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Sample records for aceitera elaeis guineensis

  1. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

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    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  2. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

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    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  3. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

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    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  4. USO DE WINRHIZO® EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN DE LAS RAÍCES Y SU APLICACIÓN EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ.

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    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta nota técnica es introducir el uso de WinRhizo ® para el análisis cuantitativo de muestras del sistema radical de los cultivos en general y de la palma aceitera en particular. Se mencionan las características mor - fológicas, topológicas y funcionales de las raíces de impor - tancia agronómica, y la contribución del análisis cuantitativo realizado por paquetes informáticos especializados como WinRhizo ® . La información sobre la topología, la morfolo - gía, el diámetro, las ramificaciones y el color de las raíces, entre otras variables cuantificadas por WinRhizo ® , es una importante herramienta para el diagnóstico, la prevención y el tratamiento del estrés, y en la evaluación de numerosas prácticas agronómicas como la aplicación de fertilizantes, enmiendas, compostas y coberturas de diversos tipos. Se revisa el procedimiento para el procesamiento de raíces y se indican los ajustes necesarios para la cuantificación de las raíces de la palma aceitera.

  5. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico; Datos bionomicos y descripcion de los inmaduros de Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), plaga de la Palma Aceitera (Elaeis guineensis J.) y de la Palma Camedor (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) en Tabasco, Mexico

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    Cordova-Ballona, Leonides [Universidad Popular de la Chontalpa, Tabasco (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, Saul [Colegio de Postgraduados, Tabasco (Mexico). Campus Tabasco

    2008-11-15

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  6. Wound healing activity of Elaeis guineensis leaf extract ointment.

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    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2012-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  7. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  8. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid.

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    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana Ls; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the parental species genomes. We estimated the genome size of three E. guineensis genotypes, five E. oleifera genotypes, and two interspecific hybrids genotypes. On average, the genome size of E. guineensis is 4.32 ± 0.173 pg, while that of E. oleifera is 4.43 ± 0.018 pg. This indicates that both genomes are similar in size, even though E. oleifera is in fact bigger. As expected, the hybrid genome size is around the average of the two genomes, 4.40 ± 0.016 pg. Additionally, we demonstrate that both species present around 38% of GC content. As our results contradict the currently available data on Elaeis spp. genome sizes, we propose that the actual genome size of the Elaeis species is around 4 pg and that American oil palm possesses a larger genome than African oil palm.

  9. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

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    Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in by MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed by using light microscope. Results: The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7. Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure with Elaeis guineensis extract were observed under phase contrast microscope in the dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation.

  10. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

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    Soundararajan Vijayarathna

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation.

  11. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis

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    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG and Y3 (EEUWENSand carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Ponin vitro seedling development, and the survival rate of acclimatized seedlingsof Manicoré hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on MS and modified Y3 media, supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (30, 45, and 60 gL-1 or sorbitol (36 gL-1, and the germination rate was evaluated after 30 days. Subsequently, seedlings were transferred to modified Y3 culture medium supplemented with differentGA3 concentrations (3.5 and 7 mgL-1 or without it, combined or not with 1 mgL-1 of NAA, 5 mgL-1 of BAP.The highest germinationpercentage of germinated embryos (92% was observed in MS medium supplemented with 36 gL-1 sorbitol. Culture media supplemented with growth regulatorsGA3, NAA and BAP promoted greater shoot lengththan control media. Rooted seedlings showed high survival percentage (85% during acclimatization.

  12. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

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    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  13. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

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    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  14. Development, characterisation, and across-taxa utility of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers.

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    Billotte, N; Risterucci, A M; Barcelos, E; Noyer, J L; Amblard, P; Baurens, F C

    2001-06-01

    The results of the development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers are given step by step, from the screening of libraries enriched in (GA)n, (GT)n, and (CCG)n simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) to the final characterisation of 21 SSR loci. Also published are primer sequences, estimates of allele size range, and expected heterozygosity in E. guineensis and in the closely related species E. oleifera, in which an optimal utility of the SSR markers was observed. Multivariate data analyses showed the ability of SSR markers to efficiently reveal the genetic-diversity structure of the genus Elaeis in accordance with known geographical origins and with measured genetic relationships based on previous molecular studies. High levels of allelic variability indicated that E. guineensis SSRs will be a powerful tool for genetic studies of the genus Elaeis, including variety identification and intra- or inter-specific genetic mapping. PCR amplification tests on a subset of 16 other palm species and allele-sequence data showed that E. guineensis SSRs are putative transferable markers across palm taxa. In addition, phenetic information based on SSR flanking region sequences makes E. guineensis SSR markers a potentially useful molecular resource for any researcher studying the phylogeny of palm taxa.

  15. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soundararajan; Vijayarathna; Sreenivasan; Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7and Vero cell.Methods:In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in by MTT assay.Cell morphological changes were observed by using light microscope.Results:The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7.Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure with lilaeis guineensis extract were observed under phase contrast microscope in the dose dependent manner.Conclusions:The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments.Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation.

  16. Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis: fatty acid regiodistribution and molecular species of glycerides.

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    Mozzon, Massimo; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Balzano, Michele; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The composition and structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and partial glycerides of crude palm oil obtained from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis, grown in Colombia, were fully characterised and compared to data obtained by analysing crude African palm oil. Hybridisation appears to substantially modify the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) rather than their assembly in TAGs. In fact, total FAs analysis showed significant differences between these two types of oil, with hybrid palm oil having a higher percentage of oleic acid (54.6 ± 1.0 vs 41.4 ± 0.3), together with a lower saturated fatty acid content (33.5 ± 0.5 vs 47.3 ± 0.1), while the percentage of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, does not undergo significant changes. Furthermore, 34 TAG types were identified, with no qualitative differences between African and E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid palm oil samples. Short and medium chain FAs (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0) were utilised, together, to build a restricted number of TAG molecular species. Oil samples from the E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid showed higher contents of monosaturated TAGs (47.5-51.0% vs 36.7-37.1%) and triunsaturated TAGs (15.5-15.6% vs 5.2-5.4%). The sn-2 position of TAGs in hybrid palm oil was shown to be predominantly esterified with oleic acid (64.7-66.0 mol% vs 55.1-58.2 mol% in African palm oil) with only 10-15% of total palmitic acid and 6-20% of stearic acid acylated in the secondary position. The total amount of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was in agreement with the values of free acidity; DAG types found were in agreement with the representativeness of different TAG species.

  17. Embryogenic calli induced in interspecific (Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera hybrid zygotic embryos

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    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and caiaué (E. oleifera plants is directed to obtainprogenies presenting high yields like oil palm but with reduced shoot height and resistance to lethal yellowing like caiaué.Cloning F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies can make the replication of selection trials easier. The objective of this work was to inducesomatic embryogenesis in interspecific zygotic embryos collected 100 days after pollination. Three progenies were cultivatedin an induction medium developed for Tenera (E. guineensis tp. dura x pisifera embryos. The number of embryos bearing calliand germinating was recorded and submitted to the Z test. Calli were weighted and submitted to histological analysis.Progenies differed in the number of embryos presenting plumules and calli simultaneously. By the ninth month, the apices ofincompletely developed somatic embryos were observed protruding from the surfaces of nodular calli. Highly embryogenicand friable secondary calli producing globular somatic embryos were not observed.

  18. Total amino acid profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines.

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    Ibegbulem, C O; Igwe, C U; Okwu, G N; Ujowundu, C O; Onyeike, E N; Ayalogu, E O

    2013-06-01

    Total amino acid (AA) profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines were studied. Heating their fresh wines to 85°C, cooling and diluting to original volumes distilled off ethanol, but did not change their moisture and nitrogen contents. R. hookeri wine contained more (pguineensis wine which contained more (p0.05). Glycine and Pro contents were low suggesting high globular protein concentrations. ∑basic AA/∑acidic AA ratios were >1 suggesting high basic protein contents. The E. guineensis and R. hookeri wines contained 58.25 ± 0.56% and 56.79 ± 0.4% essential AAs, respectively. Essential AA scores suggested Leu as their limiting AA. In conclusion, the wines can adequately meet daily nitrogen and essential AA needs when a 70 kg adult drinks 1425.45 ml.

  19. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

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    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  20. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

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    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  1. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  2. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

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    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  3. The Antimicrobial efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

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    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Zakaria, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-04-26

    The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis GROWN IN HYDROPONICS

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    Yurany Dayana Rivera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific hybrid, Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG is an alternative for improving the competitiveness and sustainability of the Latin American oil palm agro-industry, because of its partial resistance to some lethal diseases and also because of the high quality of its oil. A comparative characterization was conducted of the physiological and biochemical performance of seedlings of six OxG hybrids grown in hydroponics. Gas exchange, vegetative growth, protein, sugar and photosynthetic pigment content, and antioxidant system activity were determined. With the exception of gas exchange, the other variables showed significant differences between materials. The ‘U1273’ and ‘U1737’ materials showed greater vegetative growth with no expression of biochemical traits, while the ‘U1914’and ‘U1990’ materials showed high levels of reducing and total sugars, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant system activities, characteristics that could confer them adaptation to stress conditions. With the standardized hydroponics technique, the optimal conditions for the growth of seedlings were ensured, the differences between materials and hybrid crosses were established, so those with promising features from the physiological and biochemical standpoint were identified. Finally, it could be used to study in a simple, fast, clean and inexpensive way, the effect of levels and sources of mineral nutrients on the growth and development of oil palm.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis GROWN IN HYDROPONICS

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    YURANY DAYANNA RIVERA MÉNDEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El híbrido interespecífico Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG es una alternativa para mejorar la competitividad y sostenibilidad de la agroindustria de la palma de aceite latinoamericana, debido a su resistencia parcial a enfermedades letales y a que su aceite es de muy alta calidad. Se realizó la caracterización comparativa del desempeño fisiológico y bioquímico de seis híbridos OxG crecidos en medio hidropónico. Se hicieron determinaciones de intercambio de gases, crecimiento vegetativo, proteínas, azúcares, contenido de pigmentos fotosintéticos y actividad del sistema antioxidante enzimático. Con excepción de las variables de intercambio de gases, las otras variables mostraron diferencias significativas entre materiales. Los materiales ‘U1273’ y ‘U1737’ mostraron mayor crecimiento vegetativo sin expresar cualidades desde el punto de vista bioquímico, mientras los materiales ‘U1914’ y ‘U1990’ mostraron altos niveles de azúcares totales y reductores, compuestos fotosintéticos y actividades del sistema antioxidante, características que podrían conferirles adaptación a condiciones de estrés.

  6. Performance of Elaeis Guineensis Leaves Compost in Filter Media for Stormwater Treament Through Column Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaijudin, H.; Ghani, A. A.; Zakaria, N. A.; Tze, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    Compost based materials arv e widely used in filter media for improving soil capability and plant growth. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different types of compost materials used in engineered soil media through soil column investigation. Three (3) column, namely C1 (control), C2 and C3 had different types compost (10%) which were, commercial compost namely PEATGRO, Compost A and Compost B were prepared with 60% medium sand and 30% of topsoil. The diluted stormwater runoff was flushed to the columns and it was run for six (6) hour experiment. The influent and effluent samples were collected and tested for Water Quality Index (WQI) parameters. The results deduced that C3 with Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost (Compost B) achieved 90.45 (Class II) better than control condition which accomplished 84 (Class II) based on WQI Classification. C3 with Compost A (African Mahogany Leaves Compost) obtained only 59.39 (Class III). C3 with the composition of Compost B effectively removed most pollutants, including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), were reduced by 89±4% and 96.6±0.9%, respectively. The result concluded that Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost is recommended to be used as part of engineered soil media due to its capabilities in eliminating stormwater pollutants.

  7. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  8. Characterization of Different Parts of Oil Palm Fronds (Elaeis Guineensis and Its Properties

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    Noor Afeefah Nordin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on characterizing the properties of oil palm fronds (Elaeis guineensis from different parts. The fronds were cut to three parts which were the top, middle and bottom. The samples were chipped, dried in the oven of 50 °C and ground before they were characterized. The properties of the fronds were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The results from TGA showed that the bottom part of the frond had the lowest percentage of residues which was 29.22 % and the degradation temperature was 194.17 °C. The FTIR spectra showed almost similar peaks for all samples. The bottom part of the frond had the highest crystallinity index which was 35.26 %. The study proved that different parts of the frond had different characteristics due to its chemical compositions.

  9. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

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    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  10. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

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    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  11. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees.

  12. Assessment of various strategies for the preservation of clonal genetic resources in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Konan, K.E.; Rival, A.; Kouadio, Y. J.; Duval, Yves; Flori, A.; Adon, B.; Pene, C.; Gasselin, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Three different approaches for the preservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) clonal genetic resources and their impacts on the induction of the « mantled » somaclonal variation were assessed. In vitro long term preservation of somatic embryos stock-cultures was studied : after a 5 year cultivation period, 75 % of clonal lines were still normal. Between 8 and 13 years of embryo cultures, half of the considered clonal lines were found to be « mantled ». Finally, 40 % were found t...

  13. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  14. A Review on Recycling Ash Derived from Elaeis guineensis By-product

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    Zhong Xian Ooi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ash is defined as the waste generated after the combustion of oil palm biomass. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest producers and exporter of palm oil in the world, and there is approximately 4 million tonnes of oil palm ash generated annually. It is estimated that the amount of oil palm ash will keep increasing due to the high demand for palm oil globally. Normally, oil palm ash is disposed without any beneficial economic return value. The awareness of this environmental crisis has increased significantly over the past few years. With the evolution of ash utilization strategies, interest in oil palm ash in various research fields has grown. Through the effort of researchers and information available, the properties of the resulting materials are affected by the percentage of substitution and particle size of the oil palm ash. The major challenges in utilizing oil palm ash are discussed in this paper, as are the beneficial effects, which can include reducing the negative environmental impact and the product cost. Although the recycling of oil palm ash is still a new focus of interest, the main thrust of waste management in Malaysia will continue to focus on this kind of research and will attempt to solve the problem of disposal of the ash as well.

