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Sample records for acelerador lineal linac

  1. Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system; Medida de la atenuacion producida por la mesa de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal y su modelado en un sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact{copyright} treatment couch in a Varian{copyright} Clinac{copyright} 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta{copyright} XiO{copyright} treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).

  2. Dose around a lineal accelerator of medical use;Dosis en torno a un acelerador lineal de uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, B.; Ortiz H, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: ice_bere_nice@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    By means of a measures series the dosimetric characteristics of the photo neutrons that take place around a lineal accelerator of radiotherapy of 18 MV has been determinate, this it is a linac Varian model 21EX Platinum Plus. The neutron spectrum was established to 100 cm of the isocenter, when it is locates to 10 cm inside an equivalent water phantom. The spectrum was measured with a spectrometric system of Bonner spheres, the used spheres were of 0, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 inches of diameter. In the spheres center they were inserted pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters of the type 600 and 700 as thermal neutrons detector. The due net signal to the neutrons measured with each sphere was used to reconstruct the neutron spectrum; this reconstruction was made with the BUNKIUT code and the response matrix UTA4. The phantom isocenter was exposed at 600 U M and during the irradiation process the rates of environmental equivalent dose were measured by neutrons and photons on the control area of the accelerator. Immediately after having applied the 600 U M the rate of environmental equivalent dose it was measured inside the enclosure and in points around the stretcher due to the neutronic activation. The measured spectrum presents two maxima, one in the thermal neutrons area and the other between 0.1 and 1 MeV, this spectrum is similar to those reported in the literature. The thermal neutrons are produced mainly the {sup r}oom return{sup ,} while the neutrons of approximately 0.5 MeV are those transmitted through the linac head stock. The dose rates in the control area of the accelerator are 3.1 and 0.93 muSv-h{sup -1} for photons and neutrons respectively. Around the stretcher the rates of due dose to the activation photons vary from 6 to 26.1 muSv-h{sup -1}, depending on the measurement place. (Author)

  3. Procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum around a lineal accelerator for radiotherapy; Procedimiento para medir el espectro de los neutrones en torno a un acelerador lineal para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Letechipia de L, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Servicios de Salud de Nayarit, Centro Estatal de Cancerologia, Calzada de la Cruz 116 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Salas L, M. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Agronomia, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    An experimental procedure was developed, by means of Bonner spheres, to measure the neutrons spectrum around Linacs of medical use that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator; to this procedure we denominate Planetary or Isocentric method. One of the problems associated to the neutrons spectrum measurement in a radiotherapy room with lineal accelerator is because inside the room a mixed, intense and pulsed radiation field takes place affecting the detection systems based on active detector; this situation is solved using a passive detector. In the case of the Bonner spheres spectrometer the active detector has been substituted by activation detectors, trace detectors or thermoluminescent dosimeters. This spectrometer uses several spheres that are situated one at a time in the measurement point, this way to have the complete measurements group the accelerator should be operated, under the same conditions, so many times like spheres have the spectrometer, this activity can consume a long time and in occasions due to the work load of Linac to complicate the measurement process too. The procedure developed in this work consisted on to situate all the spectrometer spheres at the same time and to make the reading by means of a single shot, to be able to apply this procedure, is necessary that before the measurements two characteristics are evaluated: the cross-talking of the spheres and the symmetry conditions of the neutron field. This method has been applied to determine the photo-neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator of medical use Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter located to 5 cm of depth of a solid water mannequin of 30 x 30 x 15 cm. The spectrum was used to determine the total flow and the environmental dose equivalent. (Author)

  4. Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use; Metodo planetario para medir el espectro de neutrones en aceleradores lineales de uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Benites R, J. L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres. The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time. The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. (Author)

  5. Optimizacion de una linea de espectrometria neutronica de transmision aplicada a ciencia de materiales para el acelerador lineal del CAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutrons and Reactors Laboratory (NYR) of CAB (Centro Atomico Bariloche) is equipped with a linear electron accelerator (LINAC) Linear particle accelerator). This LINAC is used as a neutron source from which two beams are extracted to perform neutron transmission and dispersion experiments. Through these experiments, structural and dynamic properties of materials can be studied. The neutron transmission experiments consist in a collimated neutron beam which interacts with a sample and a detector behind the sample. Important information about the microstructural characteristics of the material can be obtained from the comparison between neutron spectra before and after the interaction with the sample. This experimental technique has been extensively used to determine cross sections, lattice parameters of a crystalline solid, vibration frequencies of atoms or the strain field of a material. In the NYR Laboratory, cylindrical samples of one inch of diameter have been traditionally studied. Nonetheless, there is a great motivation for doing systematic research on smaller and with different geometries samples; particularly sheets and samples for tensile tests. In such cases, a reduction of the spot size of the beam and an increase of its intensity would have a direct impact on minimizing measurement times. Hence, in the NYR Laboratory it has been considered the possibility of incorporating a neutron guide into the existent transmission line. According to all mentioned above, the main objective of this work consisted in the optimization of the flight transmission tube optics of neutrons. This optimization not only improved the existent line but also contributed to an election criterion for the neutron guide acquisition. The optimization was directed towards maximize the neutron flux on samples of mentioned geometries and to form the divergence of the incident beam upon them. It was then necessary to study the instrument neutron optics, i.e. the characteristics of the

  6. Neutron activation processes in the medical linear accelerator Elekta Precise; Procesos de activacion neutronica en el acelerador lineal medico Elekta Precise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    Monte Carlo estimation of the giant-dipole-resonance (GRN) photoneutrons insider the Elekta Precise Linac head (emitting a 15 MV photon beam) were performed using the MCNP6 code. Each component of Linac head geometry and materials were modelled in detail using the given manufacturer information. Primary photons generate photoneutrons and its transport across the treatment head was simulated, including the (n, γ) reactions which undergo activation products. The MCNP6 was used to develop a method for quantifying the activation of accelerator components. The approach described in this paper is useful in quantifying the origin and the amount of nuclear activation. (Author)

  7. Dosimetry of the energy of the electrons beam and virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator; Dosimetria de la energia del haz de electrones y distancia virtual de la fuente de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, A.; Garcia, B.; Ramirez, J.; Marquina, J., E-mail: andres.gonzales@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The objectives of this work were to characterize, to gauge the energy of a electrons beam of 12 MeV and to find the virtual distance of the source for a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian. For the characterization, calibration and to find the virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian, a water phantom was used (cylindrical Cuba 3-D) of Sun-Nuclear. The following values were found: R{sub 50.ion} = 4, 95 g/cm{sup 2}, R{sub 50} = 5, 04 g/cm{sup 2}, Z{sub ref} = 2,92 g/cm{sup 2}, Z{sub max} = 2, 60 g/cm{sup 2}. In the calibration was found D{sub W,Q}(Z{sub max}) = 1, 0015 c Gy/Um. In the profile In-plane was measured a symmetry and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 6% respectively. In the profile Cross-plane a symmetry was measured and flatness of 1, 9% and 1, 3% respectively. The virtual distance regarding the source was of DFS (virtual) =105,81 cm. The electrons beam of 12 MeV was characterized and gauged satisfactorily, were carried out the In-plane and Cross-plane profiles, obtaining all the parameters inside the acceptance limit. The virtual distance of the source was of 105,81 cm. (Author)

  8. Neutron activation processes in the medical linear accelerator Elekta Precise; Procesos de activacion neutronica en el acelerador lineal medico Elekta Precise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    In radiotherapy beams of high energy photons produced lower doses in the skin and a lower dose dispersed into surrounding healthy tissue. However, when operating above 10 MV, Linacs have some drawbacks such as the generation of photo-neutrons and activation of some components of the accelerator. The launch and capture of neutrons produce radioactive nuclei that can radiate even when the accelerator is not working. These reactions occur mainly in the heavier materials of the head accelerator. This work has studied the activation generated isotopes resulting, concluding that these derived doses are not negligible. (Author)

  9. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano. La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia

    CERN Document Server

    Jatvia, J M

    2002-01-01

    "La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de un acelerador lineal de protones, cuya culminacion depende del compromiso del Consell en sufragar la plantilla que necesitaria el centro para estar operativo" (1 page).

  10. Determination of the neutron spectra in the treatment room of a linear accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de los espectros de neutrones en la sala de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cuerpo Academico de Radiobiologia, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain); Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P. [Depto. de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    By means of a series of measures and Monte Carlo calculations the dosimetric characteristics of the photoneutrons have been determined that take place in volume to a linear accelerator of radiotherapy of 18 MV, LINAC, mark Siemens Mevatron model. The measures were carried out with thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 600 and TLD 700 that were naked exposed and confined with cover of Cd and Sn, inside a sphere of paraffin and inside spheres Bonner. (Author)

  11. Measurement of the dose by dispersed radiation in a lineal accelerator using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy; Medicion de la dosis por radiacion dispersa en un acelerador lineal usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes de CaSO{sub 4}:Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez C, N.; Torijano, E.; Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Herrera, A. [ISSSTE, Hospital Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Eje 7 Sur Felix Cuevas Esq. Av. Coyoacan, Col. del Valle, 03229 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) is based on the principle of the luminescent in a material when is heated below their incandescence temperature. Is a technique very used in dosimetry that is based on the property that have most of the crystalline materials regarding the storage of the energy that they absorb when are exposed to the ionizing radiations. When this material has been irradiated previously, the radioactive energy that contains is liberated in form of light. In general, the principles that govern the thermoluminescence are in essence the same of those responsible for all the luminescent processes and, this way, the thermoluminescence is one of the processes that are part of the luminescence phenomenon. For this work, the dispersed radiation was measured in the therapy area of the lineal accelerator of medical use type Elekta, using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + Ptfe developed and elaborated in the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa. With the dosimeters already characterized and calibrated, we proceeded to measure the dispersed radiation being a patient in treatment. The results showed values for the dispersed radiation the order of a third of the dose received by the patient on the treatment table at 30 cm of the direct beam and the order of a hundredth in the control area (4 m of the direct beam, approximately). The conclusion is that the thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO{sub 4}: Dy + Ptfe are appropriate to measure dispersed radiation dose in radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Sistema de Planificación de Tratamientos de Radioterapia para Aceleradores Lineales de Partículas (LinAc) basado en el método Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    ABELLA ARANDA, VICENTE

    2014-01-01

    La principal motivación que ha propiciado el veloz progreso de las técnicas de prevención y tratamiento del cáncer en los últimos años ha sido, y continúa siendo, su protagonismo en las listas de principales causas de muerte: más de 10 millones de diagnósticos anuales a escala global y más de 160.000 en territorio español. En este contexto, la implementación clínica de los Sistemas de Planificación de Tratamientos de Radioterapia (RTPS) ha desempeñado un papel capital. Resulta lugar comú...

  13. Reconstruction of the Bremsstrahlung spectrum a medical linear accelerator from the gradient of the depth dose curve in a water container; Reconstruccion del espectro Bremsstrahlung emitido por un acelerador lineal medico a partir del gradiente de las curvas de dosisen profundidad en una cuba de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Determining the spectral distribution of the emitted photon medical linear accelerator (linac) used in radiotherapy treatment is extremely important for performing dosimetry calculations as to accurately calculate the therapeutic dose distributions. Since directly measure the spectrum is very complicated, this paper presents an indirect technique to accurately calculate the spectra of Bremsstrahlung photons emitted by linacs.

  14. Medición dosimétrica de neutrones en linacs con haces de alta energía

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo Cruz, Elisa del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    El mayor uso de los aceleradores lineales para tratamientos de radioterapia contra el cáncer y la tendencia de utilizar mayores energías por sesión de tratamiento, han creado la necesidad de protocolos de control de calidad más rigurosos, como los destinados a neutrones producidos por las reacciones fotonucleares en los materiales del cabezal del acelerador al estar en contacto con los fotones de tratamiento. Esta aportación de dosis neutrónica es un tipo de radiación no deseada la cual es u...

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the influence of the medium energy and initial fluence FWHM of electron determining a Bremsstrahlung photon spectrum of a linear accelerator; Analisis de sensibilidad de la influencia de la energia media FWHM de la influencia inicial de electrones en la determinacion de un espectro de fotones Bremsstrahlung de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    A correct dose calculation in patient under radiotherapy treatments requires and accurate description of the radiation source. The main goal of the present work is to study the effects of initial electron beam characteristics on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose distribution for a 6 MeV linac photon beam. To that, we propose a methodology to determine the initial electron fluence before hitting the accelerator target for an Elektra Precis a medical linear accelerator. The method used for the electron radiation source description is based on a Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis (SUSA) and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 transport code. This electron spectrum has been validated by means of comparison of its resulting depth dose curve in a water cube with experimental data being the mean difference below the 1%. (Author)

  16. Dosimetric comparison on tissue interfaces with TLD dosimeters, L-alanine, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation for a Co-60 source and linear accelerator in radiotherapy; Comparacion dosimetrica en interfaces de tejidos con dosimetros TLD, L-alanina, peliculas EDR2 y simulacion Penelope para una fuente de Co-60 y acelerador lineal en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega R, J. L.; Cayllahua, F.; Apaza, D. G.; Javier, H., E-mail: josevegaramirez@yahoo.es [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Independencia s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    Percentage depth dose curves were obtained with TLD-100 dosimeters, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation at the interfaces in an inhomogeneous mannequin, composed by equivalent materials to the human body built for this study, consisting of cylindrical plates of solid water-bone-lung-bone-solid water of 15 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height; plates were placed in descending way (4-2-8-2-4). Irradiated with Co-60 source (Theratron Equinox-100) for small radiation fields 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} and 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} at a surface source distance of 100 cm from mannequin. The TLD-100 dosimeters were placed in the center of each plate of mannequin irradiated at 10 Gy. The results were compared between these measurement techniques, giving good agreement in interfaces better than 97%. This study was compared with the same characteristics of another study realized with other equivalent materials to human body not homogeneous acrylic-bone-cork-bone-acrylic. The percentage depth dose curves were obtained with mini-dosimeters L-alanine of 1 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height and 3.5 to 4.0 mg of mass with spectrometer band K (EPR). The mini-dosimeters were irradiated with a lineal accelerator PRIMUS Siemens 6 MV. The results of percentage depth dose of L-alanine mini-dosimeters show a good agreement with the percentage depth dose curves of Penelope code, better than 97.7% in interfaces of tissues. (Author)

  17. Aplicación del Método de Monte Carlo a la Planificación en Radioterapia y a la Reconstrucción de Espectros de Fotones de Aceleradores Lineales de Partículas (LinAc)

    OpenAIRE

    Juste Vidal, Belen Jeanine

    2011-01-01

    La radioterapia es uno de los tratamientos más generalizados aplicados a los pacientes que padecen determinados tipos de cáncer. Sin embargo, la efectividad de este tipo de tratamientos en la destrucción de las células cancerígenas lleva asociada la posibilidad de sufrir los efectos secundarios de la radiación sobre los tejidos sanos circundantes. El riesgo de lesión de las células sanas depende fundamentalmente de la orientación del haz emitido por la unidad de radioterapia y de la intensida...

  18. LINAC 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 13 March, a beam of negative hydrogen ions was injected into the first accelerator module of Linac 4, the linear accelerator which will replace Linac 2. The beam was created in the new source built for Linac 4 and accelerated from 45 kEV to 3 MeV by a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module, the first link in the Linac 4 accelerator chain. This crucial phase went off without a hitch. The video above shows the new Linac 4 ion source, the low-energy transfer line and the RFQ, with running commentary by Giulia Bellodi and Carlo Rossi from the Beams Department.

  19. Un ano de retraso para el acelerador europeo LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    "Debido a las dificultades presupuestarias que sufre el Laboratorio Europeo de Fisica de Particulas (CERN) para construir el nuevo acelerador LHC, la puesta en marcha de esta gran instalacion se retrasara un ano, entrando en funcionamiento en 2007, segun el plan elaborado por la direccion del centro" (1/2 page).

  20. Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    It was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with the original Linac 1. Construction and running-in were completed in 1979, routine operation began in 1980. One sees its 3 tanks, with, at the top, the electrical connections for the quadrupoles (which are inside the drift-tubes) and watercooling. As Linac 1, Linac 2 is driven at 202.56 MHz and accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the 4 rings of the PS Booster.

  1. Measurement of the neutron spectrum in a room with an accelerator Varian 2300C/D Linac using the Bonner multisphere spectrometer; Medicao do espectro de neutrons em uma sala com um acelerador Varian 2300C/D Linav usando o espectrometro de multiesferas de Bonner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, D.B.S., E-mail: cavalcante@ird.gov.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lemos Junior, R.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Batista, D.V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The generated neutron field varies considerably and depends on the beam energy, on the shielding of the accelerator, on the filters for beam homogeneity, and also on the mobile collimators and geometry of irradiation. The estimation of the component relative to the photoneutrons has practical interest for evaluation of the radiological risks for the workers and for the patient as well. Due to the high frequency magnetic field, and to the photon abundance resulting of the escape and scattering at treatment room, those measurements present some difficulties. Measurements of the neutron fields can be made with a Bonner spectrometer. Those system was calibrated with referred neutron standard sources and used for make measurements on a spot of the room where a Variant 2300C/D Linac is installed. The unfolding process used the BUNKI computer code for determination of the neutron spectra at the measurement spot

  2. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  3. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  4. Infactibilidad en programas con restricciones lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liern Carrión, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo resumimos las técnicas más habituales que permiten diagnosticar las causas de infactibilidad de programas con restricciones lineales. Además, presentamos dos métodos que, con las mínimas transformaciones posibles del modelo inicial, permiten hacer viable un programa infactible. Los métodos descritos son aplicados a un modelo de selección de carteras eficientes.

  5. A special fermionic generalization of lineal gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central extension of the (1+1)-dimensional Poincaré algebra by including fermionic charges which obey not supersymmetric algebra, but a special graded algebra containing in the right hand side a central element only is obtained. The corresponding theory being the fermionic extension of the lineal gravity is proposed. We considered the algebra of generators, the field transformations and found Lagrangian and equation of motion, then we derived the Casimir operator and obtained the constant black hole mass.

  6. Linac working group technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group looked at linac injectors for a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) or Hadron Facility. Discussion includes rf power, a possible strawman linac, ion source/injector, radio-frequency quadrupole, and coupled-cavity linac

  7. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  8. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  9. Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: a00812662@itesm.mx; noel.leon@itesm.mx; haguayo@itesm.mx

    2013-03-15

    Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para

  10. Programación lineal y diccionarios

    OpenAIRE

    González, Martín; Herrera, G

    2002-01-01

    Por la importancia que tiene, por las aplicaciones prácticas y por su sencillez, dentro de los contenidos básicos de las matemáticas de bachillerato sería obligado incluir una introducción a la programación lineal. Actualmente, dichos contenidos sólo se imparten en los bachilleratos de ciencias sociales, resolviendo algunos problemas sencillos con la ayuda del método gráfico. En este trabajo se propone un método alternativo consistente en la utilización de una herramienta sencilla y eficaz (l...

  11. The Linac4 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting, 160 MeV H- ion accelerator that is being constructed within the scope of the LHC injectors upgrade project. Linac4 will be connected to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) during the next long LHC shut-down and it will replace the current 50 MeV hadron linac, Linac2. Linac4 is presently being commissioned, with the aim of achieving the final energy at the end of the year. A test of the injection chicane and a reliability run will follow. The beam commissioning, in steps of increasing energy, has been prepared by an extended series of studies and interlaced with phases of installation. In this paper we will detail the beam dynamics challenges and we will report on the commissioning results.

  12. Procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum around a lineal accelerator for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental procedure was developed, by means of Bonner spheres, to measure the neutrons spectrum around Linacs of medical use that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator; to this procedure we denominate Planetary or Isocentric method. One of the problems associated to the neutrons spectrum measurement in a radiotherapy room with lineal accelerator is because inside the room a mixed, intense and pulsed radiation field takes place affecting the detection systems based on active detector; this situation is solved using a passive detector. In the case of the Bonner spheres spectrometer the active detector has been substituted by activation detectors, trace detectors or thermoluminescent dosimeters. This spectrometer uses several spheres that are situated one at a time in the measurement point, this way to have the complete measurements group the accelerator should be operated, under the same conditions, so many times like spheres have the spectrometer, this activity can consume a long time and in occasions due to the work load of Linac to complicate the measurement process too. The procedure developed in this work consisted on to situate all the spectrometer spheres at the same time and to make the reading by means of a single shot, to be able to apply this procedure, is necessary that before the measurements two characteristics are evaluated: the cross-talking of the spheres and the symmetry conditions of the neutron field. This method has been applied to determine the photo-neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator of medical use Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter located to 5 cm of depth of a solid water mannequin of 30 x 30 x 15 cm. The spectrum was used to determine the total flow and the environmental dose equivalent. (Author)

  13. High-gradient accelerating structure studies and their application in hadrontherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Andrés, S.

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto de tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo el estudio de las cavidades de aceleración de alto gradiente y su aplicación al campo de la hadronterapia, en particular, al desarrollo de un acelerador lineal (linac) para hadronterapia. Las reducidas dimensiones de los linacs que usan estructuras de Radio-Frecuencia (RF) de alto gradiente contribuyen a su menor coste y los hacen muy atractivos para su aplicación en una amplia variedad de campos, d...

  14. Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Ouchi, N.; Chishiro, E.; Tsukishima, C.; Mukugi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) proton linac is proposed in the JAERI/KEK Joint Project for a high-intensity proton accelerator in the energy region from 400 to 600 MeV. Highly stable fields in the SC cavities are required under the dynamic Lorentz force detuning. A new model describing the dynamic Lorentz detuning has been developed and the validity has been confirmed experimentally. The model has been applied successfully to the rf control simulation of the SC proton linac.

  15. Consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes de Medeiros, Maria da Paz; Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se hacen consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal, tomando especialmente en cuenta sus motivaciones y su formalización. En primer lugar, se explica la necesidad de expandir el conjunto usual de conectivas lógicas en la lógica lineal. Siguiendo a Girard (1987), se presenta una formalización para la lógica lineal como un cálculo de secuentes y se esboza el teorema de eliminación de corte para este sistema. Finalmente, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de la traducc...

  16. Characterization of the primary source of electrons in linear accelerators in clinical use; Caracterizacion de la fuente primaria de electrones en aceleradores lineales de uso clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Extremera, M.; Gonzalez Infantes, W.; Lallena rojo, A. M.; Anguiano Millan, M.

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is currently considered the most accurate method for calculations of doses due to electrons. The objective of the work is the characterization of the primary source of electrons from an accelerator of clinical use with Monte Carlo simulation, in order to build a model of sources involving a substantial saving of time of calculation in the simulation of treatment. (Author)

  17. A model for the determination of the nominal potential for a linear accelerator; Un modelo para la determinacion del potencial nominal de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutt, F.; Silva, P.; Guerrero, R.; Diaz, J.; Colmenares, J. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica (LSCD), Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the present work is to find a physical mathematical model based on the reason of the dose percentages at 10 and 20 cm depth, at 100 cm DFS and a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field. It was utilized literature data of new manufactured accelerators and those are in use in hospitals, which allow to prove the model under different conditions. Our objective consists only to obtain a model that verifies the nominal potential for a linear accelerator, but without pretending that such a model to be used to calculate any one factor to determination of absorbed dose. (Author)

  18. Periodic quality control of a linear accelerator using electronic portal imaging; Controles de calidad periodicos de un acelerador lineal utilizando el sistema electronico de imagenes portales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planes Meseguer, D.; Dorado Rodriguez, M. P.; Esposito, R. D.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present our solution for the realization of the monthly periodic quality control (CP) geometry - mechanical and multi leaf collimator (MLC), using the electronic system for portal imaging (EPI). We have developed specific programs created with free software. The monitoring results are automatically stored on our web server, along with other information generated in our service.

  19. Using of beam spoilers in linear accelerators with photons of 10 MV; Empleo de degradadores del haz en aceleradores lineales con fotones de 10 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansogne, R.; Palacios, V.; Arbiser, S. [Vidt Centro Medico- CETRO. Vidt 1924- (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    This work come along of the necessity to utilize an unique High-Energy Electron Linear Accelerator (10 MV) for radiant treatments which require higher doses in the surface levels of tissue. It is analyzed the interposition of acrylic degraders (spoilers) in the beam, especially for opposed and parallel fields in the cases of head and neck. It was analyzed the possible combinations of the following parameters: 1) Field sizes defined at isocenter (100 cm) 6 x 6 cm{sup 2}, 8 x 8 cm{sup 2} and 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} ; 2) Surface-spoiler distance (DSS) of 4, 7 and 10 cm; 3) Spoilers with different thickness 1.1 and 1.5 cm. It was observed a displacement of the maximum dose toward the surface, and an increase in the percentile doses in the build-up zone when the spoiler is nearing and/or increasing its thickness. It is verified that the use of spoilers, support the symmetry and plane of the beam inside of the clinically acceptable margins. When the results obtained are analyzed then it is proposed as a calculation method to incorporate an attenuation factor. (Author)

  20. Comportamiento lineal y no lineal de las deflexiones en vigas de concreto reforzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Alfredo Martínez Maldonado, Oscar Javier Gutiérrez Junco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El  objetivo  del  trabajo  que  aquí  se  presenta  fue determinar el comportamiento lineal y no lineal de las deflexiones en vigas de concreto reforzado, producidas por la aplicación de una carga puntual en el centro de la  luz, y comparar los comportamientos hasta y más allá  del  estado  elástico,  con  base  en modelosexperimentales, teóricos y computacionales mediante el  programa  Xtrac.  Esta  simulación  considera deformaciones  y  comportamientos  en  diferentes estados  progresivos  de  carga  y  determina modelos gráficos de daño y plasticidad del material de concreto y acero.

  1. The Fermilab Linac Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade is planned to increase the energy of the H- linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHz drift-tube tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of abut 7.5 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a klystron-based rf power supply. A prototype rf modulator has been built and tested at Fermilab, and a prototype 12 MW klystron is being fabricated by Litton Electron Devices. Fabrication of production accelerator modules is in progress. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. The Fermilab Linac Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1991-02-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade is planned to increase the energy of the H- linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHz drift-tube tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of abut 7.5 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a klystron-based rf power supply. A prototype rf modulator has been built and tested at Fermilab, and a prototype 12 MW klystron is being fabricated by Litton Electron Devices. Fabrication of production accelerator modules is in progress. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Projet Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, P

    2008-01-01

    Le Linac4 est le premier maillon de la chaine des futurs injecteurs du complexe SPS/LHC. Cet accélérateur, d?une longueur d?environ 100 m, commence à la source H- et porte le faisceau à une énergie de 160 MeV.

  4. The ISS protontherapy LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-02-01

    The TERA foundation stimulated in the past years a comparative study of compact proton accelerators for therapy and at the end of 1995 the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS) decided for the construction of a proton linac for its TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni) project. The TOP-LINAC will be composed of a 7 MeV RFQ+DTL injector followed by a 7-65 MeV section of the innovative 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65-200 MeV variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. A 5-cavity model of the SCDTL has been built and measured on a RF test bench while a 11-cavities prototype (accelerating until 12.5 MeV) is under construction and will be assembled within few months. The TOP LINAC whose construction will start at the end of 1996, will be the first linear accelerator dedicated to proton therapy, and the first 3 GHz proton linac. In this paper the accelerator design and the construction schedule will be presented, and the SCDTL structure RF measurements will be discussed.

  5. TOP LINAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita', ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given

  6. Designing self-matching linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present trend in ion-linac design is to begin with a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac followed by one or more drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks in which permanent-magnet quadrupoles are used for transverse focusing. The lack of adjustable elements (knobs) strongly suggests that one should seek linac designs with intertank matching solutions that are insensitive to beam currents and emittances, which can be accomplished if there are no sharp discontinuities in the focusing properties along the entire linac. Guidelines are presented for linac design and describe techniques for longitudinal as well as transverse matching between tanks. For a wide range of beam currents and emittances, a beam matched at the entrance to the RFQ should remain well matched throughout the entire linac

  7. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  8. Assessment of the factors field for fields small of a throttle lineal multienergetic by diodes and radiochromic film; Evaluacion de los factores campo pra campos pequalos de un acelerador lineal multienergetico mediante diodos y pelicul radiocromica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Ros, J.; Garcia-Marcos, R.; Huertas Martinez, M. c.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the field factors obtained for a linear accelerator electron multi energetic with irradiation standard modes and flatter unfiltered. We compared the values obtained with several diodes, two chambers of ionization and film radiochromic We obtain correction factors for diodes and. Finally, we evaluate the Daisy-Chain method, depending on the detector and the field of step. (Author)

  9. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  10. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  11. Algoritmo del elipsoide interior para programación lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Fernández, Ángel; Juan Ruiz, Jesús

    1991-01-01

    En este artículo se desarrolla un algoritmo de puntos interiores para programación lineal a partir de consideraciones geométricas. En cada iteración del método se dispone de un punto interior al politopo. Con centro en dicho punto se obtiene un elipsoide interior a dicho politopo. La optimización de la función objetivo lineal sobre el elipsoide se obtiene mediante la solución de un problema de mínimos cuadrados. El punto resultante se adopta para la siguiente iteración. Se proponen dos método...

  12. Sistema Inteligente para el álgebra lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Laura; Pérez, Olga; Docampo, Lisandra; Mota, Yailé; Coello, Lenniet; González, Isabel; Martín, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo describe la concepción del Sistema Inteligente para el Algebra Lineal (SIAL), el cual fue creado por los autores de la investigación. Sus fundamentos teóricos están relacionados con las técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial para clasificar, utilizando el clasificador k-vecinos más cercanos K-NN (Caballero, 2010), así como los cinco problemas tipos del Álgebra Lineal (Yordi, 2004). El SIAL se creó con el objetivo de apoyar al estudiante durante su estudio independiente para brindarle ...

  13. Códigos binarios no lineales en MAGMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalle Arce, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    La finalitat d'aquest projecte és aconseguir representar codis binaris no lineals de manera eficient en un ordinador. Per fer-ho, hem desenvolupat funcions per representar un codi binari a partir del super dual. Hem millorat la funció de càlcul del kernel d'un codi binari, implementada en projectes d'anys anteriors. També hem desenvolupat un paquet software per l'intèrpret MAGMA. Aquest paquet ens proveeix d'eines per al tractament de codis binaris no necessàriament lineals. La finalidad d...

  14. Estabilización robusta de sistemas lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Leyva Castellanos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra un conjunto de resultados que permiten abordar el problema de la estabilización robusta de una familia de sistemas lineales positivos. Se describen dos nuevas aplicaciones en la teoría de control positivo para sistemas compartimentales y se muestra la aplicación de un teorema de robustez para tales sistemas

  15. El gran acelerador de hadrones (LHC) y la búsqueda de la partícula divina

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, José Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    El acelerador más grande nunca construido, el LHC, está realizando sus últimas pruebas. Sólo el acelerador requiere un potencia de 120 MW (800000 MWh/año) que serán suministrados desde las centrales nucleares francesas. ¿Qué tiene de especial el LHC que no tengan otros superaceleradores? ¿Qué son los hadrones? ¿Qué es el bosón de Higgs? ¿Qué aprenderemos? ¿Merece la pena gastar miles de millones de euros en instalaciones como ésta? Este artículo intentará dar respuesta a estas preguntas....

  16. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  18. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, J F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  19. Construction Status of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; MacCaferri, R; Maury, S; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The civil engineering works of the Linac4 linear accelerator at CERN started in October 2008 and regular machine operation is foreseen for 2013. Linac4 will accelerate H−ions to an energy of 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster (PSB). It will thus replace the ageing Linac2, which presently injects at 50 MeV into the PSB, and it will also represents the first step in the injector upgrade for the LHC aiming at increasing its luminosity. This paper reports on the status of the design and construction of the main machine elements, which will be installed in the linac tunnel from the beginning of 2012 onwards, on the progress of the civil engineering and on the ongoing activities at the Linac4 test stand.

