuable diagnostic tool for adult pertussis.

  2. Inhalation and dermal exposure among asphalt paving workers.

    McClean, M D; Rinehart, R D; Ngo, L; Eisen, E A; Kelsey, K T; Herrick, R F


    The primary objective of this study was to identify determinants of inhalation and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt paving workers. The study population included three groups of highway construction workers: 20 asphalt paving workers, as well as 12 millers and 6 roadside construction workers who did not work with hot-mix asphalt. During multiple consecutive work shifts, personal air samples were collected from each worker's breathing zone using a Teflon filter and cassette holder connected in series with an XAD-2 sorbent tube, while dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrist. All exposure samples were analyzed for PACs, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Inhalation and dermal PAC exposures were highest among asphalt paving workers. Among paving workers, inhalation and dermal PAC exposures varied significantly by task, crew, recycled asphalt product (RAP) and work rate (inhalation only). Asphalt mix containing high RAP was associated with a 5-fold increase in inhalation PAC exposures and a 2-fold increase in dermal PAC exposure, compared with low RAP mix. The inhalation PAC exposures were consistent with the workers' proximity to the primary source of asphalt fume (paver operators > screedmen > rakers > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among paver operators (5.0 microg/m3, low RAP; 24 microg/m3, high RAP) were 12 times higher than among roller operators (0.4 microg/m3, low RAP; 2.0 microg/m3, high RAP). The dermal PAC exposures were consistent with the degree to which the workers have actual contact with asphalt-contaminated surfaces (rakers > screedmen > paver operators > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among rakers (175 ng/cm2, low RAP; 417 ng/cm2, high RAP) were approximately 6 times higher than among roller operators (27 ng/cm2, low RAP; 65 ng/cm2, high RAP). Paving task, RAP content and crew were also found to be significant determinants of

  3. Dermal exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among asphalt roofing workers.

    McClean, M D; Rinehart, R D; Sapkota, A; Cavallari, J M; Herrick, R F


    The primary objective of this study was to identify significant determinants of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt roofing workers and use urinary 1-hydroxyprene (1-OHP) measurements to evaluate the effect of dermal exposure on total absorbed dose. The study population included 26 asphalt roofing workers who performed three primary tasks: tearing off old roofs (tear-off), putting down new roofs (put-down), and operating the kettle at ground level (kettle). During multiple consecutive work shifts (90 workerdays), dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrists and were analyzed for PACs, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BAP). During the same work week, urine samples were collected at pre-shift, post-shift, and bedtime each day and were analyzed for 1-OHP (205 urine samples). Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the dermal measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of exposure, and to evaluate urinary 1-OHP measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of total absorbed dose. Dermal exposures to PAC, pyrene, and BAP were found to vary significantly by roofing task (tear-off > put-down > kettle) and by the presence of an old coal tar pitch roof (pitch > no pitch). For each of the three analytes, the adjusted mean dermal exposures associated with tear-off (812 ng PAC/cm2, 14.9 ng pyrene/cm2, 4.5 ng BAP/cm2) were approximately four times higher than exposures associated with operating the kettle (181 ng PAC/cm2, 4.1 ng pyrene/cm2, 1.1 ng BAP/cm2). Exposure to coal tar pitch was associated with a 6-fold increase in PAC exposure (p = 0.0005), an 8-fold increase in pyrene exposure (p pitch roof was removed, accounting for a 3.7-fold difference at pre-shift (p = 0.01), a 5.0-fold difference at post-shift (p = 0.004), and a 7.2-fold difference at bedtime (p = 0.002). The pyrene measurements obtained during the work shift were found to be strongly correlated

  4. Enhanced dermal delivery of acyclovir using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Jain, Sanyog; Mistry, Meghal A; Swarnakar, Nitin K


    The present investigation was enthused by the possibility to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of hydrophilic drug acyclovir (ACV) and evaluate their potential as the carrier for dermal delivery. ACV-loaded SLNs (ACV-SLNs) were prepared by the optimized double emulsion process using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid. The prepared SLNs were smooth and spherical in shape with average diameter, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency of 262 ± 13 nm, 0.280 ± 0.01, and 40.08 ± 4.39% at 10% (w/w) theoretical drug loading with respect to Compritol 888 ATO content. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that ACV was present in the amorphous state inside the SLNs. In vitro skin permeation studies on human cadaver and Sprague-Dawley rat skin revealed 17.65 and 15.17 times higher accumulation of ACV-SLNs in the dermal tissues in comparison to commercially available ACV cream after 24 h. Mechanism of topical permeation and dermal distribution was studied qualitatively using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While free dye (calcein) failed to penetrate skin barrier, the same encapsulated in SLNs penetrated deeply into the dermal tissue suggesting that pilosebaceous route was followed by SLNs for skin penetration. Histological examination and transdermal epidermal water loss measurement suggested that no major morphological changes occurred on rat skin surface due to the application of SLNs. Overall, it was concluded that ACV-loaded SLNs might be beneficial in improving dermal delivery of antiviral agent(s) for the treatment of topical herpes simplex infection.

  5. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects: biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Ya-jun Li


    Full Text Available We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell transplantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These findings confirm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  6. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Surya Darma


    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  7. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang


    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  8. Structural and redox behavior of OxyVita, a zero-linked polymeric hemoglobin: comparison with natural acellular polymeric hemoglobins.

    Harrington, John P; Orlik, Kseniya; Orlig, Kseniya; Zito, Samantha L; Wollocko, Jacek; Wollocko, Hanna


    A zero-linked polymeric hemoglobin (OxyVita Hb) has been developed for application as an acellular therapeutic hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carrier (HBOC). For effective and safe oxygen binding, transport and delivery, an HBOC must meet essential molecular requirements related to its structural integrity and redox stability. OxyVita is a super polymer possessing an average M.wt. of 17 x 10(6) Da. Structural integrity was determined by unfolding studies of OxyVita in the presence of increasing concentrations of urea. The unfolding midpoints (D(1/2)) of different preparations of OxyVita (solution and powder forms) were compared to Lumbricus Hb (LtHb) and Arenicola Hb (ArHb), natural acellular polymeric hemoglobins, which are serving as models for an effective and safe acellular HBOC. Reduction studies of OxyVita Hb using endogenous reducing agents were also investigated. Results from these studies indicate that: 1) OxyVita Hb exhibits greater resistance to conformational change than either LtHb or ArHb in the reduced (oxyHb) state; and 2) the reduction of met OxyVita Hb to oxyHb occurs slowly in the presence of either ascorbic acid (70% reduction in 560 min.) or beta-NADH (40% reduction in 90 min.). These studies provide consistent evidence that OxyVita Hb possesses physiochemical properties that exhibit structural integrity and redox behavior necessary for functioning as an effective and safe HBOC within clinical applications. These results are in agreement with observations made by other investigators as to the reduction in heme-loss of OxyVita Hb, essential for the reversible binding/release of molecular oxygen within the circulatory system.

  9. Matrix calculus

    Bodewig, E


    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  10. Tooth Enamel, the Result of the Relationship between Matrix Proteins and Hydroxyapatite Crystals

    Carmen Mihaela MIHU


    Full Text Available Enamel, a structure of epithelial origin, represents a protective tooth cover. The cells responsible for the formation of enamel, ameloblasts, are lost at the time of tooth eruption, so that enamel becomes an acellular structure that can no longer regenerate. In order to compensate for this particular phenomenon, enamel has acquired a complex structural organization and a high mineralization degree, in its mature state. This reflects the particular life cycle of ameloblasts and the unique physico-chemical characteristics of matrix proteins, which regulate the formation of the extremely long crystals of enamel. These characteristics differentiate enamel from all the other tissues of the organism.

  11. Mathematical analysis of dermal absorption rate of heavy metals.

    Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag


    Presently 90 - 95% of children in the US wear disposable diapers before completing their toilet training at average age of 30 months. The diaper absorbs urine and liquid component from feces contaminated with excreted toxicants. In this initial study, we posit that the long contact between the diaper and the skin leads to increased dermal reabsorption of excreted body toxicants, mainly heavy metals, which are statistically associated with autism and neurodevelopmental disorder. We developed a mathematical model to analyse the increase of the level of toxicants due to dermal reabsorption after excretion. This simple kinetic model gives us the average reabsorbtion factor in the range of 1.6 to 5. The limitation of this work is that only mathematical model has been considered and it has not been verified experimentally.

  12. Clinical, pathological, and etiologic aspects of acquired dermal melanocytosis.

    Mizoguchi, M; Murakami, F; Ito, M; Asano, M; Baba, T; Kawa, Y; Kubota, Y


    To study the pathogenesis of acquired dermal melanocytosis (ADM), we reviewed the clinical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of 34 cases (female, 33, and male, 1) of ADM. The patients' ages at onset ranged from 8 to 51 years and averaged 26.8 +/- 12.7 years. There was a positive family history. Gray-brown macules were mostly recognized on the face. Not only active dermal melanocytes but also non-pigmented c-KIT- and TRP-2-positive immature melanocytes were detected in the dermis. Taken together those clinical and histological findings, activation of pre-existing immature melanocytes by sunlight, estrogen, and/or progesterone, and some other factors, may be the most likely mode of the development of ADM. Moreover, using cultured murine neural crest cells as a model of c-KIT-positive immature melanocytes, we confirmed that endothelin-1, which is produced and secreted by keratinocytes after UV-irradiation, affects melanocytes and accelerated melanogenesis.

  13. Dermal tolerance of Sterillium, a propanol-based hand rub.

    Kampf, G; Muscatiello, M


    Alcohol-based hand rubs have been used for hygienic hand disinfection in hospitals for decades. In order to achieve good compliance with hand hygiene practices in the healthcare setting, dermal tolerance of a hand rub product is crucial. Sterillium, which is used in many European countries for hygienic hand disinfection, is based on iso-propanol, n-propanol and mecetronium etilsulphate. The potential for dermal irritation and sensitization of commercially available propanol-based hand rubs containing emollients has not been studied systematically. We therefore studied the dermal tolerance of Sterillium in a repetitive occlusive patch test on 55 subjects. Sterillium was applied to one site on the back under an occlusive patch during an induction phase (total of nine applications over a three-week period) and two weeks later to a virgin site on the back during a challenge phase (one application). Twenty-four hours after removal of the patches (induction phase and challenge phase), and in addition, after 48 and 72 h (challenge phase), the sites were graded for skin reactions using a standardized scoring scale. In the induction phase, two of the 55 subjects had a barely perceptible minimal erythema at one of nine time points. The remaining 53 subjects had no skin reaction at any time. In the challenge phase, all 55 subjects had no skin reaction at all. The absence of significant reactions with respect to severity and frequency demonstrates the favourable dermal tolerance of the hand rub product. The lack of irritation or sensitization potential could enhance compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers.

  14. Immune Suppression by Dermal Application of JP-8 Jet Fuel


    transmitting the immunosuppressive signal from the skin to the immune system ( Limon -Flores, et al., Mast Cells mediate the Immune suppression Induced by...human and murine data. Nat Rev Immunol 7, 93-104. Byrne, S. N., Limon -Flores, A. Y. and Ullrich, S. E. (2008). Mast cell migration from the skin to...Ramos, G., Limon -Flores, A. Y. and Ullrich, S. E. (2007). Dermal exposure to jet fuel suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity: a critical role

  15. Dermal type I collagen assessment by digital image analysis*

    Brianezi, Gabrielli; Grandi, Fabrizio; Bagatin, Ediléia; Enokihara, Mílvia Maria S. S.; Miot, Hélio Amante [UNESP


    Type I collagen is the main dermal component, and its evaluation is relevant to quantitative studies in dermatopathology. However, visual gradation (0 to 4+) has low precision and high subjectivity levels. This study aimed to develop and validate a digital morphometric analysis technique to estimate type I collagen levels in the papillary dermis. Four evaluators visually quantified (0 to 4+) the density of type I collagen in 63 images of forearm skin biopsies marked by immunohistochemistry an...

  16. Mycobacterium chelonae Facial Infections Following Injection of Dermal Filler

    Rodriguez, Jan M.; Xie, Yingda L.; Winthrop, Kevin L; Schafer, Sean; Sehdev, Paul; Solomon, Joel; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C.; Lewis, Paul F.


    A cluster of 3 facial Mycobacterium chelonae infections occurred after cosmetic dermal filler injections at a plastic surgery clinic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that M chelonae isolated from the clinic tap water were identical to the patient wound isolates. Review of injection procedures identified application of nonsterile ice to the skin prior to injection as a possible source of M chelonae. Surveys of regional laboratories and a national plastic surgery listserv identified no ...

  17. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts


    The generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells has the potential to accelerate the implementation of stem cells for clinical treatment of degenerative diseases. Technologies including somatic cell nuclear transfer and cell fusion might generate such cells but are hindered by issues that might prevent them from being used clinically. Here, we describe methods to use dermal fibroblasts easily obtained from an individual human to generate human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ...

  18. Dopamine regulates angiogenesis in normal dermal wound tissues.

    Saurav Shome

    Full Text Available Cutaneous wound healing is a normal physiological process and comprises different phases. Among these phases, angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation in wound tissue plays an important role. Skin is richly supplied by sympathetic nerves and evidences indicate the significant role of the sympathetic nervous system in cutaneous wound healing. Dopamine (DA is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic nerve endings and recent studies have demonstrated the potent anti-angiogenic action of DA, which is mediated through its D(2 DA receptors. We therefore postulate that this endogenous catecholamine neurotransmitter may have a role in the neovascularization of dermal wound tissues and subsequently in the process of wound healing. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of D(2 DA receptor antagonist has been investigated for faster wound healing in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Our results indicate that treatment with specific D(2 DA receptor antagonist significantly expedites the process of full thickness normal dermal wound healing in mice by inducing angiogenesis in wound tissues. The underlined mechanisms have been attributed to the up-regulation of homeobox transcription factor HoxD3 and its target α5β1 integrin, which play a pivotal role in wound angiogenesis. Since D(2 DA receptor antagonists are already in clinical use for other disorders, these results have significant translational value from the bench to the bedside for efficient wound management along with other conventional treatment modalities.