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  16. Adoption of the Tenera Hybrid of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. among Smallholder Farmers in Cameroon

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    Assoumou Mezui, MR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. type was studied by focusing on 208 family farmers in Cameroon. The "Average Treatment Effect" (ATE method was used. This method enables to estimate, by use of a Probit model, the effects created when a farmer is exposed to treatment (or intervention, which represents a source of improved oil palm planting material. According to the results, the estimated adoption rate for Tenera is highly significant (P< 0.05 for all the categories of producers, regardless of the supply source, which may be formal or informal. In addition, the main factors that significantly determine this adoption are: availability of arable land in forested areas and whether growers intend to increase the size of their plantations. However, the supply of pure planting material remains an important constraint because the other two types of oil palm (Dura and Pisifera which produce poor palm oil yields are still mistakenly planted on many family farms in Cameroon. Further studies will address this issue in the aim of identifying appropriate solutions.

  17. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. based on RAPD analysis

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    Nualsri, C.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14 were chosen to analyse for genetic variation in 151 individuals representing 52 dura, 60 tenera and 39 pisifera. Two hundred and nine amplified fragments were obtained from 7 primers with an average of 29.85 RAPD markers per primer. A dendrogram showing genetic similarities among oil palm was constructed based on polymorphic bands using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed using the SPSS program, which revealed four major clusters: 1 dura, tenera and pisifera from Paorong Oil Palm Company, Oil Palm Research Center, dura and tenera from private plantation in Krabi, and dura from Thepa Research Station;2 dura and tenera from Thai Boonthong Company, pisifera and tenera from Thepa Research Station, dura, tenera and pisifera from Klong Hoi Khong Research Station; 3 and 4 dura and tenera from Univanit Company, respectively. In general, a similarity index showed relatively high levels of 0.6 or greater.

  18. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  19. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  20. Antihypertensive and cardiovascular effects of catechin-rich oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract in nitric oxide-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffri, Juliana M; Mohamed, Suhaila; Rohimi, Nordanial; Ahmad, Intan N; Noordin, M Mustapha; Manap, Yazid A

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE) possesses good ex vivo vasodilation and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the catechin-rich OPLE antioxidant, antihypertensive, and cardiovascular effects in normal and nitric oxide (NO)-deficient hypertensive rats. OPLE was administered orally (500 mg/kg of body weight/day) to normotensive Wistar rats and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced NO-deficient hypertensive rats. OPLE significantly (Pcatechins extracted from an alternative source, namely, oil palm leaf, for use as a medicinal food for hypertension and cardiovascular ailments.

  1. Evaluación de trampas para capturar adultos de Opsiphanes cassina fabricii Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en palma aceitera en Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de tres diseños de trampas para la captura de adultos de Opsiphanes cassina fabricii, plaga de la palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), así como conocer su dinámica poblacional durante el periodo de estudio, realizar un análisis económico sobre el costo de las trampas y determinar otros insectos atrapados que no son objeto de captura. La investigación se efectuó en una plantación de 3 ha ubicada en el municipio de Cárdenas, Tabasco, Mé...

  2. Identification of MADS-box Gene in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Winda Nawfetrias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bunch size represented by the fruit number is the main parameter of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. yield. The fruit number, which is determined during the initial phase of development, is related to various factors, including the genetic properties of the trees. Trees that have more pistillate flowers have more fruit. The diversity of MADS-box genes assumed can be used as a marker for trees that have a higher number of pistillate flowers. Therefore, the aims of this research were to isolate and identify the MADS-box genes from flowers of tenera oil palm using PCR techniques. The SQUAMOSA (SQUA gene and the GLOBOSA (GLO gene are members of the MADS-box genes family that are responsible for sepal, petal and stamen organ development. The genomic DNA of the staminate flowers of trees that have more staminate flowers (P1 and the genomic DNA of the pistillate flowers of trees that have more pistillate flowers (P2 were isolated using the CTAB+ PVP method. The CTAB+PVP method was more efficient for isolating pistillate flower genomic DNA than staminate flower genomic DNA. The genomic DNA of P1 and P2 was amplified with two primers: BMS and BMG. The BMS primers gave a PCR product size of 1250 bp for the genomic DNA of P1 and P2. Meanwhile, the BMG primers gave a PCR product size of 1250 bp and 1300 bp for P1 and P2, respectively. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed for homology using the GenBank database. BLAST analysis showed the PCR products have high homology with the SQUA1 gene and the GLO2 gene. Alignment analysis showed that the DNA fragments amplified with the BMS primers of the P1 and P2 sequences have variations in the exons and introns, and the variations were observed only in the introns of the DNA fragments amplified with the BMG primers.

  3. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.

  4. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  5. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

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    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However

  6. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

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    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  7. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle.

  8. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortes.

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    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  9. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

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    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  10. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (Psap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  11. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera

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    Godwin Kafui Ayetor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of H2SO4 on viscosity of methyl esters from Jatropha oil (JCME, palm kernel oil (PKOME from Elaeis guineensis species, and coconut oil (COME has been studied. Effect of methanol to oil molar mass ratio on yield of the three feedstocks has also been studied. Methyl ester yield was decreased by esterification process using sulphuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4. Jatropha methyl ester experienced a viscosity reduction of 24% (4.1–3.1 mm2/s with the addition of 1% sulphuric acid. In this work palm kernel oil (PKOME, coconut oil (COME and Jatropha oil (JCME were used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel to investigate optimum parameters to obtain high yield. For each of the feedstock, the biodiesel yield increased with increase in NaOH concentration. The highest yield was obtained with 1% NaOH concentration for all. The effect of methanol in the range of 4:1–8:1 (molar ratio was investigated, keeping other process parameters fixed. Optimum ratios of palm kernel oil and coconut oil biodiesels yielded 98% each at methanol:oil molar ratio of 8:1. The physiochemical properties obtained for each methyl showed superior properties compared with those reported in published data.

  12. Cloning of nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) transcript from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and its expression during Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yee-Min; Meon, Sariah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) protein is implicated in plant disease resistance and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. A full-length cDNA encoding of NOA1 protein from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was isolated and designated as EgNOA1. Sequence analysis suggested that EgNOA1 was a circular permutated GTPase with high similarity to the bacterial YqeH protein of the YawG/YlqF family. The gene expression of EgNOA1 and NO production in oil palm root tissues treated with Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease were profiled to investigate the involvement of EgNOA1 during fungal infection and association with NO biosynthesis. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the transcript abundance of EgNOA1 in root tissues was increased by G. boninense treatment. NO burst in Ganoderma-treated root tissue was detected using Griess reagent, in advance of the up-regulation of the EgNOA1 transcript. This indicates that NO production was independent of EgNOA1. However, the induced expression of EgNOA1 in Ganoderma-treated root tissues implies that it might be involved in plant defense responses against pathogen infection.

  13. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  14. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in planting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Roraima

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    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR. The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by placing a bucket-type trap at each sampling point, using food (sugarcane as bait, and values obtained for the variable, number of insects/ trap, together with the latitude and longitude. An analysis of variability and spatial dependence was carried out by incorporating geostatistical procedures based on spatial modelling techniques employing semivariograms. In addition, kriging maps were generated from counts of adult M. hemipterus taken in the field. The sampling grids proved to be suitable for characterising the spatial distribution in the field of M. hemipterus It was found that the spatial distribution of M. hemipterus is aggregated, with a spatial dependence described by the spherical model, forming patches of 78 to 199 m (range of the model. By means of the kriging maps, it could be seen that infestation first starts at the edges of the plantation, later spreading throughout the area. The results suggest that traps should be placed along the edges of the plantation, to collect and control the insect pests. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o padrão de distribuição espacial, bem como o raio de agregação de Metamasius hemipterus em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, no estado de Roraima. A área experimental está localizada no município de São João da Baliza, RR, onde foram realizadas 24 amostragens no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. O perímetro da área foi demarcado com receptor de sistema de posicionamento global, e

  15. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in an oil palm plantation (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Roraima

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    Luiz Fernandes Silva Dionisio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR. The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by placing a bucket-type trap at each sampling point, using food (sugarcane as bait, and values obtained for the variable, number of insects/ trap, together with the latitude and longitude. An analysis of variability and spatial dependence was carried out by incorporating geostatistical procedures based on spatial modelling techniques employing semivariograms. In addition, kriging maps were generated from counts of adult M. hemipterus taken in the field. The sampling grids proved to be suitable for characterising the spatial distribution in the field of M. hemipterus It was found that the spatial distribution of M. hemipterus is aggregated, with a spatial dependence described by the spherical model, forming patches of 78 to 199 m (range of the model. By means of the kriging maps, it could be seen that infestation first starts at the edges of the plantation, later spreading throughout the area. The results suggest that traps should be placed along the edges of the plantation, to collect and control the insect pests = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o padrão de distribuição espacial, bem como o raio de agregação de Metamasius hemipterus em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, no estado de Roraima. A área experimental está localizada no município de São João da Baliza, RR, onde foram realizadas 24 amostragens no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. O perímetro da área foi demarcado com receptor de sistema de posicionamento global, e

  16. EFECTO DE HONGOS MICORRIZICOS ARBUSCULARES EN PLÁNTULAS DE Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae CON ALTO NIVEL DE P EN EL SUELO EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae SEEDLINGS WITH HIGH PHOSPHORUS LEVEL IN THE SOIL

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    SILVIA EUGENIA BARRERA BERDUGO

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA facilitan la absorción de nutrientes a las plantas hospederas, por esta razón estos microorganismos cumplen un rol fundamental en el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la asociación simbiótica entre HMA nativos y comerciales y plántulas de Elaeis guineensis en condiciones de vivero con un nivel alto de fósforo (P en el suelo. Plantas de tres meses de edad fueron sometidas a cuatro tratamientos: Inóculo Nativo (IN, Inóculo Comercial (IC, Mixto (M y Testigo absoluto (TA. Se evaluaron los parámetros: peso seco total de la planta, peso seco raíz, peso seco parte aérea de la planta, altura de la planta, tasa de crecimiento relativo, colonización micorrízica y número de esporas en el suelo. Se realizaron tres muestreos, uno inicial (día 0, uno a los 45 y a los 90 días después del trasplante de las plántulas (ddt. Los datos fueron analizados mediante un ANOVA o Kruskall-Wallis según el comportamiento de los datos, seguido de un test de Duncan para comparar las medias o un test modificado de Tuckey para datos no paramétricos. Se observaron diferencias significativas en el número de esporas entre los tratamientos IN, M y TA, a los 45 ddt. Para la variable colonización micorrízica se observaron diferencias significativas a los 45 ddt entre los tratamientos IC y TA, mientras que a los 90 ddt se presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos IN, IC y M, con respecto al TA. A pesar de que el nivel de P en el suelo fue alto, el porcentaje de colonización micorrízica estuvo por encima del 50% en los muestreos realizados a los 45 y 90 días. El tratamiento IN funcionó mejor que los tratamientos IC y M, para las condiciones edáficas de este experimento.The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF facilitate the absorption of nutrients to the host plants. These microorganisms therefore, fulfill a fundamental roll in the operation of

  17. Fraccionamiento e interesterificacion del aceite de palma (Elaeis guineensis cultivado en la amazonia peruana

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    Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit of the oily palm coming from the river basin of the Manití (Region Loreto - Peru were studied. Also, the fractionation of the palm oil and the interesterification of mixtures of palm oil/estearin was carried out. Physico- chemical properties of the crude oil and of the products obtained and fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The level of saturated fatty acids increased from 51,17% in the palm oil to 54,31% in the stearin. The best products for the food industry were the interesterified samples as they had melting points close to 37 °C.En el presente trabajo se realizó el estudio de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de la palma aceitera procedente de la cuenca del Manití. (Región Loreto - Perú. Del mismo modo se realizó el fraccionamiento e interesterificación de las mezclas de aceite de palma y estearina en las proporciones. Sobre el aceite crudo y los productos se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicos y análisis de ácidos grasos mediante la cromatografía gaseosa. El aceite de palma presenta una concentración de ácido grasos saturados de 51,17% y cuando fraccionado a 25 °C, este se incrementa en la estearina a 54,31%. Los mejores productos para la industria de alimentos son las mezclas interesterificadas de estearina tanto sola como con sus mezclas con aceite de palma, dado que presentan puntos de fusión próximos a 37 °C.

  18. [Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.

  19. RNA-seq analysis of oil palm under cold stress reveals a different C-repeat binding factor (CBF) mediated gene expression pattern in Elaeis guineensis compared to other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xintao; Xiao, Yong; Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Yang, Yaodong; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis as a tropical oil-crop is particularly sensitive to low temperature. Improvement of cold-tolerance may significantly increase the total cultivation area of this tropical oil-crop worldwide. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated) samples of Elaeis guineensis. De novo assembly generated 51,452 unigenes with an average length of 703 bp. Subsequently, these expressed sequences were functionally annotated. In the K category (transcription factors) of COG (Cluster of Orthologous Group) annotation, the largest proportion of genes induced and repressed at least two-fold under cold stress were from the AP2/ERE family, indicating that C-repeat binding factor, (CBFs, members of the AP2/ERE family) may play a central role in cold tolerance in Elaeis guineensis. Subsequently, the CBF-mediated signal transduction pathway was reconstructed based on transcriptome data and the gene expression profile involving the pathway was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). CBFs reached maximum transcript level both at medium (4 h) and long period time points (7 days), contrary to the expression pattern of CBFs in Arabidopsis and rice. Moreover, the promoters of downstream Cold Responsive gene (CORs) regulated by CBFs were analyzed. Conservation, mutation and absence of the DRE core motif were detected in the promoters of six CORs. These mutations in DRE motifs suggest that CORs may not be induced via cold stress in Elaeis guineensis.