  20. Linac4 Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Baylac, M; Bellodi, G; Body, Y; Borburgh, J; Bourquin, P; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Bruno, L; Carli, C; Caspers, Friedhelm; Cousineau, S M; Cuvet, Y; De Almeida Martins, C; Dobers, T; Fowler, T; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Hori, M; Jones, M; Kahle, K; Kalbreier, Willi; Kroyer, T; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; López-Hernandez, L A; Magistris, M; Martini, M; Maury, S; Page, E; Paoluzzi, M; Pasini, M; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Sargsyan, E; Serrano, J; Scrivens, R; Silari, M; Timmins, M; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vretenar, M; Wegner, R; Weterings, W; Zickler, T

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is an H- linear accelerator, intended to replace Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). By delivering to the PSB a beam at 160 MeV energy, Linac4 will provide the conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam from the PSB, thus removing the first bottleneck towards higher brightness for the LHC and simplifying operation. Moreover, this new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios and could open the way to future extensions of the CERN accelerator complex towards higher performance. This Technical Design Report presents a detailed technical overview of the Linac4 design as it stands at end 2006.

  1. Propiedades de las soluciones de sistemas estacionarios de la dinámica de poblaciones con difusión lineal y no lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Fernández, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    En esta Memoria se estudian algunas de las propiedades de las soluciones de ciertas Ecuaciones en Derivadas Parciales no Lineales que modelan el comportamiento de dos especies que habitan en un mismo dominio y cuya difusión es, o bien, no lineal o lineal. En esta Memoria se estudian algunas de las propiedades de las soluciones de ciertas Ecuaciones en Derivadas Parciales no Lineales que modelan el comportamiento de dos especies que habitan en un mismo dominio y cuya difusión es, o bien, no...

  2. Radiological safety around a Linac of 18 MV; Seguridad radiologica alrededor de un LINAC de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron R, P.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09868 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    There are now several neutron detection systems, such as proportional counters based on BF{sub 3}, He{sub 3} and Bonner sphere spectrometers. However, the cost and complexity of the implementation of such systems makes them inaccessible for dosimetry purposes in radiotherapy rooms (Rt) and other facilities with this type of radiation fields. For these reasons the use of a neutron detection system is proposed composed by a paraffin moderator media forming an array 4π (spheres) and several pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700 inside, in order to make useful measurements for radiation protection around high-energy lineal accelerators (Linacs). In the first part of this work the system response when irradiated with a source of Pu Be and their corresponding calibration factor is displayed. In the second part are presented the ambient dose equivalent (H(10)) due to neutrons at various points of a living of Rt with a Linac of 18 MV, which are in the order mSv/Gy by X-ray treatment. The measurements made are similar to those taken in the memories of the accelerator and in previous work for this type of facility. (Author)

  3. Clic ring to main Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Stulle, F; Snuverink, J; Latina, A; Molloy, S

    2010-01-01

    The low emittance transport had been identified as one of the feasibility issues for CLIC. We discuss beam dynamics challenges occurring in the beam lines connecting the damping rings and the main linac. And we outline how these motivate design choices for the general RTML layout as well as its integration into the overall CLIC layout. Constraints originating from longitudinal dynamics and stabilization requirements of beam energy and phase at the main linac entrance are emphasized.

  4. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  5. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  6. Induction Linac Pulsers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at ∼100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 μs at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is reflected back into the line from

  7. Linealización entrada/salida de sistemas no lineales afines utilizando un filtro

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Delgado

    2011-01-01

    La linealización Entrada/Salida (E/S), dentro del marco teórico del control geométrico, es una técnica madura para sistemas no lineales afines. Esta técnica cancela los términos no lineales de la planta, usando una retroalimentación de estado no lineal, y produce una dinámica E/S lineal para la planta. En este artículo se muestra que un filtro D(s) puede utilizarse para Iinealizar sistemas no lineales afines en lugar de aplicar una retroalimentación de estado no lineal que requiere conocer la...

  8. Linac transport and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of intense bunches maintaining high brightness is limited both by single-particle effects, e.g., misalignments, injection errors, and rf-steering, and collective phenomena, where the effects of the longitudinal and transverse wakefield on particles within a single bunch are the most severe. The working group has considered both problems and potentials of linac acceleration from ∼50 MeV to 1 GeV for free electron laser (FEL) applications, as well as from a few Gev to 1 TeV for linear colliders. The outlook for free electron lasers is bright: no fundamental problems seem to arise in the acceleration of peak currents in excess of 100 A with small emittance and low momentum spread. The situation of linear colliders is more complex and more difficult. Two examples, one operating at 11.4 GHz, the other at 30 GHz, are used to illustrate some of the difficulties and the exceedingly tight tolerances required. Both examples are based on round beams, and thus neither benefit from the advantages of flat beams nor address the increased care required in transporting beams of very small emittance in one plane. The working group acknowledges, but did not explore, promising concepts for colliders based on RF superconductivity

  9. Power Coupler Simulations for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Ramberger, S

    2011-01-01

    The power coupler is a crucial element in the design of an RF cavity. Power from an RF source is transported towards the cavity by a waveguide and transferred into the cavity by means of a power coupler that is adapted to both the transport mode in the waveguide and the principal resonant mode in the cavity. In the case of Linac4, a rectangular half-height waveguide (WG) WR2300 is used and the connection from this WG to the cavity is achieved by iris coupling through an interconnecting waveguide (IWG) in the tank wall. In this note simulations and measurements on a prototype and studies on Tank1 of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) are discussed in order to define the dimensions of this IWG such that it optimises the power transfer into the cavity.

  10. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: respaldiza@us.es; Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carmona, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale, Universite de Bordeaux (France); Ferrer, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) {sup 14}C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment.

  11. Fuente de Alimentación para los Imanes Superconductores del Acelerador de Partículas Europeo XFEL

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.; Francés, A.; J.M. Fernández; Varela, Pablo; Catalanotto, Giuseppe; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Asensi Orosa, Rafael; Prieto López, Roberto; Uceda Antolín, Javier; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta la fuente de alimentación que se está diseñando para alimentar los imanes superconductores del acelerador de partículas europeo XFEL que se está construyendo en Hamburgo, cuyas características le hacen el más avanzado del mundo. Un imán superconductor es una carga muy inductiva que debe ser controlada en corriente y que presenta una caída de tensión muy baja cuando está en modo superconductor. La fuente debe ser capaz de alimentar esta carga con una alta fiabilida...

  12. IH linac development at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tuning method of the gap voltage distribution has been developed for an interdigital H type linac. With an asymmetrically ridged IH resonator, the voltage distribution was significantly improved by introducing a pair of Wing Tuners. The quality factor and the shunt impedance of the resonant cavity remained practically unchanged by these inductive tuning elements. The Wing Tuners strongly affect on linac characteristics similarly to the local reduction of the resonator diameter. A prototype IH linac has been constructed to demonstrate the operational capabilities of the tuning method. The linac is designed to accelerate protons from an energy of 15 to 161 keV with an rf frequency of 100 MHz. The linac tank is made of mild steel, and 48 and 92 cm in diameter and in length, respectively. The drift tube structure of π/3π mode is adopted, and an electrostatic quadrupole lens is installed in every 3π drift tube. The experimental results of the proton model agree well with the design characteristics. (author)

  13. ABP lactancia materna - regresión lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Augusta Osorio Gonzales

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo que persigue el ABP “Lactancia materna” es el de poner al alcance de los alumnos de un curso de Estadística general, las herramientas básicas que le permitan establecer y analizar una recta de regresión lineal entre dos variables cuantitativas. El escenario o problema sobre el que se baso el ABP en el curso fue el resaltar la importancia de la Lactancia Materna, tema no vinculado normalmente con la Estadística, pero familiar para los alumnos (especialmente las damas), por lo cual ...

  14. El Bloque lineal. Del Movimiento Moderno a la Contemporaneidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Romero, María Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo se basa en el estudio , análisis , comprensión e investigación del bloque lineal (linear block ). Como ha llegado a ser la tipología residencial ( residential typology) de referencia para el alojamiento colectivo ( collective housing) así como la influencia de esta tipología en el desarrollo de la morfología (morphology ) de la ciudad. Se centrará la atención en la evolución que ha sufrido a lo largo de la historia, sus principales características, que lo definen como...

  15. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will...

  16. Linac3 - 1992-1994

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; A Van der Shueren; Jean-Claude Vialis

    1995-01-01

    This film reports the differents steps of the construction in differents places (Italy, Germany, France) from 29 October 1992 to 29 April 1994. This linac, commissioned in summer 1994, presently provides beams of 208Pb53+. A 14 GHz ECR ion source operating in the "afterglow" mode produces Pb 27+ ions at 2.5 keV/u. This beam is accelerated in an RFQ and a three tank IH linac to 4.2 MeV/u where stripping in a 1 um carbon foil to a charge state distribution centered around Pb53+ takes place. 53+ ions are selected from this mixture in a magnetic filter before being transported to the PS Booster and other circular machines. Linac3, the more common name for this machine, was built by a truly international collaboration involving France, Italy, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, India, the Czech Republic and CERN.

  17. Cockcroft-Walton generator for Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1976-01-01

    Its higher voltage of 750 kV, compared to the 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton of Linac 1, contributed to the higher current that Linac 2 could deliver. The cubic container houses the electronics. The ion-source, in the spherical container, delivered protons and, for tests, also deuterons. In 1993 an RFQ replaced it as Linac 2 preinjector.

  18. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  19. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V; Ostigy, J -F; Alexandrov, A; Shishlo, A

    2012-01-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H- ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  20. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  1. Study of lineal and non-lineal transmission of an optical fiber Sagnac interferometer as a bidirectional device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical fiber Sagnac interferometer is a versatile system that has been investigated for a variety of applications such as optical switchers, filters, demultiplexers and passive mode-locked laser. In many cases, this arrangement is designed using a symmetrical coupler with two of their ports connected making a loop and generally the analysis have been focused in the transmission of the signal propagated in only one direction. Therefore in the present work a complementary study of the system considering the analysis for the lineal and non-lineal transmission as a bidirectional device has been performed. The experimental setup consists of different optical fiber lengths inside the cavity loop (between 100 and 500 m) with highly twisted singlemode fiber, a quarter wave retarder placed asymmetrically in one arm and a 50/50 coupler. The results have shown that for low optical powers, it is possible to adjust the system transmission in both propagation directions with the rotation of the retarder wave. On the other hand, in high optical power levels, this arrangement showed that the transmission increases slowly for the case when both the input and the output beams have the same polarization. This behavior can be used for pedestal suppression in a light pulse. Furthermore, for the case when the output signal polarization is orthogonal respect to the input one, the transmission changes quite fast. This effect can be used for applications such as the passive mode-locking.

  2. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  3. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  4. Florida State University superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As early as the fall of 1977 it was decided that the future research needs of their nuclear structure laboratory required an increase in energy capability to at least 8 MeV per nucleon for the lighter ions, and that these needs could be met by the installation of a 17 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The chief problem with this proposal was the high cost. It became apparent that a far less expensive option was to construct a linear accelerator to boost the energy from their existing 9 MV tandem. The options open to them among linac boosters were well represented by the room temperature linac at Heidelberg and the superconducting Stony Brook and Argonne systems. By the Spring of 1979 it had been decided that both capital cost and electric power requirements favored a superconducting system. As regards the two superconducting resonator technologies - the Argonne niobium-copper or the Caltech-Stony Brook lead plated copper - the Argonne resonators, though more expensive to construct, had the advantages of more boost per resonator, greater durability of the superconducting surface and less stringent beam bunching requirements. In 1980 pilot funding from the State of Florida enabled the construction of a building addition to house the linac and a new target area, and the setting up of a small, three resonator, test booster. Major funding by the NSF for the laboratory upgrade started in 1984. With these funds they purchased their present helium liquefaction and transfer system and constructed three large cryostats, each housing four Argonne beta = 0.105 resonators and two superconducting solenoids. The last large cryostat was completed and installed on-line early this year and the linac was dedicated on March 20. Nuclear physics experiments using the whole linac began in early June. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  5. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  6. Explorando sistemas dinámicos 3d no lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Haramburu, Pablo; Delrieux, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    La finalidad de la Visualización Científica es ayudar en la comprensión y el análisis de determinados problemas científicos. Un modelo matemático utilizado muy frecuentemente para la representación de problemas reales en muchas disciplinas es el de los sistemas dinámicos. Es posible encontrarlos en ecología, electrónica, mecánica no lineal, dinámica de fluídos, matemática, economía, etc. En la mayoría de los casos, estos sistemas no son resolubles en forma analítica, por lo que su adecuada...

  7. Simulacion borrosa de un reactor con reaccion exotermica no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL ANGEL RODRIGUEZ BORROTO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo difuso basado en la estructura Takagi-Sugeno-Kang dinámica para un reactor continuo de tanque con agitador (RCTA con reacción química de primer orden exotérmico. A partir de datos experimentales obtenidos mediante simulación del proceso real, se obtiene la base de datos de las variables de entrada y salida del proceso y a partir de la misma se elaboran los archivos de datos de entrenamiento y de verificación del modelo borroso el cual es obtenido mediante la herramienta anfis de MATLAB. El modelo obtenido permite predecir la salida del sistema con errores de predicción muy bajos, por lo que el mismo sienta las bases para el diseño de un controlador predictivo no lineal del mismo en próximas etapas de la investigación

  8. Cálculo no lineal de estructuras reticuladas y laminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available By many of electronic calculus it is possible to approach the non linear analysis of bar constructions efficiently and without the limitations of the traditional plastic Calculus. In order to prove this statement, the author presents certains structural analysis that have been carried out by means of techniques and calculation programs of his own. Further, the non linear analysis of revolving sheets is presented to which algorithms of great formal similarity to those in the case of bar constructions are applicable. Both for these latter ones as weil as for laminated structures the programs elaborated by the author allow a great variety of anelastic analyses (and as a special case, of elastic analysis.Con la ayuda del cálculo electrónico, el análisis no lineal de estructuras de barras es abordable con eficiencia y sin caer en las limitaciones del cálculo plástico tradicional. Con objeto de probar esta afirmación, se presentan determinados análisis estructurales realizados mediante técnicas y programas de cálculo propios. Se presenta asimismo el análisis no lineal de láminas de revolución, a las cuales son aplicables algoritmos de gran similitud formal con los del caso de estructuras de barras. Tanto para estas últimas como para las estructuras laminares, los programas desarrollados por el autor permiten efectuar gran variedad de análisis inelásticos (y elásticos como caso particular.

  9. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  10. Harmonic Analysis of Linac Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    McCrady, Rodney C

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the requirements on alignment of the focusing elements (quadrupole doublets) in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) side coupled linac. The analysis is performed in terms of harmonics of the quardrupole spacing. This allows us to determine the effect of intentional deviations from a straight line, such as following the curvature of the Earth, and of unintentional deviations introduced by measurement and alignment errors. Results are compared to measured positions of the doublets.

  11. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  12. Decisiones financieras con programación lineal: diferentes estados de la naturaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino E. Mallo; Artola, María Antonia; Morettini, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    Desde los inicios de la investigación operativa la programación lineal ha sido una de sus herramientas más eficientes y difundidas. En el campo financiero también se ha dado lugar a la aplicación de la programación lineal, aunque con menos frecuencia que en la faz productiva. Sin embargo, los supuestos de la programación lineal no siempre se satisfacen acabadamente en la realidad. Algunas de las situaciones enfrentadas son de certeza, satisfaciendo los supuestos que requiere la técnica, pero ...

  13. Modelo no lineal con potencial Seno-Gordon para un cristal fotónico unidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Franco Ortíz; Adalberto Corella Madueño; Juan Adrián Reyes Cervantes; Arnulfo Castellanos Moreno; Rodrigo Arturo Rosas Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un modelo para un cristal fotónico unidimensional formado por una sucesión de planos constituidos por material no lineal, inmersos en un medio lineal. Se resuelve la ecuación de Schrödinger introduciendo en el hamiltoniano modelo del cristal un potencial no lineal tipo Seno-Gordon. Se obtiene analíticamente una versión generalizada, dependiente de la amplitud de la onda incidente, de la ecuación trascendente que caracteriza al modelo del cristal de Kronig-Penney, de donde se dete...

  14. The LINAC4 Power Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Montesinos, E; Riffaud, B; Ugena Tirado, P; Wegner, R

    2011-01-01

    Linac4 is employing three types of accelerating structures after the RFQ: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell- Coupled DTL (CCDTL), and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS) to accelerate the beam up to 160 MeV at 352.2MHz. The structures are designed for a peak power of approximately 1 MW per power coupler, which is transported via rectangular waveguides from the klystron gallery to the RF cavities. The coupler itself consists of two parts: a ceramic window, which separates the cavity vacuum from the air in the waveguides, and a Tuner-adjustablewaveguide Coupler (TaCo), which couples the RF power through an iris to the cavity. In the frame of the Linac4 R&D both devices have been significantly improvedwith respect to their commonly used design. On the coupler side, the waveguide short circuit with its matched length has been replaced by a fixedlength /4 short circuit. The RF matching is done by a simple piston tuner, which allows a quick matching to different cavity quality factors. In the window part, which usually c...

  15. Designs for a LINAC-Ring LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Calaga, R; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electronproton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a pulsed linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with two cw linacs and energyrecovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac with 140-GeV final energy [“p-140”]. We discuss parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and performance for the three scenarios.

  16. Efectos no lineales fotoinducidos en cristales líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Reyes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos ejemplos en los que se aplica un formalismo analítico que permite describir una amplia variedad de fenómenos no lineales que ocurren cuando un campo óptico se propaga en un cristal líquido. Primero se describe la propagación de ondas planas en celdas rectangulares formadas por cristales líquidos nemáticos, tomando en cuenta su acoplamiento con la orientación. Posteriormente se analiza la propagación de un paquete de ondas en la celda. Se muestra que existe un efecto de guía de ondas en la propagación de los campos ópticos y que los modos transversales magnéticos (TM de la radiación electromagnética se pueden propagar como solitones ópticos. En ausencia de absorción, se calculan explícitamente diversas propiedades de los solitones.

  17. Study of characteristics of linac with TWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power electron linac which is developed by PNC is an electron linac with the TWRR (Traveling Wave Resonant Ring). Some phenomena occurred on our high power test are mentioned. Some important characteristics such as stability and phase characteristic are discussed. (author)

  18. An Induction Linac Test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    De Hope, William; Kihara, Ron; Ong, Mike; Vogtlin, George; Zentler, Jan-Mark

    2005-01-01

    A single-cell test stand has been constructed to facilitate study and guide improvements of the induction electron linac at the FXR radiographic facility at LLNL.* This paper will discuss how modifications in pulse compression and shaping, pulse power transmission, initial ferrite state, and accelerator cell loading have been performed on the test stand and can be applied to the entire accelerator. Some of the specialized diagnostics being used will be described. Finally, the paper will discuss how computer modeling and judicious timing control can be used to optimize accelerator performance by making only selective changes that can be accomplished at minimal cost.

  19. Programación lineal aplicada al cálculo plástico elemental de estructuras lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Corrales, J. M.

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for elementary calculations of linear structures, under non elastic conditions, and subjected to point loads. The method involves the use of Simplex programs, which are already available for any scientific computer. The result gives either a factor of safety for a structure that has already been designed, or else an optimum design for given conditions. The calculation is very short for one loading system, and less so, if several loading conditions are assumed. The method can be further improved, thus rendering its use even more simple.Expone este artículo un método para hacer los cálculos plásticos elementales de estructuras lineales con cargas puntuales por medio de programas Simplex, ya disponibles en cualquier ordenador científico, dando como resultado, sea un coeficiente de seguridad de una estructura ya dimensionada, sea una optimización de la misma. El cálculo es muy corto con un caso de cargas, y menos con varios casos de cargas. El método admite perfeccionamientos, que pueden hacer todavía más elemental su introducción en computador.

  20. Phase scan signature matching for linac tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively simple method for linac tuning has been devised, tested and used on the Alvarez and side coupled linacs. Tank or Module phase is varied over 360 degrees while the phase of signals from strip-line beam monitor is measured. Reference phase is taken from the master oscillator for the linac. Theoretical curves of beam phase versus tank/module phase are matched to the measured curves to determine the tank/module field amplitude and phase, and the input and output betas of the tanks/modules. Early experiments on tanks 4--7 of the Alvarez linac have demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Recently this method was used for commissioning of the Fermilab upgraded linac

  1. First Tests for the Detection of the LINAC Irradiation Field Using PIN Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, C. E. Ojeda; Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.; Navarro, L. F. Villaseñor; Cruz, M. Durán

    2008-08-01

    The employment of the technology of semiconductor detectors, in the medical physics environment is of great importance due to its versatility and dependability. In this work we present the first results and the experimental arrangement employed with PIN diodes that are conditioned for the measurement of the field of irradiation of a lineal accelerator (LINAC) used in radiotherapy. In our tests we used a PIN photodiode. In former experiments, this diode presented a response to the intensity of the applied field when it was exposed to an X-ray beam in medical and industrial radiography equipments. This diode is a low cost and easy acquisition one in the field. These characteristics transform it into a serious candidate as detector to be used in electronic arrangements for the detection of radiation fields in radio-therapy with X-rays. Experiments were designed to obtain the response of this diode when it was exposed to X-ray beams of a LINAC used in radiotherapy. Firstly the tests were carried out for a 6 MeV photon beam with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm, obtaining very encouraging results. We seek to carry out tests for more energy values in order to obtain the energy response of this detector as a radiation sensor device. This device could be applied in the design of working tools, for example, for the quality control in procedures of radiotherapy.

  2. Análisis de pérdida de estabilidad no lineal de elementos estructurales sometidos a compresión. // Slender structural elements non lineal stability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fabré Sentile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestra el análisis de perdida de estabilidad en elementos estructurales delgados bajocompresión. Se realiza la exposición de las consideraciones del análisis lineal y no lineal de perdida de estabilidad y seejemplifica con una estructura modelada mediante elementos finitos, estableciéndose conclusiones interesantes.Palabras claves: Estructuras esbeltas, estabilidad no-lineal, Euler.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:Presently paper deals with stability analysis in structural elements. The considerations of lineal and non lineal analysis ofstability are exposed and it is exemplified with a finite element structure model, settling down interesting conclusions.Key words: Slender structures, non-lineal stability, Euler.

  3. ABP lactancia materna - regresión lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Osorio Gonzales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo que persigue el ABP “Lactancia materna” es el de poner al alcance de los alumnos de un curso de Estadística general, las herramientas básicas que le permitan establecer y analizar una recta de regresión lineal entre dos variables cuantitativas. El escenario o problema sobre el que se baso el ABP en el curso fue el resaltar la importancia de la Lactancia Materna, tema no vinculado normalmente con la Estadística, pero familiar para los alumnos (especialmente las damas, por lo cual en la ejecución del ABP se incorporó la temática relacionada con la poca información e interés que muestran los varones en el tema. En el escenario, se creó una ONG ficticia llamada ALACTAR, la que estaba interesada en crear un tríptico de información dirigida a los varones, en el que se resalten los beneficios que proporciona la Lactancia Materna en el infante y la madre que da de lactar. Entre los temas a resaltar, se encuentran el incremento del Coeficiente Intelectual, la disminución de la Obesidad Infantil, la disminución de la Diabetes Juvenil y la disminución en el riesgo de la madre de contraer Cáncer de ovarios. La idea es utilizar datos de investigaciones que se han hecho en el país que tiene en su poder ALACTAR y que aún no se han procesado apropiadamente. Dentro de la metodología ABP, se usaron como herramientas las siguientes: foros, horas de trabajo en aula y la confección de un trabajo final que consiste en un tríptico o póster para ALACTAR.

  4. Indigenous 6 MV medical LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear Accelerators were made for physics research all over the world; in India too the first indigenous accelerator was made for research of materials using the 3.5 MeV Linear Accelerator in the 1960s at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Prof. R.V.S. Sitaram was the leading scientist who contributed in the development of the first indigenous linac that served research scholars for more than two decades. The travelling wave S-band Linac using a magnetron as a source of high power microwaves was a significant development towards the indigenous accelerator. The accelerating structure had magnetic coils for beam focusing, the HV modulator, microwave system and control unit were indigenously developed by TIFR scientists. Dr. Homi Bhabha, Director, TIFR had taken keen interest in the project and an appropriate room in the basement was selected for the accelerator facility. The Iinac tube cavities, magnetic coils and pulse transformer were designed and fabricated in TIFR laboratory and only raw material was imported. The group working on Radar transmitters developed the transmission line type modulator using components such as charging choke and locally available HV transformers. However, the rectifier diodes, cores switching tubes were imported. The complete system design was done in-house and also included operation and maintenance of the facility. Over its life of two decades, a second generation of technologists were developed with a first hand knowledge of an accelerator system

  5. The DARHT Phase 2 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, H L; Waldron, W L; Chow, K P; Vella, M C; Fawley, W M; Briggs, R; Nelson, S; Wolf, Z; Birx, D L; Rutkowski, HL; Reginato, LL; Waldron, WL; Chow, KP; Vella, MC; Fawley, WM

    2000-01-01

    The second phase accelerator for the Dual Axis Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) is designed to provide an electron beam pulse that is 2 microsec long, 2kA, and 20 MeV in particle energy. The injector provides 3.2 MeV so that the linac need only provide 16.8 MeV. The linac is made with two types of induction accelerator cells. The first block of 8 cells have a 14 in. beam pipe compared to 10 in. in the remaining 80 cells. The other principal difference is that the first 8 cells have reduced volt-sec in their induction cores as a result of a larger diameter beam pipe. The cells are designed for very reliable high voltage operation. The insulator is Mycalex. Results from prototype tests are given including results from solenoid measurements. Each cell contains a solenoid for beam transport and a set of x-y correction coils to reduce corkscrew motion. Details of tests to determine RF mode impedances relevant to BBU generation are given. Blocks of cells are separated by "intercells" some of which contain transpo...

  6. Photons and photoneutrons spectra of a Linac of 15 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)

  7. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  8. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  9. Linac Upgrades for FERMI@ELETTRA

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, G; Craievich, P; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Ferianis, M; Pangon, G; Rumiz, R L; Tosi, T L; Zangrando, D

    2004-01-01

    To fulfill the stringent requirements expected from the FERMI project, the existing Linac needs some modifications in the layout and an upgrading of the present plants. Moreover, for the next two years, until the new injection system (now under construction) is fully commissioned, the Linac has to be kept in operation as injector for the ELETTRA Storage Ring. Therefore most of the planned activities have to be carried out without interfering with the normal operation of the machine. Details on the new Linac layout and related activities are discussed.

  10. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Dragoş E.; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet a...

  11. Quality control of virtual wedge in a linear electron accelerator with a computerized radiography system (CR); Control de calidad de la cuna virtual en un acelerador lineal de electrones mediante un sistema de radiografia competerizada (CR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Alvarez, F. J.; Falero, B.

    2011-07-01

    For quality control of the virtual wedge there are several systems on the market as arrays of detectors or ionization chambers, linear or 2D configuration, radiochromic films or digital imaging systems incorporated in electron linear accelerators (ALE ). The present work aims at implementing a system of Computed Radiography (CR) for a routine check of the virtual wedge.

  12. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator; Evaluacion de un medio dispersor para la irradiacion de hemoderivados en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Falero, B.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  13. Study of technical and economic feasibility of using a portal dosimetry system for quality control of linear accelerators; Estudio de viabilidad tecnica y economica del uso de un sistema de dosimetria portal para el control de calidad de aceleradores lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fax, X.; Piro, N.; Sanchez, N.; Toribio, I.; Hermida, M.; Seioane, A.; Saez, J.; Beltran, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have studied the feasibility of Varian portal vision system AS500-II, dosimetry calibration mode, as a substitute for radiochromic plates in quality control tests that required the use of such film. Over a period of two months have been analyzed both the dosimetric characteristics of the system and the mechanical positioning. In addition there has been a financial estimate of annual savings that would result from replacing the radiochromic film by the portal system in a multi-energy accelerator.

  14. Spatial dependence and origin of the ambient dose due to neutron activation processes in linear accelerators; Dependencia espacial y origen de la dosis ambiental debeda a procesos de activacion neutronica en aceleradores lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Egea, E.; Sanchez Carrascal, M.; Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Ray, P. de la; Perez Molina, J. L.; Madan Rodriguez, C.; Luque Japon, L.; Morera Molina, A.; Hernandez Perez, A.; Barquero Bravo, Y.; Morengo Pedagna, I.; Oliva Gordillo, M. C.; Martin Olivar, R.

    2011-07-01

    In order to try to determine the high dose in the bunker of a Linear Accelerator clinical use trying to measure the spatial dependence of the same from the isocenter to gateway to the board cheeking to establish the origin of it. This dose measurements performed with an ionization chamber at different locations inside the bunker after an irradiation of 400 Monitor Units verifying the dose rate per minute for an hour, and accumulating the dose received during that period of time.

  15. Application of shielding calculation of high-energy linear accelerators based on the NCRP-151 protocol; Aplicacion de calculo de blindajes de aceleradores lineales de alta energia basada en el protocolo NCRP-151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Pozas, S.; Monja Rey, P. de la; Sanchez Carrasca, M.; Yanez Lopez, D.; Macias Verde, D.; Martin Oliva, R.

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the progress experienced in cancer treatment with ionizing radiation can deliver higher doses to smaller volumes and better shaped, making it necessary to take into account new aspects in the calculation of structural barriers. Furthermore, given that forecasts suggest that in the near future will install a large number of accelerators, or existing ones modified, we believe a useful tool to estimate the thickness of the structural barriers of treatment rooms. The shielding calculation methods are based on standard DIN 6847-2 and the recommendations given by the NCRP 151. In our experience we found only estimates originated from the DIN. Therefore, we considered interesting to develop an application that incorporates the formulation suggested by the NCRP, together with previous work based on the rules DIN allow us to establish a comparison between the results of both methods. (Author)

  16. Modelling of linear accelerator table for use in the design of 3D and VMAT radiotherapy treatments; Modelizacion de mesa de acelerador lineal para aplicacion en los disenos de tratamientos radioterapicos 3D y VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Jimenez Domingiuez, M.; Mateos Perez, J. C.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-07-01

    The new design of carbon treatment tables for rotational IMRT application is being submitted in multiple publications, all dosimetric test to determine their influence on treatment. In most publications can be concluded that their influence is not negligible, especially in near-horizontal angles. In the case of IMRT its influence becomes non-intuitive and therefore difficult to estimate. These publications can not consider all the possibilities of clinical practice, so that its applicability is limited. We propose, therefore, a role-table with the exact geometry of the treatment and density adjusted to the experimental data, to resolve the estimation of their influence in each clinical case.

  17. Licensing process and implementation of a mobile linear accelerator for treatment of intraoperative radiation therapy; Proceso de licenciamiento e implantacion de un acelerador lineal movil para tratamientos de radioterapia intraoperatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Garcia Marcos, R.; Gallego Franco, P.; Rodriguez Checa, M.; Gomez Calvar, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The objective is to show how the working procedures, have been defined unambiguously to ensure together with the structure of the installation, and optimally located elements of radiation protection, compliance with the classification of areas, occupation factors and rates expected according to them. (Author)

  18. Simulación y validación experimental de la dosimetría de campos pequeños de fotones en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, María Luz

    2014-01-01

    La utilización de campos pequeños de fotones en radioterapia, se puede distinguir principalmente por dos efectos: la pérdida del equilibrio electrónico lateral y la oclusión de la fuente. Ambos resultan en una disminución del rendimiento del haz en el eje central y en una extensión de la zona de penumbras en los perfiles. Estos efectos son difíciles de cuantificar ya que los detectores de tamaño similar o mayor que el campo de radiación presentan imprecisiones en las medidas. Las técnicas num...

  19. Beam diagnostic suite for the SNS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardekopf, R. A.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Power, J. F.; Shafer, R. E.; Stovall, J. E.

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the next-generation pulsed neutron source to be built in the United States. The accelerator chosen to produce the 2 MW beam power on the neutron-producing target is an H- linear accelerator (linac) to 1 GeV, followed by a proton accumulator ring. The ring compresses the 1 ms long beam bunches from the linac to less than 1 μs. The linac is pulsed at 60 Hz with a 6% duty factor. Stringent control of the pulse structure and stability of the high-intensity H- beam is needed to minimize beam loss in the linac and to optimize injection into the accumulator ring. This requires a set of beam diagnostics that can operate at high peak currents (˜52 mA) with high sensitivity and minimum beam interception.