  19. Citral: identifying a threshold for induction of dermal sensitization.

    Lalko, Jon; Api, Anne Marie


    Citral [CAS# 5392-40-5; EINECS# 226-394-6; RIFM # 116; cis- and trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-Octadienal] is an important fragrance ingredient appreciated for its powerful lemon-aroma. It is widely used in fragrance formulations and incorporated into numerous consumer products. A comprehensive review of the dermal sensitization data available for citral was undertaken with the goal of identifying a threshold for the induction of dermal sensitization. In 2007, a complete literature search was conducted. On-line databases that were surveyed included Chemical Abstract Services and the National Library of Medicine. In addition, the toxicologic database of the Research Institute for Fragrance materials, Inc. (RIFM) was searched, which includes numerous unpublished reports. Based on a weight of evidence approach, the data from this survey demonstrate that the human NOEL (No Observed Effect Level) for induction of dermal sensitization to citral is 1400 microg/cm(2). The identification of this induction threshold will allow for risk assessments to focus on primary prevention of contact allergy to citral based on a new Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) paradigm. This subsequent assessment will form the basis of a risk management approach; specifically a new IFRA (International Fragrance Association) standard on the use of citral in consumer products.

  20. Toxicity of dermally applied alpha-cypermethrin in rats.

    Luty, S; Latuszyńska, J; Halliop, J; Tochman, A; Obuchowska, D; Przylepa, E; Korczak, E


    The aim of the study was to assess the immunotoxic effect of dermally applied alpha-cypermethrin in rats based on phagocytic and bactericidal activity of neutrophils of peripheral blood, and the general toxic effect based on histological and ultrastructural examination of internal organs. The preparation was dermally applied in doses of 50 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. It was administered to the tail skin of female Wistar rats, 4 hours daily for 28 days. After the experiment, the animals were anaesthetized and heart blood was taken in order to evaluate the activity of granulocyte system. The following organs were taken for histological examinations: brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, thymus and lymphatic nodes. Lung, liver, kidney and heart were used for ultrastructural studies. The results of the study showed that bactericidal and phagocytic activity of neutrophils was stimulated after administration of 50 mg/kg alpha-cypermethrin. Dermal application of the preparation resulted in slight histological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. Pathological changes in heart were observed only on the level of ultrastructure.

  1. Embryonic dermal condensation and adult dermal papilla induce hair follicles in adult glabrous epidermis through different mechanisms


    Hair induction in the adult glabrous epidermis by the embryonic dermis was compared with that by the adult dermis. Recombinant skin, composed of the adult sole epidermis and the embryonic dermis containing dermal condensations (DC), was transplanted onto the back of nude mice. The epidermis of transplants formed hairs. Histology on the induction process demonstrated the formation of placode-like tissues, indicating that the transplant produces hair follicles through a mechanism similar to tha...

  2. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Arbabi Bidgoli S


    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  3. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A


    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  4. Mortality and morbidity from invasive bacterial infections during a clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in Sweden.

    Storsaeter, J; Olin, P; Renemar, B; Lagergård, T; Norberg, R; Romanus, V; Tiru, M


    A double blind placebo-controlled efficacy trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines was conducted in 3801 6- to 11-month-old children. Four vaccinated children died during 7 to 9 months follow-up as a result of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, heroin intoxication with concomitant pneumonia, suspected septicemia, and Neisseria meningitidis Group B septicemia. From the actual death rate in children belonging to the same birth cohort in Sweden that could have been eligible for the trial, one death was expected among vaccinated children. Several investigations were carried out to examine the possibility that the deaths could be causally related to the vaccination. The relative risk for hospitalization due to systemic or respiratory infections was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.20) and 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 1.08) in the vaccine groups as compared with the placebo group. Subsets of the population were studied for signs of immunosuppression. There was no indication of immunoglobulin deficiency or any sign of clinically significant leukopenia or lymphocytosis in vaccine recipients. The results of this analysis provide no evidence for a causal relation between vaccination with the studied acellular pertussis vaccines and altered resistance to invasive disease caused by encapsulated bacteria. The hypothesis that the two variables are related, however, cannot be refuted from these data.

  5. Pilot study on the identification of silver in skin layers and urine after dermal exposure to a functionalized textile.

    Bianco, Carlotta; Kezic, Sanja; Visser, Maaike J; Pluut, Olivier; Adami, Gianpiero; Krystek, Petra


    Silver (Ag) is increasingly used in consumer products like functionalized textiles and medical devices owing to its strong antimicrobial activity which is largely assigned to Ag ions released after oxidation of metallic Ag. To increase generation of Ag ions, in various products Ag is often present as nanoparticles. Ideally, Ag ions would remain on the surface of the skin to combat the bacteria and the uptake of Ag into the body should be limited. However, the Ag ions might penetrate across the skin into the body leading to adverse health effects. Data on in vivo uptake of Ag due to dermal exposure are scarce partly caused by the lack of suitable analytical approaches for the determination of Ag in biological matrices, but strongly needed to enable risk assessment of skin exposure to (nano) Ag containing products. With the developed approach, the presence of Ag in a functionalized textile is confirmed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After in vivo dermal exposure to Ag containing textile material under ׳׳in use׳׳ exposure scenarios, the outermost layers of the skin (Stratum Corneum, SC) were sampled by using adhesive tapes with a size of 3.8cm(2). Different leaching and dissolution procedures of Ag from biological samples prior analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) have been evaluated. The developed method results in a limit of detection (LOD) of 2ng Ag per removed SC layer. The method allows the measurement of the Ag concentrations at different depths of the SC enabling the deduction of the percutaneous penetration kinetics. Due to the possible bio distribution within the whole body, an indirect exposure matrix (urine) was studied too. The detection power of the method permits measuring the ultra-trace concentrations of Ag in urine before and after dermal exposure; LOD is 0.010µg Ag/L urine.


    马列; 高长有


    A dermal equivalent having a trilayered structure was designed by combining a silver nanoparticles incorporated chitosan film with a bilayer collagen-chitosan/silicon membrane dermal equivalent(BDE).The silver nanoparticles prepared at different conditions were characterized by UV-Vis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM).The macroscopic sharp and the microstructure of the trilayer dermal equivalent(TDE) were also studied.Then,the in vitro antibacterial property of TDE was evaluated by the antibacter...

  7. Sox2-positive dermal papilla cells specify hair follicle type in mammalian epidermis.

    Driskell, Ryan R; Giangreco, Adam; Jensen, Kim B; Mulder, Klaas W; Watt, Fiona M


    The dermal papilla comprises the specialised mesenchymal cells at the base of the hair follicle. Communication between dermal papilla cells and the overlying epithelium is essential for differentiation of the hair follicle lineages. We report that Sox2 is expressed in all dermal papillae at E16.5, but from E18.5 onwards expression is confined to a subset of dermal papillae. In postnatal skin, Sox2 is only expressed in the dermal papillae of guard/awl/auchene follicles, whereas CD133 is expressed both in guard/awl/auchene and in zigzag dermal papillae. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Sox2 promoter, we isolated Sox2(+) (GFP(+)) CD133(+) cells and compared them with Sox2(-) (GFP(-)) CD133(+) dermal papilla cells. In addition to the 'core' dermal papilla gene signature, each subpopulation expressed distinct sets of genes. GFP(+) CD133(+) cells had upregulated Wnt, FGF and BMP pathways and expressed neural crest markers. In GFP(-) CD133(+) cells, the hedgehog, IGF, Notch and integrin pathways were prominent. In skin reconstitution assays, hair follicles failed to form when dermis was depleted of both GFP(+) CD133(+) and GFP(-) CD133(+) cells. In the absence of GFP(+) CD133(+) cells, awl/auchene hairs failed to form and only zigzag hairs were found. We have thus demonstrated a previously unrecognised heterogeneity in dermal papilla cells and shown that Sox2-positive cells specify particular hair follicle types.

  8. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Schure, Rose-Minke; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; de Greeff, S. C.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie


    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 mo

  9. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  10. Associations between three specific a-cellular measures of the oxidative potential of particulate matter and markers of acute airway and nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers

    Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Yang, Aileen; Hellack, Bryan; Kelly, Frank J; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Harrison, Roy M; Brunekreef, Bert; Cassee, Flemming R; Steenhof, Maaike; Hoek, Gerard


    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated associations between three a-cellular measures of the oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) and acute health effects. METHODS: We exposed 31 volunteers for 5 h to ambient air pollution at five locations: an underground train station, two traffic sites, a farm

  11. Matrix Thermalization

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin


    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  12. Dermal tunneling: a proposed treatment for depressed scars*

    Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade


    Depressed facial scars are still a challenge in medical literature, despite the wide range of proposed treatments. Subcision is a technique that is frequently performed to improve this type of lesions. This article proposes a new method to release depressed scars, reported and named by the author as dermal tunneling. This study presents a simple and didactic manner to perform this method. The results in 17 patients with facial scars were considered promising. Thus, the technique was deemed to be safe and reproducible. PMID:27828658

  13. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Vedamurthy Maya


    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  14. Dermal exposure from transfer of lubricants and fuels by consumers.

    Galea, Karen S; Davis, Alice; Todd, Davis; MacCalman, Laura; McGonagle, Carolyn; Cherrie, John W


    Consumer uses of fuels and lubricants in Europe are subject to the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) legislation. Ten volunteers completed a series of exposure situations to simulate filling a vehicle fuel tank with diesel (ES1 Diesel), adding lubricant to a car engine (two situations, one filling point easier to reach (ES2 Easy) than the other (ES3 Hard)) and lubricating a bicycle chain (ES4 Bike). Dermal exposure to the hands and forearms was assessed using a wipe sampling method. A high proportion of samples was less than the limit of detection (ES1=38%, ES3=60%, ES2 and 4, both 78%). In ES1 Diesel, dermal exposure to the hands and forearms ranged from <0.25 μg/cm(2) to 96.21 μg/cm(2). Significantly higher dermal exposure was observed when a lower level of care was taken to complete the task. In ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard, the hand and forearm results ranged from <0.1 μg/cm(2) to 3.33 μg/cm(2) and from <0.1 μg/cm(2) to 3.54 μg/cm(2), respectively. In ES4 Bike, the hand and forearm exposures ranged from <0.35 μg/cm(2) to 5.25 μg/cm(2). Not all volunteers fully complied with the ES4 instructions, thus highlighting that this situation may have more variability in consumer behaviour. The ratio of the amount measured on the hands and forearms to the amount of product handled for ES1 Diesel, ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard was less than 0.0001%, for ES4 Bike it was 0.04%. Mixed effect models showed that the between and within volunteer variations are small for all except ES1 Diesel, where the within volunteer variation was relatively large (likely due to the few high measurements). This study reports dermal exposure measurement data, which will be of value when updating REACH and other exposure assessments for these, and similar, petroleum products.

  15. Propiedades biomecánicas y proceso de esterilización de las matrices alodérmicas usadas en periodoncia Biomechanical properties and sterilization process of allodermics matrix used on periodontic

    C.M. Ardila Medina


    Full Text Available Se han propuesto diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos para la preservación y aumento del reborde alveolar, así como para el tratamiento de recesiones gingivales e incremento de la amplitud de la encía adherida, alrededor de dientes naturales e implantes. Cuando se utilizan injertos autógenos en estas intervenciones se evidencian algunas desventajas que incluyen la inconformidad asociada con un sitio quirúrgico adicional y la disponibilidad limitada de tejido donante. Recientemente, se utilizan como sustitutos de los injertos autógenos en cirugía periodontal, dos tipos de aloinjertos de matriz dérmica acelular. Debido al gran uso de matrices alodérmicas, no solo en periodoncia sino en otras áreas de las ciencias de la salud, se ha dispuesto mayor atención a las medidas de seguridad y a la eficacia de varios procesos de esterilización realizados por los bancos tisulares. Desafortunadamente, el procesamiento y las técnicas de esterilización podrían producir efectos deletéreos sobre las propiedades biomecánicas de los tejidos alogénicos, ocasionando resultados indeseables en las intervenciones realizadas. Por otra parte, se ha indicado que a pesar de la rigurosidad de los procesos de evaluación en donantes y tejidos, además del procesamiento extenso de las matrices, existe la posibilidad de permanencia de material genético en los aloinjertos disponibles comercialmente.Several surgical procedures have been proposed for the preservation and increase of the alveolar ridge, and for the treatment of gingival recessions and to increase the width of attached gingiva around natural teeth or implants. The disadvantages of harvesting autogenous grafts on these procedures lie in the postoperative discomfort associated with an extra surgical site, as well as the limitation of available donor tissue. Recently, two types of acellular dermal matrix allografts have been approved as substitutes for autogenous grafts in mucogingival surgery

  16. Matrix inequalities

    Zhan, Xingzhi


    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  17. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.;


    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare-skinne...

  18. Classification of Dermal Exposure Modifiers and Assignment of Values for a Risk Assessment Toolkit

    Goede, H.A.; Tijssen, S.C.H.A.; Schipper, H.J.; Warren, N.; Oppl, R.; Kalberlah, F.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    This paper describes how default dermal exposure values can be adjusted with modifier values for specific work situations. The work presented here is supplementary to a toolkit developed for the EU RISKOFDERM project. This toolkit is intended for the assessment and management of dermal risks in smal

  19. Harmonization of future needs for dermal exposure assessment and modeling : a workshop report

    Marquart, H.; Maidment, S.; Mcclaflin, J.L.; Fehrenbacher, M.C.