  20. RNA-seq analysis of oil palm under cold stress reveals a different C-repeat binding factor (CBF mediated gene expression pattern in Elaeis guineensis compared to other species.

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    Xintao Lei

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis as a tropical oil-crop is particularly sensitive to low temperature. Improvement of cold-tolerance may significantly increase the total cultivation area of this tropical oil-crop worldwide. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated samples of Elaeis guineensis. De novo assembly generated 51,452 unigenes with an average length of 703 bp. Subsequently, these expressed sequences were functionally annotated. In the K category (transcription factors of COG (Cluster of Orthologous Group annotation, the largest proportion of genes induced and repressed at least two-fold under cold stress were from the AP2/ERE family, indicating that C-repeat binding factor, (CBFs, members of the AP2/ERE family may play a central role in cold tolerance in Elaeis guineensis. Subsequently, the CBF-mediated signal transduction pathway was reconstructed based on transcriptome data and the gene expression profile involving the pathway was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. CBFs reached maximum transcript level both at medium (4 h and long period time points (7 days, contrary to the expression pattern of CBFs in Arabidopsis and rice. Moreover, the promoters of downstream Cold Responsive gene (CORs regulated by CBFs were analyzed. Conservation, mutation and absence of the DRE core motif were detected in the promoters of six CORs. These mutations in DRE motifs suggest that CORs may not be induced via cold stress in Elaeis guineensis.

  1. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  2. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  3. Analysis of multiple transcriptomes of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to identify reference genes for RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Yang, Yaodong; Lei, Xintao; Wu, Xiaoming; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-08-20

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), which is grown in tropical and subtropical regions, is a highly productive oil-bearing crop. For gene expression-based analyses such as reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR), reference genes are essential to provide a baseline with which to quantify relative gene expression. Normalization using reliable reference genes is critical in correctly interpreting expression data from RT-qPCR. In order to identify suitable reference genes in African oil palm, 17 transcriptomes of different tissues obtained from NCBI were systematically assessed for gene expression variation. In total, 53 putative candidate reference genes with coefficient of variation values <3.0 were identified: 18 in reproductive tissue and 35 in vegetative tissue. Analysis for enriched functions showed that approximately 90% of identified genes were clustered in cell component gene functions, and 12 out of 53 genes were traditional housekeeping genes. We selected and validated 16 reference genes chosen from leaf tissue transcriptomes by using RT-qPCR in sets of cold, drought and high salinity treated samples, and ranked expression stability using statistical algorithms geNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. Genes encoding actin, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A genes were the most stable genes over the cold, drought and high salinity stresses. Identification of stably expressed genes as reference gene candidates from multiple transcriptome datasets was found to be reliable and efficient, and some traditional housekeeping genes were more stably expressed than others. We provide a useful molecular genetic resource for future gene expression studies in African oil palm, facilitating molecular genetics approaches for crop improvement in this species.

  4. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

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    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  5. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Kofi Annan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC 50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  6. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  7. Climate-induced vegetation dynamics and the Bantu Expansion: Evidence from Bantu names for pioneer trees (Elaeis guineensis, Canarium schweinfurthii, and Musanga cecropioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostoen, Koen; Grollemund, Rebecca; Koni Muluwa, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The present article examines whether Late Holocene climate-induced vegetation changes in the Central African forest block may have facilitated the Bantu Expansion. This is done through a body of evidence that is not commonly used for the reconstruction of vegetation dynamics, i.e. language data. The article focuses on common Bantu vocabulary for three pioneer species abundantly present in the Central African pollen record between ca. 2500 and 2000 BP: Musanga cecropioides, Elaeis guineensis, and Canarium schweinfurthii. The geographical distribution patterns of the vernacular names for these pioneer trees add weight to the hypothesis according to which the rainforest contraction that emerged in the first millennium BC had an impact on the way Bantu languages dispersed.

  8. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

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    Laure Aymé

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0. A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1 is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Watcharasuda Hualkasin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4 genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq, named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLEA4 (II, I, III, IV and V and each had a close identity to similar LEA4 patterns of soybean (64%.Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the genomic DNA demonstrated that the EgLEA4 gene is composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. The 52 untranslated region shows a putative promoter sequence involved in the transcription process, drought stress and hormone responsive elements. RT-PCR analysis showed that the EgLEA4 gene was only expressed in mesocarp, during the late stages of fruit development. It also had a higher expression in induced drought conditions indicating that the EgLEA4 protein may be involved in plant adaptation and stress (drought responsive pathway.

  13. Textural and chemical characterization of activated carbon prepared from shell of african palm (Elaeis guineensis by chemical activation with CaCl2 and MgCl2

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    Sergio Acevedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons through chemical activation of African palm shells (Elaeis guineensis with magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions at different concentrations were obtained. The prepared materials were characterized textural and chemically. The results show that activated carbons with higher values of surface area and pore volume are obtained when solutions with lower concentrations of the activating agent are used. The obtained activated carbons have surface areas and pore volumes with values between 10 and 501 m2 /g and 0.01 and 0.29 cm3 /g respectively. Immersion enthalpies values of solids in water were between -14.3 and -32.8 J/g and benzene between -13.9 and -38.6 J/g. Total acidity and basicity of the activated carbons had values between 23 and 262 μmol/g 123 and 1724 μmol/g respectively. pH at the point of zero charge was also determined with values between 4.08 and 9.92 for set of activated carbons . The results show that activation with CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts produce activated carbons with pores in the range of mesopores for facilitate entry of the adsorbate into the materials.

  14. A class I KNOX gene from the palm species Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is associated with meristem function and a distinct mode of leaf dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannic, Stefan; Collin, Myriam; Vidal, Benjamin; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Tregear, James W

    2007-01-01

    Class I Knotted-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factors are important regulators of shoot apical meristem function and leaf morphology by their contribution to dissected leaf development. Palms are of particular interest as they produce dissected leaves generated by a distinct mechanism compared with eudicots. The question addressed here was whether class I KNOX genes might be involved in meristem function and leaf dissection in palms. Here, we characterized the EgKNOX1 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Arecaceae) and compared it with available sequences from other plant species using phylogenetic analysis. Gene expression pattern was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Functional analysis was carried out by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis and rice. EgKNOX1 was orthologous to STM from Arabidopsis and to OSH1 from rice. It was expressed in the central zone of both vegetative and reproductive meristems. During leaf development, its expression was associated with plications from which the leaflets originate. Different modes of leaf dissection are seen to involve a similar class of genes to control meristematic activities, which govern the production of dissected morphologies.

  15. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency.

  16. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

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    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  17. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes.

  18. Supplémentation de feuilles de palmier (Elaeis guineensis traitées à la vapeur à des agneaux en Malaisie

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    Bengaly, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of Steamprocessed Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Fronds for Lambs in Malaysia. The effect of supplementation of steam-treated oil palm fronds (SOPF at an optimum rate of urea inclusion (16 g/kg together with graded levels of pelleted cassava foliage (PCF on nitrogen balance in lambs was investigated. The PCF was fed in amounts equivalent to 0% (PCF0, 20% (PCF20 or 40% (PCF40 of dry matter (DM intake of steam-treated oil palm fronds to 9 lambs in a completely randomized block design. The level of PCF supplementation had a positive effect (P0.05. Nitrogen balance was only positive when the lambs received the highest level of PCF supplementation (PCF40. Results of rumen metabolites (pH, ammonia-nitrogen and volatile fatty acids did not indicate any depressive effect on microbial digestion of SOPF. It was concluded that SOPF supplemented with adequate amount of urea (i.e. 16 g/kg and small quantities of PCF (e.g. 200 g/kg DM would significantly increase total DM intake without any depressive effect on intake of basal SOPF. The supplementation improved nitrogen balance and live weight gains of the animals.

  19. Comparative analysis on the effect of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in reducing cadmium and lead accumulation in liver of Wistar rats

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    Chukwuemeka R Nwokocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is an edible nutrient substance with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined its protective effect against lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd accumulation in the liver. Materials and Methods : 12% w/w of palm oil (PO in rat chow concentrate was fed to rats exposed to Cd (200ppm and Pb (100ppm in drinking water at different feeding regimens. PO was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2, post-treatment after exposure (group 3 or pre-treatment before exposure (group 4 for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results : Weight losses induced by these metals were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by PO administration. Analysis among the groups showed that post-treatment group had a significant (P<0.05 higher percentage protection to Cd, but same time treatment for Pb (P<0.05 when compared with other groups. The protective ability to PO was only significantly (P<0.05 increased for Pb at week 2, but showed a time-dependent significant (P<0.05 increase for Cd across all treatment regimens. Conclusion : PO is beneficial in reducing metal accumulation in the liver and has a higher hepatoprotective effect to Cd compared to Pb at the selected doses by possibly affecting the processes of uptake, assimilation and elimination of these metals.

  20. Aproximación proteómica del material IRHO7001 de palma de aceite Elaeis guineensis Jacq en condiciones de déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Mora, Walter Hernando

    2012-01-01

    La palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), es uno de los cultivos más importantes en la actualidad debido a su uso en los biocombustibles y en la producción de aceites (FEDEPALMA 2007). En Colombia, uno de los principales países productores, la mayor parte del cultivo se concentra en regiones secas en los cuales pueden presentarse eventos de estrés hídrico en las plantas. En el presente trabajo se hizo una aproximación proteómica al problema del déficit hídrico en el material vegetal IRHO 7...

  1. 油棕基因组 DNA 3种提取方法的比较研究%Comparison of Three Extract Methods for Genomic DNA of Elaeis guineensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽霞; 肖勇; 杨耀东; 马子龙

    2013-01-01

      采用CTAB小样提取法、PVP法和SDS-CTAB改良法,分别从油棕嫩叶和老叶中提取基因组DNA,并通过紫外分光光度计、琼脂糖凝胶电泳和PCR反应进行检测。研究结果表明:用CTAB小样提取法提取的油棕嫩叶总DNA的质量最好,纯度最高;用其他2种方法提取的DNA的质量均较差。%Using CTAB extraction with small sample , PVP method and SDS -CTAB improved method respectively , Genomic DNAs were extracted from the young and mature leaves of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and were tested by the ultraviolet spectrophotome-ter, agarose gel electrophoresis and PCR reaction .The results showed the extracted total DNA from the young leaves of Elaeis guineensis had the best quality and the highest purity by the CTAB extraction with small sample , but the extracted DNA by other two methods was of poor quality .

  2. MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR Y SU EFECTO EN PLÁNTULAS DE Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae CON ALTO NIVEL DE FÓSFORO EN EL SUELO

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    Barrera Berdugo Silvia Eugenia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los hongos micorrizicos arbusculares (HMA facilitan la absorción de nutrientes a las plantas hospederas, por esta razón estos microorganismos cumplen un rol fundamental en el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto que tienen los HMA nativos y foráneos en Elaeis guineensis se realizó este experimento. Plantas de tres meses de edad fueron sometidas a cuatro tratamientos: IN, IF, Mixto y Testigo. Se evaluó peso seco total de la planta, peso seco raíz, peso seco parte aérea de la planta, altura de la planta, tasa de crecimiento relativo, porcentaje de colonización y número de esporas. Se hicieron tres muestreos, uno inicial, uno a los 45 días y otro a los 90 días. Los datos fueron analizados mediante un ANOVA o Kruskall-Wallis según el comportamiento de los datos, seguido de un test de medias de Duncan o un test modificado de Tuckey para datos no paramétricos. Se presentaron diferencias significativas en el número de esporas entre los tratamientos IN, IF, Mixto y el Testigo y entre IN y Mixto a los 45 días. En el porcentaje de colonización se observaron diferencias entre los tratamientos IF y Testigo a los 45 días. A los 90 días entre todos los tratamientos con respecto al testigo. A pesar de que el nivel de P en el suelo fue alto, también lo fue el porcentaje de colonización en las dos épocas evaluadas. A través del tiempo el tratamiento IN funcionó mejor en las

  3. Composición bromatológica de la carne de conejos suplementados con mataratón y cachaza de palma aceitera

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    Auristela Malavé A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar comparativamente el efecto de la suplementación del alimento balanceado comercial (ABC con follaje de mataratón (Gliricidia sepium y cachaza de palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis en la composición bromatológica de la carne de conejo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras de carne estudiadas en el presente trabajo, provienen de una investigación previa con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (dietas y tres repeticiones (bloques con muestreo de tres réplicas por repetición, donde se utilizaron 27 conejos machos mestizos durante el período postdestete divididos en tres tratamientos: uno control (T0, alimentados sólo con ABC, y dos suplementados con mataratón y cachaza de palma aceitera en proporciones de 30 y 10% (T1, y 10 y 30% (T2, respectivamente, a manera de comparar el efecto de las dietas en el valor nutricional. Resultados. Las muestras de carne provenientes de los diferentes animales en tratamiento, se evaluaron encontrando que la suplementación no afectó significativamente la composición bromatológica (p>0.05 para el contenido de humedad (70.77 a 72.42%, proteínas (19.08 a 20.34%, cenizas (1.53 a 1.68% y lípidos (6.48 a 7.23%; indicando que indistintamente de la dieta empleada, suplementando el ABC con mataratón/fibra de palma o no, las carnes de conejo obtenidas son nutricionalmente idénticas como alimento. Conclusiones. Con base en los resultados, se sugiere que el follaje de mataratón y la fibra de palma aceitera podrían constituir una alternativa como recursos agronómicos tropicales en la producción de carne de conejo para el consumo humano.