  20. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  1. Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres. The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time. The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. (Author)

  2. El Parque Lineal de Palmira, un espacio dinamizador del desarrollo de la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Forero Sanclemente

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Lineal de Palmira –una ciudad colombiana intermedia situada en el Valle del Cauca–, puede constituir un eje articulador del desarrollo urbano mediante la integración de todos los factores que intervienen en dicho parque, los que son capaces de convertir este espacio público en un lugar estratégico en el ámbito urbano. En este sentido, los actores de la ciudad consideran el Parque Lineal como una posibilidad de desarrollo y de referencia cultural y ambiental crucial en los planes de ordenamiento y desarrollo de la ciudad. El trabajo investigativo se propone encontrar un conjunto de estrategias ambientales, sociales, económicas, culturales e institucionales, que permitan la sostenibilidad del Parque Lineal, a partir de una Investigación Acción Participativa.

  3. BLIP. [Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, Jr, L G

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) is discussed. Topics covered include targets, target holders, linac specifications, beam transport, and current production performance. The use of the BLIP is confined exclusively to the development of radionuclides that are, or should be, of medical interest, and the facility is moving rapidly into a self-supporting state from the income of the products. (PMA)

  4. INR proton Linac operation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, Leonid V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary Pr., Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kravchuk@inr.ru

    2006-06-23

    The INR Proton Linear Accelerator is presently under operation for about 2400 h per year with energy about 250 MeV and average current up to 150 {mu}A. The Linac applications are mainly as follows: neutron and condensed matter research at spallation neutron source and neutron spectrometers, isotope production for medicine and industry, beam therapy. The experimental area description and the Linac operational experience are given in the paper.

  5. Dark current model for ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Eidelman, Y.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

    2008-06-01

    In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

  6. Modelo no lineal con potencial Seno-Gordon para un cristal fotónico unidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Franco Ortíz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo para un cristal fotónico unidimensional formado por una sucesión de planos constituidos por material no lineal, inmersos en un medio lineal. Se resuelve la ecuación de Schrödinger introduciendo en el hamiltoniano modelo del cristal un potencial no lineal tipo Seno-Gordon. Se obtiene analíticamente una versión generalizada, dependiente de la amplitud de la onda incidente, de la ecuación trascendente que caracteriza al modelo del cristal de Kronig-Penney, de donde se determina la estructura de las bandas de energía del cristal. El modelo puede aplicarse a una versión finita de un cristal fotónico para un número limitado de capas alternadas de material lineal y no lineal para el cual se han calculado la reflectancia como una función de la intensidad de la onda electromagnética, el índice de la banda y el número de períodos. Es posible construir un sistema con estas características alternando capas muy delgadas de material de materia blanda no lineal con capas sólidas más gruesas, con el cual puede diseñarse un dispositivo para controlar la propagación de luz para intervalos de longitudes de onda específicos e intensidades de la luz de la misma señal que se propaga.

  7. The LINAC4 Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Caspers, F; Corso, JP; Coupard, J; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, N; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hammouti, L; Hanke, K; Jones, M; Kozsar, I; Lettry, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Maglioni, C; Mathot, S; Maury, S; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Noels, C; Paoluzzi, M; Puccio, B; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schwerg, N; Scrivens, R; Vandoni, G; Weisz, S; Vollaire, J; Vretenar, M; Zickler, T

    2011-01-01

    As the first step of a long-term programme aiming at an increase in the LHC luminosity, CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normal-conducting linac made of an H¯ source, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a chopping line and a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift-Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS). The civil engineering has been recently completed, and construction of the main accelerator components has started with the support of a network of international collaborations. The low-energy section up to 3 MeV including a 3-m long 352 MHz RFQ entirely built at CERN is in the final construction phase and is being installed on a dedicated test stand. The present schedule foresees beam commissioning of the accelerator in the new tunnel in 2013/14; the moment of connection of the new linac to the CERN accelerator chain will depend on the L...

  8. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyadera, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurennoy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  9. Dinámica de la molécula más importante de la vida: el ADN. I. Modelos lineales y no lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ramírez Reyes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan los modelos más simples para la molécula más importante dela vida: el ADN. Se estudian las excitaciones colectivas y paulatinamente van incorporándose en elanálisis cualidades complejas de la molécula. Esto conlleva al estudio de la dinámica de talesexcitaciones mediante ecuaciones diferenciales no lineales. Las soluciones especiales de estasecuaciones corresponden a un tipo de ondas no lineales que mantienen forma y velocidadconstantes con la mínima pérdida de energía e información, conocidas como solitones ocompactones.

  10. Una aplicación de MATLAB sobre Programación No Lineal bidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Giménez Palomares; María José Marín Fernández

    2014-01-01

    La Programación No Lineal (PNL) constituye una herramienta de amplia aplicación en la modelización de problemas de la vida real aplicados a los negocios, la economía, la empresa y la ingeniería. Consiste en maximizar o minimizar un campo escalar cuyo dominio viene dado a partir de un conjunto de restricciones dadas por igualdades y/o desigualdades no necesariamente lineales. En este trabajo se presenta un laboratorio virtual que permite estudiar gráfica y numéricamente la PNL en el caso de do...

  11. Codis no lineals en MAGMA : construcció de codis perfectes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Marín, Laura

    2009-01-01

    La finalitat d'aquest projecte és aconseguir construir codis binaris perfectes no lineals de manera eficient. Per a fer-ho, hem desenvolupat un paquet de software per a l'intèrpret MAGMA que conté funcions per a la construcció de codis perfectes, càlcul d'invariants de codis i altres funcions complementàries per a fer càlculs sobre les paraules d'un codi. La finalidad de este proyecto es conseguir construir códigos binarios perfectos no lineales de forma eficiente. A tal efecto, hemos desa...

  12. Una aplicación de MATLAB sobre Programación No Lineal bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Giménez Palomares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La Programación No Lineal (PNL constituye una herramienta de amplia aplicación en la modelización de problemas de la vida real aplicados a los negocios, la economía, la empresa y la ingeniería. Consiste en maximizar o minimizar un campo escalar cuyo dominio viene dado a partir de un conjunto de restricciones dadas por igualdades y/o desigualdades no necesariamente lineales. En este trabajo se presenta un laboratorio virtual que permite estudiar gráfica y numéricamente la PNL en el caso de dos variables.

  13. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE EPISODIOS DE DEPENDENCIA NO LINEAL EN EL PESO MEXICANO

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica Arreola Leonardo; Coronado Ramírez Semei

    2011-01-01

    El siguiente documento identifica episodios de dependencia no-lineal en el tipo de cambio mexicano (peso mexicano/dólar norteamericano), entre enero de 1995 y septiembre de 2010. Para ello se utiliza la metodología Hinich Portmanteau, la cual utiliza una prueba de alta frecuencia para detectar episodios de dependencia no lineal, por medio de funciones ventana. Se proporciona una explicación de los sucesos económicos y políticos que pudieron haber provocado que el tipo de cambio tuviera un com...

  14. Measurement of {sup 236}U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio of about 3 × 10{sup −11} despite its compact design. The use of “{sup 239}Pu”/{sup 238}U ratio as a proxy for “{sup 236}U”/{sup 235}U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic {sup 236}U at environmental levels.

  15. El impacto de la política monetaria y la política fiscal en un modelo de acelerador financiero

    OpenAIRE

    Botero García, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta un modelo sencillo de acelerador financiero, en el que a partir de la solución del problema de optimización intertemporal del flujo de renta del empresario en condiciones de competencia monopolística, es posible evaluar el impacto de dichos descuentos, así como también el impacto de la política monetaria, sobre el stock deseado de capital y la inversión deseada. El modelo es un modelo de equilibrio parcial, pero ilustra adecuadamente la forma como la política mon...

  16. Klystron pulse mudulator for linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly stable klystron pulse modulator is required in constructing a linac with good beam characteristics. The De-Qing circuit has been used conventionally to stabilize the output of a pulse modulator, but this method can achieve a stability of 1 percent at best, which is far larger than the targeted stability (less than 0.1 percent). The following three types of regulators are available to stabilize the D.C. power source of a pulse modulator: series regulator, shunt regulator and switching regulator. Advantages and disadvantages of these regulators are examined and the shunt regulator is selected because of its simple circuit structure and easy adjustment. The klystron pulse modulator has the features of being able to serve as a component of a large-power pulse klystron, being high in pulse stability (reproducibility), giving good pulse profiles (free from evershoot or undershoot), being small in size, etc. The klystron pulse modulator consists of a power source step-up transfermer, three-phase full-wave rectifying circuit, smoothing circuit, constant voltage control circuit, switching circuit, PFN circuit and pulse transformer. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Linac4 H⁻ ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Alessi, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Briefi, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; David, N; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Fantz, U; Fink, D A; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Haase, M; Hatayama, A; Jones, A; Koszar, I; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Machado, C; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Voulgarakis, G

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H(-) linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H(-) source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H(-) source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described. PMID:26932021

  18. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  19. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  20. Estabilidad y convergencia de esquemas numéricos para sistemas de Dirac no lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos, J. de

    1989-01-01

    Siguiendo una técnica desarrollada por López-Marcos y Sanz-Serna, probamos la estabilidad y convergencia de tres esquenias en diferencias finitas para la solución numérica de sistemas de Dirac no lineales. Los esquemas se comparan por medio de experimentos numéricos. Peer Reviewed

  1. RFI-Based Ion Linac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.

    A new company, Ion Linac Systems, Inc., has been formed to promote the development, manufacture, and marketing of intense, RFI-based, Ion Linac Systems. The Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure was invented by the author while at Linac Systems, LLC. The first step, for the new company, will be to correct a flaw in an existing RFI-based linac system and to demonstrate "good transmission" through the system. The existing system, aimed at the BNCT medical application, is designed to produce a beam of 2.5 MeV protons with an average beam current of 20 mA. In conjunction with a lithium target, it will produce an intense beam of epithermal neutrons. This system is very efficient, requiring only 180 kW of rf power to produce a 50 kW proton beam. In addition to the BNCT medical application, the RFI-based systems should represent a powerful neutron generator for homeland security, defence applications, cargo container inspection, and contraband detection. The timescale to the demonstration of "good transmission" is early fall of this year. Our website is www.ionlinacs.com.

  2. Effects of machine errors on the ILC main linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逗; 高杰

    2011-01-01

    For a practical linac, the beam property is affected seriously by any machine imperfections. In this paper, the effects of several main errors in the ILC main linac, such as quadrupole misalignment, magnet strength error and cavity misalignment, were stud

  3. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  4. Transverse Matching Techniques for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon Dong Oh; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2005-01-01

    It is crucial to minimize beam loss and machine activation by obtaining optimal transverse matching for a high-intensity linear accelerator such as the Spallation Neutron Source linac. For matching the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL), there are four wire-scanners installed in series in CCL module 1 as proposed by the author.* A series of measurements was conducted to minimize envelope breathing and the results are presented here. As an independent approach, Chu et al is developing an application based on another technique by estimating rms emittance using the wire scanner profile data.** For matching the Medium Energy Beam Transport Line to the DTL, a technique of minimizing rms emittance was used and emittance data show that tail is minimized as well.

  5. The Linac Cooherent Light Source (LCLS) Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Such an FEL requires a high energy, high brightness electron beam to drive the FEL instability to saturation. When fed by an RF-photocathode gun, and modified to include two bunch compressor chicanes, the SLAC linac will provide such a high quality beam at 14 GeV and 1-{micro}m normalized emittance. In this paper, we report on recent linac studies, including beam stability and tolerances, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, conventional and time-resolved diagnostics, and beam collimation systems. Construction and installation of the injector through first bunch compressor will be completed by December 2006, and electron commissioning is scheduled to begin in January of 2007.

  6. Drive linac for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacki, E.; Konecny, R.; Rosing, M.; Simpson, J.

    1993-08-01

    The drive linac in Phase I of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) will be used to accelerate short duration (10 ps), high charge (100 nC) electron bunches from 2 MV to 20 MV for use in a variety of wakefield acceleration and measurement studies. The high charge is required since this drive bunch will generate the wakefields of interest in various test sections and their amplitudes are proportional to bunch charge. The short bunch duration is required to drive high-frequency wakefields without intra-bunch cancellation effects. The drive linac design was a balance between having a small wake function to maintain a drive bunch energy spread of {le}10% and obtaining an adequate accelerating gradient of {ge}10 MV/m. This yielded a large aperture, low shunt impedance, high group velocity, L-band, standing-wave linac. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing are presented in the following.

  7. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Perez L, L. H., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Instituto Zacatecano del Tumor, A. C., Lago de la Encantada No. 294, Fracc. Lomas del Lago, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A {yields} (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  8. An Object-Oriented linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESRF linac has been working since the start of its commissioning (1991) with an industrial turnkey Control System which was not giving reliable service and was difficult to interface to the ESRF machine control system (MCS). It was decided in 1992 to redesign the entire linac electronic interface, using ESRF standards. Following this, it was decided to redesign the control system and to integrate it as part of the proven ESRF distributed control system [W.D. Klotz, Proc. Int. Conf. on Accelerator and Large Physics Experiments (ICALEPS-91), Tsukuba, Japan]. Preparation of the software began in spring 93. The installation and commissioning of the hardware and software has been carried out during a six week summer shutdown. The linac delivered its first beam on schedule using the complete control software. ((orig.))

  9. Wake field effects in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the author studies these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Here he concentrates on two features specific to the APT linac: loss factors for the design {beta} < 1 and CW beam structure.

  10. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  11. Required energy gain in the linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this note is to determine how much energy is required for each bunch at the end of the linac such that 100 GeV center of mass collision energy at the IP may be achieved. Once this has been ascertained it is possible to decide how much energy per station in the linac is needed, considering the effects of beamloading, shortened pieces of DLWG, and RF detuning. An appendix is included to cover a related topic: assuming lower bunch currents and lower collision energies, how many low power klystrons can remain in the linac. An attempt has been made to indicate what assumptions have been made so that the readers may try other assumptions to see what happens.

  12. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A → (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  13. On the Feasibility of Accelerating Deuterons in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Garcia Tudela, M; Ramberger, S; Crandall, K

    2011-01-01

    The Linac4 normal-conducting linac is comprised of three sections, DTL, CCDTL and PIMS. It is designed to accelerate H-minus ions to a final energy of 160 MeV. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of accelerating deuterons in this linac for injection into the PS Booster.

  14. Development of the Medium Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is developing 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for proton engineering frontier project (PEFP). In the first phase of the PEFP, the development of the 20-MeV linac has successfully finished. Hence the work scope of this project is designing the linac to accelerate proton beams from 20-MeV up to 100-MeV, fabricating the linac up to 45 MeV, fabricating one set of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) tank, and developing the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system and the control system. The basic role of the new proton accelerator is accelerating 20-mA proton beams from 20 MeV up to 100 MeV. The first step of the design procedure is optimizing and determining the accelerator parameters. The beam loss is also main concern in the design stage. The drift tube (DT) and the quadrupole magnets are designed to be optimized to the new linac design. The other purpose is confirming the new design by fabricating and tuning the drift tube linac (DTL). The 20MeV proton beam divided into two directions. One is supplying the beams to user group by turning on the 45-degree bending magnet. The other is guided into the 100-MeV DTL by tuning off the dipole magnet. That is why the PEFP MEBT located after 20-MeV DTL. The MEBT is realized as two small DTL tanks with three cells and a 45-degree bending magnet. The fabrication of one MEBT tank is another purpose of this project. The other purposes of this project is developing the LLRF system to control the RF signal and control system to monitor and control the vacuum system, magnet power supply, etc

  15. Development of the High Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is studying the extension plan of the proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) 100-MeV Linac. It includes three categories. One is studying operation plan of the PEFP linac and its extended accelerators, and developing a distribution system of 100-MeV proton beams with a laser striping. Other is designing superconducting RF (SRF) modules and fabricating and testing a copper cavity model. The other is designing a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The operation scheme of the PEFP linac is related to the optimization in the operation of the 100-MeV linac, 200-MeV SRF, and RCS. We studied several operational method to increase the validity of the accelerators. The beam distribution system has two roles. One is supplying proton beams of 100 MeV to the user group. The laser stripping of the negative hydrogen atoms is used in this case. The other beams are directed to the next high energy accelerators. This study contributes to increase the availability of the proton beams. The SRF is one of candidates to extend the PEFP linac system. Since the accelerating gradient of the SRF is much higher than the normal conducting accelerator, a lot of institutes over the world are developing the SRF structure. Main purposes are designing an SRF module, fabricating and testing an copper model which has similar material properties as Nb of the usual SRF cavity material. The RCS is a synchrotron whose injector is the PEFP 100-MeV linac. Main purposes are determining the lattice structure, studying the fast and slow extraction system, simulating beam behavior in the designed synchrotron. The RCS will be used as the spallation neutron source and tools in the basic and applied science including medical application

  16. PACIENTES PORTADORAS DE CÂNCER DE MAMA, SUBMETIDAS À RADIOTERAPIA COM ACELERADOR LINEAR E QUALIDADE DE VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Almeida Fortunato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia é um tratamento eficaz contra o câncer de mama que tem a finalidade de destruir as células neoplásicas. Entretanto, pode produzir efeitos adversos causando alterações importantes na qualidade de vida (QV das pacientes durante e após o tratamento. Assim, essa pesquisa que tem por objetivo comparar a qualidade de vida de mulheres com câncer de mama no início e após se submeterem a radioterapia com acelerador linear. O estudo foi realizado no hospital denominado OncoBeda, na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. A amostra foi composta por 20 pacientes do gênero feminino, com idade entre 33 a 87 anos. As mesmas responderam nos momentos pré e pós tratamento ao Instrumento WHOQOL-bref, composto por 26 questões, sendo 2 questões gerais sobre auto avaliação da QV e as outras 24 questões que envolvem 4 domínios, sendo eles “físico”, “psicológico”, “relações sociais” e “meio ambiente”. Os resultados obtidos revelam que houve uma diferença ligeiramente significativa no domínio “físico”, influenciando na avaliação geral da QV dessas pacientes. Sendo assim, conclui-se que mesmo não tendo um valor elevado de diferença entre os dois momentos avaliados, as pacientes apresentaram alteração na sua QV durante o tratamento.

  17. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  18. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  19. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  20. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  1. First beam in Linac4 DTL

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Following the installation of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) earlier this summer (see here), the first DTL tank saw beams at 12 MeV on 5 August.   Transverse emittance measured at 12 MeV after the DTL tank1 using a temporary slit-and-grid emittance device. You never forget your first beam. That was especially true for the Linac4 DTL team, as it followed years of design, construction and vigorous testing. "We performed countless measurements of the geometry, vacuum and magnet polarisation of the DTL tanks while we were in the workshop," says Suitbert Ramberger, project engineer for the Linac4 DTL. "Add that preparation to the excellent RF conditioning that we carried out in the weeks before the beam tests and I was confident that the acceleration with beam would fully meet expectations!" Indeed it did. Beam commissioning tests ran until 21 August and found the DTL operating with nominal transmission. This successful run has confirmed the innovative design ...

  2. Preinjector for Linac 1, ion source

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Inside the drum-shaped container shown in 7403081X, is the ion source with its associated electronics. It sits at the HV end of the accelerating column seen also in 7403081.

  3. Status of the Novosibirsk energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser is based on the energy recovery linac (ERL) with room-temperature radiofrequency system. Some features of the ERL are discussed. The results of emittance measurements and electron optics tests are presented. The second stage of the ERL, which has four orbits, is described briefly

  4. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  5. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10–6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  6. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. - Highlights: • Portland cement samples were located inside a treatment hall with a 15 MV linac. • Induced radioisotopes were measured with a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. • 56Mn, 24Na, and 28Al were identified and the specific activity was estimated. • In a wedge, 56Mn was induced by the photoneutrons

  7. Statistical simulations of machine errors for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M; Froidefond, E; Sargsyan, E

    2006-01-01

    LINAC 4 is a normal conducting H- linac proposed at CERN to provide a higher proton flux to the CERN accelerator chain. It should replace the existing LINAC 2 as injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster and can also operate in the future as the front end of the SPL, a 3.5 GeV Superconductingg Proton Linac. LINAC 4 consists of a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, a chopper line, a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Cell Coupled DTL all operating at 352 MHz and finally a Side Coupled Linac at 704 MHz. Beam dynamics was studied and optimized performing end-to-end simulations. This paper presents statistical simulations of machine errors which were performed in order to validate the proposed design.

  8. Transformaciones lineales. Una mirada desde la teoría APOE

    OpenAIRE

    Maturana, Isabel; Parraguez, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    El artículo que presentamos a continuación corresponde a una investigación en proceso en didáctica de la matemática relacionada al concepto de transformación lineal; bajo la teoría APOE como marco teórico y un diseño metodológico correspondiente a un estudio de caso múltiple. A partir de esta investigación se obtendrá documentación sobre el esquema del concepto Transformación Lineal reconociendo tres interpretación en este, es decir interpretación matricial- interpretación geométrica – e inte...

  9. Métodos numéricos para problemas no lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Ferragut Canals, Luis

    2012-01-01

    En la monografía se tratan problemas no lineales asociados a operadores monótonos eventualmente multívocos y sus correspondientes inecuaciones asociadas. Se consideran ejemplos que aparecen en aplicaciones a la física e ingeniería. Se estudia su aproximación numérica y la convergencia de distintos algoritmos numéricos algoritmos numéricos para la resolución efectiva sobre ordenador.

  10. Sobre conjuntos s_h de vectores binarios y códigos lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Carlos Alexis; Trujillo, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Un subconjunto $\\mathcal{A}$ de un grupo conmutativo $G$ notado aditivamente, es un conjunto $S_h$ en $G$, si todas las sumas de $h$ elementos distintos de $\\mathcal{A}$, omitiendo las permutaciones de los sumandos, determinan elementos diferentes en $G$. En este artículo se muestra una relación entre conjuntos $S_h$ en $\\mathbb{F}_{2}^{r}$ y códigos binarios lineales.

  11. Motion equation of a finite dynamic elastic plane lineal element plane lineal element Ecuación del movimiento de un elemento finito lineal plano elástico dinámico con ocho grados de libertad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo G Hossne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A lineal finite element with constant traverse section, it can adopt any orientation in the plane, and their ends or nodes tie it to the rest of the elements. The kinetic energy (T and potential (V of a dynamic elastic element are the basement in the implementation of the Hamilton principle for the definition of a finite element. The definition of the kinetic energy and potential is the first step for the preliminary variational formulation to the enunciation for finite elements that it is used to solve, say, the problems of mechanisms that move in the plane using the Hamilton equation. The general objective consisted on defining the equation of the movement of a finite lineal dynamic elastic plane element using the equation of Hamilton, starting from the lagrangiana (T − V obtained with the use of a polynomial of fifth and first degree, with eight degrees of freedom, four in each node that represented the deformations: axial (u(x, traverse (w(x, slope ((dw(x/dx and bend ((d2w(x/dx2. The deformation due to traverse shearing, insignificant with respect to flexional and axial deformations, the rotational inertia and the frictional forces in the nodes, were underrated with the purpose of producing a friendly element. The specific objectives were to take place: (a the translational mass matrix [MD], (b the translational gyroscopic matrix [AD], (c the translational total rigidity matrix [KD], and (d the deformation vector (S. As a result the movement equation of a finite lineal dynamic elastic plane element was forged [MD]( ¨ S − 2¨[AD]( ˙S + {[K] − ˙2[MD] − ¨[AD]}(S = (Q . On concluded that the equation obtained variationally with the application of the Hamilton Principle is the state–of–the–art pattern, and that the procedure can be used when it is required to increase the number of the pattern freedom degrees.Un elemento finito lineal con sección transversal constante puede adoptar cualquier orientación en el plano y sus

  12. Accelerator Control System at KEKB and Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    KEKB completed all of the technical milestones, and had offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially the CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS at the equipment layer. During the project many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance out of the machine. Especially the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely the channel access everywhere and the dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system a concept of virtual accelerators were realized that enables the single injector linac serve as three separate injectors to KEKB HER, LER and Photon Factory, respectively. Those control technologies are indispensable for the future particle accelerators.

  13. Operation of the tandem-linac accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tandem-linac accelerator system is operated as a source of energetic heavy-ion projectiles for research in several areas of nuclear physics and occasionally in other areas of science. The accelerator system consists of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and a superconducting-linac energy booster that can provide an additional 20 MV of acceleration. A figure shows the layout of this system, which will be operated in its present form until September 1985, when it will be incorporated into the larger ATLAS system. In both the present and future forms the accelerator is designed to provide the exceptional beam quality and overall versatility required for precision nuclear-structure research

  14. Wake Field Effects in the APT Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    1998-04-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, an analysis for the APT accelerator has been performed to exclude potential problems at such a high current leading to beam losses. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, it has an acceptable level and will be further reduced by HOM couplers.

  15. Electronics Platform of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For servicing during shutdowns, a draw-bridge from a door in the Faraday cage led to the "electronics platform" of the linac 1 preinjector (at 520 kV when in operation) and the top of the electronics platform was lifted on hydraulic jacks for easy access. Henry Charmot is busy with a service. The platform contained the electronics for the ion source, controlled from outside the Faraday cage via an infrared optical link. The ion source, also at 520 kV potential, is housed in the drum, visible in the background, on the insulator column, which at its right end is mounted at ground potential. Behind the wall, to the right, is the 50 MeV linac 1. See also 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403124.

  16. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units

  17. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  18. Stereotactic linac radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, B G; Hitchcock, E. R.; Kitchen, G.; Dalton, A E; Yates, D A; Chavda, S V

    1992-01-01

    Stereotactic linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery has been in operation in the West Midlands since 1987, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Forty two patients with high-flow cerebral arteriovenous malformations have been treated, 26 of whom have been followed up. Angiography one year after treatment showed that five lesions were obliterated, 11 were reduced in size and/or flow rate and 10 were unchanged. Overall results show that nine out of 10 patients reviewed at 24 months had ...

  19. Making electron beams for the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A source of high-intensity, single-bunch electron beams has been developed at SLAC for the SLC. The properties of these beams have been studied extensively utilizing the first 100-m of the SLAC linac and the computer-based control system being developed for the SLC. The source is described and the properties of the beams are summarized. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  20. Cost projection for a superconducting linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of energy of the present 800 MeV proton linac at LAMPF to 1.6 to 2.2 GeV is of primary importance for the proposed future experimental program of this Laboratory. Layout and cost studies have been performed for (a) normalconducting and (b) superconducting accelerating structures. A more recent cost analysis for a superconducting structure is given in this report. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  2. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations Radiocirurgia com acelerador linear em malformações arteriovenosas cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2008-04-01

    variables no statistically significant correlation was observed between occlusion and treatment complications.OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados obtidos com radiocirurgia e as suas complicações do procedimento, no tratamento das malformações arteriovenosas com acelerador linear. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo retrospectivo. Entre Outubro de 93 e Dezembro de 96, sessenta e um pacientes com malformações arteriovenosas foram tratados, utilizando um acelerador linear com 6MV de energia. As idades variaram de 6 a 54 anos (média: 28,3 anos, 32 pacientes mulheres e 29 pacientes homens. O sintoma inicial mais freqüente foi cefaléia (45,9%, seguido de déficit neurológico (36,1%. Hemorragia cerebral diagnostica por exame de imagem foi observada em 35 pacientes (57,3%. A maioria das malformações arteriovenosas (67,2% eram graus III e IV de Spetzler. Estenose venosa (21,3% e aneurisma (13,1% foram as mais freqüentes alterações da arquitetura vascular. A dose administrada variou de 12 a 27,5Gy na periferia da lesão. RESULTADOS: Dos vinte e oito pacientes que se submeteram a controle angiográfico conclusivo, 18 tiveram obliteração completa (72% e 7 falharam ao tratamento (ausência de oclusão com mais de três anos de seguimento. Quatro pacientes foram submetidos a uma segunda radiocirurgia, e um paciente deste grupo apresentou obliteração em 18 meses de seguimento. DISCUSSÃO: Vários fatores foram analisados em relação ao grau de oclusão (sexo, idade, volume, localização, Spetzler, fluxo, embolização, total de isocentros, dose prescrita e isodose escolhida e complicações (total de isocentros, localização, volume, dose máxima, dose prescrita e isodose escolhida. As variáveis analisadas não mostraram significância estatística para a obliteração do vaso, bem como para as complicações de tratamento. O maior diâmetro da malformação arteriovenosa, seu volume e a dose administrada não influenciaram no tempo de obliteração. CONCLUSÃO: Radiocirurgia

  3. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

  4. Status of Linac4 construction at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting H¯ linear accelerator which is being built at CERN in the frame of a program for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. The project started in 2008 and delivery of beam to the CERN accelerator chain is foreseen from early 2015. The new linac will be housed in an underground tunnel close to the present Linac2; a surface building will house RF and other infrastructure. The civil engineering work started in October 2008 will be soon completed. Installation of the infrastructure will take place in 2011, and from 2012 will be installed the main machine elements. The ion source is presently operational on a test stand, where it will be followed in 2011 by a 3 MeV RFQ under construction in the CERN workshops. Prototypes of the three different types of accelerating structures have been tested; construction of the 22 accelerating cavities has started, supported by a network of agreements with external laboratories and institutions. Commissioning will take place in stages, starting...

  5. Wake field effect analysis in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (< 1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the authors study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  6. Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    1998-01-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, we study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Our main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  7. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Smith, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  8. Prototype of linac BLM at NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Yuxiong; Gong, Guanghua; Li, Juexin; Shao, Beibei; Zhao, Zhengguo

    2007-08-01

    A prototype of the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System for the linac and transportation line has been built up in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Different from the storage ring, the radiation field around linac and transportation line have a duty factor of 10 -6 and a dose rate of hundreds Gy/h. The Monte-Carlo calculation gave the dose, flux, energy and direction distributions of the radiation field. According to the simulation result, the proper type of detector was chosen and the installation positions were selected accordingly. The widely used ionization chamber is not suitable to give accurate and real-time information of beam loss due to its large dimension and slow respond speed. Several PIN silicon diode-based detectors were designed and tested, and a charge-balanced integrating amplifier circuit was applied to read out the charge. A distributed data acquisition system based on embedded Ethernet technology was implemented in the prototype, which can offer a web server from the microcontroller. From preliminary tests, this new prototype was proved to be sensitive to the change of the linac status, and is a useful tool for monitoring and adjusting machine parameters. Further analyses are required to achieve a more accurate measurement of the beam loss.

  9. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  10. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  11. Machining of cavities for travelling wave LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Traveling Wave (T.W.), 2π/3 mode electron linear accelerator of 2856 MHz is under development at CAT for radiation processing of agricultural products. This LINAC consists of a thermionic triode electron gun, TW buncher section and Regular Section. Machining of input/output couplers, regular section cells and disc were carried out using CNC lathe LAL- 2 BT and CNC milling machine BMV - 40. This paper highlights the dimensional and geometrical requirements of cavities, problems encountered during machining of OFE copper and their solutions to achieve high precision with ultrahigh surface finish. The performance of Linac depends upon a number of factors such as operating vacuum level, accuracies of cavity dimensions, materials, and surface finish of cavities comprising the LINAC. Each of these depends upon material and fabrication techniques used for manufacturing OFE copper of higher purity has been used since they offer lower surface resistivity and lower power losses. With CNC tuning and milling machines, the high surface finish has been achieved with higher dimensional and geometrical accuracies

  12. S-band linac-based X-ray source with π/2-mode electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the π/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the π/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  13. Review of Linac-Ring Type Collider Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, A N; Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    There are three possibly types of particle colliders schemes: familiar (well known) ring-ring colliders, less familiar however sufficiently advanced linear colliders and less familiar and less advanced linac-ring type colliders. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to present possibly complete list of papers on linac-ring type collider proposals and to emphasize the role of linac-ring type machines for future HEP research.