    Dermal exposure assessment and modeling is still in early phases of development. This article presents the results of a workshop organized to harmonize the future needs in this field. Methods for dermal exposure assessment either assess the mass of contaminant that is transferred to the skin, or the

  20. Variability of Task-based Dermal Exposure Measurements from a Variety of Workplaces

    Kromhout, H.; Fransman, W.; Vermeulen, R.; Roff, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Introduction: The RISKOFDERM project collected task-based estimates of potential dermal exposure from a wide range of industries and services from around Europe. A formal statistical analysis was carried out to explore the main components of variability in dermal exposure levels. The central researc

  1. 40 CFR 795.225 - Dermal pharmacokinetics of DGBE and DGBA.


    ... shaven skin. (iii) Washing efficiency study. Before initiation of the dermal absorption studies described... Guidelines § 795.225 Dermal pharmacokinetics of DGBE and DGBA. (a) Purpose. The purpose of these studies is... in percutaneous absorption studies. (ii) Animals. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats shall be used....

  2. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel;


    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under other...

  3. Patterns of Dermal Exposure to Hazardous Substances in European Union Workplaces

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R.; Roff, M.; Delgado, P.; Eriksson, K.; Fransman, W.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Hughson, G.; Mäkinen, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other typ

  4. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.


    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  5. Shh maintains dermal papilla identity and hair morphogenesis via a Noggin-Shh regulatory loop.

    Woo, Wei-Meng; Zhen, Hanson H; Oro, Anthony E


    During hair follicle morphogenesis, dermal papillae (DPs) function as mesenchymal signaling centers that cross-talk with overlying epithelium to regulate morphogenesis. While the DP regulates hair follicle formation, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of DP formation. The morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is known for regulating hair follicle epithelial growth, with excessive signaling resulting in basal cell carcinomas. Here, we investigate how dermal-specific Shh signaling contributes to DP formation and hair growth. Using a Cre-lox genetic model and RNAi in hair follicle reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that dermal Smoothened (Smo) loss of function results in the loss of the DP precursor, the dermal condensate, and a stage 2 hair follicle arrest phenotype reminiscent of Shh(-/-) skin. Surprisingly, dermal Smo does not regulate cell survival or epithelial proliferation. Rather, molecular screening and immunostaining studies reveal that dermal Shh signaling controls the expression of a subset of DP-specific signature genes. Using a hairpin/cDNA lentiviral system, we show that overexpression of the Shh-dependent gene Noggin, but not Sox2 or Sox18, can partially rescue the dermal Smo knockdown hair follicle phenotype by increasing the expression of epithelial Shh. Our findings suggest that dermal Shh signaling regulates specific DP signatures to maintain DP maturation while maintaining a reciprocal Shh-Noggin signaling loop to drive hair follicle morphogenesis.

  6. A Case Report of the First Nonburn-related Military Trauma Victim Treated with Spray Skin Regenerative Therapy in Combination with a Dermal Regenerate Template

    Hammer, Daniel A.; Rendon, Juan L.; Latham, Kerry P.; Fleming, Mark E.


    Summary: Massive soft tissue and skin loss secondary to war-related traumas are among the most frequently encountered challenges in the care of wounded warriors. This case report outlines the first military nonburn-related trauma patient treated by a combination of regenerative modalities. Our case employs spray skin technology to an established dermal regenerate matrix. Our patient, a 29-year-old active duty male, suffered a combat blast trauma in 2010 while deployed. The patient’s treatment course was complicated by a severe necrotizing fasciitis infection requiring over 100 surgical procedures for disease control and reconstruction. In secondary delayed reconstruction procedures, this triple-limb amputee underwent successful staged ventral hernia repair via a component separation technique with biologic mesh underlay although this resulted in a skin deficit of more than 600 cm2. A dermal regenerate template was applied to the abdominal wound to aid in establishing a “neodermis.” Three weeks after dermal regenerate application, spray skin was applied to the defect in conjunction with a 6:1 meshed split thickness skin graft. The dermal regenerate template allowed for optimization of the wound bed for skin grafting. The use of spray skin allowed for a 6:1 mesh ratio, thus minimizing the donor-site size and morbidity. Together, this approach resulted in complete healing of a large full-thickness wound. The patient is now able to perform activities of daily living, walk without a cane, and engage in various physical activities. Overall, our case highlights the potential that combining regenerative therapies can achieve in treating severe war-related and civilian traumatic injuries. PMID:28293522

  7. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Keiko Miyoshi


    Full Text Available Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs, human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs, and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs, linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming.

  8. Collagen-binding peptidoglycans inhibit MMP mediated collagen degradation and reduce dermal scarring.

    Kate Stuart

    Full Text Available Scarring of the skin is a large unmet clinical problem that is of high patient concern and impact. Wound healing is complex and involves numerous pathways that are highly orchestrated, leaving the skin sealed, but with abnormal organization and composition of tissue components, namely collagen and proteoglycans, that are then remodeled over time. To improve healing and reduce or eliminate scarring, more rapid restoration of healthy tissue composition and organization offers a unique approach for development of new therapeutics. A synthetic collagen-binding peptidoglycan has been developed that inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 13 (MMP-1 and MMP-13 mediated collagen degradation. We investigated the synthetic peptidoglycan in a rat incisional model in which a single dose was delivered in a hyaluronic acid (HA vehicle at the time of surgery prior to wound closure. The peptidoglycan treatment resulted in a significant reduction in scar tissue at 21 days as measured by histology and visual analysis. Improved collagen architecture of the treated wounds was demonstrated by increased tensile strength and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of collagen fibril diameters compared to untreated and HA controls. The peptidoglycan's mechanism of action includes masking existing collagen and inhibiting MMP-mediated collagen degradation while modulating collagen organization. The peptidoglycan can be synthesized at low cost with unique design control, and together with demonstrated preclinical efficacy in reducing scarring, warrants further investigation for dermal wound healing.

  9. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What the Canadian public knows and wants to know.

    Halperin, B A; MacDougall, D; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A


    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in Canada but uptake is low. This study measured the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian adults to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. A survey was undertaken on a geographically representative sample of Canadian adults (n=4023) and 8 focus groups (62 participants) were conducted nationwide. The survey revealed that knowledge about pertussis and Tdap was low (38.3% correct answers). Only 36.0% of respondents reported being aware that all adults were recommended to receive Tdap and only 10.7% reported being immunized; 36.7% did not know whether they had received Tdap. Respondents who were aware of the immunization recommendations were twice as likely to be immunized (16.6% vs. 8.3%; pvaccination with Tdap are not reaching the general public in Canada and an alternative strategy will be required to improve Tdap vaccine uptake.

  10. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D


    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  11. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica


    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process.

  12. A study of uniaxial tension on the superficial dermal microvasculature.

    Barnhill, R L; Bader, D L; Ryan, T J


    A spring-loaded apparatus was designed to apply uniaxial tension to forearm skin in 17 human subjects--10 normals, 6 psoriatics, and 1 patient with scleroderma. Simultaneously, the effects of stretching on the upper dermal vasculature were observed stereomicroscopically. Progressive changes (collapse) in the superficial microvasculature--vertical capillary loops and horizontal subpapillary plexus--with increasing tension were photographed. Force and strains were recorded at the points of disappearance of virtually all vessels. An average force of 11.9 newtons (N), accompanied by a mean strain of 10.3%, resulted in occlusion of all vessels. A much higher force (18.5 N) was necessary to occlude blood flow in the 1 patient with scleroderma. In summary, we have described a new technique for the study of mechanical forces on the blood supply of the epidermis. The data have shown that uniaxial tension has important effects on the superficial dermal microvasculature, resulting in impedance and obliteration of blood flow at relatively low magnitudes.

  13. The dermal carcinogenic potential of unrefined and hydrotreated lubricating oils.

    McKee, R H; Daughtrey, W C; Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T


    Unrefined lubricating oils contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and have been shown to induce tumors in mouse skin. Exxon has developed a new method of refining these materials, a severe hydrotreatment process that is optimized for PAH removal. The specific objectives of the current study were to assess PAH reduction and then to evaluate directly the dermal carcinogenic potential of the materials that spanned the range of products produced by this method. The test samples included unrefined light and heavy vacuum distillates from a naphthenic crude oil, as well as the corresponding severely hydrotreated products. Two sets of samples were prepared to assess the effects of various operating parameters in the reactor. Additionally, positive (benzo[a]pyrene), negative (white mineral oil) and vehicle (toluene) control groups were included to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay. Each sample was applied in twice-weekly aliquots to the backs of 40 male C3H mice. In the analytical studies, significant reductions in the levels of several specific PAH were demonstrated. In the dermal carcinogenesis studies, the unrefined oils and the positive control induced tumors and also significantly reduced survival. None of the mice treated with severely hydrotreated oils or with the negative or vehicle controls developed skin tumors, and survival of these mice was not significantly different from the control. Thus, the data demonstrated that this new, severe hydrotreatment process was an effective means of converting carcinogenic feedstocks to non-carcinogenic products.

  14. Nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes for dermal wound healing applications.

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Ercan, Batur; Denkbaş, Emir B; Webster, Thomas J


    As an effort to create the next generation of improved skin graft materials, in this study, we modified the surfaces of a previously investigated material, silk fibroin, using a NaOH alkaline treatment to obtain a biologically inspired nanofeatured surface morphology. Such surfaces were characterized for roughness, energy, and chemistry. In addition, keratinocyte (skin-forming cells) adhesion and proliferation on such nanofeatured silk fibroin wound dressings were studied in an initial attempt to determine the promotion of an epidermal cover on the wound bed to form a new epidermal barrier. Dermal fibroblast adhesion and proliferation were also studied to assess the ability of nanostructured silk fibroin to replace damaged dermal tissue in chronic wounds (i.e., for diabetic foot ulcers). Results demonstrated for the first time that keratinocyte and fibroblast cell density was greater on nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes compared with non-treated silk fibroin surfaces. The enhancement in cellular functions was correlated with an increase in silk surface nanotopography, wettability and change in chemistry after NaOH treatment. Due to the present promising results, the newly developed nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes are exciting alternative skin graft materials which should be further studied for various skin patch and wound dressing applications.

  15. Methods for assessing risks of dermal exposures in the workplace.

    McDougal, James N; Boeniger, Mark F


    The skin as a route of entry for toxic chemicals has caused increasing concern over the last decade. The assessment of systemic hazards from dermal exposures has evolved over time, often limited by the amount of experimental data available. The result is that there are many methods being used to assess safety of chemicals in the workplace. The process of assessing hazards of skin contact includes estimating the amount of substance that may end up on the skin and estimating the amount that might reach internal organs. Most times, toxicology studies by the dermal route are not available and extrapolations from other exposure routes are necessary. The hazards of particular chemicals can be expressed as "skin notations", actual exposure levels, or safe exposure times. Characterizing the risk of a specific procedure in the workplace involves determining the ratio of exposure standards to an expected exposure. The purpose of this review is to address each of the steps in the process and describe the assumptions that are part of the process. Methods are compared by describing their strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations for research in this area are also included.

  16. The Use of Dermal Autograft for Fascial Repair of TRAM Flap Donor Sites

    Ali Arab Kheradmand


    Full Text Available Closure of fascia after transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap has usually been performed with direct closure or synthetic material. The dermal autograft was removed from zone IV of flap was an alternative to reinforce fascial closure. The dermal autograft was used in 34 patients after TRAM harvest for breast, head and neck reconstruction and Prolene mesh was used in 42 other patients for closure of fascial defect. All patients were followed by physical examinations. Average follow-up in the dermal autograft group was 27.3 versus 20.7 months in the second group. In the dermal autograft group, one patient complained of bulging of the anterior abdominal wall; one developed a wound infection. In the second group, one patients experienced true hernia. Dermal autografts are a useful alternative to mesh repair of fascial defects after TRAM flap harvest.

  17. Deriving Default Dermal Exposure Values for Use in a Risk Assessment Toolkit for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Warren, N.; Goede, H.A.; Tijssen, S.C.H.A.; Oppl, R.; Schipper, H.J.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalize

  18. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method

    Agostini, M.; Fransman, W.; Vocht, F.D.; Joode, B.V.W.D.; Kromhout, H.


    Objective: To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)].Methods: Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85 a

  19. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF biological actions on human dermal fibroblasts

    S Montagnani


    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are involved in all pathologies characterized by increased ExtraCellularMatrix synthesis, from wound healing to fibrosis. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine isolated as an hemopoietic growth factor but recently indicated as a differentiative agent on endothelial cells. In this work we demonstrated the expression of the receptor for GM-CSF (GMCSFR on human normal skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects (NFPC and on a human normal fibroblast cell line (NHDF and we try to investigate the biological effects of this cytokine. Human normal fibroblasts were cultured with different doses of GM-CSF to study the effects of this factor on GMCSFR expression, on cell proliferation and adhesion structures. In addition we studied the production of some Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM components such as Fibronectin, Tenascin and Collagen I. The growth rate of fibroblasts from healthy donors (NFPC is not augmented by GM-CSF stimulation in spite of increased expression of the GM-CSFR. On the contrary, the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cell line seems more influenced by high concentration of GM-CSF in the culture medium. The adhesion structures and the ECM components appear variously influenced by GM-CSF treatment as compared to fibroblasts cultured in basal condition, but newly only NHDF cells are really induced to increase their synthesis activity. We suggest that the in vitro treatment with GM-CSF can shift human normal fibroblasts towards a more differentiated state, due or accompanied by an increased expression of GM-CSFR and that such “differentiation” is an important event induced by such cytokine.

  20. Effects of the novel compound DK223 ([1E,2E-1,2-Bis(6-methoxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]hydrazine) on migration and proliferation of human keratinocytes and primary dermal fibroblasts.