  4. Analysis of SSR characteristics in EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg.)%油棕EST序列中SSR的分布特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春太; 陈青; 刘锐; 李维国

    2012-01-01

    In order to make full use of the EST resources in the present public database to develop the EST -SSR primers, in this study, 39 227 ESTs of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg. ) from GenBank database were downloaded and analyzed, resulting in 15 716 non - redundant sequences with total length about 7 977. 734 kb. 699 SSRs were discovered, the frequency of these EST - SSRs was 4.45% and the mean distance was 11.41 kb in non - redundant ESTs. Among them the dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were dominant types, accounting for 38.48% and 25. 32% respectively. AG/CT was repeated most in all nucleotide repeat motifs, accounting for 27. 47% . Blast analysis showed that 44. 95% of SSR - ESTs were homologous with functional gene in non - redundant protein sequences databases ( Nr database). The homology with known functions from Vitis vinifera had the greatest proportion and reached up to 4.42%. Simultaneously, the functional classification of 54 SSR -ESTs as made by GO system, of which 46 were found in the Nr and EST database, and the other 8 showed no homology. These ESTs can be divided into 18 functional subclasses, and the functional items and SSR -ESTs relevant to binding presented higher quantity than all other functional subclasses. The function of other 580 ESTs was not researched.%为充分利用现有公共数据库中的EST资源开发EST - SSR引物,本研究从GenBank数据库获取39 227条油棕EST,通过聚类拼接和处理,得到全长为7 977.734 kb的无冗余序列15 716条.在这些序列中共检索出699个SSRs,检出率为4.45%,平均11.41 kb出现1个SSR,包括99种重复基元.其中,二核苷酸和三核苷酸重复是主要的类型,分别占总SSRs的38.48%和25.32%.在所有的核苷酸重复基序中,二核苷酸重复序列AG/CT所占比例最高,约占27.47%.Blastx分析发现44.95%的SSR - ESTs与非冗余蛋白质序列数据库(nr)中功能基因同源,功能已知的蛋白质中葡萄来源的SSR - ESTs

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of 10 New Varieties of Elaeis guineensis to Low Temperature Stress%低温胁迫对10个油棕新品种生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 陈秀龙; 李志阳; 郑永清; 曹建华

    2013-01-01

    Half-year-old seedlings of 10 new varieties of Elaeis guineensis Jacg (RYL31 - RYL40) were studied under low temperature stress conditions in order to evaluate their physiological and biochemical characteristics. With the increase of intensity of low temperature stress, chlorophyll content showed an in-creased-decreased-increased change trend; proline and soluble protein showed an increased-decreased trend; soluble sugar contents were closely related to the temperature, increasing with the intensity of low temperature stress; MDA content and relative conductivity of the varieties first decreased and then increased, however, RYL37, RYL38 and RYL39 presented continuous decrease trend. The different physiological indexes exhibited different reactions to the temperature; mild hypothermia could enhance the plant defense function, while high strength (low temperature) could disturb the defense function of the plants.%对10个油棕Elaeis guineensis Jacg新品种(RYL31~RYL40)半年生实生苗进行短期低温处理,测定油棕在低温逆境下的生理生化指标.结果表明:随着温度的降低,植物叶片叶绿素含量表现为先上升后下降然后再上升的趋势;游离脯氨酸、可溶性蛋白呈现先升高后降低的趋势;油棕可溶性糖含量受温度影响较大,且随低温胁迫强度的增加而增加;丙二醛(MDA)含量、质膜相对透性随温度降低表现为先下降后上升的趋势,其中RYL37、RYL38和RYL39品种的MDA含量一直呈下降趋势;不同生理指标对低温的敏感度不同,轻度低温能刺激植物防御机能增强,重度低温则会扰乱植物本身的防御机能.

  6. Effects of NaCl Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Charatc eristics of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Seedlings%盐胁迫对油棕幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽霞; 肖勇; 杨耀东

    2016-01-01

    The effects of NaCl stress on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of 6-month-old potte d oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) seedlings were studied.The results showed that : along with the increase in NaCl concentration and in NaCl stress time, the plasma membrane permeability, and the contents of soluble sugar, proline and MDA in the leaves of oil palm seedlings increased, and the activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and peroxidase ( POD) revealed the change trend of rising first and then declining .%采用半年生盆栽油棕幼苗为研究材料,考察了盐胁迫对其质膜透性、可溶性糖、脯氨酸、丙二醛( MDA)含量以及SOD和POD活性的影响。研究结果表明:随着盐浓度的升高和盐胁迫时间的延长,油棕幼苗叶片细胞质膜透性增大,可溶性糖、脯氨酸和丙二醛的含量均有不同程度的升高,SOD和POD活性呈现出先升高后降低的变化趋势。

  7. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  8. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.

  9. 油棕叶斑病的病原鉴定及其生物学特性%Identification and Biological Characteristics of Pathogen of Leaf Spot in Oil Palm, (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓庆; 唐庆华; 余凤玉; 朱辉; 宋薇薇; 雷新涛

    2011-01-01

    对油棕发生的一种严重叶部病害进行研究,对该病病原进行了分离和鉴定,经ITS序列分析确定该病病原为半知菌亚门拟茎点霉属真菌.生物学特性研究结果表明:该茵分生孢子呈椭圆形或球形,浅褐色至深褐色;马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基(PDA)最适合该茵生长,其次是胡萝卜琼脂培养基(CDA)和燕麦琼脂培养基(OMA);在10 ~30℃范围内均可生长,最适生长温度为25℃;最适pH值为7.0;以葡萄糖为碳源,以蛋白胨为氮源最适合茵丝生长,该病原茵的致死温度是50℃.%A pathogen causing the leaf spot disease of Elaeis guineensis Jacq was isolated and identified by ITS sequence analysis, and its biological characteristics were studied in this paper. The results showed that the pathogen was identified as Phomopsis sp. In Deuteromycotina, its conidiophore was oval or round in shape, and light brown or deep brown in color. Potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) was the optimum medium for its mycelial growth, followed by carrot agar medium (CDA) and oat agar medium (OMA). The proper temperature for its mycelial growth ranged from 10 °C to 30 °C , but the optimum temperature was 25 t. The suitable pH - value was 7.0. For the mycelial growth of this pathogen, the optimum carbon source and nitrogen source were glucose and tryptone respectively, and the lethal temperature to Phomopsis sp. Was 50 °C.

  10. Dynamic Expression Analysis of miRNAs during the Development Process of Oil Palm Mesocarp%油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮发育过程中miRNA的表达动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方良; 梁远学; 李东栋; 曹献英; 郑育声

    2013-01-01

    We obtained high quantity small RNA from the mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and screened fatty acid biosynthesis related miRNAs.The extracted method of CTAB was improved and then employed to isolate small RNA from the mesocarp of oil palm nuts at five development stages (G1-G5).Twelve miRNAs were screened from our previous database of oil palm small RNA using bioinformatics analysis.Relative expression of each miRNA was determined by stem-loop real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) and further predicted the targets of these miRNAs.The results indicated that the OD260/OD280 values of the small RNA were between 1.7 and 2.0,and the concentrations of G1 to G5 were 289 ng/μL,364 ng/μL,476 ng/μL,213 ng/μL,and 390 ng/μL,respectively.Relative expression detected by qPCR showed that the twelve miRNAs exhibited significantly different expression during the five development stages,especially high expression level in the fourth stage (G4) and fifth stage (G5).Among them,miR395 and miR156 were highest in the G4 phase and miR395 and miR528 were highest in the G5 phase.Target prediction suggested that some targets of these differently expressed miRNAs were involved in the fatty acid metabolism pathway,such as phosphatidate,phosphatase and phospholipase D.In this study,high quantity small RNA was isolated by the improved CTAB method.qPCR further determined that the twelve candidate miRNAs were differently expressed during the five development stages,of which five miRNAs may be involved in the regulatory pathway of fatty acid metabolism.%以CTAB法提取油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮5个不同发育时期(G1~G5)的小RNA.从前期研究获得的油棕小RNA测序数据库中筛选12个候选miRNA,实时荧光定量PCR法(qRT-PCR)检测其在果实发育过程中的表达量变化,并进一步对显著差异表达的miRNA进行靶基因预测.结果表明:中果皮5个不同发育时期小RNA的OD260/OD280比值在1.7~2.0之间;浓度分别是289、364、476、213

  11. 油棕育种现状及关联分析在油棕分子辅助育种中的应用展望%Current Situation of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Breeding and Application Prospects of Association Analysis in Molecular-assisted Breeding of Oil Palm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王永; 雷新涛; 杨耀东; 肖勇; 夏薇

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) , which produces 4~6 t/hm2 palm oil annually, is the king of oil crops in the world and also the emphatically-supported tropical woody oil crop in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of China.China imports massive palm oil every year recently, but the development of oil palm planting industry ( especially the selection and breeding of its fine vari-eties) in China is still at an initial stage.As an effective research strategy for the quick scanning of the connection between genetic markers and economic traits of crops, association analysis has important application prospects in the molecular-assisted selection and breeding of oil palm.This paper summarized the characteristics, targets and current situation of oil palm breeding, expounded some cases of association analysis application in the breeding of several crops, and gave a view on the future application of associa-tion analysis in molecular-assisted selection and breeding of oil palm.%油棕年产油量4~6 t/hm2,有“世界油王”之称,是我国“十二五”规划重点支持的热带木本油料作物。我国每年需要进口大量的棕榈油,但国内的油棕种植业尤其是良种选育还处于起步阶段。关联分析作为一种快速挖掘遗传标记与作物经济性状间的关联的研究策略,在油棕分子辅助育种中有重要的应用前景。综述了油棕育种的特点、目标及现状,阐述了关联分析在多种作物育种相关研究中的应用实例,并对其在油棕分子辅助育种中的应用前景进行了展望,以期为油棕选育种提供研究思路。

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Limbah Kalapa sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinsensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Awal

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh pemberian Limbah Kelapa Sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pre Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Gedung Johor Kecamatan Medan Johor pada ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian berlangsung dari bulan November-Maret 2001. 950301088

  13. Elaeis oleifera genomic-SSR markers: exploitation in oil palm germplasm diversity and cross-amplification in arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  14. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismanizan Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR. Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%, followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626. Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho (0.164 and highly positive fixation indices (Fis in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  15. Palm (Elaeis guineensis L. kernel cake in diets for dairy cowsTorta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis L. em dietas de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odislei Fagner Ribeiro Cunha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of different dietary inclusion levels of palm (Elaeisguineensis L. kernel cake (PKC for lactating dairy cows on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Diets containing 0, 113, 228, 342g of PKC/kg dry matter were formulated and fed to eight crossbred (Holandês x Zebu dairy cows with mean weight of 382kg at 60-90 days of lactation. The cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted for 15 days, with 11 days adaptation and four days sampling. Increasing the levels of PKC in the diet reduced the intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN. The NDF intake was higher at the 113g/kg PKC inclusion level compared to other treatments. There was linear decreasing effect on fat corrected milk with the inclusion of PKC. There was linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter(DM and total carbohydrate (TC, but no effect was observed on the NDF and ADF digestibility. Linear increase was observed on crude protein (CP, NFC and ether extract (EE digestibility. The digestibility of these nutrients probably increased because of the longer retention time of the digest in the rumen caused by reduced DM intake. The addition of PKC decreased the nutritive value of the diets, which subsequently reduced linearly milk production.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão (0.0; 113,4; 227,8 e 341,7 g/kg de matéria seca da torta de dendê (TD em dietas para vacas leiteiras lactantes sobre o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e dos nutrientes e produção de leite. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, primíparas, com peso médio de 382 kg, entre 60 e 90 dias de lactação, distribuídas em duplos quadrados latinos 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias, sendo 11 dias para adaptação e quatro para coletas. Avaliou- se o consumo, expresso em kg/dia, g/kgpv0,75 e g/kg PV, a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca ( MS, proteina bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HEM, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, extrato etéreo (EE e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e a produção de leite corrigida para gordura (PLCG. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de TD na dieta acarretou redução linear no consumo de MS, PB, HEM, CNF e NDT. O consumo de FDN apresentou efeito quadrático e os maiores valores foram observados com o nível de inclusão de TD de 113,4 g/kg MS. Houve efeito linear decrescente sobre a PLCG com a inclusão da TD. Houve redução linear da digestibilidade da MS e dos CT, porém não se observou efeito sobre a digestibilidade da FDN e FDA. Observou-se ainda aumento linear da digestibilidade da PB, CNF e EE. O aumento da digestibilidade destes nutrientes provavelmente ocorreu devido ao maior tempo de retenção da digesta no rúmen ocasionado pela redução no consumo de MS. A adição de TD diminui o valor nutritivo das dietas reduzindo linearmente a produção de leite.

  16. SIFAT FISIKA DAN KETEGUHAN PATAH PAPAN SEMEN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemungkinan pemanfaatan pelepah kelapa sawit sebagai bahan baku papan semen partikel dan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen partikel pada berbagai perbandingan semen dan partikel dari dua merek semen (Tonasa dan Tiga Roda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan pola faktorial 2 x 3 sebanyak 5 kali ulangan, dimana faktor A adalah merek semen yaitu semen tonasa dan semen Tiga Roda kemudian faktor B adalah perbandingan antara partikel dan semen. Hasil pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika masing-masing menunjukan pengaruh yang sangat berbeda nyata, hal ini disebabkan karena semakin banyak penambahan jumlah perekat semen maka semakin baik pula sifat fisika dan mekanika papan semen yang dibuat, sedangkan untuk faktor merek semen tidak menunjukan perbedaan yang nyata. Kata kunci : Pelapah kelapa sawit, sifat fisika dan mekanika, papan semen partikel

  17. Streptomyces palmae sp. nov., isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-10-01

    Actinomycete strain CMU-AB204T was isolated from oil palm rhizosphere soil collected in Chiang Mai University (Chiang Mai, Thailand). Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the organism was considered to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell-wall hydrolysates consisted of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H4). The fatty acid profile contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major components. The principal phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain CMU-AB204T was 70.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CMU-AB204T was closely related to Streptomyces orinoci JCM 4546T (98.7 %), Streptomyces lilacinus NBRC 12884T (98.5 %), Streptomyces abikoensis CGMCC 4.1662T (98.5 %), Streptomyces griseocarneus JCM 4905T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis JCM 16958T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic trees revealed that the new strain had a distinct taxonomic position from closely related type strains of the genus Streptomyces. Spiny to hairy spores clearly differentiated strain CMU-AB204T from the five most closely related Streptomyces species, which produced smooth spores. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain CMU-AB204T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces palmae sp. nov. The type strain is CMU-AB204T (=JCM 31289T=TBRC 1999T).