  14. Emittance coupling driven by space charge in the CSNS linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-Jun; FU Shi-Nian; PENG Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional design of RF linacs, the bunched beams are not in thermal equilibrium. The space charge forces couple the particle motions between the transverse and the longitudinal directions. Fur-thermore it will cause the equipartitioning process which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. In the design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, three cases are investigated using the Hofmann stability charts. In this paper, we present the equipartitioning beam study of the CSNS Alvarez DTL linac.

  15. Photons and photoneutrons spectra of a Linac of 15 MV; Espectros de fotones y fotoneutrones de un LINAC de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L.; Carrillo C, A. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Av. Enfermeria, Fracc. Fray Junipero Serra, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J. B., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Posgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)

  16. Front-end physics design of APT linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator for the Accelerator based Production of Tritium (APT), uses a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled- cavity linac (CCL). The production target requires the APT linac to deliver a 100 mA proton beam with an energy of 1.3 -1.7 GeV. The main challenge in the design comes from the requirement to minimize beam loss. Hands-on maintenance of the entire linac requires very little beam loss

  17. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  18. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Garoby, R; Rohlev, A; Serrano, J

    2004-01-01

    A VME based control system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in linac accelerating structures. It is an all-digital system built on a single VME card, providing digital detection, processing, and modulation. It is foreseen to be used, in different versions, for the needs of both present and future CERN hadron linacs. The first application will be in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3). Design principle and the experimental results are described.

  19. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  20. Effects of Linac Wakefield on CSR Microbunching in the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) requires two-stage bunch compression for stability against timing and charge jitters. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced in these bunch compressors can drive a microbunching instability that may degrade the beam brightness. In this paper, we study effects of the longitudinal wakefield in the accelerator on this instability. We show that significant energy modulation can be accumulated in the linac through the geometrical wakefield and can enhance the CSR microbunching in these compressors. Analytical calculations are compared with numerical simulations to evaluate the gain of microbunching for the entire LCLS accelerator system.

  1. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  2. The problems of the minimal surface and minimal lineal measure in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    A solution is given to the classical problem of the minimal surface in three dimensions formed from a repeating cell microstructure under isotropic conditions. The solution is found through a global/local minimization procedure and the resulting basic cell is composed of 14 faces. At the junctions where the intersections between faces meet at a point, half of the junctions involve 4 intersections and half involve 3 intersections. The same general solution also applies tot he related minimal lineal measure problem where the measure is that of the length of the intersections connecting the junctions. Some implications and applications for materials science are given.

  3. Los Documentos en lineal B de Micenas ensayo de interpretación global /

    OpenAIRE

    Varias García, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Un estudio de las 65 tablillas y 8 nódulos de arcilla en lineal b procedentes de Micenas (Grecia), datados entre 1250 y 1200 a.c., a partir de la última edición de los textos: -Olivier, J.-P. y Melena, J.L., Tithemy, Salamanca 1991, intenta esclarecer el funcionamiento del palacio de Micenas en el siglo XIII a.c. El estudio combina los análisis arqueológico y filológico. Los cuatro primeros capítulos analizan los cuatro establecimientos palaciegos en donde se han hallado el grueso de los text...

  4. Comunicación y control de un sistema de desplazamiento lineal para robots manipuladores

    OpenAIRE

    López Sanz, Jose María

    2015-01-01

    Los robots industriales manipuladores son una herramienta imprescindible en la industria del sigo XXI, así como los sistemas para dotar de capacidad de desplazamiento a dichos robots. En este proyecto se profundiza en la comunicación y control de uno de estos sistemas de desplazamiento lineal de alta precisión. En la primera parte del proyecto se diseña la comunicación entre la unidad de control del sistema y un ordenador mediante el protocolo SoE, que es una implementación de ...

  5. Subsistemas singulares de un sistema lineal. Una aproximación a los subespacios cuasiinvariantes

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta Coll, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Dado un sistema lineal ˙x = Ax + By, se definen los subespacios cuasi-(A, B)- invariantes como aquellos tales que para cada condición inicial en el subespacio, existe un control u(t) que hace que la correspondiente trayectoria, pertenezca enteramente en un entorno arbitrariamente próximo al subespacio. En este trabajo caracterizamos los subespacios cuasi-(A, B)-invariantes a través de existencia de un sistema singular, que puede interpretarse como la restricción del sistema definido por (A, B...

  6. Alfabeto lineal y cuneiforme: relaciones en el II Milenio A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Vita, Juan-Pablo

    2004-01-01

    La historia del sistema alfabético de escritura en el antiguo Oriente Próximo sigue siendo un campo de investigación fecundo. A pesar de importantes estudios recientes consagrados al tema, son diversas las cuestiones que merecen un estudio más detenido. El sistema alfabético empleó en el II milenio a.C., especialmente en su segunda mitad, dos tipos principales de escritura; el lineal (alfabeto de tipo fenicio) y el cuneiforme(alfabeto de tipo ugarítico). El trabajo que presentamos analiza las...

  7. Desarrollo de la habilidad algoritmizar en el álgebra lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Anelys; Blanco, Ramón; Pérez, Olga; Rodríguez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo poner a consideración la propuesta de un proyecto de investigación sobre el desarrollo de habilidades matemáticas en la carrera Ingeniería en Ciencias Informáticas, específicamente, ¿cómo contribuir desde el Álgebra Lineal al desarrollo de la habilidad algoritmizar? Esta es una de las habilidades básicas a desarrollar en los estudiantes de las carreras de perfil computacional e informático, ya que deberán ser utilizadas por ellos en disciplinas propias ...

  8. GPCs en espacio de estados para el control de sistemas no lineales.

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Romero de Ávila, José Vicente

    2008-01-01

    En esta tesis doctoral se aborda el control de sistemas no lineales mediante el empleo de controladores predictivos generalizados (GPCs) en espacio de estados. En primer lugar se realiza una revisión de la metodología de diseño del GPC en la versión entrada/salida (E/S). Partiendo de esta revisión se propone un modelo CARIMA en espacio de estados para el GPC que permite diseñar al mismo utilizando una menor cantidad de memoria y un menor tiempo de cómputo, así como de reducir la complejidad a...

  9. Métodos iterativos para la solución de un sistema de ecuaciones lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una introducción a los Métodos Iterativos para la solución de Sistemas de Ecuaciones Lineales. Se da la descripción de los métodos de Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi y S.O.R. Se prueba la convergencia de los métodos asumiendo ciertas propiedades de los sistemas. Se comparan los distintos métodos en su eficiencia y en su utilización de memoria.

  10. Las situaciones problema mediadoras de aprendizajes significativos de la ecuación lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Valladales, Falner de Fredy

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: El aprendizaje de las ecuaciones lineales es fundamental para el estudio del álgebra, su enseñanza en la secundaria se ha enfocado principalmente en la aplicación de algoritmos, esta forma de enseñanza lleva a que gran parte de los estudiantes no las comprendan y es una práctica que en muchos casos termina siendo un ejercicio de aprendizaje memorístico que luego es olvidado por la mayoría. Esta problemática no es ajena a los estudiantes de secundaria de la Institución Educativa Ciuda...

  11. First operation of the rf-focused interdigital linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new rf-focused interdigital (RFI) linac structure came into operation at the Linac Systems laboratory in May of 2006, after a multi-year development program supported by the US Department of Energy. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideroee) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The RFI prototype operates at 200-MHz and consists of an ECR ion source, an Einzel lens LEBT, a radial-strut, four-bar RFQ linac section to 0.75 MeV and an RFI linac section to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. The total length of the prototype is 2.2 m. The RFQ and RFI linac sections are resonantly coupled and require a total of 120 kW of rf power for cavity excitation. The energy of the accelerated beam was confirmed by requiring it to pass through a 2.25-MeV energy-degrading foil. The specifications for the RFI linac prototype were chosen to address the demanding Boron Neutron Capture Therapy medical application. There are, however, many other potential applications for the structure as it has efficiency and size advantages for both protons and heavy ions at a variety of energies and currents. To date, we have achieved a beam current of approximately 1 mA peak at a relatively low duty factor. We continue to improve the performance of the prototype structure on a daily basis as we better understand the optimal operational settings for the prototype system. Now that the first operational milestone for the RFI linac structure has been achieved, Linac Systems will vigorously pursue projects and partnerships for multiple applications such as compact and intense neutron sources, proton and carbon injector linacs for synchrotrons and PET isotope production

  12. Application of the non lineal dynamics to the design of processes in the administration of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of processes is a fundamental pillar inside a System of Total Administration of Quality. The great majority of the problems that you/they happen in an organization - 85% - they are caused by the processes, not for the employees. When the processes are not well designed the problems arise: errors, waste, losses of time, delays, duplication take place of the work, flaws of teams and in the worst cases, the client's dissatisfaction. This influences negatively in the Costs of Non conformity. In the work he/she thinks about the possibility to apply the techniques from the non lineal dynamics to the one design of processes like a complex but realer tool that the statistical techniques. As study object the process of production of lead containers is used (means of shielding) that are used to carry radioisotopes in the System of Health of Cuba. He/she intends a model of non lineal dynamics of the process that allows to evaluate what so predictable it is the chosen system (entrance Control to the matter prevails) and which the one will be behavior average of the same one based in the complex interactions that arise in the relationships client-supplier, operative-machine, supplier-supplier, operative-environment and operative-method. Each one of these interactions constitutes a source of uncertainty in the one. I process and he/she has a weight on the temporary dynamics of the characteristic of real quality (homogeneity of the shielding) in the process

  13. The deep space galactic cosmic ray lineal energy spectrum at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Spence, H. E.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Looper, M. D.; Golightly, M. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Iwata, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument is an energetic particle telescope on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. CRaTER measures energetic charged particles that have sufficient energy to penetrate the outer shielding of the instrument (about 12 MeV/nucleon). Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with these energies are the primary radiation concern for spacecraft and astronauts outside of the Earth's magnetosphere during times of minimal solar activity. These particles can easily penetrate typical shielding and damage electronics, causing increased electronics failure rates and single event upsets. When this radiation impacts biological cells, it causes an increased risk of cancer. The CRaTER instrument was built to characterize the radiation dose and lineal energy with unprecedented time and energy resolution and was fortuitously flown during a period of time that coincided with the highest GCR fluxes in the modern space age. We report here this worst-case GCR lineal energy spectrum. Observations are made behind a thin aluminum window and different thicknesses of tissue-equivalent plastic. These measurements provide important observational data points to compare with current model predictions of the dose deposited by energetic particles within a tissue-like material.

  14. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  15. A Pencil Beam for the Linac4 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the different accelerating structures and transport lines of Linac4 and to proceed to its commissioning, we need to produce a low current, low emittance beam. This note describes the generation of two pencil beams and their dynamic through the Linac.

  16. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  17. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described

  19. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  20. Photonuclear reactions with zinc : A case for clinical linacs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boztosun, I.; Dapo, H.; Karakoc, M.; Ozmen, S. F.; Cecen, Y.; Coban, A.; Caner, T.; Bayram, E.; Saito, T. R.; Akdogan, T.; Bozkurt, V.; Kucuk, Y.; Kaya, D.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. Fo

  1. Fermilab linac upgrade. Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and discusses the near-on-line commissioning plans for this accelerator. (Author) ref., 4 figs

  2. Fermilab Linac Upgrade: Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz Side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side-cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and disc the near-online commissioning plans for this accelerator

  3. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  4. RF Breakdown in Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Lown, R

    2009-01-01

    The highest RF electric field in drift-tube linacs (DTLs) often occurs on the face of the first drift tube. Typically this drift tube contains a quadrupole focusing magnet whose fringing fields penetrate the face of the drift tube parallel to the RF electric fields in the accelerating gap. It has been shown that the threshold for RF breakdown in RF cavities may be reduced in the presence of a static magnetic field. This note offers a “rule of thumb” for picking the maximum “safe” surface electric field in DTLs based on these measurements.

  5. El vacío entre infraestructuras lineales y ciudad: espacios anómalos como oportunidad para lo colectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rabazo Martín, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Partiendo del estudio del vacío del muro de Berlín en el Laboratorio de Paisaje como infraestructura lineal y espacio anómalo, se pretende profundizar la investigación de los vacíos generados por las infraestructuras lineales que atraviesan nuestras ciudades, espacios marginales, olvidados o apartados de la trama urbana pero llenos de identidad y significado donde se pueden generar nuevas oportunidades para el espacio público. A través de un estudio de casos se intentará analizar la ...

  6. Métodos simplificados para cálculo de la respuesta sísmica, no lineal, de puentes

    OpenAIRE

    Montans Leal, Francisco Javier; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1995-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, el cálculo dinámico no-lineal de estructuras ha sido una tarea ardua para el ingeniero ya que comporta cierta especialización en el ingeniero habituado al cálculo estático. El necesario conocimiento de técnicas de modelado en dinámica, de tiempos de integración, etc., y la dificultad de reconocer la influencia en el comportamiento de ciertas modificaciones de diseño, hace útil la existencia de un método más simplificado y transparente que permita análisis lineal, imprescindi...

  7. Control no lineal robusto de una maqueta de helicóptero con rotores de velocidad variable

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rubio, Francisco; Vivas Venegas, Carlos; G. Ortega, Manuel; López-Martínez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el diseño de un controlador robusto no lineal para un helicóptero de laboratorio. El equipo se caracteriza por tener los ángulos de ataque de las hélices de los rotores fijos y se controla mediante el cambio de velocidad de los rotores a través de dos motores de accionamiento directo. El sistema resultante es multivariable (de 2 entradas y 4 salidas) altamente no lineal y fuertemente acoplado. La aplicación presentada en este artículo considera el diseño de un sis...

  8. Predicción de ingresos de causas penales utilizando programación genética lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Garcete Rodríguez, Alberto David; Barán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo propone una metodología de predicción de ingresos de causas penales utilizando Programación Genética Lineal (Linear Genetic Programming - LGP). El estudio se realizó en base a datos mensuales recogidos durante siete años (2007 a 2013), en los siete Juzgados Penales de Garantías de Ciudad del Este - Paraguay. La verificación del método propuesto se hizo mediante la comparación del método LGP implementado con modelos estadísticos conocidos como la regresión lineal, promedio móvil, ...

  9. Modelización lineal de los generadores shrinking a través de las leyes 102 y 60

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Cardell, Sara; Fúster Sabater, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la modelización lineal de los generadores shrinking y auto-shrinking a través de autómatas celulares lineales uniformes utilizando la ley 102 (o la 60). La linealidad de estos autómatas se puede utilizar para el criptoanálisis de estos generadores de secuencias. El trabajo del primer autor ha sido financiado por una beca postdoctoral de la Generalitat Valenciana con referencia APOSTD/2013/081 y por el proyecto MTM2011-24858 del Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación...

  10. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  11. Stabilization of the RF system at the SPring-8 linac

    CERN Document Server

    Asaka, T; Hori, T; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Sakaki, H; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K; Yokomizo, H; Yoshikawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Beam energy variation of the SPring-8 linac was 1% or more at the start of beam commissioning. Depending on fluctuation, beam transmission efficiency from the linac to the booster synchrotron was significantly affected, and beam intensity in the booster synchrotron changed 20-30%. This caused delay of optimization of the various parameters in the booster synchrotron. More problematic, the beam intensities stored in each RF (radio frequency) bucket of the storage ring at SPring-8 were all different from each other. The users utilizing synchrotron radiation requested that the beam intensity in each RF bucket be as uniform as possible. It was thus a pressing necessity to stabilize the beam energy in the linac. Investigation of the cause has clarified that the various apparatuses installed in the linac periodically changed depending on circumstances and utilities such as the air conditioner, cooling water and electric power. After various improvements, beam energy stability in the linac of <0.06% rms was attai...

  12. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  13. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10-6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  14. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller

    2009-05-22

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  15. Features Of The J-PARC Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) will be one of the highest intensity proton accelerators in the world aiming to realize 1 MW class of the beam power. The accelerator consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) and a main ring synchrotron (MR), and the accelerated beam is applied to several experimental facilities. The linac, which is the injector for the RCS, has about 50 cavity modules to accelerate the beam up to 400 MeV. The acceleration field error in all of them should be within ±1% in amplitude and ±1 degree in phase because the momentum spread of the RCS injection beam is required to be within 0.1%. For the cavity field stabilization, a high-stable optical signal distribution system is used as the RF reference, and sophisticated digital feedback and feed-forward system is working well in the low level RF control system. Consequently the providing beam to the RCS is very stable, and the beam commissioning and the experiments of the application facilities have been progressed steadily.

  16. SNS Linac Modulator Operational History And Perfomance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) were initially installed at the Spallation Neutron Source Linear Accelerator (SNS Linac) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2005. A fifteenth HVCM was added in 2009. Each modulator provides a pulse of up to 140 kV at a maximum width of 1.35 msec. Peak power level is 11 MW with an 8% duty factor. The HVCM system must be available for neutron production (NP) 24/7 with the exception being two, 6-week maintenance periods per year. HVCM reliability is one of the most important factors to maximize Linac availability and achieve SNS performance goals. During the last few years several modifications have been implemented to improve the overall system reliability. This paper presents operational history of the HVCM systems and examines failure mode statistical data since the modulators began operating at 60 Hz. System enhancements and upgrades aimed at providing long term reliable operation with minimal down time are also discussed in the paper.

  17. Calculations radiobiological using the quadratic lineal model in the use of the medium dose rate absorbed in brachytherapy. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations with the quadratic lineal model for medium rate using the equation dose-effect. Several calculations for system of low dose rate brachytherapy plus teletherapy, calculations for brachytherapy with medium dose rate together with teletherapy, dose for fraction and the one numbers of fractions in medium rate

  18. Ecuaciones en derivadas parciales con condiciones de contorno no lineales aplicaciones a la dinámica de tumores

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Rodrigo, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta tres partes: En la primera haremos un estudio teórico general de las ecuaciones elípticas en derivadas parciales con condiciones de contorno no lineales. Posteriormente, en la segunda, haremos un estudio teórico de ecuaciones elíptica

  19. Sobre la existencia y estabilidad de un sistema no-lineal de tipo parabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoya, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia la existencia y estabilidad de las soluciones de un sistema parabólico no lineal, el cual describe el fenómeno de reacción-difusión de flujo de neutrones en el interior de un reactor de fisión.

  20. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  1. First Linac4 DTL & CCDTL cavities installed in tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was successfully transported to its forever home in the Linac4 tunnel. Similarly, the first Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) was installed on 6 June. These moves marked the end of years of design and manufacturing by Linac4 teams.   Although it may seem like a relatively routine transport operation, the DTL's move was a landmark event for the entire Linac4 collaboration. "Along with the first four Cell-Coupled DTL modules, which were installed on the following two working days, these are the first accelerating structures after front-end commissioning to be installed in the tunnel," says Frank Gerigk, who is responsible for all Linac4 accelerating structures. "It is a major milestone, because work on all these structures started well over a decade ago." The transport operation was also quite a victory for the Linac4 DTL team, whose journey to a complete DTL structure has been a bit of a wild ride. &qu...

  2. Alignment and Field Error Tolerance in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L; Lallement, J B; Lanzone, S; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P; Sargsyan, E

    2011-01-01

    LINAC4 [1] is a linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton LINAC (LINAC2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The higher output energy (160 MeV) together with charge-exchange injection will allow increasing beam intensity in the following machines. LINAC4 is about 80 m long, normal-conducting, and will be housed in a tunnel 12 m below ground on the CERN Meyrin site. The location has been chosen to allow using LINAC4 as the first stage of acceleration for a Multi-MegaWatt superconducting LINAC (SPL [2]). A 60 m long transfer line brings the beam towards the present LINAC2-to-PS Booster transfer line, which is joined at the position of BHZ20. The new transfer line consists of 17 new quadrupoles, an RF cavity and 4 bending magnets to adjust both the direction and the level for injection into the PS Booster. End-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been carried out in parallel with the codes PATH [3] and TRACEWIN[4]. Following the definition of the layout...

  3. Didáctica de la programación lineal con ordenador para economistas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Álvarez, I.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La generalización de los paquetes informáticos en la enseñanza de la programación lineal ha supuesto transformaciones de gran calado en las técnicas y contenidos docentes. A continuación se recogen aquellos aspectos más relevantes, centrando su análisis en aquellas aplicaciones informáticas de mayor facilidad de uso por considerarlas más adecuadas para la enseñanza en los niveles de licenciatura. De ahí que no se incluyan programas como GAMS que requieren un mayor grado de elaboración por parte del usuario.

  4. Estudio numérico de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales difusas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Cumsille

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo estudiamos la resolución numérica de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales difusas. Más precisamente describimos, analizamos y simulamos métodos numéricos, tales como el método de Newton, con el fin de aproximar de forma eficiente las soluciones a dichos problemas. Una de las características principales de este tipo de problemas es que las téc- nicas analíticas estándares de soluciones no son adecuadas para resolverlos. Por esta razón, en este artículo nos centramos en el estudio de los resulta- dos conocidos para los métodos numéricos clásicos y en su adaptación a la resolución de problemas difusos. Resumen.

  5. El método de las ponderaciones en el problema fraccional lineal multiobjetivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Huelin, Mónica; Caballero Fernández, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Dentro de la programación matemática no lineal, el problema que se ha abordado más en términos teóricos y algorítmicos es el problema convexo. Cuando estamos ante una función fraccional, no tenemos convexidad, pero sí otras buenas propiedades que pueden hacer más o menos fácil la elaboración de algoritmos propios de resolución del problema. En este trabajo nos centramos en adaptar el Método de las Ponderaciones, uno de los métodos clásicos de resolución a priori del problema multiobjetiv...

  6. Geometría y algebra lineal: talleres resueltos con Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Arbeláez, Rosa A.

    2007-01-01

    Con el propósito de implementar el uso del derive en los cursos de Algebra lineal surgió la idea de escribir esta guía como una ayuda para los estudiantes en su trabajo con computador. Este folleto contiene guía básica, una serie de ejercicios resueltos con Derive y una colección de prácticas propuestas. En la guía básica presento, además de las principales funciones de Derive en cuanto al manejo de vectores y matrices, los procedimientos usados en los algoritmos más importantes de un curso b...

  7. Pensum No Lineal: Una propuesta innovadora para el diseño de planes de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo, es presentar organizadores conceptuales (como el pensamiento complejo, el aprendizaje significativo y los mapas conceptuales que, con la ayuda de organizadores tecnológicos multimediales (como Internet, la WWW y el CmapTools, permiten el diseño de pensum (programas o planes de estudio no lineales, que evidencien la muti-relacionalidad de sus partes, como una alternativa para la educación en el mundo actual. The purpose of this article is to present conceptual (such as Complex Thinking, Meaningful Learning and Concept Mapping and technological (such as Internet, the WWW and CmapTools organizers that allow a non-linear pensum design that can make visible its multiple interrelations.

  8. MÉTODOS ITERATIVOS EFICIENTES PARA RESOLUCIÓN DE SISTEMAS NO LINEALES

    OpenAIRE

    PENKOVA VASSILEVA, MARÍA

    2011-01-01

    El problema de la resolución de ecuaciones y sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales figura entre los más importantes en la teoría y la práctica, no sólo de las matemáticas aplicadas, sino también de muchas ramas de las ciencias, la ingeniería, la física, la informática, la astronomía, las finanzas, . . . El gran número de científicos que han trabajado recientemente en este tema muestran un alto nivel de interés contemporáneo. Aunque el rápido desarrollo de las computadoras digitales llevó a la a...

  9. LA PROGRAMACIÓN LINEAL EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE MEZCLAS DE FERTILIZANTES

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Rebollar Rebollar; Juvencio Hernández Martínez; Rolando Rojo Rubio; Daniel Cardoso Jiménez; Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea; Eugenio Guzmán-Soria

    2008-01-01

    La Programación Lineal es una importante herramienta matemática que ayuda a resolver problemas de optimización de los recursos escasos. Con el objetivo de generar una recomendación técnico económica que permita maximizar la utilidad proveniente de la fabricación de cuatro mezclas de fertilizantes, sujeta a la disponibilidad y uso de los recursos nitrógeno fósforo y potasio en un periodo de producción (un año), se realizó un trabajo de investigación con información proveniente de un agronegoci...

  10. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  11. The Superconducting Proton Linac plasma generator and Linac4 H-Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the course of the sLHC project, CERN is studying a new plasma generator for the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) similar to the RF driven volume H- source of Linac4. The new plasma generator has been designed for a higher duty factor of up to 6% and has therefore been equipped with several cooling systems for the ceramic plasma chamber, ignition element, extraction area, RF antenna and matching network. This resulted in a redesign of the magnetic cusp configuration which had to be displaced and reinforced by the use of Halbach magnets which are now protected against heating due to RF induced eddy currents by an effective copper shielding. The Teststand of the plasma generator and its RF generator have been commissioned and thorough measurements are performed, including the plasma's light spectrum, thermal imaging of the source, RF-plasma coupling characterisation and Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma. (author)

  12. El método de las ponderaciones en el problema fraccional lineal multiobjetivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Huelin, Mónica.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la programación matemática no lineal, el problema que se ha abordado más en términos teóricos y algorítmicos es el problema convexo. Cuando estamos ante una función fraccional, no tenemos convexidad, pero sí otras buenas propiedades que pueden hacer más o menos fácil la elaboración de algoritmos propios de resolución del problema. En este trabajo nos centramos en adaptar el Método de las Ponderaciones, uno de los métodos clásicos de resolución a priori del problema multiobjetivo convexo, al caso no convexo de objetivos fraccionales lineales. Dado que no tenemos convexidad ni concavidad de las funciones objetivo, y esta condición es básica para la aplicación de dicho método, estudiaremos este inconveniente con profundidad, estableciendo condiciones bajo las cuales resulta válido este método como generador de los conjuntos eficiente y débilmente eficiente de nuestro problema. Para ello se plantea la necesidad de un estudio detallado de los conceptos de pseudoconvexidad, cuasiconvexidad, invexidad, pseudoinvexidad, etc.. Ofreceremos además un contraejemplo que nos muestra que, si no se dan las condiciones que previamente estableceremos, el Método de las Ponderaciones no es válido para generar todo el conjunto débilmente eficiente de nuestro problema

  13. [Efficacy of zinc on lineal growth on Latin American children younger than 5; systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morán, Elsa; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: En la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos existe una deficiencia de micronutrientes, retraso en el crecimiento, y altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil. En la actualidad se ha asociado la deficiencia de zinc con el retraso del crecimiento infantil. El propósito de esta revisión, fue analizar artículos sobre estudios aleatorizados que evaluaron el efecto de la suplementación con zinc y el crecimiento infantil. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de la literatura en la base de datos de PubMed con las palabras claves “Micronutrient supplementation and growth”, publicados de enero de 2005 a abril de 2013. Se identificaron 34 estudios aleatorizados controlados (EAC) realizados en Latinoamérica, de los cuales cinco reunieron los criterios de inclusión. Se añadió un estudio referido por otros autores. Resultados: Los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Cuba, Perú, Ecuador, y Guatemala. En ningún estudio se observó el efecto positivo del zinc sobre el crecimiento lineal. Conclusión: La revisión realizada sugiere que la suplementación con zinc no tiene un efecto significativo sobre el crecimiento lineal; sin embargo, podría tener beneficios sobre el crecimiento en niños con deficiencia de zinc si se añaden otros nutrientes en deficiencia.

  14. Control difuso aplicado a un convertidor DC-DC buck para una carga no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Bonilla Isaza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Este artículo presenta un sistema matemático llamado lógica difusa como técnica de control para mejorar el desempeño de un convertidor DC-DC (Buck ante variaciones de cargas de no lineales.Método: Para ello se construyó por medio de Simulink MATLAB un convertidor DC-DC de lazo cerrado al cual se le colocó en serie un controlador basado en lógica difusa, con entradas de control de señal de voltaje de salida y de la derivada del voltaje y como salida un valor constante que sintoniza el ciclo útil de un modulador de pulsos (PWM, que luego ajustar la tensión de salida del controlador de acuerdo a una referencia deseada. El controlador difuso fue construido con funciones de pertenencia en las que se integraron variables lingüísticas que explican cuándo un valor de voltaje de salida debe corregirse y cuándo la variación del voltaje se sale de los rangos establecidos entre -1 y 1 por ciento de variación permitida. Resultados: Para evaluar el desempeño de este tipo de control se compara con un convertidor DC-DC con control de lazo cerrado de ganancia unitaria obteniendo un 40% de mejora en la integral de área respecto al controlador difuso con un tiempo de estabilización del orden de 0.01s. En las cargas no lineales existen fenómenos aleatorios o efectos indeseados propios de la resonancia del circuito por lo cual se emuló mediante la interrupción por ciclos de un interruptor controlado por tiempo. 

  15. Development of the low energy linac systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Development of the Low Energy Linac System' is aiming to develop the 20 MeV proton linac system. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV RFQ, and a 20 MeV DTL. We obtained the first beam signal after the 20 MeV linac. The high power switch installed in the ion source supplies the pulsed beam into the following LEBT. The pulse operation was successfully tested. The main role of the LEBT is to match the beam into the 3 MeV RFQ. The total length of the four-vane type RFQ is about 3.26m. For the field stabilization, we used the resonant coupling scheme and dipole stabilizer rods. An 1 MW klystron supplies the RF power into the RFQ. After tuning, the field deviation of the quadrupole mode is less than 2% of the design value and the dipole fraction is less than 5% of the operating mode. The following accelerating structure is DTL which accelerate 20 mA proton beams up to 20 MeV. It consists of 4 tanks and the length of each tank is less than 5 m. The lattice is FFDD type and the integrated fields of the quadrupole magnets are 1.75 T. The inner walls of the tanks are copper-plated by PR plating method. The thickness is 100m with the roughness of 0.3m. Each drift tube consists of 6 parts and assembled by e-beam welding. The tanks and drift tubes are aligned under the installation limit of 50m by using the laser-tracker. The tuning by the slug tuners and post couplers results in the field uniformity of 2% and field sensitivity of 100%/MHz. In order to detect the beam signal, we installed the Faraday cup after the RFQ or the DTL. For the RFQ, we observed the beam of 12 A under the forward RF power of 450 kW. The beam current after DTL is about 0.5 A when RF power of 150 kW was fed into each tank

  16. R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Drees, K.A.; Ganetis, G.; Gamble, Michael; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jain, A.K.; Kayran, A.; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, R.F.; Lederle, D.L.; Mahler, G.J.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.C.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, Daniel; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Triveni; Reich, J.; Roser, Thomas; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.W.W.; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, A.; Bluem, Hans; Cole, Michael; Favale, Anthony; Holmes, D.; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Delayen, Jean; Funk, L.; Phillips, H.; Preble, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel Zigzag-type merger. We present the performance of the R&D ERL elements and detailed commissioning plan.

  17. A new method for improving beam quality of LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of the self-adaptive feed-forward (SAFF) control to improve the beam quality of linac is introduced. the analytical procedure for calculating the control signals, the structure of a practical control system, and applications of SAFF in klystron, RF gun, and linac are presented, especially the application in the thermionic gun whose response is non-linear, time-variant and of large time-delay. The described control system is operational and some primary experimental results have been obtained, including the control of amplitude and phase fluctuations of the klystron output, the microwave field in the gun cavity and linac

  18. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  19. History of the JAERI linac facility for 33 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAERI electron linear accelerator will be shutdown and disassembled at the end of 1993. At the JAERI, a prototype 20 MeV linac was constructed at 1960, and was used for the neutron time-of-flight experiments and for the isotope productions. An upgraded 120 MeV linac was constructed at 1972, and was used for many fields of research works until 1993. History of the JAERI Linac and the results of the works made using these facilities are reviewed, and also R/D on the accelerator engineering are described briefly. (author)

  20. Using basic electromagnetism to introduce LINAC4 (CERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Vidal, Xabier; Cid, Ramon; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The LHC is the last element of CERN’s accelerator complex, which is a succession of machines with increasingly higher energies. Everything starts in the 50 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC2), but a new linear accelerator, the 160 MeV LINAC4, will replace LINAC2 in 2018, upgrading LHC injectors to higher intensity and eventually increasing the luminosity of LHC. The aim of this article is briefly introducing this new accelerator, and presenting a simple application of some fundamental laws of magnetism to be taken to the secondary school classrooms.