    Ho, Manh Tin; Kang, Hyun Sik; Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Young Mee; Lim, Yoongho; Cho, Moonjae


    Wound healing plays an important role in protecting the human body from external infection. Cell migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts are essential for proper wound healing. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that secondary compounds produced in plants could affect skin cells migration and proliferation. In this study, we identified a novel compound DK223 ([1E,2E-1,2-bis(6-methoxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]hydrazine) that concomitantly induced human keratinocyte migration and dermal fibroblast proliferation. We evaluated the regulation of epithelial and mesenchymal protein markers, such as E-cadherin and Vimentin, in human keratinocytes, as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and metalloproteinase families in dermal fibroblasts. DK223 upregulated keratinocyte migration and significantly increased the epithelial marker E-cadherin in a time-dependent manner. We also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly in keratinocytes after 2 h of DK223 exposure, returning to normal levels after 24 h, which indicated that DK223 had an early shock effect on ROS production. DK223 also stimulated fibroblast proliferation, and induced significant secretion of ECM proteins, such as collagen I, III, and fibronectin. In dermal fibroblasts, DK223 treatment induced TGF-β1, which is involved in a signaling pathway that mediates proliferation. In conclusion, DK223 simultaneously induced both keratinocyte migration via ROS production and fibroblast proliferation via TGF-β1 induction.

  1. Dermal adipocytes and hair cycling: is spatial heterogeneity a characteristic feature of the dermal adipose tissue depot?

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E


    Adipocytes are widely distributed in the dermis, in a unique fat depot referred to as dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT). In rodents, dWAT is present as widespread thin layers, whereas in pigs and humans, it is present in clusters referred to as 'dermal cones' around the pilosebaceous units. This distinct layer of fat cells located above the subcutaneous white adipose tissue is important for proper hair follicle (HF) cycling in rodents. Murine HFs produce spatially restricted synchronous patches after their second postnatal cycle which correlates with the spatial heterogeneity of murine dWAT. Similarly, the cycling of HFs in humans may also be related to the spatial distribution of dWAT, making the difference between murine and human HF cycling of more quantitative than of qualitative nature. This should allow the production of small spatially correlated HF patches in human skin, and we propose that this process can be regulated by paracrine signalling involving a number of signalling modules, including the hedgehog pathway. This pathway is an established player in HF cycling, but is also involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and may therefore be a key regulator of the process across species. We also suggest that the spatial heterogeneity of dWAT is connected not only to HF cycling, but may also be related to other physiological and pathological processes in the skin.

  2. Matrix analysis

    Bhatia, Rajendra


    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  3. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical detection of keratins and extracellular matrix proteins in lizard skin cultured in vitro.

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Polazzi, Elisabetta


    The present study shows the localization of epidermal and dermal proteins produced in lizard skin cultivated in vitro. Cells from the skin have been cultured for up to one month to detect the expression of keratins, actin, vimentin and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, elastin and collagen I). Keratinocytes and dermal cells weakly immunoreact for Pan-Cytokeratin but not with the K17-antibody at the beginning of the cell culture when numerous keratin bundles are present in keratinocyte cytoplasm. The dense keratin network disappears after 7-12 days in culture, and K17 becomes detectable in both keratinocytes and mesenchymal cells isolated from the dermis. While most epidermal cells are lost after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation dermal cells proliferate and form a pellicle of variable thickness made of 3-8 cell layers. The fibroblasts of this dermal equivalent produces an extracellular matrix containing chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, collagen I, elastic fibers and fibronectin, explaining the attachment of the pellicle to the substratum. The study indicates that after improving keratinocyte survival a skin equivalent for lizard epidermis would be feasible as a useful tool to analyze the influence of the dermis on the process of epidermal differentiation and the control of the shedding cycle in squamates.

  4. Identification and localization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) messenger RNAs in human hair follicle dermal papilla.

    Batch, J A; Mercuri, F A; Werther, G A


    The role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in hair follicle biology has recently been recognized, although their actions, sites of production, and modulation by the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have not to date been defined. IGF-I is essential for normal hair growth and development, and may be important in regulation of the hair growth cycle. In many culture systems, IGF-I actions are modulated by the IGFBPs. Thus, if IGFBPs are produced in the human hair follicle, they may play a role in targeting IGF-I to its receptor or may modulate IGF-I action by interaction with matrix proteins. We have used in situ hybridization to localize messenger RNA for the six IGFBPs in anagen hair follicles. Anti-sense and sense RNA probes for the IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to -6) were produced, and 5-micrometer sections of adult facial skin were probed. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 were identified, with predominantly IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA found in the dermal papilla, and to a lesser extent IGFBP-4 mRNA. IGFBP-4 mRNA was also found at the dermal papilla/epithelial matrix border. Messenger RNAs for both IGFBP-4 and -5 were also demonstrated in the dermal sheath surrounding the hair follicle. Messenger RNAs for IGFBP-1, -2, and -6 were not identified. These studies demonstrate specific localization of IGFBP mRNAs in hair follicles, suggesting that they each play specific roles in the local modulation of IGF action during the hair growth cycle.

  5. Lycopene from tomatoes: vesicular nanocarrier formulations for dermal delivery.

    Ascenso, Andreia; Pinho, Sónia; Eleutério, Carla; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Silva, Olga; Simões, Sandra


    This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems.

  6. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm


    The OECD guideline for studies on percutaneous penetration to be used in hazard and risk evaluations prescribes experimental conditions with optimal barrier integrity of the skin, which in many occupational settings probably is not true. Thus, workers may have compromised skin due to chemical...... or mechanical damage, due to different medical conditions (eczema, dermatitis, skin irritation) or related to occupational scenarios involving prolonged wet work. The present study used the OECD guideline procedures to study the in vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of a number of model...... substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present...

  7. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa


    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  8. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa


    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  9. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh


    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  10. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T


    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications.

  11. Dermal lesions after post mortem petrol-exposure.

    Bux, R; Stengel, P D; Schnabel, A


    The effect of post mortem contact of the skin with petrol was investigated in 18 corpses with exposure times between 10 min and 24 h. The earliest onset of skin changes was observed within 2 h of exposure. They consisted of swelling and wrinkling with detachment of the upper layers of the skin (positive Nikolski's sign). Histologically the lesions appeared as non-vital acantholyses located in the prickle-cell layer with formation of intra-epidermal bullae. An influence of age and sex could be excluded, the earlier onset of lesions at 22 degrees C than at 4 degrees C was not statistically significant. These findings prove that post mortem petrol exposure may lead to dermal lesions.


    Anurag Payasi


    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  13. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    Tapan Jayantilal Parikh


    Full Text Available Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient′s body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60 2 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal.

  14. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

    Aroldo P. de Carvalho


    vacina é em torno de 6 a 12 anos. As avaliações sobre o impacto econômico do uso rotineiro da vacina em adolescentes evidenciam uma relação custo-benefício positiva. Os resultados do impacto epidemiológico dependem da qualidade do diagnóstico para que os dados reflitam a realidade da doença. CONCLUSÕES: Embora existam algumas questões a serem esclarecidas, a literatura disponível sinaliza a possibilidade para a solução do .ressurgimento. da coqueluche com o uso da vacina dTpa. Talvez a estratégia da utilização de uma dose de reforço na adolescência, substituindo a vacina dupla contra difteria e tétano, seja uma medida a ser prontamente indicada.BACKGROUND: The use of whole-cell pertussis vaccine has led to a significant decline in incidence of the disease among children. This change in the epidemiological profile led to an increased number of cases among teenagers and adults, as a result of loss of immunity to the disease or vaccine after approximately 10 years. An increased number of cases was also observed among non-immunized or partially immunized infants. Licensure of the DTP vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis formulated specifically for patients over 10 years of age (Tdap suggests the possibility of controlling pertussis in the most affected age groups over the past few years. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were collected from MEDLINE. The research was limited to the period between January 1995 and January 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In some countries there are two Tdap vaccines licensed for patients over 10 years of age. One of them contains five immunogenic components of Bordetella pertussis (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2 and 3, and pertactin, and the other contains three components (pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and inactivated pertussis toxin, the latter being the only one licensed in Brazil up to now. Although the composition of the two vaccines differs, studies show that they have

  15. In vitro dermal penetration study of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb

    Liu, Kwang-Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, Inje University, College of Medicine, 614-735, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jeong-Han [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 441-744, Suwon (Korea)


    In this study, the dermal penetration rate of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb has been measured with rat abdominal skin using the static diffusion cell. The technical grades of three compounds were applied at different doses on skin surface mounted in static diffusion cell and incubated at 32 C for 48 h with shaking. The same procedures were carried out with furathiocarb EC (emulsifiable concentrate) and WP (wettable powder). At regular intervals, the receptor fluid in cell was sampled and analyzed by HPLC. Only carbofuran was found in carbosulfan- or furathiocarb-treated samples, suggesting they converted into carbofuran while passing through the skin layer. The quantity of insecticide penetrating skin increased with time and applied dose. The skin penetration rate increased with the water solubility of insecticides. The dermal penetration rates of carbofuran, furathiocarb, and carbosulfan were determined as 1.05 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.991), 0.46 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.984) and 0.14 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.967), respectively. There was no significant difference in rate of skin penetration between furathiocarb EC (1.42 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.988) and WP (1.35 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.982), while furathiocarb technical grade showed a lower skin penetration rate. In vitro models may be used to predict percutaneous absorption and are useful in selecting safer formulations for field application of pesticide. (orig.)

  16. Sirtinol treatment reduces inflammation in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

    Angela Orecchia

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDAC are key enzymes in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Recently, inhibitors of class I and class II HDAC have been successfully employed for the treatment of different inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, airway inflammation and asthma. So far, little is known so far about a similar therapeutic effect of inhibitors specifically directed against sirtuins, the class III HDAC. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of endogenous sirtuins in primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC, a cell type playing a key role in the development and maintenance of skin inflammation. We then examined the biological activity of sirtinol, a specific sirtuin inhibitor, in HDMEC response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. We found that, even though sirtinol treatment alone affected only long-term cell proliferation, it diminishes HDMEC inflammatory responses to tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL-1β. In fact, sirtinol significantly reduced membrane expression of adhesion molecules in TNFã- or IL-1β-stimulated cells, as well as the amount of CXCL10 and CCL2 released by HDMEC following TNFα treatment. Notably, sirtinol drastically decreased monocyte adhesion on activated HDMEC. Using selective inhibitors for Sirt1 and Sirt2, we showed a predominant involvement of Sirt1 inhibition in the modulation of adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion on activated HDMEC. Finally, we demonstrated the in vivo expression of Sirt1 in the dermal vessels of normal and psoriatic skin. Altogether, these findings indicated that sirtuins may represent a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases characterized by a prominent microvessel involvement.

  17. Toxicokinetics of captan and folpet biomarkers in dermally exposed volunteers.

    Berthet, Aurélie; Bouchard, Michèle; Vernez, David


    To better assess biomonitoring data in workers exposed to captan and folpet, the kinetics of ring metabolites [tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), phthalimide (PI) and phthalic acid] were determined in urine and plasma of dermally exposed volunteers. A 10  mg kg(-1) dose of each fungicide was applied on 80  cm(2) of the forearm and left without occlusion or washing for 24  h. Blood samples were withdrawn at fixed time periods over the 72  h following application and complete urine voids were collected over 96  h post-dosing, for metabolite analysis. In the hours following treatment, a progressive increase in plasma levels of THPI and PI was observed, with peak levels being reached at 24  h for THPI and 10  h for PI. The ensuing elimination phase appeared monophasic with a mean elimination half-life (t(½) ) of 24.7 and 29.7 h for THPI and PI, respectively. In urine, time courses PI and phthalic acid excretion rate rapidly evolved in parallel, and a mean elimination t(½) of 28.8 and 29.6  h, respectively, was calculated from these curves. THPI was eliminated slightly faster, with a mean t(½) of 18.7  h. Over the 96  h period post-application, metabolites were almost completely excreted, and on average 0.02% of captan dose was recovered in urine as THPI while 1.8% of the folpet dose was excreted as phthalic acid and 0.002% as PI, suggesting a low dermal absorption fraction for both fungicides. This study showed the potential use of THPI, PI and phthalic acid as key biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet.

  18. Matrix pentagons

    Belitsky, A V


    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  19. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs.

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser


    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p0.05). A firm attachment of acellular cementum to the root dentin with functional organization of its collagen fibers was noted, and, the accumulation and organization of cellular cementum in the control group was more irregular than the cellular cementum formed in the test group. The amount of new bone was 2.41+/-0.75 mm in

  20. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Yan-ru Zhang; Ka Ka; Ge-chen Zhang; Hui Zhang; Yan Shang; Guo-qiang Zhao; Wen-hua Huang


    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic fac-tor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neuro-trophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve ifbers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when al-lografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cili-ary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury.

  1. Sensitivity of Allium and Nicotiana in cellular and acellular comet assays to assess differential genotoxicity of direct and indirect acting mutagens.