  18. Protein Profiling and Histone Deacetylation Activities in Somaclonal Variants of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs, involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.

  19. Spectral reflectance of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. bunches as indicator for optimal harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunsri, S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Tenera oil palm bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital Canon PowerShot A20 camera. Every second day images were taken from selected bunches at an oil-palm estate during the growth of the bunchesfrom immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color which correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed measuring the changes in the three basic colors red, green and blue, using a specially developed Color Analysis computer program for Oil-palm 'fruit' (CAOP, and determining the correlation with the measured palm-oil content of the nuts.Of the three color-bands, the red light reflectance showed the best correlation with ripeness, as the red color increased regularly and practically linearly up to the stage of the maximal oil yield. Some seven days after the thus determined optimal harvesting date for the ripe bunches, some of the ripe nuts will detachfrom the bunch and fall, but then it is too late to use the fallen nuts as indicators for harvesting. From our investigations in the field and in the laboratory we recommend that harvesting should follow immediately after the red reflectance starts declining, after having reached its peak value for the Tenera oil-palm some 5±3 days before nuts begin to detach from the bunch.

  20. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot and yellow

  1. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  2. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs.

  3. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

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    - Sudradjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Pendidikan dan Penelitian Kelapa Sawit IPB-Cargill, Jonggol, Bogor dari bulan Maret 2013 sampai Maret 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Faktorial Tunggal,  dosis pupuk dolomit,  yang disusun dalam lingkungan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis pupuk dolomit yang diuji  terdiri atas 0, 200, 400, dan 600 g tanaman-1 tahun-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk dolomit meningkatkan secara nyata terhadap peubah tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah daun, dan kandungan khlorofil daun, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kandungan Mg dalam jaringan daun. Berdasarkan tanggap peubah tinggi tanaman, dosis optimum pupuk dolomit untuk tanaman kelapa sawit pada umur satu tahun adalah 306.4 g dolomit tanaman-1tahun -1. Kata kunci: dolomit, dosis optimum, kelapa sawit, respons fisiologi, respons morfologi.

  4. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. pro-embryogenic masses

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    MARLUCIA S. PADUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analisys. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l–1. After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1 - elongated and translucent, TYPE 2 – uneven and translucent, TYPE 3 - globular and beige TYPE 4 – globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  5. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  6. Towards more efficient selection for oil yield in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, van der H.A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed studies are made of the variability and heritability of a number of components of oil yield in the oil palm using published data of the breeding programme of the NIFOR in Nigeria and results of a number of experiments carried out at the OPRC in Ghana during the period 1965-1971. Estimations

  7. Selección genética de plantas elites de palma aceitera, utilizando software SELEGEN REML/BLUP

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    Carlos Oliva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La palma aceitera es uno de cultivos de la Amazonía Peruana, que genera en los inversionistas mayor interés,que ha permitido instalar al menos 70 mil ha. Al Perú ha ingresado semillas de palma aceitera de alto valorgenético, por su resistencia a enfermedad, plagas y alto rendimiento, pero durante el tiempo ha experimentadovariabilidad en los diferentes ecosistemas del país.Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo la selección genéticacomputarizada para la selección de plantas elites de alto rendimiento de racimos de fruta fresca (RFF depalma aceitera. Para realizar el análisis genético computarizado, se dispuso del software SELEGEN Rml/Blup,que es un programa diseñado para el análisis y la selección. Benin y Costa deMarfil son las que tienen mejorpromedio, cuyo valor mínimo es de 22,1 kg/planta y el valor máximo corresponde de 375,9 kg/planta. Elhibrido 2301 tiene los mejores promedios de rendimiento, seguido por el híbrido 2401, cuyo valores derendimiento extremosmáximo superior a 340 kg/planta. El primer año, el rendimiento promedio fue de 46,62kg/planta y para el tercer año de producción el promedio pasó a 142,82 kg/pl. La repetibilidad individual pararendimiento de RFF kg/planta en ambos grupos 2007 y 2008 fue de 0,10 y la repetibilidad del promedio decosechas fue de 0,87 y 0,82 para los grupos 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Esto propició una exactitudselectiva de 0,93 para el grupo 2007 y de 0,90 para el grupo del 2008.

  8. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Alisa Nakkaew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed in oil palm calli under the control of its promoter to establish if its overexpression could enhance the oil content of transgenic calli. An increase in the lipid accumulation by the modified calli was detected by Sudan black B staining. Based on this finding, genetic manipulation of EgaccD seemed to be one promising method to try to increase the oil content. Also it seemed possible to use the level of this gene as a marker to assist selection of possible high oil yielding cultivars in breeding programs.

  9. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

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    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  10. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map, design and fabrication of DNA array for future studies of oil palm. The outcomes of such studies will contribute to oil palm improvements through the establishment of breeding program using marker-assisted selection, development of diagnostic assays using gene targeted markers, and discovery of candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of oil palm.

  11. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm.

  12. Survey of Basal Stem Rot Disease on Oil Palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Kebun Bukit Kijang,North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisnawita; Hanum, H.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basal stem rot disease caused by Ganoderma sp. is a significant disease on oil palm plantations in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatera. Currently, the pathogen does not only attack the plants that have produced (old plants) but also attacks the plants that have not produced in the first generation yet. A survey of the distribution of the basal stem rot disease in the plantation of the community has been completed in order to illustrate the distribution and the incidence of the basal stem rot disease in 5 locations of the oil palm plantation of the community in Desa Bukit Kijang, Region of Asahan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. From the research, it is revealed that the basal stem rot disease has spread to all of the observed locations with the level of disease incidence between 0.71% in Kebun Bukit Kijang 3 to 50% in the 17 years old oil palm in Kebun Bukit Kijang 4 and Bukit Kijang 5. The observable symptoms of the basal stem rot disease are chlorotic leaves, the appearance of fruiting body, collapsed plants, and the existence of holes on the basal stem. The incidence of basal stem rot disease is higher on land due to a high sand content (>50%).

  13. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  14. THE QUALITY OF COMPOSITE BOARD MADE OF WASTE OIL PALM STEM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq AND RECYCLE POLYETHYLENE (PE

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    Maryam Jamilah Lubis, Iwan Risnasari, Arif Nuryawan, Fauzi Febrianto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to find out the substitution of solid wood and it may solve environmental problem. These researches concerned on using waste of oil palm stem particle form and recycle plastic polyetyhlene (PE as raw materials for composite board. In this research, 5% Maleic Anhydride (MAH was added to increase compatibility and 0.75% Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP was added to initiate the reaction of maleolation. The methods of this research followed JIS A 5908 (2003 with ratio of plastic to particle were 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30, respectively, pressed at 30 kgf/cm2 in 165°C for 15 minutes. Evaluation on physical and mechanical properties based on JIS A 5908 (2003, and the result of physical properties as follow : 1 Density met the standard at 0.77 - 0.99 g/cm, 2 The value of moisture content were below on target and the standard because of the hidrofobicity of PE, the range were 0.79 - 3.06%, 3 Thickness swelling of the board for 24 hours fulfill the standard the value were 0.44 - 2.77%. Unfortunatelly the water absorption were 2.82 - 16.19%. Mechanical properties consist of modulus elasticity (MOE, modulus rupture (MOR and screw holding strength didn’t meet the criteria of JIS A 5908 (2003, except MOR with plastic: particle 60:40 with particle made of inner stem. Keywords: Composite board, oil palm stem, polyethylene (PE

  15. The early development of inflorescences and flowers of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seen through the scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.; Breure, C.J.; Menendez, T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of inflorescences and flowers of the African Oil Palm up to anthesis is illustrated by scanning electron microscopy images. The time of origin relative to the development of the foliage leaves of the basipetalous succession of flowering rachillae is determined, as well as the time of

  16. Expression profiles of putative defence-related proteins in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) colonized by Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a major disease of oil palm caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. However, the interaction between the host plant and its pathogen is not well characterized. To better understand the response of oil palm to G. boninense, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related genes from oil palm were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR in the roots of oil palms treated with G. boninense from 3 to 12 weeks post infection (wpi). These transcripts encode putative Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitors (EgBBI1 and 2), defensin (EgDFS), dehydrin (EgDHN), early methionine-labeled polypeptides (EgEMLP1 and 2), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), metallothionein-like protein (EgMT), pathogenesis-related-1 protein (EgPRP), and type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (EgT2RIP). The transcript abundance of EgBBI2 increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 3 and 6wpi compared to those of controls; while the transcript abundance of EgBBI1, EgDFS, EgEMLP1, EgMT, and EgT2RIP increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 6 or 12wpi. Meanwhile, the gene expression of EgDHN was up-regulated at all three time points in G. boninense-treated roots. The expression profiles of the eleven transcripts were also studied in leaf samples upon inoculation of G. boninense and Trichoderma harzianum to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BSR. Two candidate genes (EgEMLP1 and EgMT) that have different profiles in G. boninense-treated leaves compared to those infected by T. harzianum may have the potential to be developed as biomarkers for early detection of G. boninense infection.

  17. In vitro growth of Ganoderma boninense isolates on novel palm extract medium and virulence on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis seedlings

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    Kok, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by Ganoderma pathogenic fungi, especially Ganoderma boninense is thriving rapidly in both areas with coastal and inland soils. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize Ganoderma isolates collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia through the comparison of their growth rate in vitroly on conventional and novel palm extract media, and to determine the degree of virulence caused by the isolatesin oil palm seedlings. Methodology and results: In this study, 12 Ganoderma isolates were collected from infected oil palm trees, fromvarious locations – Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah, Perak, Pahang, and Kelantan, in Malaysia in year 2011. Twelve Ganoderma isolates were identified using molecular method with primer set that targeted at small-subunit 18S rDNA fragment, and characterized by determining the in vitro growth rate, and degree of virulence in 2-month-old oil palmseedlings in the nursery using both disease incidence (DI and disease severity index (DSI as the measurements to quantify the infection. All the Ganoderma isolates were identified as G. boninense and sequences of the respective isolates were deposited in GenBank. In general, all the isolates proliferated faster on oil palm extract medium (OPEM compared to malt extract agar (MEA. Twelve G. boninense isolates were observed to illustrate different degree of virulence ranging from highly pathogenic to least pathogenic. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Cultures of 12 G. boninense isolates were observed to show faster growth rate (P < 0.014 on OPEM under in vitro conditions compared to conventional MEA medium, except Bt Lintang G10 and GBA G12 isolates. OPEM medium could provide a better alternative for maintaining and culturing Ganoderma strains. In the current study, both DI and DSI were highly correlated. However, there were low linear relationships (R2 < 0.423 between mycelia growth rate (on MEA and OPEM and degree of virulence (DI and DSI at 12-, 14- and 16-weeks after treatments among the G. boninense isolates tested. Furthermore, different degrees of virulence in twelve separate Ganoderma isolates were reported. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate more than one isolate into any researches on screening for Ganoderma resistance or tolerance planting materials, searching for potential biological control agents, and studying bitrophic or tri-trophic interactions. In addition, this study was aimed to isolate G. boninense strains with various virulence levels for future studies.

  18. Development of SNP markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P W; Maizura, I; Abdullah, N A P; Rafii, M Y; Ooi, L C L; Low, E T L; Singh, R

    2015-10-09

    The genetic evaluation of oil palm germplasm collections is required for insight into the variability among populations. The information obtained is also useful for incorporating new genetic materials into current breeding programs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in many plant genetic studies due to the availability of large numbers of genomic sequences and expressed sequence tags. The present study examined 219 oil palms collected from two natural Angolan populations, a few hundred kilometers apart. A total of 62 SNPs were designed from oil palm genomic sequences and converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS). Of these, nine were found to be informative across the two populations. The nine informative SNPs revealed mean major allele frequency of 0.693. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.398 and 0.400, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content was 0.315 (ranging between 0.223 and 0.375). None of the loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no rare alleles were detected. In cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic, the 219 oil palms fell into two clusters. This was further supported by the population structure analysis result (K = 2), suggesting that the samples were divided into two main genetic groups. However, the two groups did not coincide with the geographic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that within-population variation contributed 93% of the total genetic variation. This study showed that SNP-based CAPS markers are useful for studying the genetic diversity of oil palm and have potential application for marker-trait association studies.

  19. In vivo analysis of palm wine (Elaeis guineensis) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Otto, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    The in vivo volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release patterns in palm wine was carried out using the PTR-MS. In order to analyze the complex mixtures of VOCs in palm wine, the fragmentation patterns of 14 known aroma compounds of palm wine were also investigated. Results revealed masses m/z (43, 47, 61, 65, 75, 89 and 93) as the predominant ones measured in-breathe exhaled from the nose, during consumption of palm wine. Further studies of aroma's fragmentation patterns, showed that the m/z 43 is characteristic of fragment of various compounds, while m/z 47 is ethanol, m/z 61(acetic acid), m/z 65 (protonated ethanol cluster ions), m/z 75 (methyl acetate), m/z 89 (acetoin) and m/z 93 (2-phenylethanol) respectively. The dynamic release parameters (Imax and tmax) of the 7 masses revealed significant (P = 0.05) differences, between maximum intensity (Imax) and no significant (P = 0.05) differences between tmax among VOCs respectively.