  1. The Quasi-Linear Solution of Vertical Infiltration; La solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Carlos [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Parlangue, Jean-Yves [Departamento de Agricultura e Ingenieria Biologica (United States); Haverkamp, Randel; Vauclin, Michael [Laboratorio de Estudio de las Transferencias en Hidrologia y Medio ambiente (France)

    2001-12-01

    The exact solution of the one-dimensional vertical infiltration equation is deducted, when the hydraulic diffusivity is considered constant and the hydraulic conductivity is a combination of both a linear and quadratic functions of the soil water content. This quasi-linear solution includes as particular cases, both the classical solution known as linear soil and the Knight solution. The cumulative infiltrated water as a function of time provided by the quasi-linear solution has been compared with the cumulative infiltrated water obtained from the numerical solution of the Richards equation on three different soils of contrasting hydrodynamic properties. The good agreement between the two solutions has shown that the quasi-linear solution can be used on soils where the accepted hypothesis, on hydraulic diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity, for its deduction is not satisfied. [Spanish] Se deduce la solucion exacta de la ecuacion de la infiltracion unidimensional vertical cuando la difusividad hidraulica es considerada constante y la conductividad hidraulica es una combinacion de una funcion lineal y una cuadratica del contenido volumetrico de agua. Esta solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion contiene, como casos particulares, la solucion clasica conocida como suelo lineal y la solucion de Knight. La lamina infiltrada acumulada en funcion del tiempo proporcionada por la solucion cuasi-lineal se ha comparado con la lamina infiltrada proporcionada por la solucion numerica de la ecuacion de Richards en tres suelos de propiedades hidrodinamicas contrastantes. El buen acuerdo entre las laminas infiltradas ha mostrado que la solucion cuasi-lineal puede utilizarse en suelos donde la difusividad y la conductividad hidraulicas no satisfacen los supuestos de la deduccion.

  2. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  3. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  5. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  6. The injector linac for the Mainz microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and setup of a 3.5 MeV, 100μA injector for a cascade of race track microtrons is presented. It replaces a 2.1 MeV Van De Graaff for getting higher reliability, improved beam dynamics in the first RTM by increased and more stable input energy, as well as an easier access and a better vacuum to launch a beam of polarized electrons. In this paper, the considerations which led under given boundary conditions to the final design concept are discussed and its realization with PARMELA is described. Details of the linac setup are given. First operation showed a good longitudinal performance (energy stability ≤ ±2 star 10-4, spectrum ≤ 1 star 10-3 FWHM, bunch length ≤ ± 1.5 degrees) and an excellent reproducibility of machine operation

  7. Radiation processing with the Messina electron linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditore, L.; Barnà, R. C.; De Pasquale, D.; Emanuele, U.; Loria, D.; Morgana, E.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the last decades radiation processing has been more and more applied in several fields of industrial treatments and scientific research as a safe, reliable and economic technique. In order to improve existing industrial techniques and to develop new applications of this technology, at the Physics Department of Messina University a high power 5 MeV electron linac has been studied and set-up. The main features of the accelerating structure will be described together with the distinctive features of the delivered beam and several results obtained by electron beam irradiations, such as improvement of the characteristics of polymers and polymer composite materials, synthesis of new hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, reclaim of culture ground, sterilization of medical devices, development of new dosimeters for very high doses and dose rates required for monitoring of industrial irradiations.

  8. The invention that shapes Linac4: Tolerance Aligned Cantileaver Mounting (TACM) system to build drift tube linacs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no new to original optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This was indeed the case for the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.Interview with Suitbert Ramberger, Project engineer for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL).

  9. Photonuclear reactions with Zinc: A case for clinical linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I; Karakoç, M; Özmen, S F; Çeçen, Y; Çoban, A; Caner, T; Bayram, E; Saito, T R; Akdoğan, T; Bozkurt, V; Kuçuk, Y; Kaya, D; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. For this purpose, a bremsstrahlung photon beam of 18 MeV endpoint energy produced by the Philips SLI-25 linac has been used. The subsequent decay has been measured with a well-shielded single HPGe detector. The results obtained for transition energies are in good agreement with the literature data and in many cases surpass these in accuracy. For the half-lives, we are in agreement with the literature data, but do not achieve their precision. The obtained accuracy for the transition energies show what is achievable in an experiment such as ours. We demonstrate the usefulness and benefits of employing clinical linacs for nuclear physics experiments.

  10. RLA and ERL Designs for a LINAC-RING LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three different scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electron-proton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a basic version consisting of a pulsed, 1.7 km long linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with a two cw linacs and energy-recovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac of 3.9 km length with final energy of 140 GeV [“p-140”]. We discuss the parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and the performance for the three scenarios.

  11. Vacuum simulation of the LINAC4 H- source

    CERN Document Server

    Chiara Pasquino, CP; Jacques Lettry, JL

    2012-01-01

    The 160 MeV H- Linac4 will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. Linac4 H- source is the new ion source. In order to study its dynamic behaviour from the vacuum point of view, the electrical network – vacuum analogy have been used. This technique allows the evaluation of the hydrogen partial pressure profile as a function of time and position, giving important information about plasma chamber and LEBT pressures. Aiming at benchmarking the following simulations, several experimental calibration campaigns are foreseen in the near future: the H- source of Linac4 requires a pulsed injection of hydrogen to reach the typically 0.1 mbar pressure mandatory for plasma formation. First preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated profiles.

  12. A Radiation shielding study for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    Radiation shielding calculations are performed for the Fermilab Linac enclosure and gallery. The predicted dose rates around the access labyrinth at normal operation and a comparison to measured dose rates are presented. An accident scenario is considered as well.

  13. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  14. Aplicación de perturbaciones cúbicas a sistemas lineales controlados por realimentación de estados = Application of cubic disturbances to linear systems controlled by state feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Piarpuzán Estupiñán, Diego Fernando

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de perturbaciones cúbicas sobre sistemas dinámicos lineales SISO y MIMO, lineales, continuos e invariantes en el tiempo, controlados por realimentación de estados; diseñando finalmente una ley de control no lineal uNL(t). El diseño de la ley de control no lineal uNL(t) se aplica inicialmente sobre un sistema lineal SISO, estableciendo algunas condiciones básicas sobre los parámetros de la ley de control, con el objetivo de disminuir el esfuerzo de con...

  15. The SSC Linac: Status of design and procurement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) is the first element in the injector chain for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It must be operational by October 1995 in order to commission the Low Energy Booster (LEB). The physics design of the Linac is now essentially complete, detailed engineering is well advanced, and manufacturing has begun. This paper will review the physics design with emphasis on recent significant improvements, summarize mechanical design and construction status, and describe recent achievements in the development program

  16. The SSC linac: Status of design and procurement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) is the first clement in the injector chain for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It must bc operational by October 1995 in order to commission the Low Energy Booster (LEB). The physics design of the Linac is now essentially complete, detailed engineering is well advanced, and manufacturing has begun. This paper will review the physics design with emphasis on recent significant improvements, summarize mechanical design and construction status, and describe recent achievements in the development program

  17. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  18. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Bandyopadhyay

    2002-12-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is presently developing an ISOL post-acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for the post-acceleration. The design aspects of these postaccelerator LINAC modules will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  20. Maintenance of KURRI-LINAC in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KURRI-LINAC (electron linear accelerator of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University) is a facility for joint use program among universities and research institutes. It was constructed in 1965. Since 1966, this facility has been used by KURRI researchers, and many joint research programs have been started in 1968. In the present report the outline of the maintenance experience of KURRI-LINAC in 20 years are described. (author)

  1. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  2. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  3. Physics design of APT linac with normal conducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based production of tritium calls for a high-power, cw proton linac. Previous designs for such a linac use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL) to an intermediate energy and a coupled-cavity linc (CCL) to the final energy. The Los Alamos design uses a high-energy (6.7 MeV) RFQ followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a CCL. This design accommodates external electromagnetic quadrupole lenses which provide a strong uniform focusing lattice from the end of the RFQ to the end of the CCL. The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells symmetric in both the CCDTL and CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. At higher energies, there are some advantages of using superconducting rf cavities. Currently, such schemes are under vigorous study. This paper describes the linac design based on normal conducting cavities and presents simulation results

  4. The 400 MeV Linac Upgrade at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade in planned to increase the energy of the H{sup {minus}} linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHs drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MRs side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 7.5 MV/meter. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a 12 MW klystron-based rf power supply. Three of seven accelerator modules have been fabricated, power tested and installed in their temporary location adjacent to the existing DTL. All seven RF Modulators have been completed and klystron installation has begun. Waveguide runs have completed from the power supply gallery to the accelerator modules. The new linac will be powered in the temporary position without beam in order to verify overall system reliability until the laboratory operating schedule permits final conversion to 400 MeV operation.

  5. Beam lines from Linac 1 to PS and Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The 50 MeV Linac 1 is behind the concrete wall. Its beam emerges from the hole near the centre of the picture. A switching magnet directs the beam either to the PS (to the right in the sense of the beam; original injection line), or lets it go straight on to the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). The huge drum in the line to the Booster is a "debuncher", driven by the 200 MHz RF of the linac. It reduces the beam's momentum spread. This was the last year of Linac 1 as provider of protons to the Booster. Linac 2, nearly completed at the time of this picture, took up trial delivery at the end of 1978, and routine delivery in 1979. The beam line from Linac 2, barely visible here, can be clearly seen on 7802260. Linac 1 had a second life as an ion accelerator.

  6. Status and plans for Linac4 installation and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Comblin, J F; Coupard, J; Dimov, V A; Fuchs, J F; Funken, A; Gerigk, F; Granemann Souza, E; Hanke, K; Hansen, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Kozsar, I; Lallement, J B; Lenardon, F; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Maglioni, C; Midtun, O; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Paoluzzi, M; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, J L; Scrivens, R; Tan, J; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vollaire, J; Wegner, R; Weisz, S; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting 160 MeV Hˉ linear accelerator presently being installed and progressively commissioned at CERN. It will replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the PS Booster (PSB), increasing at the same time its brightness by a factor of two thanks to the higher injection energy. This will be the first step of a program to increase the beam brightness in the LHC injectors for the needs of the High-Luminosity LHC project. After a series of beam measurements on a dedicated test stand the 3 MeV Linac4 front-end, including ion source, RFQ and a beam chopping line, has been recommissioned at its final position in the Linac4 tunnel. Commissioning of the following section, the Drift Tube Linac, is starting. Beam commissioning will take place in steps of increasing energy, to reach the final 160 MeV in 2015. An extended beam measurement phase including testing of stripping equipment for the PSB and a year-long test run to assess and improve Linac4 reliability will take place in 2016, prior to...

  7. Design and Development of RF Structures for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F; Pasini, M; Wegner, R

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV H− linac proposed at CERN to replace the 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster, with the goal of doubling its brightness and intensity. The present design foresees after RFQ and chopping line a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) from 3 to 40 MeV, a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) to 90 MeV and a Side Coupled Linac (SCL) up to the final energy. The DTL and CCDTL operate at 352 MHz, while in the SCL the frequency is doubled to 704 MHz. Although the injection in the PS Booster requires only a low duty cycle, the accelerating structures are designed to operate at the high duty cycle required by a possible future extension to a high-power linac driver for a neutrino facility. This paper presents the different accelerating structures, underlining the progress in the design of critical resonator elements, like post-couplers in the DTL, coupling slots in the CCDTL and bridge couplers for the SCL. Prototyping progress for the different structures is reported...

  8. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Dragoş E., E-mail: dragos.constantin@varian.com; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  9. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-β region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the φs=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs, no beam losses

  10. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  11. Efficient computation of the angularly resolved chord length distributions and lineal path functions in large microstructure datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David M.; Niezgoda, Stephen R.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-10-01

    Chord length distributions (CLDs) and lineal path functions (LPFs) have been successfully utilized in prior literature as measures of the size and shape distributions of the important microscale constituents in the material system. Typically, these functions are parameterized only by line lengths, and thus calculated and derived independent of the angular orientation of the chord or line segment. We describe in this paper computationally efficient methods for estimating chord length distributions and lineal path functions for 2D (two dimensional) and 3D microstructure images defined on any number of arbitrary chord orientations. These so called fully angularly resolved distributions can be computed for over 1000 orientations on large microstructure images (5003 voxels) in minutes on modest hardware. We present these methods as new tools for characterizing microstructures in a statistically meaningful way.

  12. Los modos de pensar el álgebra lineal y ejemplos AD HOC en problemas específicos de su enseñanza y aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    González, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis de distintos hechos didácticos específicos en el álgebra lineal, a través de dos ejemplos. El primero se aborda, bajo el enfoque de la teoría de los modos de pensar el álgebra lineal de Anna Sierpinska (sintético-geométrico, analítico-aritmético y analítico-estructural) para indagar cómo estudiantes universitarios se enfrentan a los conceptos dependencia e independencia lineal de vectores y de solución de un sistema de ecuaciones lineales en R2 y R3. El segundo ejemplo...

  13. Algoritmo urza para el análisis de sensibilidad en problemas de programación lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanillo Elguezabal, Ibon; Uría Aróstegui, Victor; Larrañaga Lesaca, Jesús M.

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo menciona que el algoritmo pretende llenar un hueco existente en los análisis de sensibilidad de la Programación Lineal. Estos análisis abarcan tradicionalmente a todos los coeficientes del sistema excepto a los coeficientes técnicos de las variables de la BASE, debido a la dificultad de calcular la inversa de ésta cuando se ha introducido un parámetro en uno de sus elementos.

  14. Modelo lineal generalizado y cálculo de la provisión técnica

    OpenAIRE

    Boj del Val, Eva; Costa Cor, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    En este material se recogen características básicas del modelo lineal generalizado y su aplicación al cálculo de provisiones técnicas. Se explica cómo el modelo clásico Chain-Ladder se obtiene como caso particular y se detalla el cálculo del error de predicción y de la distribución predictivas de las reservas mediante bootstrap.

  15. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, AM; Posocco, PA; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  16. Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zusheng; Chi, Yunlong

    2013-01-01

    In NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100MeV/100kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2A for the pulse width of 3us with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply which can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. . Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

  17. Frequency Control Loop for Drift Tube Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the preparation of the frequency tracking of the RCCS by connecting the RCCS to low level RF (LLRF) system is described. KOMAC 100-MeV proton accelerator is under operation and supply beam to users. We are developing frequency control function in the LLRF system to control the RCCS in frequency control mode. After the test in the test bench, the system will be applied to the 100-MeV DTL RCCS in order to supply better quality beam to users. A 100-MeV proton accelerator has been developed and the operation and beam service started at Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) in June 2013. The accelerator consists of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The resonance frequency of the DTL tanks are controlled by using the resonance frequency control cooling system (RCCS), which are installed at every each tank. Until now, the RCCS has been operating in constant temperature mode which means that the frequency was measured with respect to the RCCS supply temperature before the RF operation, and then the RCCS operates with that temperature throughout the whole operation. The constant temperature operation is simple but the RF stability is not good because many perturbations such as RCCS supply temperature error can cause a frequency change. To stabilize the system better, it is necessary to operate the RCCS in frequency tracking mode.

  18. Emittance and Phase Space Tomography for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F.G.G.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moore, C.D.; /Fermilab; Newhart, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac delivers a variable intensity, 400-MeV beam to the MuCool Test Area experimental hall via a beam line specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Linac beam emittance and properties. A 10 m, dispersion-free and magnet-free straight utilizes an upstream quadrupole focusing triplet in combination with the necessary in-straight beam diagnostics to fully characterize the transverse beam properties. Since the Linac does not produce a strictly elliptical phase space, tomography must be performed on the profile data to retrieve the actual particle distribution in phase space. This is achieved by rotating the phase space distribution using different waist focusing conditions of the upstream triplet and performing a deconvolution of the profile data. Preliminary measurements using this diagnostic section are reported here. These data represent a first-pass measurement of the Linac emittance based on various techniques. It is clear that the most accurate representation of the emittance is given by the 3-profile approach. Future work will entail minimizing the beam spot size on MW5 to test and possibly improve the accuracy of the 2-profile approach. The 95% emittance is {approx} 18{pi} in the vertical and {approx} 13{pi} in the horizontal, which is especially larger than anticipated - 8-10{pi} was expected. One possible explanation is that the entire Linac pulse is extracted into the MTA beamline and during the first few microseconds, the feed forward and RF regulation are not stable. This may result in a larger net emittance observed versus beam injected into Booster, where the leading part of the Linac beam pulse is chopped. Future studies will clearly entail a measurement of the emittance vs. pulse length. One additional concern is that the Linac phase space is most likely aperture-defined and non-elliptical in nature. A non-elliptical phase-space determination would require a more elaborate analysis and provide another explanation of the

  19. Graduación de datos de mortalidad y modelos lineales generalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Montes Suay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es graduar los datos de mortalidad de la Comunidad Valenciana de 1998, mediante el ajuste de las funciones Gompertz-Makeham, GM(r,s, método utilizado por el CMI Bureau. Cuando las funciones GM(r,s carecen de la parte polinómica, r=0, la transformación logit de qx, probabilidad de muerte, puede ajustarse utilizando el esquema de los modelos lineales generalizados de fácil implementación en S-plus. En el trabajo que presentamos, hemos estimado los parámetros de funciones GM(0,s para s=2,3,4,5,6,7. La elección del modelo que mejor se ajusta a los datos se lleva a cabo atendiendo a criterios de bondad de ajuste y de complejidad del mismo. Se trata de buscar un equilibrio entre ambos aspectos, para lo cual utilizamos medidas y contrastes implementados en S-plus. Del análisis de los resultados se deduce que s=5 es el modelo que mejor satisface ambos criterios para la población masculina y s=6 para la femenina. De estos modelos hacemos un análisis más detallado mediante los tests no paramétricos habituales.

  20. Polarización lineal en estrellas simbióticas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Ferrer, O. E.

    Se presenta un estudio de polarización lineal en las bandas UBVRI de un grupo de estrellas simbióticas, a fin de analizar el comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición en función de la longitud de onda. En aquellos sistemas observados repetidas veces, se analizan además variaciones temporales en los parámetros de polarización. En base a este comportamiento se determina si la polarización observada es puramente interestelar o si existe una contribución de polarización, intrínseca al objeto. La muestra de objetos estudiados presenta ciertas características comunes, es decir, son sistemas simbióticos tipo D, cuyas respectivas componentes gigantes son variables tipo Mira y además presentan nebulosas ionizadas extendidas con morfología y dimensiones conocidas. Esto es de importancia ya que el conocimiento de la estructura del gas extendido permite interpretar la geometría de scattering que produce la polarización observada. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el Fotopolarímetro de Torino adosado al telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO.

  1. Development of head docking device for linac-based radiosurgery with a Neptun 10 PC linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin Khoshnazar, Alireza; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Hashemian, Abdolreza; Salek, Roham

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a method for focused irradiation of intracranial lesions. Linac-based radiosurgery is currently performed by two techniques: couch mounted and pedestal mounted. In the first technique a device is required to affix the patient's head to the couch and neoreover to translate it accurately. Structure of such a device constructed by the authors plus acceptance test performed for evaluation is described in the article. A head docking device has been designed and constructed according to geometry of linac's couch and also desired functions. The device is cornpletely made from aluminum and consists of four major components: attachment bar, lower structure with four moveing accuracy mechanical stability and isocentric accuracy were assessed in the frame of acceptance test. Translating accuracy, mechanical stability and isocentric accuracy were found to be respectively: 1 mm, 1.64 mm and 3.2 mm with accuracy of 95%. According to AAPM report no. 54, a head docking device should translate head with an accuracy of 1 mm; this recommendation has been met. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the isocentric accuracy and mechanical stability of the device are sufficient that the device on confidently be used in stereotactic treatment. PMID:17664152

  2. Production design of the drift tube Linac for the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S; Cuvet, Y; Dallocchio, A; De Michele, G; Gerigk, F; Giguet, J M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN has been made ready for production: H--ion beams of up to 40 mA average pulse current are to be accelerated from 3 to 50 MeV by three RF cavities operating at 352.2MHz and at duty cycles of up to 10%. In order to provide a margin for longitudinal matching from the chopper line, the longitudinal acceptance has been increased. The synchronous phase starts at -35 deg in Tank1 and ramps linearly to -24 deg over the tank while it went from -30 to -20 deg in the previous design. The accelerating gradient has been reduced to 3.1MV/m in Tank1 and increased to 3.3 MV/m in Tank2 and Tank3 for a better distribution of RF power between tanks that is compatible with a mechanical design. To make the transverse acceptance less sensitive to alignment and gradient errors, the focusing scheme is now FFDD over all 3 tanks. Design features that were demonstrated in earlier reports have been improved for series production. Results of high power...

  3. Fermilab 200 MeV linac control system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the present Linac distributed control system that replaces the original Xerox computer and interface electronics with a network of 68000-based stations. In addition to replacing the obsolete Xerox equipment, goals set for the new system were to retain the fast response and interactive nature of the original system, to improve reliability, to ease maintenance, and to provide 15 Hz monitoring of all Linac parameters. Our previous experience with microcomputer installations showed that small, stand-alone control systems are rather straightforward to implement and have been proven to be reliable in operation, even in the severe environment of the 750-keV preaccelerator. The overall design of the Linac system incorporates the concept of many relatively small, stand-alone control systems networked together using an intercomputer communication network. Each station retains its local control system character but takes advantage of the network to allow an operator to interact with the entire Linac from any local console. At the same time, a link to the central computer system allows Host computers to also access parameters in the Linac

  4. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  5. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver LINAC and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both LINACs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver LINAC is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver LINAC is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver LINAC are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on 'radiation protection in LINACs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain seven reports on electron and proton accelerators currently used in Japan. The first report describes the 'Present Condition of Linac Facilities in Japan -- Questionnaire Survey'. It summarizes results of a questionnaire survey on 400 facilities where accelerators are used for research, industrial or medical applications. The second one deals with 'Radiation Protection at Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Tohoku University'. Safety measures taken in the institute are described. The third report outlines 'Radiation Protection at Linac Facility in Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, focusing on equipment, radiation management, and safety measures. The fourth report, titled 'Proton Linac at High Energy Physics Research Institute', outlines major features of the facilities in the institute, radiation safety measures, etc. The fifth one describes the 'Safety Management at Electrotechnical Laboratory', centering on the equipment used, radiation management, and safety measures. The sixth one outlines major features of 'Electron Linac at Industrial Science Research Institute of Osaka University'. The seventh report describes the 'Present Condition of Neutron Generator (KURRI-LINAC)'. (N.K.)

  7. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  8. High-Power Proton Linac Technology at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Frank

    The construction of Linac4, a 160 MeV H- linac started in 2008 and is now in the beam commissioning phase. The RFQ and MEBT line have been successfully commissioned; and installation and beam measurements of the 50 MeV DTL have started in 2014. Linac4 was conceived as the normal conducting front-end for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), providing 5 GeV protons for a future neutrino facility at CERN. In the last 2 years the CERN infrastructure for the construction, surface treatment and testing of superconducting cavities has been upgraded to be compatible with the prototyping of a 4-cavity SPL type cryomodule. The 704 MHz 5-cell Niobium cavities, presently being built and tested at CERN are of interest also for other potential future projects at CERN and therefore the SPL R&D effort is well supported over the coming years. This paper reviews the context and status of Linac4 and SPL and highlights some of the technological developments, which have been done at CERN and which are foreseen within the next years.

  9. Avaliação do bis(4-metilfenilditiocarbimatozincato(II de tetrabutilamônio como acelerador no processo de vulcanização do elastômero polibutadieno Evaluation of [tetrabutyl ammonium bis(4-methylphenyldithiocarbimatezincate-2] as accelerator in vulcanization process of polybutadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. V. dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O ZNIBU, acelerador de caráter lento foi avaliado neste trabalho em composições de polibutadieno. Este acelerador foi sintetizado com o objetivo de substituir, ou reduzir, o uso de alguns aceleradores comerciais muito utilizados em composições elastoméricas mas que, por serem formadores de nitrosaminas, podem ser prejudiciais à saúde. A fim de corrigir o caráter de acelerador lento do ZNIBU, este composto foi utilizado em conjunto com o acelerador comercial CBS (N-ciclohexil-2-benzotiazol-2-sulfenamida. Foi observado que pequenas quantidades dos dois aceleradores não são efetivas na aceleração da vulcanização nas composições do tipo goma pura. No entanto a presença de negro de fumo exerce um efeito positivo sobre a velocidade. As propriedades mecânicas estudadas mostram que o ZNIBU aumenta a resistência à tração da goma pura (35%, em comparação com a composição similar vulcanizada com CBS e, na presença do negro de fumo, este aumento é ainda mais expressivo (175%. Quanto à resistência ao rasgamento, a vulcanização com o ZNIBU forneceu o mais baixo valor da propriedade para a goma pura, enquanto que a composição com negro de fumo apresentou o mais alto valor.ZNIBU, a slow accelerator, was evaluated in polybutadiene compositions. This accelerator was synthesized intending to replace or reduce the use of some very used commercial accelerators in rubber compositions which, due to their nitrosamine-forming potential, can be harmful to health. In order to correct for the slow accelerating character ZNIBU was used in combination with the commercial accelerator CBS (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole-2-sulfenamide. It was observed that small amounts of the accelerators are not effective in the vulcanization accelerating process of gum type compositions. Nevertheless, the presence of carbon black exerts a positive effect on the reaction rate. The investigated mechanical properties show that ZNIBU improves stress strength of

  10. Intraoperative radiotherapy in the theatre room with electron beams: technical and dosimetric description of Sordina LIAC accelerator; Radioterapia intraoperatoria en quirofano con haces de electrones: descripcion tecnica y dosimetrica del acelerador dedicado Sordina LIAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Ayala Lazaro, R.; Gomez Cores, S.; Garcia Hernandez, M. J.; Polo Cezon, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    n this work we show our experience during the commissioning of a mobile electron-beam accelerator dedicated to intraoperative radiation therapy in the theatre room. The linac is a Sordina LIAC 12 MeV model with a hard-docking applicator system. We describe the linac, the measurement methods and the specific dosimetry. The dosimetric behavior is also discussed. Differences with other applicator systems can be explained from the particular head design of the linac. (Author)

  11. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a 19F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an 16O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. 400-MeV upgrade for the Fermilab linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.E.; Noble, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    Fermilab plans to upgrade the Tevatron to expand the physics research program in both the fixed target and the collider operating modes. The first phase of this program is to increase the energy of the H{sup -} linac from 200 to 400 MeV in order to reduce the incoherent space change tuneshift at injection into the Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The linac upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 8 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  14. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems

  15. Progress in the Development of the TOP Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L

    2004-01-01

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 msec, 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7–65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65–200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The first SCDTL module is composed by 11 DTL tanks coupled by 10 side cavities. The tanks has modified to overcome vacuum leakage that occurred during brazing, and now the module has been completed, and is ready to be tested with protons. The 7 MeV injector has been recently installed in the ENEA Frascati laboratories for preliminary test, before being transferred to the main Oncologycal Hospital in Rome, Istituto Regina Elena.

  16. Particle-In-Cell Simulation of RFQ in SSC - Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao; You-Jin, Yuan; Yong, Liu; Jia-Wen, Xia; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Batygin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    A 52MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (linac) is designed to serve as an initial structure for the SSC-linac system (injector into Separated Sector Cyclotron). The designed injection and output energy are 3.5 keV/u and 143 keV/u, respectively. Beam dynamics study in RFQ was done using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH [1]. Simulation results show that this RFQ structure is characterized by stable value of beam transmission efficiency (at least 95%) for both zero-current mode and for space charge dominated regime. The beam accelerated in RFQ has good quality in both transversal and longitudinal directions, and could be easily accepted by Drift Tube Linac (DTL). Effects of vane errors and of the space charge on beam parameters are studied as well to define the engineering tolerance for RFQ vane machining and alignment.

  17. Beam Commissioning Plan and Result of KOMAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work summarized the present status and near-future plan of the beam commissioning. The development and installation of the 100-MeV proton linac were finished. Beam commissioning is scheduled in May 2013. Hence we hope we can report the initial beam commissioning result in the spring meeting of Korea Nuclear Society. The beam commissioning of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex) 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is in progress. The linac includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole), a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The final goal of the beam commissioning is accelerating 100-MeV proton beams to the beam dump in the accelerator tunnel and into a target room.

  18. TLD determination of neutron dose contribution in medical linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of Linacs with accelerating voltage higher than 10 MV in clinical radiotherapy is producing and increasing demand of accurate dosimetric measurements of the photon induced neutron contamination of the radiotherapy beams, due that the associated Bremsstrahlung X rays may produce neutrons as a result of subsequent photonuclear reactions with the different materials constituting the accelerator head. Thermal neutron fluences can be measured with TLD-600/TLD-700 pairs arranged in both a bare and a cadmium (Cd) foil covered methacry-late box. Neutron response of Tl dosemeters irradiated with two different neutron sources has been investigated. The shape of the glow curve of these TLDs after irradiation in a medical Linac and in a Pu Be neutron source has been studied to verify the contribution of neutrons to an additional dose to staff, patients and the general public, due to photonuclear reactions generating neutrons from medical Linacs. (Author)

  19. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the ΔF and ΔT beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid ΔT + ΔF method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation

  20. QCD Explorer Proposal E-Linac Versus E-Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Karadeniz, H

    2006-01-01

    TeV center of mass energy lepton-hadron collider is necessary both to clarify fundamental aspects of strong interactions and for adequate interpretation of the LHC data. Recently proposed QCD Explorer utilizes the energy advantage of the LHC proton and ion beams, which allows the usage of relatively low energy electron beam. Two options for the LHC based ep collider are posibble: construction of a new electron ring in the LHC tunnel or construction of an e-linac tangentially to the LHC. In the latter case, which seems more acceptable for a number of reasons, two options are under consideration for electron linac: the CLIC technology allows shorter linac length, whereas TESLA technology gives higher luminosity.

  1. RF Operation for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The RF systems for the 100MeV linac were constructed. The HPRF system including klystrons, circulators, high power dummy loads, and waveguide components was installed at the klystron gallery, and the LLRF control systems including a commercial FPGA module and a LLRF analog chassis were also installed. The phase stability of the RF reference line was measured with S11 phase under temperature control. The RF systems for 100MeV linac have been operated for a beam commissioning, and the 100MeV proton beam has been supplied to users currently. The RF systems of the 100MeV proton linac for the KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) were installed at the Gyeong-ju site. The 100MeV linac consists of a 3MeV RFQ, a 20MeV DTL with four tanks, two MEBT tanks, and seven 100MeV DTL tanks. For the 100MeV linac, nine sets of LLRF control systems and the HPRF systems including 1MW klystrons, circulators and waveguide components have been installed at the klystron gallery, and four high voltage converter modulators to drive nine klystrons have been installed at the modulator room. A RF reference system distributing 300MHz LO signal to each RF control system has also been installed with a temperature control system at the klystron gallery. The requirement of RF field control is within +/- 1% in RF amplitude and +/- 1 degree in RF phase. The RF systems have been operated for the beam commissioning. The installation and operation of the RF system for the 100MeV proton linac are presented in this paper.

  2. Beam Loading Compensation in the Main Linac of CLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, D.; Syratchev, I.

    2000-01-01

    Compensation of multi-bunch beam loading is of great importance in the main linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The bunch-to-bunch energy variation has to stay below 1 part in 1000. In CLIC, the RF power is obtained by decelerating a drive beam which is formed by merging a number of short bunch trains. A promising scheme for tackling beam loading in the main linac is based on varying the lengths of the bunch trains in the drive beam. The scheme and its expected performance are presen...