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Mukherjee, Anita


    We have evaluated the extent of DNA damage induced by direct and indirect mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays in two plant systems, Nicotiana tabacum (wild type tobacco) and Allium cepa (common onion). The objectives of this study were: (1) to generate dose-response curves for DNA migration values from root and shoot nuclei of A. cepa and N. tabacum treated with the direct acting mutagens, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the indirect acting mutagen, cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), (2) to assess the differential response between isolated nuclei and nuclei of root and shoot and of both plants and (3) to examine the differences of sensitivity between direct and indirect acting mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays. Similar sensitivities were evident in both plant systems to direct and indirect acting mutagens. The combination of cellular and acellular comet assays provided valuable insight to the mode of action of the genotoxicants used. The data obtained demonstrated the estimable capacity of the two plant systems to evaluate genotoxicity under different stress conditions and suggests Allium is a more desirable test system for rapid monitoring of genotoxicity.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta


    ABSTRACT Background: An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). Methods: A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18–35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. Results: A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. Conclusion: In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed

  3. Development of a porcine renal extracellular matrix scaffold as a platform for kidney regeneration.

    Choi, Seock Hwan; Chun, So Young; Chae, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Chung, Sung Kwang; Lee, Jin Ho; Song, Phil Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun


    Acellular scaffolds, possessing an intact three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and biochemical components, are promising for regeneration of complex organs, such as the kidney. We have successfully developed a porcine renal acellular scaffold and analyzed its physical/biochemical characteristics, biocompatibility, and kidney reconstructive potential. Segmented porcine kidney cortexes were treated with either 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 (Triton) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Scanning electron microscopy showed both treatments preserved native tissue architecture, including porosity and composition. Swelling behavior was higher in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Maximum compressive strength was lower in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Attenuated total reflective-infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of amide II (-NH) in both scaffolds. Furthermore, richer ECM protein and growth factor contents were observed in the Triton-treated compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Primary human kidney cell adherence, viability, and proliferation were enhanced on the Triton-treated scaffold compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Following murine in vivo implantation, tumorigenecity was absent for both scaffolds after 8 weeks and in the Triton-treated scaffold only, glomeruli-like structure formation and neovascularity were observed. We identified 1% Triton X-100 as a more suitable decellularizing agent for porcine renal ECM scaffolds prior to kidney regeneration.

  4. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J;


    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... dermal area (expressed as mast cells per square millimeter). This technique enabled us to detect heterogeneity of dermal mast cell prevalence in buttock skin between individuals and provided evidence of an association between high dermal mast cell prevalence and BCC development in two diverse populations...

  5. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of dermal sheep collagen

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.


    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation beh




    Tissue interactions with discs of dermal sheep collagen (DSC), subcutaneously implanted in rats, were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. DSC cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDSC) had already been tested previously. In the present study, we compared tissue interactions of

  7. Osteopathia striata: a characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.


    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality.

  8. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    Murphy, Kelly E.


    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. 化学去细胞尿道在大鼠皮下的埋置%Subcutaneous embedment of the acellular urethra in rats

    刘小燕; 王远征; 李莹; 李琳; 毛丹; 李航旭


    BACKGROUND:The nature of graft rejective reaction is the antigen immunological reaction of recipient’s immune system in response to donor’s graft. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of chemical extraction on the immunogenicity of acellular peripheral urethral isografts. METHODS:Twenty urethras of Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 cm long, were included in this study. Ten urethras were treated with chemical acellular method to remove immunogenic component, thus prepared into acellular urethras;another ten urethras were fresh, without any acellular treatment. Acellular urethras were implanted into the back of ten Wistar rats, while fresh urethras into another ten rats. 6 weeks after transplantation, the specimens were harvested for gross and histological observations. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After acellular or fresh urethras were implanted into the rats, no autotomy was observed, the incision healed wel , the diet and activities of the rat were normal, and no ulcer formation was found. At 6 weeks, tissue membrane formed around the acellular urethra, while no formation was visible around fresh urethra by gross observation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that, acellular urethras were gradual y absorbed and replaced by smooth muscular tissue. And unequal blood vessels grew in the acellular urethra, even formed blood sinusoid. In the control group, the urethras were not absorbed and no blood vessels were grown. The acellular urethras can gradual y form normal urethra in rats, indicating that the acellular urethral autograft has a lower antigenicity and can replace the cavernous body of normal urethra.%背景:有研究提出了移植排斥反应的实质是受者免疫系统对供者移植物抗原的免疫应答反应。  目的:验证化学萃取去细胞处理对同种异体尿道移植抗原性的影响。  方法:取SD大鼠尿道共20根,每段长1 cm。其中10根采用化学去细胞法处理大鼠尿道的免疫原性成分,使其

  10. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    Lynnelle Smith; Kimberly Cockerham


    Lynnelle Smith1, Kimberly Cockerham21Ophthalmology Department, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Ophthalmology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal ...

  11. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis.

    Hantash, Basil M; Bedi, Vikramaditya P; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K; Herron, G Scott; Chan, Kin Foong


    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 microm or 140 microm 1e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  12. Regulation of impaired angiogenesis in diabetic dermal wound healing by microRNA-26a.

    Icli, Basak; Nabzdyk, Christoph S; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Cahill, Meghan; Auster, Michael E; Wara, A K M; Sun, Xinghui; Ozdemir, Denizhan; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Orgill, Dennis P; Feinberg, Mark W


    Wound healing is a physiological reparative response to injury and a well-orchestrated process that involves hemostasis, cellular migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and wound contraction and re-epithelialization. However, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are frequently afflicted with impaired wound healing that progresses into chronic wounds or diabetic ulcers, and may lead to complications including limb amputation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in a diabetic model of wound healing. Expression of miR-26a is rapidly induced in response to high glucose in endothelial cells (ECs). Punch skin biopsy wounding of db/db mice revealed increased expression of miR-26a (~3.5-fold) four days post-wounding compared to that of WT mice. Local administration of a miR-26a inhibitor, LNA-anti-miR-26a, induced angiogenesis (up to ~80%), increased granulation tissue thickness (by 2.5-fold) and accelerated wound closure (53% after nine days) compared to scrambled anti-miR controls in db/db mice. These effects were independent of altered M1/M2 macrophage ratios. Mechanistically, inhibition of miR-26a increased its target gene SMAD1 in ECs nine days post-wounding of diabetic mice. In addition, high glucose reduced activity of the SMAD1-3'-UTR. Diabetic dermal wounds treated with LNA-anti-miR-26a had increased expression of ID1, a downstream modulator or SMAD1, and decreased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. These findings establish miR-26a as an important regulator on the progression of skin wounds of diabetic mice by specifically regulating the angiogenic response after injury, and demonstrate that neutralization of miR-26a may serve as a novel approach for therapy.

  13. Enhanced stability and dermal delivery of hydroquinone using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Hariri, Reza; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Shokri, Javad; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed


    Hydroquinone (HQ), a well-known anti-hyperpigmentation agent suffers from (a) instability due to rapid oxidation, (b) insufficient skin penetration because of hydrophilic structure, and (c) severe side effects as a results of systemic absorption. This study aimed to load HQ into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to overcome the mentioned drawbacks for the efficient treatment of hyperpigmentation. The optimized SLN formulation was prepared by hot melt homogenization method and fully characterized by various techniques. The ability of SLNs in dermal delivery of HQ was assessed through the excised rat skin. The optimized HQ-loaded SLNs (particle size of 86 nm, encapsulation efficiency% of 89.5% and loading capacity% of 11.2%) exhibited a good physicochemical stability during a period of five months. XRD and DSC results showed that HQ was dispersed in an amorphous state, confirming uniform drug dispersion in the SLNs structure and embedment of drug in the solid lipid matrix. In vitro penetration studies showed almost 3 times higher drug accumulation in the skin and 6.5 times lower drug entrance to receiving compartment of Franz diffusion cell from HQ-loaded SLN hydrogel compared with HQ Carbopol made hydrogel. These results indicated the better HQ localization in the skin and its lower systemic absorption. It was concluded that SLN is a promising colloidal drug carrier for topical administration of HQ in the treatment of hyperpigmentation due to suitable HQ loading value in spite of its hydrophilic structure, high stability against oxidation and appropriate skin penetration along with the low systemic absorption.

  14. Pretreatment of Ferulic Acid Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Ultraviolet A Irradiation

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ki Bbeum; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Byung Gon; An, Sungkwan


    Background Approximately 90%~99% of ultraviolet A (UVA) ray reaches the Earth's surface. The deeply penetrating UVA rays induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress such as photoproducts, senescence, and cell death. Thus, UVA is considered a primary factor that promotes skin aging. Objective Researchers investigated whether pretreatment with ferulic acid protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UVA-induced cell damages. Methods HDF proliferation was analyzed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. Cell cycle distribution and intracellular ROS levels were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Senescence was evaluated using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while Gadd45α promoter activity was analyzed through a luciferase assay. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and C, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3, as well as p21 and p16 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle arrest were detected in cells that were irradiated with UVA only. Pretreatment with ferulic acid significantly increased the proliferation and cell cycle progression in HDFs. Moreover, ferulic acid pretreatment produced antioxidant effects such as reduced DCF intensity, and affected SOD1 and CAT mRNA expression. These effects were also demonstrated in the analysis of cell senescence, promoter activity, expression of senescent markers, and DNA repair. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts protective effects on UVA-induced cell damages via anti-oxidant and stress-inducible cellular mechanisms in HDFs. PMID:27904274

  15. PTCH1 +/- dermal fibroblasts isolated from healthy skin of Gorlin syndrome patients exhibit features of carcinoma associated fibroblasts.

    Alexandre Valin

    Full Text Available Gorlin's or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS causes predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the commonest cancer in adult human. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are responsible for this autosomal dominant syndrome. In NBCCS patients, as in the general population, ultraviolet exposure is a major risk factor for BCC development. However these patients also develop BCCs in sun-protected areas of the skin, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms for BCC predisposition in NBCCS patients. As increasing evidence supports the idea that the stroma influences carcinoma development, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could facilitate BCC occurence of the patients. WT (n = 3 and NBCCS fibroblasts bearing either nonsense (n = 3 or missense (n = 3 PTCH1 mutations were cultured in dermal equivalents made of a collagen matrix and their transcriptomes were compared by whole genome microarray analyses. Strikingly, NBCCS fibroblasts over-expressed mRNAs encoding pro-tumoral factors such as Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 and tenascin C. They also over-expressed mRNA of pro-proliferative diffusible factors such as fibroblast growth factor 7 and the stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha, known for its expression in carcinoma associated fibroblasts. These data indicate that the PTCH1(+/- genotype of healthy NBCCS fibroblasts results in phenotypic traits highly reminiscent of those of BCC associated fibroblasts, a clue to the yet mysterious proneness to non photo-exposed BCCs in NBCCS patients.

  16. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.


    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  17. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)


    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  18. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  19. Exposure to pesticides with dermal toxicity in farmers of Community of Valencia

    Caterina Brandon Garcia


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermal route has a toxicological importance, as well as substances such as entry, but by frequent local effects. In applications of pesticides by farmers is common and important the dermal exposure to pesticides, so the dermal route in this sector of activity could be of particular relevance. Objective: To determine the hazard of dermal exposure in farmers using pesticides and to propose specific preventive measures. Material and methods: A transversal descriptive study based on a questionnaire designed by the researchers, replying to the 238 attendees at the courses for pesticide handler card basic level Department of Health Xativa-Ontinyent (Valencia in 2009. Pesticides used were collected over the past 12 months and reviewed their R phrases (risk phrases looking for dermal effects. Results: 55 % of pesticides had some phrase R on skin problems. The phrase R38 "Irritating to skin" was found in 16 products, used by 59.05 % of respondents and the R43 "Possibility of sensitization by skin contact" at 7, used by 23.91 %. Conclusions: The skin irritation effect was related to more dermal exposure to these pesticides. It is necessary to emphasize the skin protection in the courses for workers who apply these products. Skin problems should be included damages for workplace exposure to pesticides.

  20. Persistence of antibodies 3 years after booster vaccination of adults with combined acellular pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine.

    Weston, Wayde; Messier, Marc; Friedland, Leonard R; Wu, Xiangfeng; Howe, Barbara


    The duration of protection after vaccination with reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) is not known. Long-term post-vaccination serological data will help to improve understanding of the duration of humoral immunity and guide vaccination policy for the timing of repeat dose administration. The persistence of antibodies to Tdap antigens was measured 3 years after vaccination of adults 19-64 years of age with one of 2 Tdap vaccines (Boostrix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; Tdap-B: or Adacel(®), Sanofi Pasteur; Tdap-A). In both groups, geometric mean concentrations for antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine antigens were decreased at year 3 relative to levels observed 1 month and 1 year following vaccination, but remained higher than pre-vaccination levels. Seroprotection rates for diphtheria and tetanus remained high for both Tdap vaccines (for diphtheria, 96.9% and 97.8% for the Tdap-B and Tdap-A groups, respectively; for tetanus, 98.1% and 99.6%, respectively).

  1. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A


    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners.

  2. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M


    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations.

  3. High contrast microstructural visualization of natural acellular matrices by means of phase-based x-ray tomography

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Totonelli, Giorgia; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro


    Acellular scaffolds obtained via decellularization are a key instrument in regenerative medicine both per se and to drive the development of future-generation synthetic scaffolds that could become available off-the-shelf. In this framework, imaging is key to the understanding of the scaffolds’ internal structure as well as their interaction with cells and other organs, including ideally post-implantation. Scaffolds of a wide range of intricate organs (esophagus, lung, liver and small intestine) were imaged with x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (PC-CT). Image quality was sufficiently high to visualize scaffold microarchitecture and to detect major anatomical features, such as the esophageal mucosal-submucosal separation, pulmonary alveoli and intestinal villi. These results are a long-sought step for the field of regenerative medicine; until now, histology and scanning electron microscopy have been the gold standard to study the scaffold structure. However, they are both destructive: hence, they are not suitable for imaging scaffolds prior to transplantation, and have no prospect for post-transplantation use. PC-CT, on the other hand, is non-destructive, 3D and fully quantitative. Importantly, not only do we demonstrate achievement of high image quality at two different synchrotron facilities, but also with commercial x-ray equipment, which makes the method available to any research laboratory.

  4. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli


    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  5. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  6. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank


    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development.