  20. Efecto de la lipofilización sobre las propiedades funcionales de la harina de palmiste (Elaeis guineensis

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    Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of proteins presented in palm kernel flour were studied, started with almonds with and without testa. Removal of testa with HCl permitted a decrease of the polyphenol concentration, besides conferring the flour a light cream color. Lipophilization of the proteins of palm kernel was studied in order to evaluate the changes on functional properties and compare them to the properties of non-modified flour. Properties measured were solubility, water retention capacity (WRC and oil retention capacity (ORC, emulsion capacity (EC, emulsion activity (EA, emulsion stability (ES, foam expansion (FE and foam stability (FS. Lipophilization of the cake without testa was tested in two protein:palmitoyl chloride ratios: 1:0.5 and 1:1, w/v. Solubility and EC decreased, however, the other properties either kept constant (WRC or increased markedly. Lipophilization with a lower concentration of fatty acids (1:0.5 protein:palmitoyl chloride ratio showed higher values for functional properties.Se estudiaron las propiedades funcionales de las proteínas presentes en la harina de palmiste, obtenida a partir de almendras con y sin testa. La remoción de la testa con HCl 4N permitió disminuir la concentración de polifenoles, lo que significó obtener una harina de mejor color (crema claro y textura. Se estudió la lipofilización de las proteínas de la harina de palmiste para evaluar los cambios en las propiedades funcionales y compararlos con las propiedades de las harinas no modificadas. Las propiedades medidas fueron: solubilidad, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA y capacidad de retención de aceite (CRAC, capacidad emulsionante (CE, actividad emulsionante (AE, estabilidad de la emulsión (EE, expansión de la espuma (EEsp y estabilidad de la espuma (EsEsp. La lipofilización de la harina sin testa se realizó en dos proporciones de proteína/cloruro de ácido palmítico, 1:0,5 y 1:1, p/v. La solubilidad y la CE disminuyeron; sin embargo, las otras propiedades se mantuvieron constantes (CRA o bien aumentaron notablemente. La lipofilización con baja concentración de ácidos grasos (relación proteína/cloruro de 1:0,5 generó productos con mayores valores en sus propiedades funcionales.

  1. Fraccionamiento e interesterificacion del aceite de palma (Elaeis guineensis) cultivado en la amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge MANCINI FILHO; Pavan Torres, Rosángela; Sotero Solís, Víctor; Soplín Ríos, José Antonio; Cárdenas de Reátegui, Gladys; Saldaña Ramírez, Robinson; Sandoval del Águila, Jorge; García de Sotero, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit of the oily palm coming from the river basin of the Manití (Region Loreto - Peru) were studied. Also, the fractionation of the palm oil and the interesterification of mixtures of palm oil/estearin was carried out. Physico- chemical properties of the crude oil and of the products obtained and fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The level of saturated fatty acids increased from 51,17% in the palm oil t...

  2. Camera-Vision Based Oil Content Prediction for Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq Fresh Fruits Bunch at Various Recording Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah Cherie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the correlation between oil palm fresh fruits bunch (FFB appearance and its oil content (OC was explored. FFB samples were recorded from various distance (2, 7, and 10 m with different lighting spectrums and configurations (Ultraviolet: 280-380nm, Visible: 400-700nm, and Infrared: 720-1100nm and intensities (600watt and 1000watt lamps to explore the correlations. The recorded FFB images were segmented and its color features were subsequently extracted to be used as input variables for modeling the OC of the FFB. In this study, four developed models were selected to perform oil content prediction (OCP for intact FFBs. These models were selected based on their validity and accuracy upon performing the OCP. Models were developed using Multi-Linear-Perceptron-Artificial-Neural-Network (MLP-ANN methods, employing 10 hidden layers and 15 images features as input variables. Statistical engineering software was used to create the models. Although the number of FFB samples in this study was limited, four models were successfully developed to predict intact FFB’s OC, based on its images’ color features. Three OCP models developed for image recording from 10 m under UV, Vis2, and IR2 lighting configurations. Another model was successfully developed for short range imaging (2m under IR2 light. The coefficient of correlation for each model when validated was 0.816, 0.902, 0.919, and 0.886, respectively. For bias and error, these selected models obtained root-mean-square error (RMSE of 1.803, 0.753, 0.607, and 1.104, respectively.

  3. Facile production of nanostructured cellulose from Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunch via one pot oxidative-hydrolysis isolation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-02-10

    Cellulose in nanostructures was successfully isolated from empty fruit bunch biomass via a novel one-pot oxidative-hydrolysis technique. The physicochemical properties of nanocellulose prepared via one-pot process have shown comparable characteristics as products isolated via conventional multistep purification approach (namely dewaxing, chlorite bleaching process, alkalization, and acid hydrolysis). The chemical composition study indicated that the one-pot oxidative-hydrolysis process successfully extracted cellulose (91.0%), with the remaining minority being hemicellulose and lignin (∼6%) in the final product. Crystallinity profile of one-pot treated product (80.3%) was higher than that of multistep isolated nanocellulose (75.4%), which indicated that the disorder region (amorphous) in cellulose fibers was successfully removed. In additional to that, the morphology study demonstrated that nanocellulose prepared by one-pot process rendered spider-web-like network nanostructure, with an average diameter of fibers at a range of 51.6±15.4nm. The nanocellulose product showed high thermal stability (320°C), which was ready for nanocomposite application. One-pot oxidative-hydrolysis technique is a simple and versatile route for the preparation of nanocellulose from complex biomass within 90°C and 6h period, with minimum wastewater as compared to the multistep process.

  4. Natural Interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in the Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Moné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects millions of people around the world, particularly in Africa. In this continent, different species are able to interbreed, like Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis, two schistosome species infecting humans. The Republic of Benin is known to harbor S. haematobium, but its geographical situation in between Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso, where S. guineensis was found, raises the question about the possible presence of S. haematobium/S. guineensis hybrids in this country. We conducted morphological analyses on schistosome eggs and molecular analyses on schistosome larvae (high resolution melting (HRM analysis and gene sequencing in order to detect any natural interaction between these two species of schistosomes. The morphological results showed the presence of three egg morphotypes (S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and intermediate. Three genotypes were detected by ITS2 rDNA HRM analysis: S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and hybrid, and their percentages confirmed the results of the morphological analysis. However, sequencing of the CO1 mtDNA gene showed that all the samples from Benin belonged to S. haematobium. Our results provide the first evidence of introgression of S. guineensis genes in S. haematobium in Benin.

  5. Natural Interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in the Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moné, Hélène; Minguez, Stéphanie; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Allienne, Jean-François; Massougbodji, Achille; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects millions of people around the world, particularly in Africa. In this continent, different species are able to interbreed, like Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis, two schistosome species infecting humans. The Republic of Benin is known to harbor S. haematobium, but its geographical situation in between Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso, where S. guineensis was found, raises the question about the possible presence of S. haematobium/S. guineensis hybrids in this country. We conducted morphological analyses on schistosome eggs and molecular analyses on schistosome larvae (high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and gene sequencing) in order to detect any natural interaction between these two species of schistosomes. The morphological results showed the presence of three egg morphotypes (S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and intermediate). Three genotypes were detected by ITS2 rDNA HRM analysis: S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and hybrid, and their percentages confirmed the results of the morphological analysis. However, sequencing of the CO1 mtDNA gene showed that all the samples from Benin belonged to S. haematobium. Our results provide the first evidence of introgression of S. guineensis genes in S. haematobium in Benin.

  6. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from China and Malaysia based on species-specific simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L X; Xiao, Y; Xia, W; Yang, Y D

    2015-12-08

    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species.

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian ZPT Dekamon 22,43 L Dan Pupuk Majemuk Totaro Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jacq) di Pembibitan Utama

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian UISU Kecamatan Medan Johor dengan ketinggian 27 meter di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Januari - Mei 2000. Rancangan yang dilakukan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 faktor. 950301004

  9. Pengaruh ZPT Dekamon 22,43 L dan Pupuk Pelengkap Cair TNF terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pernbibitan Utama

    OpenAIRE

    Flato Genius S

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini elilakukan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian UISU Kecamatan Medan Johor dengan ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Mei -September 2000. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 faktor. 950301025

  10. PENGARUH PERSENTASE PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jack DAN KULIT DURIAN (Durio Zibethinus Murr TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Burhanuddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian sifat fisika meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal dan sifat mekanika meliputi keteguhan lentur (MoE keteguhan patah (MoR serta  pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan. Rancangan Percobaan Yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu 100% pelepah kelapa sawit; 100% kulit durian dan  50% pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit durian dengan 3 kali ulangan. Standar yang digunakan untuk perbandingan  yaitu SNI–03– 2104-1991-A. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut : Sifat Fisika yaitu kerapatan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 0,90 gr/ cm3, 0,91 gr/ cm3, 0,81 gr/ cm3, Kadar air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7,37%, 6,59%, 7,08%, Penyerapan air rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 49,51%, 44,99%, 50,11%, Pengembangan tebal rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 1,67%, 2,04%, 3,44%, Kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal tidak berpengaruh nyata. Sifat Mekanika yaitu Keteguhan lentur (MoE rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 7.350,68 kg/cm2, 3.590,43 kg/cm2, Keteguhan patah (MoR rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 11,82kg/cm2, 8,66kg/cm2, 4,53 kg/cm2Pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan rata-rata antara 100% Pelepah Kelapa Sawit, 100% Kulit Durian dan 50% Pelepah kelapa sawit : 50% kulit Durian berturut-turut adalah 8,92 %, 10,01 %, 9,92 %, Keteguhan patah (MoR berpengaruh nyata sedangkan keteguhan lentur (MoE dan pengurangan tebal akibat tekanan tidak berpengaruh nyata. Key word : Kerapatan, Kadar Air, Penyerapan Air, Pengembangan Tebal, Keteguhan Lentur (MoE, Keteguhan Patah (MoR dan Pengurangan Tebal Akibat Tekanan

  11. Kinetics of Cd2+ and Cr3+ Sorption from Aqueous Solutions Using Mercaptoacetic Acid Modified and Unmodified Oil Palm Fruit Fibre(Elaeis guineensis) Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous solutions by mercaptoacetic acid modified and unmodified oil palm fruit fibre adsorbents were investigated. The results indicate that sorption equilibrium was reached within 60 min for both metals. Also, the removal efficiency of the three adsorbents was observed to increase for both metals with stronger treatments with mercaptoacetic acid. This may be attributed to the influence of the thiolation of the adsorbents. Furthermore, Cr3+ had higher removal percentages than Cd2+ for all the adsorbents. The sorption mechanism based on the intraparticle diffusion model shows that Cd2+ sorption is better described than Cr3+. The intraparticle diffusion rate constants, K1d, for Cd2+are 62.04 min-1 (untreated), 67.01 min-1 (treated with 0.5 mol/L mercaptoacetic acid), and 71.43 min-1(treated with 1.0 mol/L mercaptocacetic acid) while those for Cr3+ are 63.41 min-1 (untreated), 65.79 min-1(0.5 mol/L acid treated), and 66.25 min-1 (1.0 mol/L acid treated).

  12. Establishment of the proteomics research system for Elaeis guineensis embryos%油棕胚蛋白质组学研究体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永; 李静; 吴翼; 张大鹏; 雷新涛

    2014-01-01

    油棕通过商业化种子繁殖,但种子萌发机理尚不明确,胚蛋白质组学研究有助于快速定位其关键调控因子.建立了油棕胚蛋白质学研究体系,涵盖种胚样品收集、总蛋白质提取、双向电泳体系及下游质谱鉴定数据分析,研究体系相对完整,对于促进基于蛋白质组学的油棕种子萌发机理研究及分子辅助育种研究等后续相关研究提供基础.

  13. THE RESEARCH ON MANUFACTURING ACTIVATED CARBON FROM THE FRUIT SHELL OF ELAEIS GUINEENSIS%油棕果壳制活性炭研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲清

    1995-01-01

    对油棕果壳制造不定形颗粒活性炭的各种工艺方法进行了探讨.试验表明:采用氯化锌活化法和物理活化法均可获得合格的活性炭产品;但采用氯化锌为活化剂可制得碘值为981 mg/g、强度为83.2%的活性炭,产品得率为36%~40%.

  14. Introduction of Prior Variety of Elaeis guineensis from Malaysia%马来西亚优良油棕品种的引种与栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱先成; 孙重民; 陶永强; 高伟华; 黄琪涵; 仓正伟; 周雄伟

    2008-01-01

    油棕是热带著名的油料作物,是一种重要的食用油和生物柴油资源,在中国热区颇具发展前景.笔者从马来西亚引进优良油棕品种,在西双版纳进行育苗和试种,结果表明:优良油棕品种在中国热区能正常生长发育,3年生植株高4.22 m,地径0.45 m,定植后第4年开花,花穗饱满,生长良好,引种已基本成功.文章还介绍了油棕的育苗和造林技术,为中国热区油棕产业发展奠定技术基础.

  15. Development of SSR markers in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)based on information from transcriptome sequencing%油棕转录组SSR标记开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽霞; 肖勇; 杨耀东

    2014-01-01

    从NCBI网站下载40 728条油棕EST,结合文献报道的油棕果肉转录组序列信息,通过聚类拼接和处理,得到全长为32 637.947 kb的无冗余序列20 054条.在这些序列中共检索出4 538个SSR,检出率为22.6%.其中以单核苷酸重复基序为主导类型,出现频率为51.2%,二核苷酸、三核苷酸重复基序的出现频率分别为20.4%和17.9%.随机挑选了400对SSR引物进行PCR多态性检测,获得29对PCR多态性引物,并随机选取11对引物进行验证,在4种不同来源的油棕样本中表现出多态性.

  16. 油棕丝碎料板热压工艺的研究%Study on the Elaeis guineensis Excelsior Chipboard Hot-Pressing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景宏; 魏萍; 林巧佳

    2003-01-01

    针对油棕丝碎料不同于木材的特性,采用改性脲醛树脂胶,按照L18(37)正交试验探讨了油棕丝碎料板的热压工艺,通过极差分析和方差分析优化最佳工艺参数,以此生产的油棕丝碎料板力学性能优异,适用于B类非结构建筑用途.