  3. Tranverse beam break up in a periodic linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of cumulative beam break up in a periodic linac for a general impedance is discussed, with the effects of acceleration included. The transverse equations of motion for a set of identical point like bunches moving along the length of the linac are cast into a simple form using a smooth approximation. This results in a working formula that is used to analyze beam breakup. Explicit expressions for the transverse motion in the case of a single resonance impedance are found using saddle point integration. This is done first with no external focusing, and again in the strong focusing limit

  4. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  5. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grespan, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Postcouplers (PCs) are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL), using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  6. Modeling high-Power Accelerators Reliability-SNS LINAC (SNS-ORNL); MAX LINAC (MYRRHA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitigoi, A. E.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2013-07-01

    Improving reliability has recently become a very important objective in the field of particle accelerators. The particle accelerators in operation are constantly undergoing modifications, and improvements are implemented using new technologies, more reliable components or redundant schemes (to obtain more reliability, strength, more power, etc.) A reliability model of SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) LINAC has been developed within MAX project and analysis of the accelerator systems reliability has been performed within the MAX project, using the Risk Spectrum reliability analysis software. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparison with the SNS operational data. Results and conclusions are presented in this paper, oriented to identify design weaknesses and provide recommendations for improving reliability of MYRRHA linear accelerator. The SNS reliability model developed for the MAX preliminary design phase indicates possible avenues for further investigation that could be needed to improve the reliability of the high-power accelerators, in view of the future reliability targets of ADS accelerators.

  7. Fenómenos no lineales y caóticos en células lógicas

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pereda, José Antonio

    1996-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de presentar la situación actual de las posibles relaciones entre los comportamientos de las células lógicas, empleadas en Computación Óptica, y algunos comportamientos no lineales obtenidos en sistemas complejos. Como se mostrará, las arquitecturas empleadas en sistemas de cálculo, y más en concreto, las unidades básicas de que están compuestas, pueden dar lugar a situaciones no previstas de antemano y, como consecuencia, generar procesos ajenos a l...

  8. Entorno web para la enseñanza del Método de Programación Lineal

    OpenAIRE

    López, María Victoria; Golobisky, María F.; Mariño, Sonia Itatí

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el desarrollo de una aplicación Web de tipo tutorial que permitirá transmitir a los estudiantes los contenidos temáticos referentes al Método de Programación Lineal, que conforman el Programa de la cátedra Investigación Operativa de la carrera de Licenciatura en Sistemas de Información de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura (UNNE). Se presentan los resultados consistentes en el diseño e implementación de esta herramienta. Se logró u...

  9. Regresión no lineal mediante la evolución de modelos Híbridos de Redes Neuronales

    OpenAIRE

    Hervás-Martínez, César; Francisco J Martínez; Pedro A. Gutiérrez; Ruiz, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una primera aproximación a la formación de modelos de redes neuronales con unidades ocultas de tipo híbrido (sigmoides, producto) que siendo aproximadores universales, puedan utilizarse como modelos no lineales de regresión cuando las características del espacio de las variables independientes lo aconsejen. Dada la dificultad que presenta la aplicación de algoritmos de aprendizaje de búsqueda local para esta tipología de modelos, se utiliza un...

  10. Un nuevo algoritmo para la solución de problemas de programación lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Leal, Andrés Leonardo; Buitrago Suescún, Oscar Yecid; Britto Agudelo, Rodrigo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    La programación lineal (PL) es una de las herramientas de mayor aplicación en la investigación de operaciones. Se han desarrollado y se siguen proponiendo varios métodos para la resolución de problemas de este tipo, desde el famoso simplex hasta los algoritmos de punto interior. Este trabajo tiene como propósito principal presentar la propuesta de un nuevo procedimiento para la solución de problemas PL que, partiendo de un punto interior, realiza proyecciones ortogonales mediante rectas param...

  11. Comportamiento sísmico de edificios con un sistema no lineal de control híbrido

    OpenAIRE

    Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Rodellar Benedé, José; Ryan, Eugene P.; Molinares, Nelson

    1993-01-01

    En el artículo se propone una clase de sistema hi33rido de control antisísmico de edificios que combina un sistema pasivo de aislamiento de base con comportamiento no lineal con uno, activo. La componente pasiva del sistema está constituida por un aparato de apoyo que puedeser de tipo histerético, de tipo friccional, o una combinación de los dos. Las fuerzas de controlactivo se aplican sobre la base y tienen como objetivo la reducción de su desplazamiento. Se desarrolla una ley de control ada...

  12. Ayuda visual basada en un sistema electrónico de magnificación no lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Torres, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto se basa en la implementación de una ayuda óptica para personas que poseen baja visión. Concretamente la ayuda que se pretende desarrollar en este trabajo es electrónica y está basada en sistemas de magnificación no lineal. Este tipo de magnificación electrónica no existe comercialmente. Por esta razón se ha decido realizar este proyecto fin de carrera y por ello es necesaria la realización de ensayos clínicos posteriores con pacientes para poder verificar su utilidad. Cada uno d...

  13. Análisis no lineal de sistemas de control de nivel con algoritmo exponencial polinómico

    OpenAIRE

    Posada Jaramillo, Ricardo; Navarro Betancur, Guillermo Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el análisis de las características no lineales en un sistema de control de nivel mediante el algoritmo exponencial polinómico propuesto por J. P. Shunta. El nivel del fluido en el recipiente -el cual está manipulado por una válvula- debe mantenerse en un valor promedio determinado -- De acuerdo con los medios utilizados, el trabajo fue del tipo documental y computacional. Se aplicaron definiciones y teoremas del análisis matemático y de la teoría de control no ...

  14. Pronóstico de la serie de Mackey-Glass Usando modelos de regresión no lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Velásquez Henao

    2004-01-01

    Tres t´ecnicas de regresi´on no lineal son estudiadas y se compara su desempeno en el pron´ostico de la serie de tiempo de MackeyGlass. La primera de ellas es el modelo MARS, que se plantea como una alternativa a los modelos conexionistas. El segundo es el Sistema de Inferencia Difusa Adaptativo (ANFIS), y el tercero es la red neuronal de propagaci´on hacia delante, ampliamente utilizada en aplicaciones de ingenier´ıa y econom´ıa. Los resultados muestran claramente co...

  15. Uso de la heurística “Optimización gravitatoria” con funciones no lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre, Jesús F.; Pacheco, Joaquín A.; Zapatero, María J.

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN En el trabajo se propone una heurística basada en la estrategia denominada Optimización Gravitatoria, para la obtención de óptimos globales en varias funciones no lineales, algunas de ellas multimodales. En esta heurística se concibe el espacio de soluciones de forma similar al espacio-tiempo relativista, en el que la métrica es modificada por el campo gravitatorio generado por las diferentes partículas en él inmersas. En la heurística el papel de la atracción gravitatoria lo juega la...

  16. Estudio de la Flexión de una Viga de Material Elástico no Lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beléndez Tarsicio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En los cursos de Física y Mecánica para estudiantes universitarios de Ciencias e Ingeniería se estudian los sóolidos deformables. Cuando un sólido se somete a un esfuerzo, sufre una deformación que puede llegar incluso, cuando el esfuerzo es considerable, a la destrucción del sistema. Si el sólido recupera su forma original después de suprimir las fuerzas externas, se dice que la deformación ha sido elástica y si, además, la deformación producida es proporcional a la tensión aplicada entoncesse habla de sólido elástico lineal. Una de las deformaciones que puede sufrir un sólido es la exión. Cuando una barra delgada o una viga empotrada en una pared se somete a un esfuerzo de exión,la barra se deforma curvándose. También en este caso en los primeros cursos universitarios de las materias antes se~naladas se analiza la exión de una viga supondiendo que el material del que está fabricada es elástico y lineal y así podemos encontralo en los textos de Física y Mecánica de Sólidos. Sin embargo, cada vez más se utilizan materiales cuyo comportamiento es no lineal y éstehecho debería considerarse. En este trabajo se analiza la exión de una viga supondiendo que el material de la misma es no lineal. Se obtienen las ecuaciones de la elástica y la echa siguiendo un tratamiento análogo al desarrollado por Feynman cuando estudia la viga exionada en su librode Física, por lo que el desarrollo aquí presentado podría ser seguido sin muchos problemas por cualquier estudiante de Física de los primeros cursos universitarios.

  17. Estudio de los métodos de representación de diagramas espacio tiempo en obras lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Artieda Monge, Tirso

    2014-01-01

    Los diagramas espacio-tiempo (DET) son una herramienta muy eficaz en la planificación en obras lineales. Sin embargo, los programas informáticos más populares en gestión de proyectos, como Primavera PG o Microsoft Project, no incluyen esta herramienta. Un análisis del software existente que ofrece este sistema en la actualidad, facilita el conocimiento sobre las diferentes opciones presentes para la incorporación de estos diagramas a la planificación de un proyecto, mejorando la calida...

  18. Análisis del pandeo de pilares en régimen no lineal mediante splines generalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Sánchez, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo fundamental de la presente memoria ha sido la realización de un estudio sobre el comportamiento de los pilares esbeltos sometidos a pandeo en régimen no lineal mediante la técnica de splines generalizados. Dicha técnica puede considerarse como una variante de la metodología de cálculo por elementos finitos. Para ello tras una revisión de los antecedentes históricos y los métodos actuales de cálculo de elementos viga-columna sometidos a cargas axiles en situaciones de no linealidad...

  19. Extracción de características de ecg basadas en transformaciones no lineales y wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Victoria Eugenia; Gustavo A Guarín; CASTELLANOS DOMÍNGUEZ, GERMÁN

    2010-01-01

    Se presentan diferentes métodos de extracción de caracterIsticas en senales ECG normales y en presencia de eventos relacionados con cardiopatIa isquémica, basados en mediciones de diagnóstico, la transformada wavelet y el análisis no lineal de componentes principales. Con el fin de determinar las caracterIsticas que contribuyen de melor manera con el modelo, se aplican dos técnicas de selección efectiva de caracterIsticas empleando métodos estadIsticos multivariados y univariados. La evaluaci...

  20. Modelación matemática en la resolución de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales

    OpenAIRE

    López, Jorge Iván; Flores, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enfoca a realizar un estudio del impacto que tiene la Modelación Matemática en el aprendizaje de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales dentro del contexto de enseñanza Aprender Matemática, Haciendo Matemática. Este modelo de enseñanza se fundamenta en el marco teórico de Vygotsky y se busca que el alumno desarrolle una Cultura Básica a partir de dos aspectos fundamentales: Competencias: las cuales comprenden: el desarrollo de un pensamiento matemático, la capacidad de resolve...

  1. Linac4: injecting new life into the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Construction work is nearing completion on the ion source for Linac4, the new linear accelerator that forms part of the LHC injector upgrade programme. Here we find out more about this essential component of the accelerator chain, designed and built at CERN.     The image shows the Linac4 H- source. The red light is the alpha line of the visible hydrogen emission spectrum. The ion source is a key component of Linac4, the linear accelerator that from 2018 will supply H- ions (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) at 160 MeV for injection into the accelerator complex. As the only ion source at CERN, Linac4 must be highly reliable, which requires a full understanding of the production mechanisms, the simulation of physical processes and the validation of those processes through experimentation. “This source is the result of much fruitful collaboration,” says Jacques Lettry of the BE department. “Its design was inspired by the many sources of th...

  2. Beam Loss Studies for Rare Isotope Driver Linacs Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T P; Kurennoy, S S; Billen, J H; Crandall, K R; Qiang, J; Ryne, R D; Mustapha, B; Ostroumov, P; Zhao, Q; York, and R. C.

    2008-03-26

    The Fortran 90 RIAPMTQ/IMPACT code package is a pair of linked beam-dynamics simulation codes that have been developed for end-to-end computer simulations of multiple-charge-state heavy-ion linacs for future exotic-beam facilities. These codes have multiple charge-state capability, and include space-charge forces. The simulations can extend from the low-energy beam-transport line after an ECR ion source to the end of the linac. The work has been performed by a collaboration including LANL, LBNL, ANL, and MSU. The code RIAPMTQ simulates the linac front-end beam dynamics including the LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT. The code IMPACT simulates the beam dynamics of the main superconducting linac. The codes have been benchmarked for rms beam properties against previously existing codes at ANL and MSU. The codes allow high-statistics runs on parallel supercomputing platforms, particularly at NERSC at LBNL, for studies of beam losses. The codes also run on desktop PC computers for low-statistics work. The code package is described in more detail in a recent publication [1] in the Proceedings of PAC07 (2007 US Particle Accelerator Conference). In this report we describe the main activities for the FY07 beam-loss studies project using this code package.

  3. Linac4, a New Injector for the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Pasini, M; Rossi, C; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    The first bottle-neck towards higher beam brightness in the LHC injector chain is due to space charge induced tune spread at injection into the CERN PS Booster (PSB). A new injector called Linac4 is proposed to remove this limitation. Using RF cavities at 352 and 704 MHz, it will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2, and deliver a 160 MeV, 40 mA H- beam. The higher injection energy will reduce space charge effects by a factor of 2, and charge exchange will drastically reduce the beam losses at injection. Operation will be simplified and the beam brightness required for the LHC ultimate luminosity should be obtained at PS ejection. Moreover, for the needs of non-LHC physics experiments like ISOLDE, the number of protons per pulse from the PSB will increase by a significant factor. This new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios. It is also designed to become the low energy part of a future 3.5 GeV, multi-megawatt superconducting linac (SPL). The present desig...

  4. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  5. 200 MeV RF linac for synchrotron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction has been completed on an electron linear accelerator for the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This accelerator will be used for the injection of a 200 MeV electron beam into a synchrotron for lithography experiments. This paper describes the conceptual design of the linac, its e-gun pulser, and its control and timing systems. 3 figs., ref

  6. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  7. Beam dynamics of alternating-phase-focused linac

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Y; Kapin, V

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to find an array of synchronous phases for alternating-phase-focused (APF) linacs is presented. The phase array is described with a smooth function having free parameters. With a set of the parameters, a simulation on the beam dynamics was made and distributions of the six-dimensional phase spaces were calculated for each set of the parameters. The parameters were varied, and numbers of the simulations have been performed. An optimum set of the parameters were determined so that the simulations of the beam dynamics yield large acceptances and small emittances of the extracted beams. Since the APF linac can provide both axial and radial stability of beams just with the rf acceleration-field, no additional focusing element inside of drift tubes are necessary. Comparing with conventional linacs having focusing elements, it has advantage in construction and operation costs as well as its acceleration rate. Therefore, the APF linacs would be suited for an injector of medical synchrotrons. A practic...

  8. MAFIA analysis of the effects of coupling slots in linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. P.; Ungrin, J.; de Jong, M. S.

    1991-05-01

    We have used the MAFIA codes to analyze on-axis slot-coupled {π}/{2}- mode standing-wave linac structures. Quadrupolar fields in the structure are found to produce an elliptical accelerated beam. A modification to the design, yielding reduced beam ellipticity, is proposed.

  9. Status update on the photocathode RF LINAC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the progress achieved so far in the Photocathode Linac Project. We have developed and tested linear accelerator structures at 2856 MHz, designed and performed preliminary tests on the photocathode gun, commissioned the klystron modulator and microwave systems to extract 3.2 MW of pulsed power, developed the beam-line, and are ready to commence acceleration experiments. (author)

  10. Status of the Project-X CW Linac Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostiguy, J-F.; Solyak, N.; Berrutti, P.; Carneiro, J.P.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Saini, A.; Stheynas, B.; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project-X is a proposed proton accelerator complex at Fermilab that would provide particle beams to support a diversified experimental program at the intensity frontier. As currently envisioned, the complex would employ a CW superconducting linac to accelerate a 1 mA average, 5 mA peak H{sup -} beam from 2.1 MeV to 3 GeV. A second superconducting linac, operating in pulsed mode would ultimately accelerate a small fraction of this beam up to 8 GeV. The CW linac is based on five families of resonators operating at three frequencies: half-wave (1 family at 162.5 MHz), spoke (2 families at 325 MHz) and elliptical (2 families at 650 MHz). Accelerating and focusing elements are assembled in cryomodules separated by short warm sections. A long open region ({approx} 15 m) allows beam extraction at 1 GeV in support of a nuclear experimental program. In this paper, we present the latest iteration of the CW linac baseline lattice. We also briefly compare it to an alternative where the 162.5 half-wave resonators are replaced with 325 MHz spoke resonators.

  11. Full power to the first Linac4 module

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Since last week the first of a total of 23 accelerating structures for Linac4 has been undergoing high-power tests. Although still a prototype, this structure is destined to be the first of the 12 PIMS cavities to be installed in the Linac4 tunnel and it has been completely designed, developed and constructed at CERN.   The PIMS prototype. The new Linac4 has 4 different types of accelerating structures. The PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) are the last stage and are designed to accelerate protons up to 160 MeV. “PIMS have never before been used to accelerate protons”, explains Frank Gerigk, the project engineer responsible for the Linac4 accelerating structures. “In LEP, they were used to accelerate electrons, and now we have modified them and improved several design features to make them suitable for protons”. The first prototype was entirely manufactured in the CERN workshop. Due to the size of the pieces it was difficult to achieve and preserve the required to...

  12. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kozawa, T.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Miya, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  13. Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gorelov, Dmitry; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver ...

  14. Towards adaptive IMRT sequencing for the MR-linac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-01

    The MRI linear accelerator (MR-linac) that is currently being installed in the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands), will be able to track the patient's target(s) and Organ(s) At Risk during radiation delivery. In this paper, we present a treatment planning system for intensi

  15. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  16. Tentative design of beam focusing for the AHF linac and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals for an advanced hadron facility include building afterburner linacs for LAMPF. A first afterburner, Add-on Linac number 1, is proposed to accelerate the beam from 0.8 to 1.6 GeV. The output beam would then be fed to a compressor ring and to another afterburner, Add-on Linac number 2. We make a rough estimate of the transverse focusing strength needed in these linacs, and consider the transport line from the end of the LAMPF 805-MHz linac to the start of Add-on Linac number 1. A rebuncher is needed in this transport line for proper acceptance of the beam into the add-on linac. 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F.

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  18. Predicción no lineal de caudales medios mensuales usando funciones de influencia radial y técnicas espectrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Hernández, Julián David; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La estrecha relación no lineal entre los caudales y los procesos climáticos de escala global justifican la modelación no lineal para la predicción de caudales. El presente trabajo muestra una aproximación a la dinámica no lineal de los caudales usando un modelo no paramétrico de regresión basado en las funciones de influencia radial y técnicas de descomposición espectral. El modelo propuesto es aplicado para la predicción de los caudales medios mensuales para horizontes de pronóstico de 1,3 y...

  19. Análisis de la dinámica no lineal y cambios de complejidad en la variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Murillo, José Fernando; Vallverdú Ferrer, Montserrat; Caminal Magrans, Pere

    2010-01-01

    Se han desarrollado y aplicado unas nuevas metodologías para estimar la complejidad de la variavilidad del ritmo cardiaco, las cuales facilitan la obtención de un mejor diagnóstico de las enfermedades cardiacas y ayudan en la detección de riesgo de sufrir muerte cardiaca. Considerendo la evidencia de determinismo no lineal y no predictivo de las series RR, las metodologías desarrolladas están basadas en técnicas de la dinamica no lineal para la obtención de índices que permitan medir la influ...

  20. Equacions efectives de l'equació de Schrödinger no lineal en sistemes periòdics i quasiperiòdics

    OpenAIRE

    Monreal Mengual, Llucía

    2010-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesis se enmarca dentro del campo de la óptica no lineal y, como el problema es formalmente idéntico, tiene aplicación directa en el campo de la materia condensada, en particular en los condensados de Bose-Einstein. El objetivo es obtener una nueva herramienta teórica que permita analizar la dinámica de una solución no lineal estacionaria sometida a una perturbación pequeña. Nos centraremos en soluciones que llenen todos los nodos de la red, y, por lo tanto, que tienen si...

  1. Propuesta didáctica para la enseñanza de los métodos para resolver un sistema de ecuaciones lineales

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Jorge; Ariza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo pretende evidenciar la importancia que tiene la enseñanza de los métodos para resolver sistemas de ecuaciones lineales, de manera posterior a la función lineal, para esto se trabajará como metodología la teoría de situaciones didácticas de Brousseau, buscando la construcción propia de cada estudiantes, generando en ellos un aprendizaje significativo; esto se buscará a partir de un contexto familiar para ellos, impulsando las buenas aptitudes de los estudiantes y el ánimo para en...

  2. Metodología para el estudio geotécnico en fase de proyecto de grandes desmontes en roca alterada de obras lineales.

    OpenAIRE

    Farfán Martín, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La contratación del estudio geotécnico en fase de proyecto de grandes desmontes en roca de obras lineales, en España, se legisla por los Pliegos de prescripciones técnicas particulares realizados por la entidad que saca a concurso la licitación de toda la obra lineal, en los que se cita la forma de abordar el estudio geotécnico del corredor, tanto de los desmontes como de los terraplenes, desde un punto de vista genérico. Esto genera una serie de problemas de indefinición a la hora de...

  3. Introducción suave a ideas fundamentales para resolver problemas de programación lineal en enteros por medio de matemáticas recreativas

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Murray Lasso

    2005-01-01

    Los algoritmos de corte de Gomory para resolver programas lineales en enteros tienen que encontrar una solución entera a un programa lineal obtenido del orig inal al que se le hicieron unos “cortes.” La presentacion en los textos de dichos algoritmos, generalmente son muy abstractas y difíciles de seguir, máxime que pocos textos presentan ejemplos en todo detalle donde se vea exactamente qué hace cada corte. En este artículo, se muestran varios ejemplos con soluciones detalladas y con una com...

  4. Dificultades que presentan los estudiantes en los modos geométrico y analítico de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carlos; Oktaç, Asuman; Ramírez, Carina

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos algunas dificultades que tienen los estudiantes en la representación gráfica de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales con dos variables. Para ello, se diseñó una entrevista basándonos en el acercamiento teórico de los modos de pensamiento geométrico y analítico en álgebra lineal. Reportamos acerca del desempeño de los estudiantes ante situaciones presentadas en un modo geométrico.

  5. Aproximación no lineal al modelo de overshooting usando redes neuronales multicapa para el tipo de cambio dólar - peso

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Villamil

    2009-01-01

    Desde los años setenta muchos trabajos han intentado elaborar una sustentación empírica de algunos modelos
    que ofrecieron una explicación lineal de la dinámica de la tasa de cambio de un país, entre ellos el de Dornbusch. Hasta el momento ninguno ha sido concluyente y la caminata aleatoria es considerada como el mejor modelo al que puede ajustarse. De Grauwe ha mostrado que, con la presencia de relaciones no-lineales y heterogeneidad de expectativas de los especuladores, el tipo de...

  6. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp; Noda, K.

    2014-07-15

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  7. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Noda, K.

    2014-07-01

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  8. Determination of the exposure speed of radiation emitted by the linear accelerator, using the code MCNP5 to evaluate the radiotherapy room shields of ABC Hospital; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposicion de la radiacion emitida por el acelerador lineal, utilizando el codigo MCNP5, para evaluar los blindajes de la sala de radioterapia del Hospital ABC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral B, J. R.

    2015-07-01

    Humans should avoid exposure to radiation, because the consequences are harmful to health. Although there are different emission sources of radiation, generated by medical devices they are usually of great interest, since people who attend hospitals are exposed in one way or another to ionizing radiation. Therefore, is important to conduct studies on radioactive levels that are generated in hospitals, as a result of the use of medical equipment. To determine levels of exposure speed of a radioactive facility there are different methods, including the radiation detector and computational method. This thesis uses the computational method. With the program MCNP5 was determined the speed of the radiation exposure in the radiotherapy room of Cancer Center of ABC Hospital in Mexico City. In the application of computational method, first the thicknesses of the shields were calculated, using variables as: 1) distance from the shield to the source; 2) desired weekly equivalent dose; 3) weekly total dose equivalent emitted by the equipment; 4) occupation and use factors. Once obtained thicknesses, we proceeded to model the bunker using the mentioned program. The program uses the Monte Carlo code to probabilistic ally determine the phenomena of interaction of radiation with the shield, which will be held during the X-ray emission from the linear accelerator. The results of computational analysis were compared with those obtained experimentally with the detection method, for which was required the use of a Geiger-Muller counter and the linear accelerator was programmed with an energy of 19 MV with 500 units monitor positioning the detector in the corresponding boundary. (Author)

  9. Simulation of dose deposition in heterogeneities in the human body, using the Penelope code for photons beams of energies of a linear accelerator; Simulacion de la deposicion de dosis en las heterogeneidades del cuerpo humano, usando el codigo Penelope para haces de fotones de energias de un acelerador lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardena R, A. R.; Vega R, J. L.; Apaza V, D. G., E-mail: cardroj@yahoo.es [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Av. Independencia s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The progress in cancer treatment systems in heterogeneities of human body has had obstacles by the lack of a suitable experimental model test. The only option is to develop simulated theoretical models that have the same properties in interfaces similar to human tissues, to know the radiation behavior in the interaction with these materials. In this paper we used the Monte Carlo method by Penelope code based solely on studies for the cancer treatment as well as for the calibration of beams and their various interactions in mannequins. This paper also aims the construction, simulation and characterization of an equivalent object to the tissues of the human body with various heterogeneities, we will later use to control and plan experientially doses supplied in treating tumors in radiotherapy. To fulfill the objective we study the ionizing radiation and the various processes occurring in the interaction with matter; understanding that to calculate the dose deposited in tissues interfaces (percentage depth dose) must be taken into consideration aspects such as the deposited energy, irradiation fields, density, thickness, tissue sensitivity and other items. (Author)

  10. Penelope simulation of electron beams 6 MeV from a linear accelerator for studies in different materials equivalent to human body; Simulacion Penelope de haces de electrones de 6 MeV de un acelerador lineal para estudios en diferentes materiales equivalentes al cuerpo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaza V, D.; Cardena R, R.; Cayllahua Q, F.; Vega R, J. [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa, Av. Independencia s/n, Hexagonos de Fisica, Arequipa (Peru); Urquizo B, R., E-mail: dgav02@gmail.com [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo, Esquina de Peral y Filtro s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    In systems of radiotherapy treatment for cancer, always looking to maximize the radiation dose on the target (tumor) and minimize to the organs at risk or healthy, so they resort to using electron beams that have properties and characteristics of higher dose deposition at fixed depths, directing and focusing the higher dose in the tumor, without harming healthy tissues to which seeks to radiate in the least possible. Simulating the interaction of electron beams with different equivalent tissues to the human body leads to a better dosimetric evaluation, improving the quality of treatment planning. The aim of this study is the comparison from the characterization of several equivalent tissues to the human body such as soft tissue, bone and lung. Based on the simulation of a calibration beam in water phantom with Penelope code and compared with the results of the calibration curves of beams in water vat by a linear accelerator Elekta Synergy of Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo EsSalud of Arequipa (Peru). From this to evaluate the behavior of electron beams in a homogeneous medium and then further evaluation in the human body homogeneities, for better evaluation and specific treatment planning. (Author)

  11. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico; Calculo del blindaje estructural de la sala de tratamiento de radioterapia equipada con un acelerador lineal del tipo Tomotherapy Hi-Art en el Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, C. A. [Southwest Oncology Centers, North Civic Center Plaza No. 2926, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Plascencia, J. C. [Centro Oncologico Louis and Lucille Grado, Republica del Peru No. 102-5, Col. Americas, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Vargas V, M. X.; Toledo J, P., E-mail: cabshm@msn.co [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza No. 6304, Fracc. Cima Comercial, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm{sup 2} in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo therapy. In this work these specific methodologies are used for the structural shielding calculations of the tomo therapy equipment installed in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua. These calculation methodologies consider the primary radiation, of leakage, disperse, second dispersion and leakage dispersion. The obtained results indicate that due to the lead barrier of the primary beam, the main component that contributes to the shielding requirements of the installation is the leakage radiation. On the other hand, the component that more affects of the door shielding is the dispersion component in the patient. (Author)

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges; Simulacao Monte Carlo do acelerador Varian Clinac 600C utilizando cunhas dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S. [Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Coimbra (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal)]|[Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2004-07-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600

  13. MODEL BENCHMARK WITH EXPERIMENT AT THE SNS LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The history of attempts to perform a transverse match-ing in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconduct-ing linac (SCL) is discussed. The SCL has 9 laser wire (LW) stations to perform non-destructive measurements of the transverse beam profiles. Any matching starts with the measurement of the initial Twiss parameters, which in the SNS case was done by using the first four LW stations at the beginning of the superconducting linac. For years the consistency between data from all LW stations could not be achieved. This problem was resolved only after significant improvements in accuracy of the phase scans of the SCL cavities, more precise analysis of all available scan data, better optics planning, and the initial longitudi-nal Twiss parameter measurements. The presented paper discusses in detail these developed procedures.

  14. Accelerator control system at KEKB and the linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    KEKB has completed all of the technical milestones and has offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and the injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system) at the equipment layer. During the project, many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance from the machine. In particular, the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility, two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely, channel access everywhere and dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system, a virtual accelerator concept was realized, allowing the single injector linac to serve as three separate injectors to KEKB's high-energy ring, low-energy ring, and Photon Factory, respectively. These control technologies are indispensable for future particle accelerators.

  15. Maximizing Number of Passes in Recirculating Energy Recovery Linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, S. Alex

    2016-03-01

    The next generation of high energy recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) will rely on the energy recovery (ER) process for their extreme high current operation. Here, we discuss optimum design of multi-pass linac optics for an RLA based on a large scale superconducting linac. Initial strategy used in the design of 60 GeV, 6 pass RLA for the LHeC, has been extended to 10 passes for the proposed CEBAF ER experiment. The presented optimization scheme addresses overall beam transport performance, as well as specific beam dynamics issues, such as, beam stability due to collective effects. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  16. Spectral fluence of neutrons generated by radiotherapeutic Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral fluences of neutrons generated in the heads of the radiotherapeutic linacs Varian Clinac 2100 C/D and Siemens ARTISTE were measured by means of the Bonner spheres spectrometer whose active detector of thermal neutrons was replaced by an activation detector, i.e. a tablet made of pure manganese. Measurements with different collimator settings reveal an interesting dependence of neutron fluence on the area defined by the collimator jaws. The determined neutron spectral fluences were used to derive ambient dose equivalent rate along the treatment coach. To clarify at which components of the linac neutrons are mainly created, the measurements were complemented with MCNPX calculations based on a realistic model of the Varian Clinac. (authors)

  17. SPLinac Computer Simulations of SC Linac RF Systems with Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    The beam in a proton linac is very sensitive to field perturbations in the cavities. Therefore a simulation program was written modeling longitudinal beam dynamics in a realistic composite linac RF system. Fast RF vector sum feedback loops control several cavities with b-dependent transit time factors driven by one transmitter. Modeling of feedback loops covers limited transmitter power and bandwidth and possible loop-delay. Vector sum calibration errors, power splitting errors and scatter in the coupling strength to the cavities are optional as well as beam loading of the pulsing beam. Different modes of mechanical cavity perturbations including Lorentz force detuning can be chosen. A multitude of phase-space representation of bunches as well as RF quantity plots are available, most of them can be assembled as a movie, showing the system dynamics in 'real time'.

  18. Waveguide-coupled cavities for energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Nguyen, D. C.; Young, L. M.

    2004-08-01

    A novel scheme for energy recovery linacs used as FEL drivers is proposed. It consists of two parallel beam lines, one for electron beam acceleration and the other for the used beam that is bent after passing through a wiggler. The used beam is decelerated by the structure and feeds the cavity fields. The main feature of the scheme is that RF cavities are coupled with waveguides between these two linacs. The waveguide cut through the two beam pipes provides an efficient mechanism for energy transfer. The superconducting RF cavities in the two accelerators can be shaped differently, with an operating mode at the same frequency. This provides HOM detuning and therefore reduces the beam break-up effects. Another advantage of the proposed two-beam scheme is easy tuning of the cavity coupling by changing the waveguide length.

  19. Room-temperature LINAC structures for the spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, J. H. (James H.); Young, L. M. (Lloyd M.); Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); Crandall, K. R. (Kenneth R.)

    2001-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building room-temperature rf accelerating structures for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). These structures, for H{sup -} ions, consist of six 402.5-MHz, 2-MW drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks from 2.5 to 87 MeV followed by four 805-MHz, 4-MW coupled-cavity linac (CCL) modules to 186 MeV. The DTL uses permanent magnet quadrupoles inside the drift tubes arranged in a 6{beta}{lambda} FFODDO lattice with every third drift tube available for diagnostics and steering. The CCL uses a 13{beta}{lambda} FODO electromagnetic quadrupole lattice. Diagnostics and magnets occupy the 2.5{beta}{lambda} spaces between 8-cavity segments. This paper discusses design of the rf cavities and low-power modeling work.