  7. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad


    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  8. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan


    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  9. A randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis (TdaP) vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Jordan, Karina; Uhlving, Hilde Hylland;


    Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults.......Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults....

  10. Dermal dendritic cells” comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages

    Ochoa,Maria Teresa; Loncaric, Anya; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Becker, Todd C.; Modlin, Robert L.


    A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell, which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LC) mainly in the epidermis and dermal dendritic cells (DDC) in the dermis. Here, the lineage of dermal dendritic cells was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistology. We provide evidence that “dermal dendritic cells” comprise at least two major phenotypic populations of dendritic appearing cells: immature D...

  11. Cultivo de condrocitos sobre una matriz acelular derivada de membrana amniocoriónica. [Culture of chondrocytes on an acellular matrix derived from amniochorionic membrane

    José Manuel Lucero; Alejandro Enrique Castiglioni; Paula Hovanyecz; R. M. Adrián Gorla; Oscar Berasategui; Griselda Valeria Fedrigo; Alicia Susana Lorenti


    Introducción El tejido cartilaginoso articular presenta escasa capacidad regenerativa.Existe alta incidencia de lesiones condrales en rodilla, especialmente de Grado II/III (Outerbridge). El uso combinado de células autólogas cultivadas con membranas biológicas, es una posibilidad terapéutica. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las características del desarrollo in vitro de condrocitos humanos sobre membrana amniocoriónica acelular (MAC). Material y métodos Entre diciembre ...

  12. Optimal Concentrations and Synergistic Effects of Some Herbal Extracts on Viability of Dermal Fibroblasts



    Full Text Available Background Many studies examine the antibacterial effects of medicinal plants; however, little research is done to evaluate their effects on different cell types, especially dermal fibroblasts. Objectives The current study aimed to study the effect of different concentrations of Aloe Vera, henna, chamomile, myrtle, mint, licorice, cinnamon, ginger and cedar extracts and their synergistic effects on the viability of dermal fibroblasts. Methods To evaluate the performance of herbal extracts on dermal fibroblasts, in the first experiment different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/mL of the extracts were evaluated by the MTT cell proliferation assay. In the second experiment, the minimum effective concentrations of the plant extracts in triple combination were evaluated in the cells under study. Results The minimum effective concentrations of henna, chamomile, myrtle, mint, cinnamon, ginger and cedar were 12.5, 6.25, 6.25, 6.25, 6.25, 12.5 and 12.5µg/mL, respectively. Results showed that, by comparing the minimum effective concentration of herbal extracts, the viability of dermal fibroblasts significantly increased by cedar extract (P < 0.05. Combination of Aloe Vera, licorice and mint extracts significantly increased the viability of dermal fibroblasts (P < 0.05. Conclusions Based on the results of the current study, it was concluded that Aloe vera, licorice and mint extracts had synergistic effects on the viability of dermal fibroblasts; in addition, the combination of Aloe vera and licorice with either henna or myrtle, and Aloe vera and mint with either cedar or ginger resulted in synergistic effects on viability of dermal fibroblasts. The third category of triple combinations of herbal extracts with synergistic effects on the cells under study was the combination of Aloe Vera and mint with either chamomile or cinnamon and also Aloe vera and licorice with either myrtle or cedar.

  13. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan in young and adult rats.

    Fisher, H L; Hall, L L; Sumler, M R; Shah, P V


    Age dependence in dermal absorption has been a major concern in risk assessment. Captan, a chloroalkyl thio heterocyclic fungicide, was selected for study of age dependence as representative of this class of pesticides. Dermal penetration of [14C]captan applied at 0.286 mumol/cm2 was determined in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats in vivo and by two in vitro methods. Dermal penetration in vivo at 72 h was about 9% of the recovered dose in both young and adult rats. The percentage penetration was found to increase as dosage (0.1, 0.5, 2.7 mumol/cm2) decreased. Two in vitro methods gave variable dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results. A static system yielded twofold higher dermal penetration values compared with in vivo results for both young and adult rats. A flow system yielded higher dermal penetration values in young rats and lower penetration values in adults compared with in vivo results. Concentration in body, kidney, and liver was less in young than in adult rats given the same absorbed dosage. A physiological pharmacokinetic model was developed having a dual compartment for the treated skin and appeared to describe dermal absorption and disposition well. From this model, tissue/blood ratios of captan-derived radioactivity for organs were found to range from 0.35 to 3.4, indicating no large uptake or binding preferences by any organ. This preliminary pharmacokinetic model summarizes the experimental findings and could provide impetus for more complex and realistic models.

  14. Acellular Hydrogels for Regenerative Burn Wound Healing: Translation from a Porcine Model.

    Shen, Yu-I; Song, Hyun-Ho G; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon


    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitutes for healing following third-degree burn injuries are fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative manner would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of a dextran-based hydrogel in a third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved re-epithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared with the dressing-treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients.

  15. Complete Cell Killing by Applying High Hydrostatic Pressure for Acellular Vascular Graft Preparation

    Atsushi Mahara


    Full Text Available Pressure treatment has been developed in tissue engineering application. Although the tissue scaffold prepared by a ultrahydrostatic pressure treatment has been reported, an excessive pressure has a potential to disrupt a structure of extracellular matrix through protein denaturation. It is important to understand the suitable low-pressure condition and mechanisms for cell killing. In this study, cellular morphology, mitochondria activity, and membrane permeability of mammalian cells with various pressure treatments were investigated with in vitro models. When the cells were treated with a pressure of 100 MPa for 10 min, cell morphology and adherence were the same as an untreated cells. Dehydrogenase activity in mitochondria was almost the same as untreated cells. On the other hand, when the cells were treated with the pressure of more than 200 MPa, the cells did not adhere, and the dehydrogenase activity was completely suppressed. However, green fluorescence was observed in the live/dead staining images, and the cells were completely stained as red after above 500 MPa. That is, membrane permeability was disturbed with the pressure treatment of above 500 MPa. These results indicated that the pressure of 200 MPa for 10 min was enough to induce cell killing through inactivation of mitochondria activity.

  16. Acellular allogeneic nerve grafting combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects:biomechanics and validation of mathematical models

    Ya-jun Li; Bao-lin Zhao; Hao-ze Lv; Zhi-gang Qin; Min Luo


    We hypothesized that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft used in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be an effective treatment for long-segment sciatic nerve defects. To test this, we established rabbit models of 30 mm sciatic nerve defects, and treated them using either an autograft or a chemically decellularized allogeneic nerve graft with or without simultaneous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We compared the tensile properties, electrophysiological function and morphology of the damaged nerve in each group. Sciatic nerves repaired by the allogeneic nerve graft combined with stem cell trans-plantation showed better recovery than those repaired by the acellular allogeneic nerve graft alone, and produced similar results to those observed with the autograft. These ifndings conifrm that a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with transplanta-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an effective method of repairing long-segment sciatic nerve defects.

  17. Dermatologic findings of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome).

    Bree, Alanna F; Grange, Dorothy K; Hicks, M John; Goltz, Robert W


    Goltz syndrome, caused by mutations in PORCN, is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia which is also known as focal dermal hypoplasia. This name is derived from the predominant pathologic skin findings of the syndrome. Nineteen Goltz-affected participants attended a multidisciplinary scientific and clinical conference convened by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia which allowed further characterization of the features of this very rare condition. At birth, the affected areas of skin are typically erythematous and fragile. The hallmark cutaneous features, which vary widely due to mosacism and X-inactivation, include the previously described skin changes of asymmetric Blaschko-linear and reticulated atrophy, pigmentary changes, and telangectasias. Lipomatous changes and papillomas as characteristically defined were reported in the majority of patients. A newly recognized skin finding was progressive hyperpigmented freckling that occurred within the hypopigmented areas which were noted to be photosensitive. Many patients also had a pebbly texture to the central face, dorsal hands and feet. Punctate erosions within the atrophic areas and hypohidrosis were also common. Most had patchy alopecia and many had diffusely thin hair. Scanning electron microscopy of the hair shafts revealed abnormalities in the majority of participants with several different features identified, including atrophic hairs with reduced diameters, markedly flattened hairs as noted in cross-sectional views, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Nail changes included V-nicking and longitudinal ridging of the nail plate, in addition to micronychia. Early recognition of the dermatologic features, in addition to the variable but universal limb anomalies, of Goltz syndrome will allow early and accurate diagnosis without the need for extensive diagnostic studies, while also allowing for accurate prognosis and appropriate genetic counseling.

  18. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from dermal fibroblasts.

    Lowry, W E; Richter, L; Yachechko, R; Pyle, A D; Tchieu, J; Sridharan, R; Clark, A T; Plath, K


    The generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells has the potential to accelerate the implementation of stem cells for clinical treatment of degenerative diseases. Technologies including somatic cell nuclear transfer and cell fusion might generate such cells but are hindered by issues that might prevent them from being used clinically. Here, we describe methods to use dermal fibroblasts easily obtained from an individual human to generate human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ectopic expression of the defined transcription factors KLF4, OCT4, SOX2, and C-MYC. The resultant cell lines are morphologically indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells (HESC) generated from the inner cell mass of a human preimplantation embryo. Consistent with these observations, human iPS cells share a nearly identical gene-expression profile with two established HESC lines. Importantly, DNA fingerprinting indicates that the human iPS cells were derived from the donor material and are not a result of contamination. Karyotypic analyses demonstrate that reprogramming of human cells by defined factors does not induce, or require, chromosomal abnormalities. Finally, we provide evidence that human iPS cells can be induced to differentiate along lineages representative of the three embryonic germ layers indicating the pluripotency of these cells. Our findings are an important step toward manipulating somatic human cells to generate an unlimited supply of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. In the future, the use of defined factors to change cell fate may be the key to routine nuclear reprogramming of human somatic cells.

  19. Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid--Michigan, 2011-2013.

    Housey, Michelle; Zhang, Fan; Miller, Corinne; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; McFadden, Jevon; Garcia, Erika; Potter, Rachel


    In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) first recommended the routine administration of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during pregnancy as a strategy to protect infants from pertussis (also known as whooping cough). This recommendation applied to women previously unvaccinated with Tdap and specified the optimal vaccination time as late second or third trimester (after 20 weeks' gestation). By vaccinating pregnant women, infants, who are at highest risk for mortality and morbidity from pertussis, gain passive immunity from maternal antibodies transferred to them in utero. Since this recommendation was made, little has been published on the percentage of women receiving Tdap during pregnancy. In Michigan, Medicaid pays for costs of pregnancy for approximately 40% of births. Infants enrolled in Medicaid are a particularly vulnerable population; in Michigan, their all-cause mortality is higher than that of privately insured infants. To assess vaccination coverage among pregnant women enrolled in a publicly funded insurance program in Michigan, Medicaid administrative claims data and statewide immunization information system data for mothers of infants born during November 2011-February 2013 were analyzed. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that only 14.3% of these women received Tdap during pregnancy, with rates highest (17.6%) among non-Hispanic, non-Arab whites and lowest (6.8%) among Arab women. Vaccination was related to maternal age and gestational age at birth, but not to adequacy of prenatal care. In 2013, recognizing the importance of Tdap for every pregnancy, ACIP revised its guidelines to include a Tdap dose during every pregnancy. Ensuring that all infants receive the protection against pertussis afforded by maternal vaccination will require enhanced efforts to vaccinate pregnant women.

  20. Evaluation of fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic cultures for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation testing of chemicals according to OECD TG 431 and 439.

    Morales, Mariana; Pérez, David; Correa, Luis; Restrepo, Luz


    Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have been used for in vitro testing of the potential harmful effects of exposure to chemical compounds on health. In the past, skin irritation and corrosion were evaluated in animal models; however, in recent years, due to the bioethics implications of the method and, to minimize the use of experimental animals, alternative procedures have been proposed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its test guidelines (TG) 431 and 439 indicates the requirements for validating new methods for the evaluation of skin corrosion and irritation, respectively. Here, we present an in-house human dermal-epidermal model, useful for the performance of these tests. Using the methods described in this work, it was possible to obtain human fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic skin cultures (ORGs) displaying similar histological characteristics to native skin and expressing specific differentiation epithelial proteins. The end points to classify a substance as irritant or corrosive were cell viability evaluated by MTT assay, and cytokine release measured by BD CBA for human inflammatory cytokines. According to the MTT test, the ORGs correctly classified irritating and corrosive substances. Moreover, the cytokine release assay was difficult to interpret in the context of testing chemical hazard classification. Further experiments are needed to validate this new model for the evaluation of surfactants because the fibrin matrix was affected in the presence of these substances.

  1. Recellularization of well-preserved acellular kidney scaffold using embryonic stem cells.

    Bonandrini, Barbara; Figliuzzi, Marina; Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Perico, Norberto; Casiraghi, Federica; Dipl, Chemistry; Sangalli, Fabio; Conti, Sara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe


    For chronic kidney diseases, there is little chance that the vast majority of world's population will have access to renal replacement therapy with dialysis or transplantation. Tissue engineering would help to address this shortcoming by regeneration of damaged kidney using naturally occurring scaffolds seeded with precursor renal cells. The aims of the present study were to optimize the production of three-dimensional (3D) rat whole-kidney scaffolds by shortening the duration of organ decellularization process using detergents that avoid nonionic compounds, to investigate integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and to enhance the efficacy of scaffold cellularization using physiological perfusion method. Intact rat kidneys were successfully decellularized after 17 h perfusion with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The whole-kidney scaffolds preserved the 3D architecture of blood vessels, glomeruli, and tubuli as shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) scan confirmed integrity, patency, and connection of the vascular network. Collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin staining of decellularized scaffolds were similar to those of native kidney tissues. After infusion of whole-kidney scaffolds with murine embryonic stem (mES) cells through the renal artery, and pressure-controlled perfusion with recirculating cell medium for 24 and 72 h, seeded cells were almost completely retained into the organ and uniformly distributed in the vascular network and glomerular capillaries without major signs of apoptosis. Occasionally, mES cells reached peritubular capillary and tubular compartment. We observed the loss of cell pluripotency and the start of differentiation toward meso-endodermal lineage. Our findings indicate that, with the proposed optimized protocol, rat kidneys can be efficiently decellularized to produce renal ECM scaffolds in a relatively short time, and rapid recellularization of vascular structures and

  2. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

    V. Remya


    Full Text Available Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc seeded extracellular matrix [ECM] was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB. Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed. Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I. Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.