  17. 布迪椰子、沼地棕和油棕的耐寒性研究%Cold tolerance of Butia capitata, Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Elaeis guineensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮志平; 向平; 李振基

    2008-01-01

    利用寒害指数、电解质渗透率与半致死温度研究了布迪椰子、沼地棕和油棕 3种棕榈植物在厦门露地栽种的耐寒性.结果表明,它们的寒害指数差异明显,布迪椰子为7.29,在露地能顺利越冬;沼地棕为20.24,适当保护才能越冬;油棕的寒害指数为75.00,不能在露地越冬.低温锻炼前(10月份)和低温锻炼后(次年1月份)所采的叶片在不同低温处理时的电解质渗透率变化趋势不同,应用Logistic方程分别求出各自的半致死温度(LT50),布迪椰子、沼地棕和油棕在低温锻炼前的半致死温度分别为-7.93、-5.03和-2.19,℃在低温锻炼后的半致死温度分别为-19.10、-6.60和-2.94%.结果发现,布迪椰子的耐寒力最强而且对降温反应速度最快,沼地棕居中,油棕耐寒力最弱,对温度反应最慢.

  18. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Fonguimgo Tengoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense constitutes a serious threat to oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands. It is also expanding in some oil palm growing countries in Latin America and Africa and will soon become a worldwide concern to oil palm cultivation. To date, none of the various control measures developed and tested to control the disease since many decade gives entire satisfaction. An experiment was carried out to see whether incorporation of micronutrients, Copper (Cu, Boron (B and Manganese (Mn could reduce the incidence and severity of this disease on oil palm seedlings inoculated with G. boninense. The concentrations tested were 2 mg B/kg of soil, 2 mg Cu/kg of soil and 2 mg Mn/kg of soil incorporated into the basic fertilizer NPKMg 14-10-10-2. Treatments were applied in solution for three months before inoculation, followed by soil application for eight months after inoculation. The results showed that although no significant difference was detected among treatments, the double combinations of these micronutrients, B+Cu, B+Mn and Cu+Mn, performed better than the single nutrients in reducing the incidence and the severity of BSR, while their triple combination rather increased these pathological parameters. These double combinations could therefore be field-tested for their further integration in oil palm fertilization programme.

  19. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar.

  20. Habitat associations, reproduction and diet of the Guinean tilapia Tilapia guineensis of the Gambia River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, V; Lindsay, S W; Piyapong, C; Lucas, M C

    2010-06-01

    The ecology of the Guinean tilapia Tilapia guineensis a dominant species of the lower Gambia River floodplains and an important food source in parts of West Africa was studied to better understand the threat posed from construction of a barrage across the river. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) of T. guineensis was positively associated with conductivity and dissolved oxygen and negatively associated with water depth and the % vegetation cover. Diet studies indicated that the T. guineensis is primarily an iliophage. The peak of reproduction was at the beginning of the rainy season. CPUE peaked in May, just before the first rains, and subsequently declined, probably reflecting movement into newly flooded habitat. Median size at maturity was 11.6 cm total length, L(T), for females and 12.5 cm L(T) for males. L(T)-frequency analysis indicated several juvenile cohorts as well as very young fish on the floodplains each month, suggesting continuation of reproduction throughout the rainy season. The impending construction of a hydroelectric dam on the Gambia River is likely to affect T. guineensis negatively through anticipated changes in the hydrology of the river.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  2. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. Diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. The treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% CF or PKC, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% CF. No significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. Acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% PKC and 30% CF-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. The 30% CF-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg, but similar to 30% PKC-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. Replacing corn and soybean with CF and PKC in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.

  3. Caracterización fisiológica y morfológica de palmas de aceite taisha (Elaeis oleífera HBK cortés) y sus híbridos (Elaeis oleífera HBK cortés x Elaeis guineensis jacq.) En la región Amazónica del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    López Murcia, Jesús Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Los híbridos de palma de aceite son la alternativa actual contra Pudrición de Cogollo, la enfermedad de mayor importancia económica en América Tropical. En la Región Oriental Amazónica del Ecuador se realizó la caracterización morfológica y fisiológica de palma americana de aceite Taisha y sus híbridos Taisha x Avros y Taisha x La Mé con el objetivo de analizar y comparar sus características morfo-fisiológicas. Se hicieron determinaciones de fotosíntesis, concentración interna de CO2, conteni...

  4. ADSORPTION OF COPPER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ELAIS GUINEENSIS KERNEL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJUA DELAILA TUMIN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of batch laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Elais Guineensis kernel or known as palm kernel shell (PKS-based activated carbon for the removal of copper from aqueous solution by the adsorption process. Investigation was carried out by studying the influence of initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of copper. The particle size of PKS used was categorized as PKS–M. All batch experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 30°C (±2°C using mechanical shaker that operated at 100 rpm. The single component equilibrium data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Toth adsorption isotherms.

  5. Viabilidade e ação de lectinas na germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen de dendezeiro (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. – Arecaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    No Brasil, pesquisas com grãos de pólen da família Arecaceae estão relacionados à melissopalinologia e palinotaxonomia, sendo escassos aqueles voltados à fisiologia do pólen. Estudos de biologia reprodutiva relacionados à polinização são de grande importância nas diversas culturas, visto que a partir dos seus resultados pode se obter parâmetros a serem utilizados visando o aumento considerável da produção de plantas cultivadas, bem como no tamanho e na qualidade dos frutos, contribuindo para ...

  6. Changes of carotenoids in the fruit of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) at different stages of development%油棕果实不同发育时期类胡萝卜素的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小丽; 梁远学; 郜凌超; 李东栋; 郑育声

    2015-01-01

    以油棕果为材料,分别提取油棕果5个发育时期的类胡萝卜素,采用高效液相色谱法进行分离,鉴定其中叶黄素、蕃茄红素、α-胡萝卜素、β-胡萝卜素的成分和含量,并分析其变化规律.结果表明,高效液相色谱法可对油棕果中的叶黄素、蕃茄红素、α-胡萝卜素、β-胡萝卜素完全分离并进行定性和定量分析.随着油棕果实成熟度的增加,α-胡萝卜素和β-胡萝卜素的含量逐渐增加,其中在果实发育后期,β-胡萝卜素是α-胡萝卜素的3~4倍;相反地,叶黄素从青果期到成熟期的含量是逐渐减少的;蕃茄红素的含量变化不大.油棕在成熟过程中总类胡萝卜素含量不断增加,主要转化为以α-胡萝卜素和β-胡萝卜素为主.

  7. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of DXS gene from six tropical plants including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)%油棕等热带植物DXS基因的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    油棕等热带植物含有丰富的胡萝卜素和维生素E等类异戊二烯物质,类胡萝卜素和甾醇等类异戊二烯物质在植物生命活动中扮演重要角色,并且对保护人类健康具有重要意义,MEP途径是合成类异戊二烯的重要途径之一.DXS是MEP途径中的第一个限速酶,其功能在油棕等热带植物中极其保守.为了弄清油棕等热带植物DXS的结构和功能特点,该研究利用生物信息学工具和软件对以油棕等热带植物类异戊二烯合成关键基因DXS为对象,进行核酸和氨基酸序列的理化性质、蛋白质结构以及功能结构域等分析,探讨了不同物种间的亲缘关系.结果表明:DXS基因起始密码子均为ATG,终止密码子则分为TAG、TAA和TGA,DXS蛋白质属于不具有信号肽的亲水性蛋白,可能作为转运蛋白在叶绿体基质中发挥作用,未发现明显的跨膜结构域,磷酸化位点有36个,其中丝氨酸、苏氨酸和酪氨酸位点分别为17、11和8个,无规则卷曲和α-螺旋是蛋白质二级结构主要的结构元件,三级结构预测具有DXS酶特征,硫胺素焦磷酸盐结合位点和PLN02582保守结构域,不同植物DXS功能结构域非常保守,可以作为判断不同物种间亲缘关系的重要依据.该研究结果为油棕等热带植物DXS的结构、功能分析和利用提供了进一步的信息,为其品质性状分子机制研究及遗传改良奠定了基础.

  9. Effect of Low Temperature Stress on Some Physiological Characteristics of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Seedlings%低温胁迫下油棕幼苗的某些生理生化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华庚; 林位夫

    2008-01-01

    观测盆栽油棕幼苗在低温胁迫下的一些生理指标变化.结果表明,随着温度的下降和低温胁迫时间的延长,油棕幼苗叶片相对含水量和可溶性蛋白含量不断下降;可溶性糖含量、脯氨酸含量、束缚水/自由水的比值、SOD、POD、CAT活性先上升而后下降;MDA含量和相对电导率不断增大;油棕幼苗正常生长的临界温度约为10℃,其可忍受低温的温度范围约为4~7℃;抗寒性弱的油棕幼苗品种在4℃下可忍受6 d左右.

  10. 三角椰、油棕枯萎病的病原鉴定和毒力测定初报%The Control of Neodypsis decaryi and Elaeis guineensis Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦爱梅; 黄茂俊; 王军

    2005-01-01

    三角椰和油棕是热带地区优美的行道树和观赏树,但发现其具有毁灭性的枯萎病.经病组织分离培养观察,初步鉴定其病原为轮枝孢属(Verticillium.sp)真菌.毒力测定试验表明,枯萎立克等杀菌剂对三角椰和油棕的防治较为有效.

  11. Effect of Drought Stress on Physiological Characteristics of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) Seedlings%干旱胁迫对油棕幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙程旭; 曹红星; 马子龙; 唐龙祥; 李杰

    2010-01-01

    以油棕盆栽幼苗为试验材料,研究干旱胁迫对其生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:随着干旱胁迫处理时间的延长,幼苗受害指数增大,细胞质膜透性、丙二醛含量和脯氨酸含量均有不同程度的升高;SOD酶﹑POD酶活性出现先上升而后下降的变化趋势.该研究结果对于油棕品种的引种或栽培具有重要的指导意义.

  12. 油棕病害调查及叶部病害的病原真菌初步鉴定%Diseases investigation and fungal pathogens isolates on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg) of leaf spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽; 沈会芳; 李静; 何时雨; 曾宪海; 冯朝阳; 覃新导; 谢昌平

    2014-01-01

    通过对海南省海口、儋州、文昌、陵水和定安以及广东省江门油棕病害的调查,结果表明,发生最为常见的病害为叶斑病,不同品种受害程度表现不同;发生严重时,可导致叶片30%以上枯死.对从热科院橡胶所引种到广东江门的12个油棕新品种田间叶斑病的病害严重度进行调查,其危害等级为1~3级,分离纯化和初步鉴定结果表明,有6种病原物,分别为叶点霉属(Phyllosticta)、炭疽菌属(Colletotrichum)、链隔孢属(Alternaria)、拟茎点霉属(Phomopsis)、茎点霉属(Phoma)和拟盘多毛孢属(Pestalotiopsis).对6种病原物进行田间活体致病性测定,发现炭疽菌属和链隔孢属引起的病斑较小,致病力较弱,推测可能是腐生菌;叶点霉属、拟茎点霉属、茎点霉属和拟盘多毛孢属可同时侵染RYL31,其中叶点霉属还可侵染RYL14、RYL33,推测此病原物寄生性较强.

  13. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil.

  14. Bioinformatics Analysis of γ-Tocopherol Methyltransferase from Plants Including Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)%油棕等植物γ-生育酚甲基转移酶的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鹏; 曹红星; 李东霞; 王永; 雷新涛

    2015-01-01

    油棕果实中含有丰富的维生素E,而提高其中高活性的维生素E组分是改善棕油品质的关键.油棕γ-生育酚甲基转移酶(GenBank登录号为AEU17779)能将低活性的γ-生育酚三烯催化生成高活性的0[-生育酚和0[-生育酚三烯,是控制油棕维生素E组分和活性的关键酶,其功能在油棕等许多植物中极其保守.本研究利用生物信息学相关软件对以油棕VTE4基因为主要分析对象的一些植物VTE基因的核酸和相应的氨基酸序列的组成成分、疏水性/亲水性、跨膜结构域以及功能结构域等进行分析.结果表明:VTE4属于不具有信号肽的亲水性蛋白,可能作为转运蛋白在叶绿体中发挥作用,α-螺旋和无规则卷曲大量散布于整个蛋白质二级结构中,具有S-腺苷甲硫氨酸结合位点和PLN02244保守结构域.这一结果可为油棕等植物VTE4的功能和分子机制研究提供更多详细的参考.

  15. Chilling Investigation and Cold Resistance Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg) in Jiangmen, Guangdong Province of 2012%2012年广东江门油棕寒害调查及品种抗寒性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 陈秀龙; 马帅鹏; 郑丽; 冯朝阳; 陶忠良; 曾宪海

    2013-01-01

    为了比较油棕新品种RYL31-40 10个油棕新品种的抗寒性,在经历了2012年冬季低温寒害之后,于2013年4月对广东省江门市油棕抗寒种植前哨点的油棕试种基地进行调查,测定各油棕新品种的寒害指数.参考《油棕品种区域适应性试种观测技术规范》中寒害调查方法,将所调查的油棕进行分级,然后根据权数计算寒害指数.结果表明,RYL38和RYL32的寒害指数较大,分别为0.286、0.270,RYL40、RYL31和RYL39的寒害指数相对较小,分别为0.157,0.177和0.183.以寒害指数作为评价油棕新品种抗寒性的指标,结果得出10个不同新品种油棕在江门地区能够顺利过冬,其中RYL40、RYL31和RYL39的抗寒性相对较强.

  16. Evaluation on the Effectiveness of 2-Deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1 Gene as a Selectable Marker for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Embryogenic Calli Transformation Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Masli eDayang Izawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOGR1, which encodes for 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed embryogenic calli were exposed to 400 mg l–1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  17. A single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) approach for investigating genetic interactions of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis in Loum, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, B L; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Southgate, V R

    2007-03-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA provides a molecular tool for the identification of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma guineensis and the hybrids of these two species. This molecular tool was utilized to provide a detailed analysis of the interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in hybrid zones of Loum, Littoral Province, Cameroon. Individual hybrid schistosomes were identified within the natural populations collected from Loum in 1990, 1999 and 2000, which would have been misidentified as S. haematobium using solely morphological and sequence criteria. This study indicates the complexities of the hybridization between S. haematobium and S. guineensis and emphasizes the importance of assessing morphological, biological and molecular data to gain insights into the interaction of these two species over time.