  20. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  1. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-To-Ring Positron beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Valentyn; Ushakov, Andriy [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with vertical stroke Pe{sup +} vertical stroke {>=} 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented. (orig.)

  2. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-to-Ring Positron Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Riemann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with positron polarization of 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented.

  3. Coupler design for an L-band electron linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; TANG Xiao; SHI Rong-Jian; HOU Mi

    2012-01-01

    The RF coupler is a key component for an accelerating structure which is the most important component for a linac.In order to feed microwave power into the accelerating cavities effectively,the coupler has to be well matched with the feeding waveguide.In this paper,an electron linac coupler was designed,constructed and tested.A numerical simulation method based on the Kyhl's method was employed to search for the optimal dimensions of the coupler.The frequency and the coupling coefficient as a function of the coupler dimensions were also calculated.The results fitted the Kyhl's method simulation results well and gave tolerances of the coupler.The coupler was brazed to the accelerating cavities and it was cold-tested and hot-tested.The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results.

  4. Development of input power coupler for ERL main linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing the 1.3GHz 9-cell superconducting cavities for realizing the ERL under the collaboration between KEK, JAEA, ISSP, and other institutes. A power coupler is designed for the ERL main linac superconducting cavity. Estimated input power is about 20kW for 20MV/m ERL operation. This coupler is based on the STF-BL input coupler, which adopts the TRISTAN type coaxial coupler, and some modifications are applied for the CW 20kW power operation. Now we are developing the high power coupler test stand to carry out the components test of the ceramic windows and bellows by using a 30kW IOT. In this paper, we report the design strategy of the input power coupler for ERL main linac and the recent status of the high power coupler test stand. (author)

  5. Status of the Linac based positron source at Saclay

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, J -M; Debu, P; Dzitko, H; Hardy, P; Liszkay, L; Lotrus, P; Muranaka, T; Noel, C; Perez, P; Pierret, O; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Low energy positron beams are of major interest for fundamental science and materials science. IRFU has developed and built a slow positron source based on a compact, low energy (4.3 MeV) electron linac. The linac-based source will provide positrons for a magnetic storage trap and represents the first step of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter in Rest) recently approved by CERN for an installation in the Antiproton Decelerator hall. The installation built in Saclay will be described with its main characteristics. The ultimate target of the GBAR experiment will be briefly presented as well as the foreseen development of an industrial positron source dedicated for materials science laboratories.

  6. Commissioning of the new H- source for Linac4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the CERN accelerator complex upgrade, a new linear accelerator for H- (Linac4) will start its operation in 2014. The source for this linac will be a 2 MHz rf driven H- source which is a copy of the very successful source from DESY. In this paper the design and the first results of the commissioning are reported. The commissioning has progressed successfully, and no major obstacles have been identified which will prevent reaching the goal of 80 mA H- beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 0.4 ms pulse length, and 2 Hz repetition rate. The source is producing up until now a stable beam of 23 mA, 35 keV, and with a repetition rate of 0.83 Hz.

  7. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-03-26

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties.

  8. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes

  9. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties

  10. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  11. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  12. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  13. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kufer, M. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pfeffer, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wolff, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  14. The split coaxial linac structure and its RF modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Split Coaxial Cavity structure has been invented and applied for the first time in the heavy-ion RFQ linac MAXILAC of GSI. It has an ideally flat RF voltage distribution and a good power economy. From another standpoint, it is a member of the small family of linac structures where the two modes, the wanted one and the unflatness mode, are clearly and strictly separable. The unflatness or ''Q Line'' mode is analyzed in more detail in this paper. It is necessary for the understanding of the interaction of the beam with the cavity, possible beam instabilities resulting from it, and for curing these instabilities with the chance of obtaining improved beams. (orig.)

  15. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, David H; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL). In addition to many other stringent requirements, the LCLS XFEL requires extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. This paper describes the analysis and design improvements of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA s-band gun leading to achievement of the LCLS performance goals.

  16. Simultaneous acceleration of multiply charged ions through a superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N; Zinkann, G P; Shepard, K W; Nolen, J A

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneously accelerating particles with a range of charge-to-mass ratios (~20%) to the same energy is proposed and demonstrated for a superconducting linac. Uranium ions stripped in a foil with eight charge states have been accelerated through a portion of the ATLAS linac from 286 to 690 MeV, with 94% of the injected uranium in the accelerated beam. Emittance of the resultant beam has been measured and the energy spread was 1.3% compared to 0.4% for a single charge state. This development has immediate application to the high-intensity acceleration of heavy ions that are limited by ion-source intensities, such as the proposed rare isotope accelerator facility. (6 refs).

  17. ANU LINAC upgrade using multi-stub resonators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Weisser; N R Lobanov

    2002-11-01

    A proposal has been prepared to upgrade the LINAC at ANU, using re-plated PbSn split loop resonators performing at 3.6 MV/m, and the addition of two- and three-stub resonators. The system is designed to provide 6 MeV/a.m.u. 107Ag starting with gas-stripped beam from the 14 UD, which is then foil-stripped before the LINAC. No major changes to the beam optics components will be required other than addition of a large bore rebuncher in the middle of the 180° achromat. Models of the two- and three-stub resonators have been built and optimized for the goal frequency, for the separation of accelerating and other modes as well as for the minimization of the current in the demountable joints. A copper prototype has been constructed and is being plated with PbSn for cold testing.

  18. Data logging system for linac operation using oracle database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer control system, which was composed to Programmable Logic Controllers and Personal Computers, was introduced into the L-band linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. Last year, the data logging system based on the Oracle was added to the control system, and is used for the watching of the extraordinary condition of the equipments and the automatic production of the operation daily report. (author)

  19. Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

    The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

  20. Upkeep of cryogenic system of superconducting linac at PLF, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable and efficient cryogenic system is crucial for stable operation of superconducting LINAC at PLF, Mumbai. Typically, LINAC is operated for a month long user experiment cycle. The cryogenic system is needed even for preparation of LINAC and hence is required to operate for about 2 months at a stretch. It was observed that continuous operation of closed cycle helium liquefier over such a long period led to some loss of cooling power. Even though the impurity levels in the helium gas are maintained below few ppm level, the heat exchangers can saturate owing to moisture accumulation over a month long period. To overcome this problem, all pipe lines (HP, LP and impure) and heat exchangers in the cold box are flushed with high purity helium (which is collected via impure bank) and evacuated in warm condition. The procedure is repeated multiple times to completely remove the moisture. During the long operation, it was also found that the first heat exchanger was absorbing moisture from atmosphere due to cryopumping through the LN2 pre-cool path and consequently the cooling power was diminishing with prolonged operation. We have added an additional valve on LN2 precool exhaust line which has completely eliminated this problem. Further, to improve cryogen transport efficiency the compact turbo stations have been installed for better evacuation of transfer tubes. The LN2 storage has been augmented with an additional 1000L storage dewar located just outside the LINAC hall. The maintenance of the entire cryogenic distribution is carried out periodically to minimize the helium gas loss. (author)

  1. BEAM POSITION AND PHASE MONITORS FOR THE LANSCE LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watkins, Heath A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-11

    New beam-position and phase monitors are under development for the linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE.) Transducers have been designed and are being installed. We are considering many options for the electronic instrumentation to process the signals and provide position and phase data with the necessary precision and flexibility to serve the various required functions. We'll present the various options under consideration for instrumentation along with the advantages and shortcomings of these options.

  2. A self-adaptive feedforward rf control system for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance of a self-adaptive feedforward rf control system are reported. The system was built for the linac of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Variables of time along the linac macropulse, such as field or phase are discretized and represented as vectors. Upon turn-on or after a large change in the operating-point, the control system acquires the response of the system to test signal vectors and generates a linearized system response matrix. During operation an error vector is generated by comparing the linac variable vectors and a target vector. The error vector is multiplied by the inverse of the system's matrix to generate a correction vector is added to an operating point vector. This control system can be used to control a klystron to produce flat rf amplitude and phase pulses, to control a rf cavity to reduce the rf field fluctuation, and to compensate the energy spread among bunches in a rf linac. Beam loading effects can be corrected and a programmed ramp can be produced. The performance of the control system has been evaluated on the control of a klystron's output as well as an rf cavity. Both amplitude and phase have been regulated simultaneously. In initial tests, the rf output from a klystron has been regulated to an amplitude fluctuation of less than ±0.3% and phase variation of less than ±0.6deg. The rf field of the ATF's photo-cathode microwave gun cavity has been regulated to ±5% in amplitude and simultaneously to ±1deg in phase. Regulating just the rf field amplitude in the rf gun cavity, we have achieved amplitude fluctuation of less than ±2%. (orig.)

  3. Modeling of the RF system for the normal conducting linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Zhe-Qiao; HOU Mi; PEI Guo-Xi

    2008-01-01

    To study the new RF control methods, a mathematic model of the RF system for the normal conducting linac is built and implemented with the software of Matlab. The model contains some typical units of the RF system, such as the klystron, the SLED and the traveling wave accelerating tube. Finally, the model is used to study the working point of the SLED and the adaptive feed forward algorithm for the RF control system. Simulation shows that the model works well as expected.

  4. Energy Stability in a High Intensity Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Mosnier, Alban

    2000-01-01

    Spallation source dedicated for neutron scattering experiments, as well as multi-purpose facilities serving several applications call for pulsed mode operation of a high intensity proton linac. There is general agreement on the superconducting technology for the high-energy part, which offers some advantages, like higher gradient capabilities or operational costs reduction, as compared to room-temperatures accelerating structures. This mode of operation however could spoil the energy stabilit...

  5. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  6. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H- volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H- plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H- source operating at SNS.

  7. Design and Construction of the Linac4 Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Dallocchio, A; Favre, G; Vretenar, M; Wegner, R; Tirado, P Ugena; Rossi, C; Riffaud, B; Ramberger, S; Polini, M; Gentini, L; Geisser, JM; Giguet, JM; Mathot, S; Naumenko, M; Kendjebulatov, E; Tribendis, A; Kryuchkov, Ya

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 project at CERN is at an advanced state of construction. Prototypes and/or operational modules of the different types of accelerating structures (RFQ, buncher, DTL, CCDTL, and PIMS) have been built and are presently tested. This paper gives the status of the cavity production and reviews the RF and mechanical design of the various structure types. Furthermore the production experience and the first test results shall be presented.

  8. Development of Electron Guns for Linacs and DC Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons guns for RF linacs and DC Accelerators are designed and developed at Electron Beam Centre (EBC)/APPD/BARC. Planar geometry grid and Pierce geometry grid configuration diode and triode guns with LaB6 cathode are developed. The cathode assembly consists of cups and heat shields made out of Tantalum and Rhenium sheets. The cathode assembly and the electron guns are tested on a test bench for beam characterization. The paper presents the development of the electron guns.

  9. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    OpenAIRE

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; DePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S; Downing, K H; Earnest, T.; H. Elmlund; Elser, V.; Gühr, M.; Hajdu, J.; Hastings, J.

    2015-01-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss ...

  10. Application of radio frequency superconductivity to recirculating linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) was built and successfully operated many years ago, recent developments in rf superconductivity, which developments have raised practical gradients from 2 MV/m to 5 MV/m, have made RLA's with energies >1 GeV economically feasible. RLA's using present superconducting rf technology are slightly less expensive and have substantially higher quality beams than stretcher rings fed by pulsed linacs. This paper discusses these developments and new design considerations. 25 refs., 7 figs

  11. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  12. La ciudad lineal del centenario: Los cien años de la utopía lineal/The city's centennial linear: The one hundred years of utopia linear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Salas, Jonás

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde los primeros años del siglo XX y por algo más de tres décadas, el arquitecto chileno Carlos Carvajal Miranda (1872-1950 presenta proyectos inspirados en las ciudades lineales desarrolladas por Arturo Soria y Mata (1844-1920. Se intenta la resolución de los problemas del crecimiento de la ciudad moderna, de la motorización de los transportes públicos y de la escasa ocupación urbana del país. Es un período rico en manifestaciones públicas y privadas frente a los cambios entre la primera edad republicana del siglo XIX y la temprana modernidad del siglo XX. En términos urbanos se trata de corregir los conflictos que surgen por los cambios socioeconómicos y tecnológicos, y por el interés de conferirle a la ciudad el nivel que ya exhiben otras capitales del continente. Más allá de la posible vigencia que pueden registrar las teorías sobre la ciudad lineal, nos interesa valorar los esfuerzos y la claridad de un arquitecto urbanista para comprometerse con la resolución de los problemas que comienzan a registrase en las ciudades chilenas, echando mano a la modernidad./This article relates to the project architect Carlos Carvajal Miranda (1872-1950, who tries to build linear cities in Chile. Carvajal is inspired by the proposals of the Spanish Soria and Mata, and is committed to solving the problems that are beginning to register in Chilean cities at the beginning of the twentieth century. During this period, attempts to resolve conflicts arising from social, economic and technological change, and give the city a better level as other cities of the continent./

  13. Electron Beam Focusing in the Linear Accelerator (linac)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Luis

    2015-10-01

    To produce consistent data with an electron accelerator, it is critical to have a well-focused beam. To keep the beam focused, quadrupoles (quads) are employed. Quads are magnets, which focus the beam in one direction (x or y) and defocus in the other. When two or more quads are used in series, a net focusing effect is achieved in both vertical and horizontal directions. At start up there is a 5% calibration error in the linac at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This means that the momentum of particles passing through the quads isn't always what is expected, which affects the focusing of the beam. The objective is to find exactly how sensitive the focusing in the linac is to this 5% error. A linac was simulated, which contained 290 RF Cavities with random electric fields (to simulate the 5% calibration error), and a total momentum kick of 1090 MeV. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  14. Design and development of R.F. LINAC accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radio frequency linear accelerator, a high power electron LINAC technology, is being developed at BARC. These accelerators are considered to be the most compact and effective for a given power capacity. Important application areas of this LINAC include medical sterilization, food preservation, pollution control, semiconductor industries, radiation therapy and material science. Center for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC has been entrusted with the design, development and manufacturing of various mechanical components of the accelerator. Most critical and precision components out of them are Diagnostic chamber, Faraday cup, Drift tube and R.F. cavities. This paper deals with the design aspects in respect of Ultra high vacuum compatibility and the mechanism of operation. Also this paper discusses the state-of-art technology for machining of intricate contour using specially designed poly crystalline diamond tool and the inspection methodology developed to minimize the measurement errors on the machined contour. Silver brazing technique employed to join the LINAC cavities is also described in detail

  15. Gridded gun test results for dual mode medical Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an advancement in the current low energy (6 MV) radiotherapy linac technology, SAMEER is developing a dual photon energy linac capable of giving 6 and 15 MV photons and multiple electron energies (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 MeV) for electron treatment. The main feature of this development is to produce clinically acceptable quality electron beam and photon beam. The gridded gun development is a crucial part of this project because of the electron beam current requirement which ranges from milliampere to nanoampere level from photon mode to electron mode. Therefore, precise control on the beam current is key feature in linac operation. The gridded gun design specifications is given. The gun assembly was successfully carried out. The gridded gun was assembled in a test jig and baked at 100 °C. The vacuum achieved after baking was ∼10-9 mbar. The cathode activation results and DC test results were obtained. The high voltage test results in pulsed mode is discussed in this paper along with its supply. (author)

  16. A High Intensity Linac for the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, A.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Schrage, D.; Kurennoy, S.; Krawczyk, F.; Lynch, M.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Wangler, T.; Wood, R.; Young, L.; Grand, P.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The National Spallation Neutron Source to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, requires a linac capable of delivering up to 5 MW of beam power to an accumulator ring with a nominal 6.2% duty factor and an energy of 1 GeV. Los Alamos, responsible for the linac design, has developed an appropriate room-temperature linac that consists of a drift-tube section from 2.5 to 20 MeV, a coupled-cavity drift-tube section to 100 MeV, and a coupled-cavity section to 1 GeV. The initial scenario requires an average 1.1-mA beam current with a corresponding 28 mA peak current and a 1.2-Mhz chopped time structure corresponding to the ring period. Upgrade to a 4.4 mA average current requires funneling with a peak current of 112 mA in the high-energy sections. Further parameters are presented along with beam dynamics and structure choices and mechanical and rf engineering considerations.

  17. Recent improvements to software used for optimization of SRF linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Tom J. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, where operation costs includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. The program includes estimates for the associated cryogenic facility, and controls hardware. The software interface provides the ability to vary the cost of the different aspects of the machine as well as to change the cryomodule and cavity types. Additionally, this work will describe the recent improvements to the software that allow one to estimate the costs of energy-recovery based linacs and to enter arbitrary values of the low field Q0 and Q0 slope. The initial goal when developing the software was to convert a spreadsheet format to a graphical interface and to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand tradeoffs. An example of how it was used to independently investigate cost optimization tradeoffs for the LCLS-II linac will also be presented.

  18. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  19. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  20. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L; Spataro, B

    1999-01-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements m...

  1. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Spataro, B.

    1999-04-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements made on a prototype have shown good agreement. Two possible supporting stem configurations (single stem and two stems 180° apart for each drift tube) were examined and a comparison of the results in both cases are discussed.

  2. Implications of a Curved Tunnel for the Main Linac of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary studies of a linac that follows the earth curvature are presented for the CLIC main linac. The curvature of the tunnel is modeled in a realistic way by use of geometry changing elements. The emittance preservation is studied for a perfect machine as well as taking into account imperfections. Results for a curved linac are compared with those for a laser-straight machine.

  3. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; /Fermilab; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  4. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of H- stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H- linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  5. Circuital Model for Post Coupler Stabilization in a Drift Tube Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Grespan, F; Ramberger, S; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) cavities will be equipped with Post Couplers (PCs) for field stabilization. The study presented in this paper starts with the analysis of 2D and 3D simulations of post couplers in order to develop an equivalent circuit model which can explain the post coupler stabilization working principle and define a tuning strategy for DTL cavities. Simulations and equivalent circuit results have been verified by measurements on the Linac4 DTL prototypes at CERN.

  6. ACCELERATORS: Emittance coupling driven by space charge in the CSNS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Fu, Shi-Nian; Peng, Jun

    2009-09-01

    In the conventional design of RF linacs, the bunched beams are not in thermal equilibrium. The space charge forces couple the particle motions between the transverse and the longitudinal directions. Furthermore it will cause the equipartitioning process which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. In the design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, three cases are investigated using the Hofmann stability charts. In this paper, we present the equipartitioning beam study of the CSNS Alvarez DTL linac.

  7. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Niedenführ, Miquel; Sempau Roma, Josep; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Brualla, L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry develop...

  8. ¿Cuándo la viabilidad implica la estabilidad estructural de un sistema dinámico lineal en tiempo discreto?

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, José Ramón; Puchet A., Martín

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some findings of the theory of control mathematics. These findings are complemented with those referred to viability of lineal dynamic systems on a discrete time period. The purpose of the paper is to establish which conditions should be satisfied by those systems for their viability with structural stability.

  9. Desarrollo de un Modelo Matemático no Lineal Aplicando Mínimos Cuadrados en un Sistema de Nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To perform a system analysis it is necessary to have a mathematical model representing it, which permits simulation of the process dynamics and development of control strategies to be applied in the real system. With this aim, it is important for the model, not being unique, to be a close representation of the process. On this work a non lineal mathematical model is obtained for the level plant at the laboratory of control and measurement of fluidics of the INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO METROPOLITANO. Obtaining the model consists of two parts, the first one consists in finding physical equations of the system in terms of some unknown parameters, and the second one consists in finding those parameters using least square method. A validation of the obtained model was made and it was found that the model was reliable. This system identification technique can be applied in other process with known physical equations in terms of unknown parameters.

  10. Pronóstico de la serie de Mackey-Glass Usando modelos de regresión no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velásquez Henao

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres t´ecnicas de regresi´on no lineal son estudiadas y se compara su desempe˜no en el pron´ostico de la serie de tiempo de Mackey–Glass. La primera de ellas es el modelo MARS, que se plantea como una alternativa a los modelos conexionistas. El segundo es el Sistema de Inferencia Difusa Adaptativo (ANFIS, y el tercero es la red neuronal de propagaci´on hacia delante, ampliamente utilizada en aplicaciones de ingenier´ıa y econom´ıa. Los resultados muestran claramente como ANFIS tiene un poder de aproximaci´on superior a las otras t´ecnicas evaluadas. Se propone un algoritmo para obtener modelos ANFIS con complejidad creciente.

  11. Calculations of reactivity based in the solution of the Neutron transport equation in X Y geometry and Lineal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our country, in last congresses, Gomez et al carried out reactivity calculations based on the solution of the diffusion equation for an energy group using nodal methods in one dimension and the TPL approach (Lineal Perturbation Theory). Later on, Mugica extended the application to the case of multigroup so much so much in one as in two dimensions (X Y geometry) with excellent results. Presently work is carried out similar calculations but this time based on the solution of the neutron transport equation in X Y geometry using nodal methods and again the TPL approximation. The idea is to provide a calculation method that allows to obtain in quick form the reactivity solving the direct problem as well as the enclosed problem of the not perturbed problem. A test problem for the one that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described and its are offered some conclusions. (Author)

  12. Sobre el uso de las desigualdades variacionales para el cálculo del problema de complementariedad no lineal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedreira Andrade, Luis P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El nacimiento de los problemas de complementariedad no lineal (NCP y de los problemas de desigualdades variacionales (VIP fuertemente ligados a la programación matemática ha dado lugar a numerosos esfuerzos investigadores orientados a resolverlos. En los últimos años ha resultado de vital importancia para la resolución de los VIP el uso de funciones D-gap para reformular el problema como uno de optimización diferenciable sin restricciones. Este artículo pretende ser una presentación de la aplicabilidad de la función D-gap a los NCP con algoritmos recogidos de la literatura, así como un punto de partida para investigaciones que reduzcan las hipótesis para este caso particular.

  13. Stereotactic LINAC radiosurgery for the treatment of brainstem cavernomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuetsch, M.; El Majdoub, F.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V.; Maarouf, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    Background: The management of deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is still controversial. Although surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with recurrent hemorrhage, patients with CCMs located in the brainstem are in many cases not eligible for resection due to high procedure-related morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the long-term outcome of LINAC radiosurgery (LINAC-RS) for the treatment of brainstem CCMs. Patients and methods: Between December 1992 and March 2008, 14 patients (6 men, 8 women) harboring brainstem CCMs underwent LINAC-RS. Pretreatment neuroimaging showed no associated developmental venous angiomas (DVAs) in any of our patients. Prior to treatment, all patients suffered at least from one symptomatic hemorrhage (median 1.8, range 1-3). A median follow-up of 7.1 years (range 2.0-16.8 years) could be obtained in 12 patients. We applied a median tumor surface dose of 13.9 Gy (range 11-18 Gy; median tumor volume 1.6 ml, range 0.4-4.3 ml). Results: Following LINAC-RS, neurological outcome improved in 4 (33.3%) and remained unchanged in 8 patients (66.7%). Rebleeding with subsequent transient neurological status deterioration occurred in 4 patients (33.3%), leading to additional surgical resection in 2 patients (16.7%). The corresponding annual hemorrhage rate was 4.8% (4/82.8 patient-years). Adverse radiation effects (ARE, defined by perilesional hyperintensity on T{sub 2}-weighted MR images) were revealed in 3 patients (25%), leading to transient neurological deficits in 2 patients (16.7%). There were no procedure-related complications leading to either permanent morbidity or mortality. Conclusion: Our results support the role of LINAC-RS as an efficient and safe treatment to significantly reduce the annual hemorrhage rate in patients suffering from brainstem CCMs not eligible to microsurgery. Compared with radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the intervention-related morbidity is higher. (orig.)

  14. High-Power Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, D. J.

    2002-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be the world’s most intense source of neutrons for fundamental science and industrial applications. Design and construction of this facility, located at Oak Ridge, is a joint venture between six DOE laboratories. Construction began in 1999 and is currently ahead of the scheduled 2006 completion date. Injecting a high-power, pulsed proton beam into a mercury target produces neutrons. In this talk, we review the physics requirements, design, and status of the construction of the 1-GeV, 1.4-MW average power RF linac for SNS. The accelerator consists of a drift tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and a superconducting rf (SRF) linac. The phase and quadrupole settings are set to avoid structure and parametric resonances, with coherent resonances posing minimal risk for emittance growth. The DTL is 37 m long and accelerates the ions to 87 MeV. The CCL is 55 m long and accelerates the ions to 186 MeV. The rf structure design and stability for both the DTL and CCL have been validated with scale models. The SRF linac has a modular design to accelerate ions to 1000 MeV, with a straightforward upgrade to 1.3 GeV at a later date. 3D particle-in-cell simulations of beam dynamics are performed to validate performance. The accelerator utilizes 93 MW of pulsed power operating continuously at 60-Hz with an 8factor. Approximately one hundred 402.5 or 805-MHz klystrons, with outputs between 0.55 and 5 MW, are used. The klystrons are powered by a novel converter-modulator that takes advantage of recent advances in IGBT switch plate assemblies and low-loss material cores for boost transformer. Beam diagnostics include position, phase, profile, and current monitors. They are designed to enable accurate beam steering and matching, and to minimize beam loss that would lead to activation and prevent hands-on maintenance.

  15. La fibra óptica y el fenómeno no lineal mezcla de cuarta onda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Gómez López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Para aprovechar de mejor manera el ancho de banda que tiene la fibra óptica, los sistemas de comunicaciones ópticos han tenido que aumentar la potencia de transmisión de las señales para poder transportar a grandes distancias la información. Debido a lo anterior, comienzan a producirse ciertos fenómenos ópticos no lineales como la mezcla de cuarta onda (Four Wave Mixing, FWM, que degradan la señal de información. En este documento se realiza un estado del arte de la fibra óptica y un estudio del fenómeno no lineal FWM, que se genera cuando dos o más señales ópticas se propagan en la fibra, lo cual conlleva a una mezcla de señales que puede generar nuevos componentes de interferencia de la señal óptica transmitida. ABSTRACT To make better use of the bandwidth that has the optical fiber, optical communications systems have had to increase the transmission power of signals to transport information over long distances. Because of this, certain nonlinear optical phenomena such as four wave mixing (Four Wave Mixing, FWM, which degrade the information signal begin to occur. Herein a state of the art of optical fiber and a study of the nonlinear FWM phenomenon, which is generated when two or more optical signals propagating in the fiber takes place, which leads to a mixture of signals that can generate new components interference of the transmitted optical signal.

  16. Measurement and simulation of lineal energy distribution at the CERN high energy facility with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, S; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Latocha, M

    2007-01-01

    The response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in a mixed radiation field with a neutron energy distribution similar to the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes has been studied. The measurements have been done at the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility where a well-characterised radiation field is available for intercomparison. The TEPC instrument used by the ARC Seibersdorf Research is filled with pure propane gas at low pressure and can be used to determine the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in a mass of gas equivalent to a 2 microm diameter volume of unit density tissue, of similar size to the nuclei of biological cells. The linearity of the detector response was checked both in term of dose and dose rate. The effect of dead-time has been corrected. The influence of the detector exposure location and orientation in the radiation field on the dose distribution was also studied as a function of the total dose. The microdosimetric distribution of the absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy has been obtained and compared with the same distribution simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code. The dose equivalent was calculated by folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer. The comparison between the measured and simulated distributions show that they are in good agreement. As a result of this study the detector is well characterised, thanks also to the numerical simulations the instrument response is well understood, and it's currently being used onboard the aircrafts to evaluate the dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation.

  17. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Pande; Moonooku Prasad; Nita Kulkarni; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) based on a 1 GeV proton synchrotron with 100 MeV H- LINAC as injector. Additionally, the LINAC can form the first 100 MeV part of a 1 GeV proton LINAC to be built in future for accelerator driven system (ADS) applications. We are exploring a configuration of the 100 MeV LINAC which will consist of an H- ion source, a 4–6 MeV RFQ followed either by a 20 MeV drift tube LINAC (DTL) and 100 MeV separated function drift tube LINAC (SDTL) or a coupled cavity drift tube LINAC (CCDTL) structure. In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations. The design of the 4.5 MeV RFQ is discussed along with the matching sections between the RFQ–SDTL/DTL and RFQ–CCDTL. The choice of the accelerator configuration and that of various parameters of the individual accelerator structures under consideration are discussed. The design objectives are to arrive at a configuration which eases heat removal for CW operation and which is less prone to halo formation in order to reduce the beam loss at higher energies.

  18. Representación no-lineal de imágenes basada en el sistema visual humano y adaptada a la estadística de imágenes naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio Cascajo, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    En esta tesis desarrollamos un esquema de representación de imágenes multipropósito inspirado en el tratamiento no-lineal de información en el sistema visual humano. Para ello partimos de los trabajos de Simoncelli y colaboradores que mostraron que las etapas primarias de este proceso, consistentes en una etapa de filtrado lineal multiescala (Gabor, wavelet, etc.) seguida por una normalización divisiva no-lineal, podrían dar lugar a respuestas neuronales estadísticamente independientes, lo cu...

  19. Status of the Kansas State University superconducting linac project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom J.

    1986-05-01

    Funding for the construction of the superconducting linac at Kansas State University was approved by the Department of Energy on May 15, 1985. The project is funded out of the Division of Chemical Sciences, USDOE. Initial design and staff technical training was initiated during 1984-85 with laboratory personnel working at both Florida State University and Argonne National Laboratory. The linac under construction is based upon the Nb split-ring resonator technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory for ATLAS. The linac at Kansas State University will have 14 superconducting resonators with nine low-β (β=0.06) and five high-β (β=0.105) units operating at 97 MHz. Work has progressed on both of the single-resonator cryostats for time bunching and energy rebunching, respectively, with the major cryostat components presently under construction by C. E. Raymond Enterprise Manufacturing, a division of Combustion Engineering, with scheduled delivery of the single resonator cryostat vacuum housings, LN2-cooled heat shields, and LHe Dewars on January 17, 1986. Orders for all Nb-clad Cu resonators have been placed with Argonne National Laboratory and two low-β units are currently under construction. Requests for quotations for a 300-W LHe refrigerator (expandable to 500 W) 1000-l storage Dewar and LHe distribution system have been issued. The building addition which includes a new accelerator/experimental hall (˜6000 ft2 basement structure) and ground-level laboratory support space including additional experimental setup space, additional machine shop space, and mechanical equipment space, is currently under construction with a completion date scheduled for May 1986. Additional personnel training on LHe refrigeration systems is scheduled for January 1986, at the Texas Accelerator Center and at Florida State University.

  20. Reducing the beam current in Linac4 in pulse to pulse mode.

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In order to deliver different beam intensities to users, we studied the possibility of varying the Linac4 beam current at PS Booster injection in pulse to pulse mode. This report gives the possible configurations of Linac4 Low and Medium Energy Beam Transport lines (LEBT and MEBT) that lead to a consistent current reduction.

  1. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  2. LHC and VLHC Based ep Colliders: E-Linac vs e-Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Gladilin, L; Recepoglu, E; Sultansoy, S

    2005-01-01

    Linac-ring analogues of the LHC and VLHC based standard type ep collider proposals are discussed. It is shown that sufficiently high luminosities can be obtained with TESLA-like linacs, whereas essential modifications are required for CLIC technology. The physics search potential of proposed ep colliders is demonstrated using pair production of heavy quarks as an example.

  3. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  4. Design of APhF-IH Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, V; Iwata, Y

    2003-01-01

    The design of a small injection linac for a compact medical synchrotron is discussed. The linac design is based on interdigital H-type (IH) drift-tube structure with alternative phase focusing (APhF). A high acceleration rate and an absence of magnetic lenses inside drift-tubes reduce the cost and length of APhF-IH linac in comparison with HIMAC linac based on Alvarez structure with magnet quadrupoles inside drift-tubes. To reduce effects of emittance growth, the RFQ structure is used in front of the APhF linac. In such linac layout, the current transmission of a carbon beam can reach up to 90-100%. In this report, the basic parameters of whole linac are presented, while the design of APhF structure is considered in details. Two reference designs of 4 MeV/u 200 MHz APhF linacs with different voltage distributions along the whole tank have been generated and analyzed numerically. For the first design, a constant voltage distribution along the tank is assumed. The total length of the structure is about 4.2 m. F...