  3. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E


    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  4. Urinary excretion of tetrahydrophtalimide in fruit growers with dermal exposure to captan.

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Hoek, F; Boleij, J; Kromhout, H


    The relation between dermal and respiratory exposure and uptake into the body of captan, measured as 24 hr cumulative tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) dose, was studied among 14 male fruit growers applying pesticides in orchards in the Netherlands. No contribution of respiratory exposure was observed on THPI in the urine. Dermal exposure, measured with skin pads, showed a clear relation with THPI in urine when exposure was estimated from exposure on skin pads of ankles and neck. No relation was found for total dermal exposure, calculated from measured exposure on skin pads of representative skin areas according to models described in the literature. Determinants of exposure such as use of a cabin on the tractor, use of gloves during mixing and loading, and use of rubber boots also explained THPI in urine very well. This finding corroborated the findings on measured dermal exposure. Results indicate that more attention should be paid to skin areas which are suspected to be most permeable for a chemical under study. It was concluded that dermal exposure data can be linked better to biological monitoring based on empirical findings as gathered in a pilot study on exposure of specific body areas than on estimations of total skin dose.

  5. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration

    Peipei Zhang


    Full Text Available Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem effecting men and women of all ages. The standard of care for alopecia involves either transplanting existing hair follicles to bald areas or attempting to stimulate existing follicles with topical and/or oral medication. Yet, these treatment options are fraught with problems of cost, side effects, and, most importantly, inadequate long-term hair coverage. Innovative cell-based therapies have focused on the dermal papilla cell as a way to grow new hair in previously bald areas. However, despite this attention, many obstacles exist, including retention of dermal papilla inducing ability and maintenance of dermal papilla productivity after several passages of culture. The use of adipocyte lineage cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, has shown promise as a cell-based solution to regulate hair regeneration and may help in maintaining or increasing dermal papilla cells inducing hair ability. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the cellular contribution and regulation of dermal papilla cells and summarize adipocyte lineage cells in hair regeneration.

  6. Extracellular matrix considerations for scar-free repair and regeneration: insights from regenerative diversity among vertebrates.

    Godwin, James; Kuraitis, Drew; Rosenthal, Nadia


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential feature of development, tissue homeostasis and recovery from injury. How the ECM responds dynamically to cellular and soluble components to support the faithful repair of damaged tissues in some animals but leads to the formation of acellular fibrotic scar tissue in others has important clinical implications. Studies in highly regenerative organisms such as the zebrafish and the salamander have revealed a specialist formulation of ECM components that support repair and regeneration, while avoiding scar tissue formation. By comparing a range of different contexts that feature scar-less healing and full regeneration vs. scarring through fibrotic repair, regenerative therapies that incorporate ECM components could be significantly enhanced to improve both regenerative potential and functional outcomes. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  7. Proposal for the assessment of quantitative dermal exposure limits in occupational environments: Part 2. Feasibility study for application in an exposure scenario for MDA by two different dermal exposure sampling methods

    Bos, P.M.J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Stevenson, H.; Hoogendoorn, L.; Boogaard, P.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M. de; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Objective. To evaluate two different techniques for assessing dermal exposure to 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in a field study. The results were used to test the applicability of a recently proposed quantitative dermal occupational exposure limit (DOEL) for MDA in a workplace scenario. Methods. Fo

  8. Clinical use of acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis with split- thickaess autologous skin graftin 119 cases%去细胞异体真皮、去细胞猪真皮和自体刃厚皮移植在临床中的应用

    柴家科; 杨红明; 李利根; 郭振荣; 盛志勇; 许明火; 陈宝驹; 贾晓明; 京萨; 陆江阳; 李国红


    Objective To observe the effect of acellular allogenic dermis or acelludar porcine dermis together with split-thickness autologous skin graft on coverage of deep burn wound and the wound of scar excision. Methods Acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis produced by our unit, with split-thickness autologous skin graft, were used in repairing various wounds in 119 cases. The take rate of various wounds was compared, and the take rate of wounds in which autologous skin fr-om different sites was used to cover either acellular allogenic dermis or acellular porcine dermis was also compared. Histological examination and follow-up were made in some cases. Results After tangential excision, eschar excision and scar excision, the wounds were covered with either allogenic acellular dernis or porcine acellular dermis and autologous split-thickness skin. The take rate was found to be (93.4 ± 3.4) %, ( 92.1 ± 4.6) %, (94.5 ± 3.5) %, respectively. There was no a significant defference in take rate( P > 0.05). No significant difference in take rate between the transplantation of allogenic acellular dermis with autologous split-thickness skin and transplantation of porcine acellular demis with autologous split-thickness skin was found (P>0.05). When autologous split-thickness skin harvested from the trunk or extremites was used, the take rate was(93.1 ±4.8)%, (89.0±6.2)%, respectively, whereas the take rate was only about 70% ~ 80% when skin harvested from the scalp was used. The take rate was only about 40% when ace llalar allogenic dermis and autologous micro-skin graft were used to cover the wound. Histological examination 19 months after the transplantation revealed normal structure. Collagenous fibers were orderly arranged. There was no apparent hyperplasia of collagenous fibers. Hair follicles, sweat glands and other skin appendages were not found in the healed area. Grossly, no obvious pigmentation was


    Ai-bin Huang; Shao-jun Xu; Guo-yang Wei; Lie Ma; Chang-you Gao


    A dermal equivalent having a trilayered structure was designed by combining a silver nanoparticles incorporated chitosan film with a bilayer collagen-chitosan/silicon membrane dermal equivalent (BDE). The silver nanoparticles prepared at different conditions were characterized by UV-Vis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The macroscopic sharp and the microstructure of the trilayer dermal equivalent (TDE) were also studied. Then, the in vitro antibacterial property of TDE was evaluated by the antibacterial zone test. The effect of the incorporated silver nanoparticles on the resistance of wound infection was further studied by the in vivo animal test. The results prove that the silver nanoparticles incorporated TDE has a better antibacterial property, thus may be potentially applied to a broader field in skin repair such as full thickness defect and burn.

  10. Measuring the strength of dermal fibroblast attachment to functionalized titanium alloys in vitro.

    Pendegrass, Catherine J; Middleton, Claire A; Gordon, David; Jacob, Josh; Blunn, Gordon W


    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on soft tissue attachment to prevent infection which leads to implant failure. Fibronectin (Fn) has been shown to enhance dermal fibroblast attachment in vitro, however measurement of cell attachment strength has been indirect; using cell area and immunolocalization of focal adhesion components. In this study, we have developed a flow apparatus to assess the biophysical strength of cell attachment to biomaterials used in ITAP. We have demonstrated that dermal fibroblast attachment strength increases significantly up to 96 h and that data from direct and indirect methods of assessing cell attachment strength have a significant positive correlation. Additionally, we have used direct and indirect assessment methods to demonstrate that dermal fibroblast attachment strength is significantly greater on fibronectin-coated titanium alloy compared with uncoated controls at 1, 4, and 24 hours.

  11. Correction of tear trough deformity with novel porcine collagen dermal filler (Dermicol-P35).

    Goldberg, David J


    Deformity of the tear trough region, which can occur during the aging process, can result in dark shadows under the eyes and a fatigued appearance. Augmentation of the tear trough is challenging because of the thin skin and lack of fat in the region. Adding volume to the tear trough region with a dermal filler is a nonsurgical procedure with minimal discomfort to the patient. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is a new, ribose crosslinked, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler that does not require prior skin testing and has shown improved persistence compared with bovine collagen-based dermal fillers. In this article, we present the clinical outcomes of patients who have received treatment with a novel ribose crosslinked porcine collagen dermal filler for the correction of tear trough deformity.

  12. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) domain-specific stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression through αVβ3 integrin in human skin fibroblasts.

    Qin, Zhaoping; Fisher, Gary J; Quan, Taihao


    Human skin largely comprises collagenous extracellular matrix. The hallmark of skin aging is fragmentation of collagen fibrils. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for collagen degradation. MMP-1, principally derived from dermal fibroblasts, is the major protease capable of initiating degradation of native fibrillar collagens. Presently, we report that CCN1, a secreted and extracellular matrix-associated protein, is elevated in aged human skin dermal fibroblasts in vivo and stimulates MMP-1 expression through functional interaction with αVβ3 integrin in human dermal fibroblasts. CCN1 contains four conserved structural domains. Our results indicate that the three N-terminal domains (IGFBP, VWC, and TSP1), but not the C-terminal CT domain, are required for CCN1 to stimulate MMP-1 expression. This stimulation is dependent on interaction between the active structural domains and αVβ3 integrin. The interaction of VWC domain with integrin αVβ3 is necessary and requires functional cooperation with adjacent IGFBP and TSP1 domains to stimulate MMP-1 expression. Finally, induction of MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts by CCN1 N-terminal domains resulted in fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils in a three-dimensional collagen lattice model. These data suggest that domain-specific interactions of CCN1 with αVβ3 integrin contribute to human skin aging by stimulating MMP-1-mediated collagen fibril fragmentation.

  13. Protective effect of oat bran extracts on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Bing FENG; Lai-ji MA; Jin-jing YAO; Yun FANG; Yan-ai MEI; Shao-min WEI


    Oat contains different components that possess antioxidant properties;no study to date has addressed the antioxidant effect of the extract of oat bran on the cellular level.Therefore,the present study focuses on the investigation of the protective effect of oat bran extract by enzymatic hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide(H2O2).Kjeldahl determination,phenol-sulfuric acid method,and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)analysis indicated that the enzymatic products of oat bran contain a protein amount of 71.93%,of which 97.43% are peptides with a molecular range from 438.56 to 1301.01 Da.Assays for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radical scavenging activity indicate that oat peptide-rich extract has a direct and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity.3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT)colorimetric assay and the TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL)assay for apoptosis showed that administration of H2O2 in human dermal fibroblasts caused cell damage and apoptosis.Pre-incubation of human dermal fibroblasts with the Oatp for 24 h markedly inhibited human dermal fibroblast injury induced by H2O2,but application oat peptides with H2O2 at same time did not.Pre-treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with Oatp significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and the inhibition of malondialdehyde(MDA).The results demonstrate that oat peptides possess antioxidant activity and are effective against H2O2-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by the enhanced activity of SOD and decrease in MDA level.Our results suggest that oat bran will have the potential to be further explored as an antioxidant functional food in the prevention of aging-related skin injury.

  14. Dermatokinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride and the influence of some commercial biocidal formulations on its dermal absorption in vitro

    Buist, H.E.; Heer, C. de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Sandt, J.J.M. van de


    The in vitro dermal absorption kinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was studied after single and multiple exposure. In addition, the influence of biocidal formulations on the absorption of DDAC was investigated. Following dermal exposure to DDAC in aqueous solution, less than 0.5% of

  15. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen


    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid. PMID:27847821

  16. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    Yong-Han Hong


    Full Text Available Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL- 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP- 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  17. Evaluation of a 2-aminoimidazole variant as adjuvant treatment for dermal bacterial infections.

    Draughn, G Logan; Allen, C Leigh; Routh, Patricia A; Stone, Maria R; Kirker, Kelly R; Boegli, Laura; Schuchman, Ryan M; Linder, Keith E; Baynes, Ronald E; James, Garth; Melander, Christian; Pollard, Angela; Cavanagh, John


    2-Aminoimidazole (2-AI)-based compounds have been shown to efficiently disrupt biofilm formation, disperse existing biofilms, and resensitize numerous multidrug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, we provide initial pharmacological studies regarding the application of a 2-AI as a topical adjuvant for persistent dermal infections. In vitro assays indicated that the 2-AI H10 is nonbactericidal, resensitizes bacteria to antibiotics, does not harm the integument, and promotes wound healing. Furthermore, in vivo application of H10 on swine skin caused no gross abnormalities or immune reactions. Taken together, these results indicate that H10 represents a promising lead dermal adjuvant compound.

  18. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J;


    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  19. Autologous smashed dermal graft with epidermal re-closure: Modified technique for acne scars

    Umashankar Nagaraju


    Full Text Available Conventional technique of dermal grafting for acne scars where the source of filler material used is the patient′s own dermis requires longer surgical time, recovery period and can result in unsightly scars at the donor area. Hence, it is not suitable for treating a larger number of scars. Furthermore, these dermal grafts are firm and cannot be contoured to fit all types of acne scars. Occurrence of epidermal cyst and secondary infection is another complication if epidermis is not completely removed. Enzymatic techniques need trypsinisation which is expensive and requires laboratory facilities.

  20. Comparison of the expression levels of Fas and Apaf-1 genes in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts

    Majid Abed Khojasteh


    Full Text Available Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune rheumatic connective tissue disease. In normal wound healing process, fibroblasts are activated, proliferated and involved in tissue repair, and then removed by apoptosis. In systemic sclerosis, patient’s fibrosis occurs when fibroblasts become resistant to apoptosis and secrete a large amount of collagen and other extracellular matrixes. As the primary causes the disease are very complex and often unknown, it is necessary to consider or target the secondary causes of disease, such as the unresponsiveness of activated fibroblasts to apoptosis as the major factor in the creation and deployment of illness. In this study, we examined the expression levels of two key pro-apoptotic genes, Fas and Apaf-1, which are respectively involved in external and internal pathway of apoptosis. Methods: In a case-control study skin biopsy samples were obtained from 19 patients with diffuse SSc, and 16 healthy controls. Dermal fibroblasts were cultured and total RNA was isolated from cell populations using High Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany, followed by cDNA synthesis using RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Massachusetts, USA. Real-time PCR was performed using SYBRGreen gene expression master mix (Takara Shuzo, Co., Ltd, Shiga, Japan and specific primers for Fas and Apaf-1. Real-time data were analyzed using the (2-ΔCT×1000 method. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using the SPSS software, v22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA. The P value less than 0.05 were recognized as a significant threshold. All data are represented as the mean ± SEM. Results: Our results showed no significant difference in Fas (P=0.8 and Apaf-1 (P=0.17 mRNA expression levels between skin fibroblasts of systemic sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: In this study we observed no significant change in Apaf-1 and Fas mRNA levels in systemic sclerosis

  1. Ultraviolet A Enhances Cathepsin L Expression and Activity via JNK Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Xu, Qing-Fang; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Jian; Xu, Xin-Ya; Gong, Zi-Jian; Huang, Yun-Fen; Lu, Chun; Maibach, Howard I; Lai, Wei


    Background: Cathepsin L (CatL) is a cysteine protease with strong matrix degradation activity that contributes to photoaging. Mannose phosphate-independent sorting pathways mediate ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced alternate trafficking of CatL. Little is known about signaling pathways involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity. This study aims to investigate whether a single UVA irradiation affects CatL expression and activity and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway is involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Methods: Primary HDFs were exposed to UVA. Cell proliferation was determined by a cell counting kit. UVA-induced CatL production and activity were studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and fluorimetric assay in cell lysates collected on three consecutive days after irradiation. Time courses of UVA-activated JNK and p38MAPK signaling were examined by Western blotting. Effects of MAPK inhibitors and knockdown of Jun and Fos on UVA-induced CatL expression and activity were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and fluorimetric assay. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: UVA significantly increased CatL gene expression, protein abundance, and enzymatic activity for three consecutive days after irradiation (F = 83.11, 56.14, and 71.19, respectively; all P < 0.05). Further investigation demonstrated phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK activated by UVA. Importantly, inactivation of JNK pathway significantly decreased UVA-induced CatL expression and activity, which were not affected by p38MAPK inhibition. Moreover, knockdown of Jun and Fos significantly attenuated basal and UVA-induced CatL expression and activity. Conclusions: UVA enhances CatL production and activity in HDFs, probably by activating JNK and downstreaming AP-1. These

  2. Ultraviolet A Enhances Cathepsin L Expression and Activity via JNK Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Qing-Fang Xu; Yue Zheng; Jian Chen; Xin-Ya Xu; Zi-Jian Gong; Yun-Fen Huang; Chun Lu


    Background:Cathepsin L (CatL) is a cysteine protease with strong matrix degradation activity that contributes to photoaging.Mannose phosphate-independent sorting pathways mediate ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced alternate trafficking of CatL.Little is known about signaling pathways involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity.This study aims to investigate whether a single UVA irradiation affects CatL expression and activity and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway is involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).Methods:Primary HDFs were exposed to UVA.Cell proliferation was determined by a cell counting kit.UVA-induced CatL production and activity were studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),Western blotting,and fluorimetric assay in cell lysates collected on three consecutive days after irradiation.Time courses of UVA-activated JNK and p38MAPK signaling were examined by Western blotting.Effects ofMAPK inhibitors and knockdown of Jun and Fos on UVA-induced CatL expression and activity were investigated by RT-PCR,Western blotting,and fluorimetric assay.Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance.Results:UVA significantly increased CatL gene expression,protein abundance,and enzymatic activity for three consecutive days after irradiation (F =83.11,56.14,and 71.19,respectively;all P < 0.05).Further investigation demonstrated phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK activated by UVA.Importantly,inactivation of JNK pathway significantly decreased UVA-induced CatL expression and activity,which were not affected by p38MAPK inhibition.Moreover,knockdown of Jun and Fos significantly attenuated basal and UVA-induced CatL expression and activity.Conclusions:UVA enhances CatL production and activity in HDFs,probably by activating JNK and downstreaming AP-1.These findings provide a new possible

  3. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang


    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  4. The Matrix Cookbook

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  5. Crosslinking and modification of dermal sheep collagen using 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J


    Crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) was accomplished using 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). At pH values > 8.0, epoxide groups of BDDGE will react with amine groups of collagen. The effects of BDDGE concentration, pH, time, and temperature were studied. Utilization of a 4-wt % BDDGE

  6. Race Does Not Predict Melanocyte Heterogeneous Responses to Dermal Fibroblast-Derived Mediators.

    Pornthep Sirimahachaiyakul

    Full Text Available Abnormal pigmentation following cutaneous injury causes significant patient distress and represents a barrier to recovery. Wound depth and patient characteristics influence scar pigmentation. However, we know little about the pathophysiology leading to hyperpigmentation in healed shallow wounds and hypopigmentation in deep dermal wound scars. We sought to determine whether dermal fibroblast signaling influences melanocyte responses.Epidermal melanocytes from three Caucasians and three African-Americans were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the entire genome. Melanocyte genetic profiles were determined using principal component analysis. We assessed melanocyte phenotype and gene expression in response to dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium and determined potential mesenchymal mediators by proteome profiling the fibroblast-conditioned medium.Six melanocyte samples demonstrated significant variability in phenotype and gene expression at baseline and in response to fibroblast-conditioned medium. Genetic profiling for SNPs in receptors for 13 identified soluble fibroblast-secreted mediators demonstrated considerable heterogeneity, potentially explaining the variable melanocyte responses to fibroblast-conditioned medium.Our data suggest that melanocytes respond to dermal fibroblast-derived mediators independent of keratinocytes and raise the possibility that mesenchymal-epidermal interactions influence skin pigmentation during cutaneous scarring.

  7. Experimental dermatological surgery: An animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers

    Juliana Catucci Boza


    Full Text Available The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  8. Prediction of local irritant effects after repeated dermal and respiratory exposure to chemicals

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Nordheim, K.; Houben, G.F.; Heer, C. de


    Health risks resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals are controlled by the establishment of acceptable dermal and respiratory exposure levels. Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, acceptable levels are frequently established by means of route-to-route extrapolation. A pitfall in

  9. High prevalence of dermal parasites among coral reef fishes of Curaçao

    Bernal, M.A.; Floeter, S.R.; Gaither, M.R.; Longo, G.O.; Morais, R.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rocha, L.A.


    During expeditions to Curaçao in August and October of 2013, a large number of fish infected with dermal parasites was observed. Infected individuals presented black spots and white blemishes on their skin and fins that were easily observed by divers, and which have been associated with infections b

  10. Factors influencing success of pelvic organ prolapse repair using porcine dermal implant Pelvicol.

    Boer, T.A. de; Gietelink, D.A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vierhout, M.E.


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors influencing pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence after repair surgery with a porcine dermal collagen implant (Pelvicol). STUDY DESIGN: From December 2003 to August 2005, 78 patients with mainly stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification

  11. Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique

    Brouwer, D.H.; Lansink, C.M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using v

  12. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J


    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross-

  13. Changes in the mechanical properties of dermal sheep collagen during in vitro degradation

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.


    The changes in tensile strength, elongation at break, and high strain modulus of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) during in vitro degradation using bacterial collagenase were studied. The changes in mechanical properties were compared with the change in weight of the samples as a function of degradation




    The changes in tensile strength, elongation at break, and high strain modulus of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) during in vitro degradation using bacterial collagenase were studied. The changes in mechanical properties were compared with the change in weight of the samples as a function of degradation

  15. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.


    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross

  16. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...




    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked DSC (HDSC) seldo

  18. In Vitro Dermal Absorption of Insensitive Munitions Explosive 101 (IMX-101) and Components


    absorption of M30A1 propellant powder (500 mg; nitroguanidine, 47.7%; nitrocellulose , 28%; nitroglycerine, 22.5%) used in the modular artillery...human skin. J Appl Toxicol 18:387-392. McDougal JN and GW Jepson. 1998. Assessment of dermal absorption potential of modified M1 propellants , WC

  19. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus induces hypoxia and cellular damage in porcine dermal explants

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can infect wounds and produce difficult-to- treat biofilms. To determine the extent that MRSA biofilms can deplete oxygen, change pH and damage host tissue, we developed a porcine dermal explant model on which we cultured GFP-labeled MRSA biofilms. ...

  1. Outcome of dermal grafting in the management of atrophic facial scars

    Kanathur Shilpa


    Full Text Available Background: Scars over the face are cosmetically and psychologically disturbing. Various techniques have been described and are being practiced in the management of these scars. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to study the safety, effectiveness of using dermal grafts as fillers in the management of facial scars due to acne, chickenpox, trauma or any others. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with atrophic facial scars of varied aetiology and willing for surgery were considered for dermal graft technique. After pre-operative workup, subcision was done 2 weeks before planned surgery. Depending on the type of scar, grafts were inserted using pocket or road railing techniques. Scar improvement was assessed based on patient satisfaction. Results: Linear scars showed excellent improvement. Acne, varicella and traumatic scars also showed good improvement. However, two patients did not appreciate improvement due to marked surface irregularities as the scars were elevated. They were further subjected to LASER and chemical peel resurfacing. Conclusion: Dermal grafting can be used in the management of any round to oval facial scar which is soft, prominent and at least 4-5 mm across; linear scars at least 2-3 mm across and 3-4 cm in length. However, scars with prominent surface irregularities need further resurfacing techniques along with dermal grafting. Limitations: Limitations of the study include small sample size, and only subjective assessment of the scar has been taken into consideration to assess the outcome.

  2. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K


    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  3. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.


    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed semi-quantita

  4. Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure

    Tielemans, E.; Louwerse, E.; Cock, J. de; Brouwer, D.; Zielhuis, G.; Heederik, D.


    As part of a European Concerted Action on Male Reproduction Capability an exposure assessment survey was conducted among seasonal workers in the fruit growing sector in the Netherlands. Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin p

  5. High prevalence of dermal parasites among coral reef fishes of Curaçao

    M.A. Bernal; S.R. Floeter; M.R. Gaither; G.O. Longo; R. Morais; C.E.L. Ferreira; M.J.A. Vermeij; L.A. Rocha


    During expeditions to Curaçao in August and October of 2013, a large number of fish infected with dermal parasites was observed. Infected individuals presented black spots and white blemishes on their skin and fins that were easily observed by divers, and which have been associated with infections b

  6. Water permeability parameters of dermal fibroblast employed in tissue engineering in subzero temperatures

    WANG; Xin; CHENG; Qikang; GAO; Cai; YANG; Pengfei; HUA; Tse


    Fibroblast is a crucial kind of cell in the construction of the tissue engineered dermal equivalent. In order to optimize the cryopreservation protocols of the tissue- engineered dermis, the characteristics of dermal fibroblast in subzero temperatures are required, which include the water permeability of the cell membrane and the apparent activation energy. Using the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the volumetric shrinkage during freezing of human dermal fibroblast suspensions was obtained at the cooling rate of 5℃·min-1 in the presence of extracellular ice. To ensure the presence of extracellular ice, a small quantity of ice nucleation bacteria (INA bacteria), pseudomonas syringae was added in the samples. And based on the Karlsson's model, a nonlinear- least-squares curve fitting technique was implemented to calculate the cryogenic parameters. At the reference temperature TR (= 0℃), the water permeability of membrane Lpg = 0.578μm·min-1·atm-1 and the apparent activation energy ELP = 308.8 kJ·mol-1. These parameters were then used to simulate water transport of fibroblast during constant cooling at rates between 0.01―50℃·min-1. The simulation results were analyzed to predict the amount of water left in the cell after dehydration and the "optimal cooling rate" for fibroblast cryopreservation. For the dermal fibroblast with DMEM solution, a cooling rate of 4.6℃·min-1 was optimal.

  7. Cadherin 11 Involved in Basement Membrane Damage and Dermal Changes in Melasma.

    Kim, Nan-Hyung; Choi, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Ai-Young


    Basement membrane (BM) disruption and dermal changes (elastosis, collagenolysis, vascular ectasia) have been reported in melasma. Although ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can induce these changes, UV is not always necessary for melasma development. Cadherin 11 (CDH11), which is upregulated in some melasma patients, has previously been shown to stimulate melanogenesis. Because CDH11 action requires cell-cell adhesion between fibroblasts and melanocytes, BM disruption in vivo should facilitate this. The aim of this study was to examine whether CDH11 overexpression leads to BM disruption and dermal changes, independent of UV irradiation. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and zymography suggested that BM disruption/dermal changes and related factors were present in the hyperpigmented skin of CDH11-upregulated melasma patients and in CDH11-overexpressing fibroblasts/keratinocytes. The opposite was seen in CDH11-knockdown cells. UV irradiation of the cultured cells did not increase CDH11 expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CDH11 overexpression could induce BM disruption and dermal changes in melasma, regardless of UV exposure.

  8. Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Based Sunscreen

    Beer, Christiane; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Wang, Jing

    of nanomaterials in products on the Danish market and their consequences on consumers and the environment. Furthermore, the aim is to clarify possible risks that might be associated with nanomaterials for consumers and the environment. The current project ’Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium Dioxide...




    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a degradable biomaterial for the repair of abdominal wall defects. Hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen (HDSC) was plasma-polymerized with tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) which resulted in a hydrophobic surface on the visceral side (TFE-HD

  10. Pengujian Toksisitas Akut Oral Dan Dermal pada Biolarvasida Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap Tikus Putih Spraque Dawley