  5. Release the beams! - Linac4 ready to hit the 50 MeV mark

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Linac4 accelerator is now prepared to reach 50 MeV. This milestone energy - expected in the coming weeks - will allow the machine to act as a replacement for the ageing Linac2, four years before it takes over at the head of the accelerator chain in 2020.    Inside the Linac4 tunnel, the final DTL cavities will guide beams to 50 MeV.  (Image: Stephan Russenschuck.) The Linac4 accelerator will bring H- ion beams (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) up to 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster. As a key part of the LHC injector upgrade programme, Linac4 will allow the PS Booster to double its beam brightness, which will contribute to increasing the LHC’s luminosity. Linac4 will soon bring beams up to 50 MeV - the current energy delivered by the Linac2 accelerator. This milestone follows on from another recent accomplishment: the installation and commissioning of the final Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank. Using an innovati...

  6. Comportamiento tribológico del acero AISI W112 con endurecimiento lineal mediante laser de ND:YAG.L. // Tribological behavior of AISI W112 steel with lineal hardening by means of ND:YAG laser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sagaró

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Para disminuir el desgaste en los sistemas tribológicos frecuentemente se acostumbra a endurecer localmente aquellaszonas sometidas a desgaste. En el presente trabajo, para incrementar la dureza y la resistencia al desgaste del acero AISIW112 se empleó un láser de Nd:YAG. Las características de fricción y desgaste del acero AISI W112 en condiciones decontacto deslizante en fricción seca con el acero 65MN4 fueron evaluadas para tratamientos convencionales luego de suirradiación con láser. En el trabajo se presentan además las transformaciones que ocurren durante el tratamiento con láser,así como la influencia de los parámetros operacionales del láser en la profundidad de la capa endurecida y lascaracterísticas tribológicas. El trabajo experimental corroboró que la resistencia al desgaste del acero AISI W112 es variasveces superior en comparación con los tratamientos convencionales.Palabras claves: Comportamiento tribológico, endurecimiento lineal, tratamiento superficial con láser._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.Diminishing wear in tribological systems is usually done by locally hardening those areas subject to wear. In this paper ispresented the increasing of hardness and resistance to wear of AISI W112 steel by means of a Nd:YAG laser. Thecharacteristics of friction and wear of AISI W112 steel under sliding contact in dry friction conditions with the 65MN4steel were evaluated for conventional treatments and after laser irradiation. In the work are presented the transformationsthat take place during the laser treatment, as well as the influence of the laser operational parameters in the depth of thehardened layer and the tribological characteristics. The experimental work corroborated that the resistance to wear of AISIW112 steel is several times superior in comparison with conventional treatments.Key words: Tribological behavior , lineal hardening, laser superficial

  7. Beam loss control in the LINAC4 design

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Crandall, K

    2010-01-01

    The Linac4 DTL reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by modifying the accelerating field and phase law. In addition we have adopted an FFDD focusing lattice throughout to minimize expected losses resulting from alignment errors. We have observed, however, that this design suffers from decreasing transverse acceptance and a sensitivity to misalignments that causes any expected beam loss to occcur at the high energy end of the DTL. In this note we investigate two solutions to increase the acceptance, decrease its sensitivity to misalignments and eliminate the potential for a beam-loss “bottleneck” at 50 MeV.

  8. HINS Linac front end focusing system R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R&D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process.

  9. Production of slow positrons using an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense pulsed slow-positron beams have been produced using electron linac beams of energy 25 MeV. Slow positorons were counted by complete separation from strong flashed signals produced directly by the primary electron pulsed beam. The yield of low-energy positrons was estimated as 2x106 slow positrons per second. The conversion efficiency of slow-positron production for 25 MeV electrons, epsilon, was 2.4x10-8, much lower than the value obtained by Howell et al. Several methods of overcoming the difficulties of practical application were attempted, and are discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  11. The control system of the CERN new linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two computers are used for the Linac control system, interfaced to the process over CAMAC, configured in such a way that each computer has direct access to the CAMAC system. The control system is designed in such a way as to minimize the knowledge of programming and computers required by the normal users of the system. The consoles use touch panels for parameter, program and option selections and are interfaced over parallel CAMAC to the computers, whereas the process itself is interfaced over bit serial CAMAC. In the case of the ion source, the CAMAC Serial Highway crosses the 750 kV with the help of optical data links

  12. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  13. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements

  14. Magnetic transport channel for high-energy linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy linacs, as proposed for future linear colliders, are a severe challenge to the magnetic transport system. The large number of magnets and the low beam emittance require tolerances on the displacement jitter in the submicron region. By choosing a low phase advance per cell, mounting the magnets two by two on rigid girders, and fixing all girders within one betatron wavelength on one beam, the tolerances are considerably relieved. The tolerances on one beam are now a few microns, and between beams they are some tens of microns

  15. Design of a Cavity of Drift Tube Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-long; LV; Wei-xing; LI; Jin-hai; HUANG; Jun; WU; Qing-feng

    2013-01-01

    The drift tube Linac(DTL)is used as accelerating of low energy proton beam with high intensity.Its operating frequency is 325 MHz with handling power of 2.5 kW.The cavity of DTL consists of circularwaveguide,drift tube,post coupler and tuner.First,the beam parameters of the cavity of DTL is calculated by using beam dynamic codes,and then the electromagnetic field distribution and RF parameters of the cavity of DTL is calculated by using

  16. Design of a treatment room for an 18 MV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it has been calculated the treatment room for an 18 MV Linac. The walls thickness, the door and the maze were designed according to the NCRP Report 151 recommendations. The results of this work are contrasted with the Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNP5 code where dose equivalent due to neutrons and neutron spectra are estimated at different points inside and outside of the radiotherapy room, verify the shielding thickness obtained are enough to reduce the dose level allowed by the Mexican regulation. (Author)

  17. Compensation of initial beam loading for electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious initial beam loading effect may generate beam loss in the electron linac of the VSX light source. Because of the large energy spread, it is difficult to compensate the beam loading with ordinary methods, such as the adjustment of injection timing and ECS (Energy Compensation System). We have developed a phase-amplitude (Δφ-A) modulation system using two fast phase shifters, which is put before a klystron and operated at low power level. In this paper, we report the performance of the test system. (author)

  18. A test beam upgrade based on the BEPC-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of three beam lines, E1, E2 and E3 have based on the LINAC of BEPC. The E1 beam is to be used for intense slow-positron facility. The E2 is a primary positron or electron beam with an energy of 1.3-1.5 GeV. The E3 is a secondary electron or pion test beam with a momentum can be adjustable continuously. The position accuracy of a detected particle is 0.2-0.4 mm with an event rate of 3 - 4 Hz. This beam has been successfully used for some detectors beam test. (author)

  19. Beam Dynamics Based Design of Solenoid Channel for TAC Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kisoglu, H F

    2014-01-01

    Today a linear particle accelerator (linac), in which electric and magnetic fields are of vital importance, is one of the popular energy generation sources like Accelerator Driven System (ADS). A multipurpose, including primarily ADS, proton linac with energy of ~2 GeV is planned to constitute within the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project collaborated by more than 10 Turkish universities. A Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) channel with two solenoids is a subcomponent of this linac. It transports the proton beam ejected by an ion source, and matches it with the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) that is an important part of the linac. The LEBT channel would be consisted of two focusing solenoids and some diagnostic elements such as faraday cup, BC transformers, etc. This paper includes a beam dynamical design and optimization study of LEBT channel for TAC proton linac done by using a beam dynamics simulation code PATH MANAGER and comparing of the simulation results with the theoretical expectations.

  20. Compact Electron-Linac Design Concept for a Gamma Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K C D; Dale, G; Garnett, R; Kirbie, C; Krawczyk, F L; Russell, S J; Wangler, T P

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray sources, particularly sources that are easily transportable, are in high demand for different homeland security applications. We have carried out a review of commercially available electron-linac-based sources, and have investigated alternative compact electron-linac systems that use updated technologies compared with sources that are available commercially. As the results, we propose to develop a new source using an electron linac operating at 17 GHz. It uses a klystron, instead of a magnetron, and a IGBT-switched HV power supply. The source design takes advantages of the advances in X-band linac technology and solid-state HV technology. The higher frequency and upgraded technologies offer smaller size, lighter weight, better efficiency, easier operation, and higher reliability, compared with commercially-available linacs. In this paper, we will describe the source design and our choice of technologies.

  1. Inauguran nuevo tunel de acelerador

    CERN Multimedia

    Macedo, C

    2003-01-01

    "Contendra el Gran Colisionador de Hadrones del CERN. Ayer fue inaugurado el tunel subterraneo que acogera al experimento ATLAS, uno de los cuatro xperimentos que integraran el Gran Colisionador de Hadrones (LHC), que es construido en el Centro Europeo para la Investigacion Nuclear (CERN), en Ginebra" (1/3 page).

  2. Implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade de um acelerador linear de 6 MeV de fótons Implementation of a quality control program for a 6 MeV linear photon accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda F. Berdaky

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a parte operacional do processo final envolvido na implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade por meio de testes rotineiros mecânicos e de radiação. O programa de controle de qualidade, durante 35 meses, mostrou a estabilidade excelente deste acelerador.This paper describes the operational characteristics of the final process of implementation of a quality control program using routine mechanical and radiation tests. The quality control program was performed during 35 months and demonstrated the excellent stability of this accelerator.

  3. Análisis de respuesta dinámica de sitio usando un modelo no elastico no lineal A site dynamic answer’s analysis, using a non elastic and non lineal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Grandas Tavera Diana Katerine Reyes Suárez Arcesio Lizcano Peláez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento de suelos arcillosos es no lineal. La relación esfuerzo-deformación depende del estado actual de esfuerzos efectivos, la relación de vacíos y la trayectoria de esfuerzos efectivos e historia. Las cargas dinámicas, como las ondas sísmicas, inducen cambios súbitos en la tasa de esfuerzos y deformaciones. El modelo constitutivo visco-hipoplástico es capaz de reproducir la influencia de todos estos aspectos.Adicionalmente, la generación de presión de poros, el estado de esfuerzos efectivos, las deformaciones permanente, la degradación de la rigidez con el número de ciclos y los efectos viscosos (relajación, creep pueden ser descritos de forma apropiada por el modelo. En este trabajo se presentan algunas simulaciones de ensayos elementales y un caso real de respuesta dinámica de sitio.

  4. Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (σ0 ≅ 850) and low depressed tunes (σ ≅ 8.50) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Beam instrumentation for the HIE Isolde linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sosa, A; Fraser, MA; Kadi, Y; Voulot, D; Wenander, F; Zocca, F; Sosa, A; Welsch, CP; Larman, A; Galipienzo, J

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the High Intensity and Energy (HIE)-ISOLDE project at CERN, a beam instrumentation R&amp;amp;D program is on-going for the superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion post-accelerator. An overview of the foreseen beam diagnostics system is presented, focusing on the challenging specifications required by the HIE-ISOLDE linac. Due to the low beam intensities, the beam instrumentation will be based on high-sensitivity intercepting devices. The project includes intensity, position and transverse profile monitors to be installed in the very narrow space available in between the superconducting cryomodules. In addition, spectroscopy and time of flight (ToF) monitors are foreseen downstream of the linac to measure the energy and time distribution of the beams and to allow for a fast phase tuning of the superconducting cavities. An emittance meter will finally provide transverse emittance measurements based on the phase space sampling technique. The design status of the differ...

  6. Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

    2014-10-01

    3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

  7. Beam Position-Phase Monitors for SNS Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    Electromagnetic modeling with MAFIA of the combined beam position-phase monitors (BPPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed. Time-domain 3-D simulations are used to compute the signal amplitudes and phases on the BPPM electrodes for a given processing frequency, 402.5 MHz or 805 MHz, as functions of the beam transverse position. Working with a summed signal from all the BPPM electrodes provides a good way to measure accurately the beam phase. While for an off-axis beam the signal phases on the individual electrodes can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal is found to be independent of the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.

  8. Beam Position-Phase Monitors for SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling with MAFIA of the combined beam position-phase monitors (BPPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed. Time-domain 3-D simulations are used to compute the signal amplitudes and phases on the BPPM electrodes for a given processing frequency, 402.5 MHz or 805 MHz, as functions of the beam transverse position. Working with a summed signal from all the BPPM electrodes provides a good way to measure accurately the beam phase. While for an off-axis beam the signal phases on the individual electrodes can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal is found to be independent of the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.

  9. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.

  10. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  11. Superconducting RF Linac Technology for ERL Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Chris

    2005-08-01

    Energy Recovering Linacs (ERLs) offer an attractive alternative as drivers for light sources as they combine the desirable characteristics of both storage rings (high efficiency) and linear accelerators (superior beam quality). Using superconducting RF technology allows ERLs to operate more efficiently because of the inherent characteristics of SRF linacs, namely that they are high gradient-low impedance structures and their ability to operate in the long pulse or CW regime. We present an overview of the physics challenges encountered in the design and operation of ERL based light sources with particular emphasis on those issues related to SRF technology. These challenges include maximizing a cavity's Qo to increase cryogenic efficiency, maintaining control of the cavity field in the presence of the highest feasible loaded Q and providing adequate damping of the higher-order modes (HOMs). If not sufficiently damped, dipole HOMs can drive the multipass beam breakup (BBU) instability which ERLs are particularly susceptible to. Another challenge involves efficiently extracting the potentially large amounts of HOM power that are generated when a bunch traverses the SRF cavities and which may extend over a high range of frequencies. We present experimental data from the Jefferson Lab FEL Upgrade, a 10 mA ERL light source presently in operation, aimed at addressing some of these issues. We conclude with an outlook towards the future of ERL based light sources.

  12. Recirculating Linac Acceleration - End-to-End Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Bogacz

    2010-03-01

    A conceptual design of a high-pass-number Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) for muons is presented. The scheme involves three superconducting linacs (201 MHz): a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair multi-pass (4.5-pass) 'Dogbone' RLAs. Acceleration starts after ionization cooling at 220 MeV/c and proceeds to 12.6 GeV. The Pre-accelerator captures a large muon phase space and accelerates muons to relativistic energies, while adiabatically decreasing the phase-space volume, so that effective acceleration in the RLA is possible. The RLA further compresses and shapes up the longitudinal and transverse phase-spaces, while increasing the energy. Appropriate choice of multi-pass linac optics based on FODO focusing assures large number of passes in the RLA. The proposed 'Dogbone' configuration facilitates simultaneous acceleration of both mu± species through the requirement of mirror symmetric optics of the return 'droplet' arcs. Finally, presented end-to-end simulation validates the efficiency and acceptance of the accelerator system.

  13. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in the wavelength range 1.5--15 angstrom. This FEL, called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. In this report, the Design Team has established performance parameters for all the major components of the LCLS and developed a layout of the entire system. Chapter 1 is the Executive Summary. Chapter 2 (Overview) provides a brief description of each of the major sections of the LCLS, from the rf photocathode gun, through the experimental stations and electron beam dump. Chapter 3 describes the scientific case for the LCLS. Chapter 4 provides a review of the principles of the FEL physics that the LCLS is based on, and Chapter 5 discusses the choice of the system's physical parameters. Chapters 6 through 10 describe in detail each major element of the system. Chapters 11 through 13 respectively cover undulator controls, mechanical alignment, and radiation issues

  14. Status of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) Cryo-Module

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Montesinos, E; Schirm, K; Vande Craen, A; Vandoni, G; Van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art SRF technology. Such an accelerator could serve as a driver in new physics facilities for neutrinos and/or radioactive ion beams [1]. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium beta=1 elliptical cavities (operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m) and the test of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase, only four out of the eight cavities of the SPL cryo-module will be tested in a half-length cryo-module developed for this purpose, which nonetheless preserves the main features of the full size module. This paper presents the final design of the cryo-module and the status of the construction of the main cryostat parts. Preliminary plans for the assembly a...

  15. IOT RF Power Sources for Pulsed and CW Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, H P

    2004-01-01

    For many years, klystrons have been the preferred RF power amplifiers for both pulsed and CW linacs at UHF and higher frequencies. Their properties have earned them that position. But in recent years in UHF terrestrial television transmitters the earlier predominant klystron has been replaced the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) because the IOT provides higher efficiency and, due to its excellent linearity, can handle the simultaneous amplification of both the vision and the sound signal. Its robustness and life expectancy equals that of a klystron, and it more than compensates its lower gain by a lower price and a smaller size. For linac operation, derivates of UHF TV IOTs, capable of up to 80 kW CW output power, are already available and operating. In L-Band, they are presently joined by recently developed 15 to 30 kW CW IOTs. HOM-IOTs are expected to extend the CW range in UHF to 1 MW and beyond. Pulsed operation of an IOT can be achieved without a high-voltage modulator. Since the beam current is grid-controll...

  16. Métodos para la resolución del problema no lineal de equilibrio estático en sistemas multicuerpo

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Rafael; Ajuria, Goizalde; Bilbao, Armando

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda la resolución del problema no lineal de posición de equilibrio estático y de otros problemas de posición en sistemas mecánicos multicuerpo complejos, que incluyen elementos rígidos y elásticos. En el estudio se utiliza una función de error sencilla, que se basa en la función potencial e incluye en el análisis a los elementos rígidos por medio de restricciones 110 lineales. Se presenta la aplicación de los Multiplicadores de Lagrange, Funciones de Penalización, ...

  17. Cálculo de los estimadores de regresión cuantílica lineal por medio del método accpm

    OpenAIRE

    López, Héctor Andrés; Mora, Héctor Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Se muestra cómo calcular los estimadores en regresión cuantílica por medio del método de optimización no diferenciable ACCPM (Analytic Center Cutting Plane Method). El cálculo de dichos estimadores usualmente se encuentra por medio de programación lineal y sus respectivas técnicas de solución (método simplex, métodos de punto interior, etc.). La primera parte presenta las generalidades de la regresión cuantílica y su formulación como un problema de programación lineal. Además, se realiza una ...

  18. Fenómenos no lineales en ondas de materia y de luz : condensados de Bose-Einstein y solitones ópticos

    OpenAIRE

    García Ripoll, Juan José

    2001-01-01

    En esta tesis se estudia la ecuacion de Schodinger no lineal (ESNL) en diversas variantes, contemplando aplicaciones y tecnicas matematicas generales para el analisis de estas ecuaciones de ondas. En la primera parte de la memoria se estudia la ESNL en el contexto de la condensacion de Bose-Einstein, donde este tipo de ecuaciones describen la evolucion de un condensado gaseoso diluido. En este marco se estudia la posibilidad de generar vortices en el condensado empleando procedimientos mecani...

  19. La programación lineal con la hoja de cálculo de Excel: una apuesta por las nuevas tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Juan

    2003-01-01

    La programación lineal es un tema muy importante dentro del bloque de álgebra de las matemáticas aplicadas a las ciencias sociales y es conveniente dar una idea clara y concisa en el aula de cuál es su campo de aplicación, ya que es posible que el alumnado se enfrente a ella en sus estudios superiores de la aplique en su trabajo futuro.

  20. Criptoanálisis de un criptosistema de dos canales basado en una función no lineal caótica

    OpenAIRE

    Orúe López, Amalia; Martínez García, María José; Pastor Dégano, Gerardo; Montoya Vitini, Fausto; Sánchez Ávila, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se realiza el criptoanálisis de un criptosistema caótico basado en el sistema de Lorenz, que utiliza dos canales de comunicación y una función no lineal caótica. Se demuestra que el sistema propuesto es inseguro ya que los valores de los parámetros del sistema pueden determinarse con gran precisión utilizando un receptor intruso.

  1. Secuencia de tareas de la unidad didáctica Método gráfico para resolver sistemas de ecuaciones lineales 2x2

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Diana Paola; Bernal, Mónica Liliana; Torres, Fernando; Pinzón, Álvaro Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Presentaremos la secuencia de tareas diseñada para la unidad didáctica Método gráfico para resolver sistemas de ecuaciones lineales 2x2, fundamentada a partir del modelo del análisis didáctico. Describiremos el diseño final de la secuencia de tareas y mostraremos su contribución a los objetivos de aprendizaje.

  2. Viscoelasticidad lineal de estructuras líquido-cristalinas de un sistema tensioactivo no iónico nonilfenol etoxilado/agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos, C.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the linear viscoelastic behaviour of micelar and liquid-crystalline phases in a polyoxy-ethylene glycol nonylphenyl ether (EOa=10/water system was studied. A linear viscoelastic characterization using small amplitude oscillatory tests was carried out. The Maxwell and Generalized Maxwell models fit the linear viscoelastic functions of micellar and hexagonal phases respectively, fairly well. On the other hand, the lamellar phase shows a plateau region characteristic of highly structured systems. As may be deduced from the experimental results, dynamic measurements constitute an effective method to study the structural changes occurring in phase diagrams.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento viscoelástico lineal de las fases micelares y líquido-cristalinas presentes en el diagrama de fases del sistema aducto de nonilfenol con diez moles de óxido de etileno (NPFE-10 y agua. Con este propósito se efectuaron ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria no destructivos dentro del intervalo de viscoelasticidad lineal. Las funciones viscoelásticas obtenidas para las fases micelar y hexagonal pueden describirse satisfactoriamente mediante modelos de Maxwell simple y generalizado, respectivamente. El comportamiento viscoelástico lineal de la fase laminar es el típico de fluidos altamente estructurados, obteniéndose una zona plateau en el intervalo de frecuencias estudiado. Por otra parte, de los resultados experimentales se deduce que los ensayos viscoelásticos lineales constituyen un método eficaz a la hora de determinar las transiciones de fases micelares y/o líquido-cristalinas.

  3. Modelación del crecimiento de pollitas Lohmann LSL con redes neuronales y modelos de regresión no lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Galeano-Vasco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Modelar la curva del crecimiento de aves de la línea Lohmann LSL utilizando modelos no lineales (MNL, no lineales mixtos (MNLM y redes neuronales artificiales (RNA. Materiales y métodos. Periódicamente se pesaron 33 aves en promedio, desde el día 21 al 196 de vida para un total de 558 registros individuales de peso. En el ajuste de la curva de crecimiento se utilizaron los modelos: no lineal de Von Bertalanffy (MNL, no lineal Mixto de Von Bertalanffy (MNLM y redes neuronales artificiales (RNA. Los modelos se compararon con coeficiente de correlación y medidas de presicion cuadrado medio del error (CME, desviación media absoluta (MAD y porcentaje de la media absoluta del error (MAPE. Resultados. Los valores de correlación entre los datos reales y estimados, fueron 0.999, 0.990 y 0.986 para MNLM, RNA y MNL respectivamente. El modelo más preciso con base en los criterios MAPE, MAD y CME fue el MNLM, seguido por la RNA. La grafica de predicción generada la RNA es similar a la del MNLM. La RNA presentó un desempeño superior al MLN. Conclusiones. El mejor modelo para la predicción de curvas de crecimiento de aves comerciales de la línea Lohmman LSL hasta los 196 días de edad, con múltiples mediciones por animal en el tiempo, fue el MNLM. La RNA presento un desempeño superior al MNL.

  4. Measurement of the dose by dispersed radiation in a lineal accelerator using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) is based on the principle of the luminescent in a material when is heated below their incandescence temperature. Is a technique very used in dosimetry that is based on the property that have most of the crystalline materials regarding the storage of the energy that they absorb when are exposed to the ionizing radiations. When this material has been irradiated previously, the radioactive energy that contains is liberated in form of light. In general, the principles that govern the thermoluminescence are in essence the same of those responsible for all the luminescent processes and, this way, the thermoluminescence is one of the processes that are part of the luminescence phenomenon. For this work, the dispersed radiation was measured in the therapy area of the lineal accelerator of medical use type Elekta, using thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO4:Dy + Ptfe developed and elaborated in the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa. With the dosimeters already characterized and calibrated, we proceeded to measure the dispersed radiation being a patient in treatment. The results showed values for the dispersed radiation the order of a third of the dose received by the patient on the treatment table at 30 cm of the direct beam and the order of a hundredth in the control area (4 m of the direct beam, approximately). The conclusion is that the thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO4: Dy + Ptfe are appropriate to measure dispersed radiation dose in radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Planeación de la producción mediante la programación lineal con incertidumbre: Uso del programa OR Brainware Decision Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moya Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se utiliza la programación lineal para construir modelos de programación y control de la producción, es común asumir que todos los parámetros del modelo son conocidos y son ciertos. Sin embargo, esto no es frecuente en los problemas de la vida real. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar cómo se selecciona el mejor curso de acción en un plan de producción al combinar herramientas deterministas, como la programación lineal, con el análisis de decisiones terminales, tomando en cuenta criterios de elección no probabilistas y criterios de elección probabilistas en el análisis de decisiones. Para resolver el problema de programación lineal se presenta el programa OR Brainware Decisión Tools, el cual está completamente programado en la plataforma de Microsoft Office Excel a partir de la versión 2007.

  6. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  7. Experience of achieving vacuum in 10 MeV, 10 kW linac at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have assembled the Linac of 10 MeV, 10 kW output power Linac for Food Irradiation is procured from Russia. The vacuum system consists of one 250 litres/sec Turbo-Molecular pump and three nos. of 70 litres/sec Sputter Ion Pumps (SIP), which are made in house is connected to obtain and maintain the vacuum in linac. For efficient operations, one inverted Magnetron gauge (Pffeifer model) is connected just below the electron gun to measure the gun and Linac pressure. We have obtained the 2.4 x10-9 torr pressure in the Linac by using above mentioned pump. Vacuum is maintaining in the Linac from last one year and initial testing of beam acceleration in single pulse mode is carried out and 356 mA pulse current was measured. The total length of Linac is 3 meter. One SIP is connected in between e-gun and accelerating buncher cavity and other two is connected after accelerating section and in the scanning horn where e-beam will pass through from thin Titanium (Ti) foil to air. This electron accelerator will be used for irradiation of food product and medical product. (author)

  8. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rees, Daniel Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scheinker, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  9. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  10. Analysis of the LSC microbunching instability in MaRIE linac reference design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In this report we estimate the effect of the microbunching instability in the MaRIE XFEL linac. The reference design for the linac is described in a separate report [1]. The parameters of the L1, L2, and L3 linacs as well as BC1 and BC2 bunch compressors were the same as in the referenced report. The beam dynamics was assumed to be linear along the accelerator (which is a reasonable assumption for estimating the effect of the microbunching instability). The parameters of the bunch also match the parameters described in [1]. Additionally it was assumed that the beam radius is equal to R = 100 m and does not change along linac. This assumption needs to be revisited at later studies. The beam dynamics during acceleration was accounted in the matrix formalism using a Matlab code. The input parameters for the linacs are: RF peak gradient, RF frequency, RF phase, linac length, and initial beam energy. The energy gain and the imposed chirp are calculated based on the RF parameters self-consistently. The bunch compressors are accounted in the matrix formalism as well. Each chicane is characterized by the beam energy and the R56 matrix element. It was confirmed that the linac and beam parameters described in [1] provide two-stage bunch compression with compression ratios of 10 and 20 resulting in the bunch of 3kA peak current.

  11. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  12. Coherent Effects of High Current Beam in Project-X Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Alexander; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Gonin, Ivan; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Lunin, Andrei; Saini, Arun; Solyak, Nikolay; Vostrikov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Resonance excitation of longitudinal high order modes in superconducting RF structures of Project-X continuous wave linac is studied. We analyze regimes of operation of the linac with high beam current, which can be used to provide an intense muon source for the future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider, and also important for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical systems. We calculate power loss and associated heat load to the cryogenic system. Longitudinal emittance growth is estimated. We consider an alternative design of the elliptical cavity for the high energy part of the linac, which is more suitable for high current operation.

  13. Basis for low beam loss in the high-current APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Kurennoy, S.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Ryne, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crandall, K.R. [TECHSOURCE, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The present evidence that the APT proton linac design will meet its goal of low beam loss operation. The conclusion has three main bases: (1) extrapolation from the understanding of the performance of the 800-MeV LANSCE proton linac at Los Alamos, (2) the theoretical understanding of the dominant halo-forming mechanism in the APT accelerator from physics models and multiparticle simulations, and (3) the conservative approach and key principles underlying the design of the APT linac, which are aimed at minimizing beam halo and providing large apertures to reduce beam loss to a very low value.

  14. Linac-based, intense, coherent x-ray source using self-amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author discusses the principles of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), how the SASE could be the basis of next generation light sources exceeding the current performance -- by many orders of magnitude in spectral brightness, and by a factor of a hundred in time resolution. He also discusses how the SLAC linac, due to its high energy and its precision control, is ideally suited for the x-ray SASE. Therefore, using the SLAC linac for generation of x-ray SASE for the frontier of the photon sciences will ensure that the SLAC linac remain scientifically vigorous for a long time

  15. Status of the Argonne heavy-ion-fusion low-beta linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.M.; Bogaty, J.M.; Moretti, A.; Sacks, R.A.; Sesol, N.Q.; Wright, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary goal of the experimental program in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the next few years is to demonstrate many of the requirements of a RF linac driver for inertial-fusion power plants. So far, most of the construction effort has been applied to the front end. The ANL program has developed a high-intensity xenon source, a 1.5-MV preaccelerator, and the initial cavities of the low-beta linac. The design, initial tests, and status of the low-beta linac are described.

  16. Status of the Argonne heavy ion fusion low-beta linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.M.; Bogaty, J.M.; Moretti, A.; Sacks, R.A.; Sesol, N.Q.; Wright, A.J.

    1981-06-01

    The primary goal of the experimental program in heavy ion fusion (HIF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the next few years is to demonstrate many of the requirements of a RF linac driver for inertial fusion power plants. So far, most of the construction effort has been applied to the front end. The ANL program has developed a high intensity xenon source, a 1.5 MV preaccelerator, and the initial cavities of the low-beta linac. The design, initial tests and status of the low-beta linac are described. 8 refs.

  17. Linac4 RFQ assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    This series of pictures documents the assembly phase of the Linac4 RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), performed at the end of July 2012. The Linac4 RFQ is made of 3 modules, 1 meter each, assembled together to accelerate the H- or proton beam from the ion source extraction at 45 kV to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ is the first of the Linac4 accelerating structures, which will increase to 160 MeV the beam injection energy into the PS Booster as from the end of LS2.

  18. Concept for simultaneous acceleration/deceleration of heavy ions in a single rf linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines a concept for obtaining highly-stripped low- velocity heavy ions by accelerating an ion beam with an rf linac and then, after stripping, using the same linac to reversibly decelerate the beam back to the injection energy. The synchronous-phase requirement and the matching relationship in longitudinal phase space are stated, and a realistic example of these relationships is given for a 58Ni beam. The probable performance characteristics of the ATLAS superconducting linac operated in this new accel/decel mode are discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs

  19. Beam dynamics design of the main accelerating section with KONUS in the CSR-LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Hu, Zhang; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xue-Jun, Yin; Heng, Du

    2013-01-01

    The CSR-LINAC injector has been proposed in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The linac mainly consists of two parts, the RFQ and the IH-DTL. The KONUS (Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur) concept has been introduced into the DTL section. In this paper, the re-matching of the main accelerating section will be finished in the 3.7 MeV/u scheme and the new beam dynamics design up to 7 MeV/u will be also shown. Through the beam re-matching, the relative emittance growth has been suppressed greatly along the linac.

  20. Frequency to digital converter for IUAC Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequency to digital converter CAMAC module has been designed and developed for LINAC control systems. This module is used to see the frequency difference of master clock and the resonator frequency digitally without using the oscilloscope. Later on this can be used for automatic tuning and locking of the cavities using piezoelectric actuator based tunner control. This module has eight independent channels to fulfill the need of all the eight cavities of the cryostat. A Schmitt trigger along with level converaccepts almost any form of pulse train, with 30 Vp-p. The time period is measured by counters clocked from a high resolution clock (10 MHz +/- 250 ps). The counter values are cross checked at both the input levels. Frequency is obtained from the computed time period by a special divisor core implemented inside the FPGA. The major task was the implementation of eight individual divisor cores and routing inside one Spartan 3s500E FPGA chip