  18. Morphometric parameters and level of Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron in the waterway of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossou Jacques Dougnon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the morphometric parameters and level of Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron in the waterway of Southern Benin. Materials and Methods: 183 T. guineensis and 195 S. melanotheron were collected from June to July 2014 in four waterways: Lake Ahémé, Nokoué Lake, coastal lagoon, and lagoon of Porto-Novo. Weight, total length, and standard length of these fish were evaluated. E. coli and Salmonella sp. were sought in fresh fish. Results: The results obtained in this study indicate that S. melanotheron presented high-performance of length and weight more than T. guineensis in Ahémé Lake and lagoon of Porto-Novo. However, in Nokoué Lake and coastal lagoon, no difference was observed between the two species of fish. As for bacteriological analysis, the population of T. guineensis was more contaminated with E. coli with respective values of 60% and 59.52% in the Nokoué Lake and coastal lagoon than in the two other streams. Regarding the population of S. melanotheron, she was most contaminated in the coastal lagoon with a percentage of 66.66% in Ahémé Lake, Nokoué Lake, and the lagoon of Porto-Novo. However, no Salmonella germ was detected in fish analyzed in this study. Conclusion: It appears that the morphometric parameters and weight of T. guineensis are lower than those of S. melanotheron. The evaluation of the microbiological quality revealed that T. guineensis is more contaminated with E. coli that S. melanotheron.

  19. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  20. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of anthocyanin pigments from Corozo ( Bactris guineensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Coralia; Acevedo, Baudilio; Hillebrand, Silke; Carriazo, José; Winterhalter, Peter; Morales, Alicia Lucía

    2010-06-09

    The anthocyanins of Bactris guineensis fruit were isolated with the aid of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. Among the identified pigments, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were characterized as major constituents (87.9%). Peonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were present in minor amounts. Four anthocyanin ethanolic extracts (AEEs) were obtained by osmotic dehydration and Soxhlet extraction and physicochemically characterized. The composition of anthocyanins was monitored by HPLC-PDA. The extracts with the highest anthocyanin content were subjected to the spray-drying process with maltodextrin. The so-obtained spray-dried powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to consist of spherical particles <50 microm in size. The anthocyanin composition was similar to that of the fruit. The microencapsulated powders were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealing that they are quite stable until 100 degrees C. Storage stability tests of microcapsules showed that the release of anthocyanin pigments follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and that the process rate is increased by temperature and humidity. The most suitable conditions for storage were below 37 degrees C and <76% relative humidity, respectively.

  1. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  2. Evaluación interdimensional de impactos ambientales sobre la dimensión física ocasionados por cultivos de palma aceitera y la ganadería extensiva en la selva húmeda tropical del Bajo Atrato, Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta Borja Teofilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis interdimensional de daños ambientales ocasionados por proyectos palmeros y ganaderos en el Bajo Atrato. El proyecto se desarrolló en dos fases; en la primera, se consolidó la línea base, y en la segunda, se evaluaron los impactos ambientales en tres subfases: identificación de impactos, descripción de impactos por medio del modelo analítico por dimensiones y, por último, valoración y calificación de los impactos. Los resultados del proyecto indican: reducción de la disponibilidad de agua en el ámbito local; alteración de la red de drenaje natural de los suelos y erosión del suelo en riberas del río Curvaradó. Se concluye que los proyectos palmeros y ganaderos son incompatibles con las condiciones agroecológicas de la zona de estudio; y esta conclusión se sustenta en el hecho de que tanto el monocultivo de la palma aceitera como las pasturas exigen suelos en óptimas condiciones inexistentes en la zona, debido al alto contenido de humedad, a menos de que se haga una rigurosa intervención en el medio para responder a los requerimientos de la palma y de las pasturas, lo que tendría enormes impactos sobre los medios natural y humano.

  3. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  4. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  5. Bilateral asymmetry in certain morphological characters of Sarotherodon melanotheron Rüppell 1852 and Coptodon guineensis (Günther 1862) collected from Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo Lagoon Bénin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Laith; Gnohossou, Pierre; Tossou, Ayoko Géraldine

    2016-02-15

    Asymmetry analysis was carried out for three bilateral characters of two cichlid fish species, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Coptodon guineensis collected from two localities, Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo lagoon, Republic of Bénin, West Africa. For both S. melanotheron and C. guineensis snout length (SL), eye diameter (ED) and number of scales on lateral line (LLS), bilateral asymmetry was higher in the fish specimens collected from Porto-Novo lagoon compared with that of specimens from Lake Ahémé. Bilateral asymmetry in S. melanotheron and C. guineensis increased with the fish size at all localities. The possible causes of bilateral asymmetry in the two cichlid species are discussed in relation to different pollutants in both water bodies.

  6. Caracterização do desenvolvimento floral de Elaeis oleífera (H.B.K) Cortés

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização da estrutura anatômica do sistema reprodutivo do Caiaué (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés) em nível celular, partindo do primórdio da inflorescência até o desenvolvimento completo da flor das amostras BR 174, Coari e Manicoré. Das inflorescências e flores coletadas, algumas foram fixadas e embebidas em resina Technovit 7100® e outras em parafina. Cortes ultrafinos transversais das inflorescências foram realizados para comparação entre as s...

  7. THE PROXIMATE, MINERAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Ocimum gratissimum L., Melanthera scandens A. and Leea guineensis L. AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbohun ED

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum, Melanthera scanden and Leea guineensis were investigated. The proximate analysis in % showed that Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of ash content of 7.73 and moisture content 6.54 while Ocimum gratissimum had the lowest amount of ash content 5.11 and moisture content 5.04. Ocimum gratissimum had the highest amount of fat 7.75 and carbohydrate 56.16 while Melanthera scanden had the least amount of fat 6.87 and carbohydrate 50.0. Leea guineensis had the highest amount of crude protein 19.3 while Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of crude fibre 12.66. The mineral analysis in mg/100g indicated that the leaves contained calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. The Phytochemical analysis of the plants showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, tannins, saponins, steroid, phlobatannin/ terpenoid, flavonoid cardiac glycoside, while phlobatanin was not found in Melanthera scanden. The medicinal plants also contained antinutrient phytin phosphorus, oxalate, phytic acid and polyphenol.

  8. Utilización de Candida guilliermondii aislada del corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis en la producción de xilitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cristina Herazo Camaño

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Candida guilliermondii isolated of corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis IN the production of xylitol Resumen.  La levadura Candida guilliermondii es objeto de estudio debido a su capacidad de producir xilitol aprovechando compuestos hemicelulósicos ricos en xilosa, dado esto, la cepa Candida guilliermondii aislada del fruto del corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis fue usada en este estudio con el fin de evaluar su capacidad para producir xilitol sobre un sustrato hidrolizado de cascarilla de arroz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los parámetros fermentativos como producción de xilitol, productividad volumétrica (Qp y rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Yp/s durante la fermentación con la cepa nativa Candida guilliermondii. Se emplearon 200 ml de medio de cultivo hidrolizado de cascarilla de arroz, el cual contenía una concentración de xilosa de 27,5 g/L. La fermentación se llevó a cabo bajo las siguientes condiciones: temperatura 30 ºC, pH del medio 5,8, agitación 120 rpm e inóculo adaptado de 3 g/L. Los resultados mostraron que después de 120 horas de fermentación se obtuvieron 2,6 g/L de xilitol con productividad volumétrica (Qp de 0,02 g/L-h y rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Yp/s de 0,13 g/g. De esta manera, la cepa nativa Candida guilliermondii, aislada del fruto de Corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis, produjo xilitol bajo condiciones específicas de fermentación. Palabras clave: xilosa, Candida guilliermondii, fermentación, levadura.  Abstract. The yeast Candida guilliermondii has been studied due to its ability to produce xylitol in xylose-rich hemicellulosic compounds, Candida guilliermondii strain isolated from the fruit of Corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis was used in this study to assess their ability to xylitol production on these substrates. The aim of this study was to determine the fermentation parameters such as xylitol production, volumetric productivity (Qp and yield of

  9. Survival and gill morphology of different life stages of Tilapia guineensis exposed to the drilling fluid XP-07 Sobrevivência e morfologia branquial de Tilapia guineensis expostos ao líquido de perfuração XP-07 em diferentes estágios de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Favour Vincent-Akpu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of drilling fluid XP-07 on gills of three life stages (fry, fingerling and post fingerling of Tilapia guineensis was evaluated in a 96h static bioassay. The mortality rates of the organisms were determined using the same concentrations of XP-07 in all the life stages. At the end of 96h, the gills were examined for histopathological changes. The 96h median lethal concentrations for fry (Fr, fingerlings (F and post fingerlings (PF were 5.03, 7.77 and 6.93% XP-07 respectively. The median lethal time values decreased as concentration and time of exposure increased. The histopathological studies carried out on gills of T. guineensis showed injuries, which increased progressively with the concentration of the fluid. The fry stage was the most susceptible to the drilling fluid. This states the need for care to be taken in handling drilling fluids in Niger delta, since this area serves as breeding and nursery ground for several fish species.A toxicidade do líquido de perfuração XP-07, nas brânquias de Tilapia guineensis, foi avaliada por meio de um bioensaio estático de 96h em três estágios da vida do peixe (larva, alevino e juvenil. As taxas de mortalidade do organismo foram avaliadas nas mesmas concentrações de XP-07 para todos os estágios de vida do peixe. As brânquias foram avaliadas ao final de 96 horas, com o objetivo de observarem-se mudanças histopatológicas. A concentração média letal para 96h foi de 5,03; 7,77 e 6,93% para larvas, alevinos e juvenis, respectivamente. O tempo médio letal diminuiu à medida que a concentração e o tempo de exposição aumentaram. Os estudos histopatológicos realizados nas brânquias de T. guineensis indicaram lesões que aumentaram progressivamente com a concentração do fluido. A fase larval é a mais suscetível ao fluido de perfuração. Concluiu-se que é necessário cuidado no manuseio de fluidos de perfuração no Delta do Niger, uma vez que esta é uma área de reprodu

  10. Biodièsel : impacte en origen del biodièsel consumit a Catalunya i a Espanya

    OpenAIRE

    Figueras Alsius, Mireia; Ramos Martín, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Actualment la situació del mercat espanyol i català del biodièsel es caracteritza per les grans importacions d'oli de palma africana. Per a produir aquesta matèria primera s'estan establint plantacions a gran escala d'Elaeis guineensis (palma africana) a Indonèsia. El monocultiu d'Elaeis guineensis i la producció de l'oli tenen associats grans impactes ambientals i socials. Per una banda, els impactes ambientals són principalment la desforestació, el canvi d'ús del sòl, la pèrdua de biodivers...

  11. Intérêts des semences commerciales améliorées de palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochard Benoît

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Le palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq. est originaire d’Afrique où il est encore exploité de façon traditionnelle. L’intensification de sa culture a commencé au début du xxe siècle, en Asie du Sud-Est. Ce n’est qu’entre les deux guerres mondiales que cette intensification s’est manifestée en Afrique. En Amérique latine, cette culture ne s’est développée que depuis la fin des années 60. En 2000, la production d’huile s’élève à 21,7 millions de tonnes. Par ailleurs, les extensions et renouvellements de plantations demeurent très vifs. Ainsi, les surfaces plantées sont de 6 562 000 hectares dans le monde en 2000 [1]. Dans ces conditions, le marché mondial des semences est estimé à plus de 150 millions de graines par an. Autant les agro-industriels se fournissent le plus souvent auprès des obtenteurs, autant les planteurs villageois, en particulier en Afrique, ne s’adressent pas systématiquement à eux, et sont confrontés à des désagréments ultérieurs, lors de la mise en récolte de leur plantation. Les semences commerciales de qualité prennent en compte des contraintes liées à la biologie florale de cette plante ainsi qu’aux caractéristiques morphologiques de la graine. Elles sont fabriquées en respectant un cahier des charges rigoureux permettant d’éviter aux exploitants de très mauvaises désillusions.

  12. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  13. 油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮发育过程中miRNA的表达动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方良; 梁远学; 李东栋; 曹献英; 郑育声

    2013-01-01

    以CTAB法提取油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮5个不同发育时期(G1~G5)的小RNA。从前期研究获得的油棕小RNA测序数据库中筛选12个候选miRNA,实时荧光定量PCR法(qRT-PCR)检测其在果实发育过程中的表达量变化,并进一步对显著差异表达的miRNA进行靶基因预测。结果表明:中果皮5个不同发育时期小RNA的OD260/OD280比值在1.7~2.0之间;浓度分别是289、364、476、213、390 ng/μL;qRT-PCR检测结果显示,12个候选miRNA在5个发育时期均显著性差异表达,特别是在中果皮发育第4个时期(G4)和第5个时期(G5)表达量极显著增高,其中miR395和miR156在第4个时期表达量最高;miR395和miR528在发育第5时期表达量最高;靶基因预测结果显示差异表达的部分miRNA,其靶基因可能参与了脂肪酸代谢通路,如磷脂酸磷酸脂酶和磷脂酶D。本研究筛选的与脂肪酸代谢相关的miRNA为今后油棕脂肪酸代谢调控通路研究提供了可能的线索。

  14. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  15. Avaliação da qualidade do óleo de palma e frações (Elaeis guineenses) armazenados em diferentes condições de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Vanessa de Souza

    2015-01-01

    O óleo de palma bruto (OPB) ou azeite de dendê (Elaeis guineenses) apresenta composição equilibrada em ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados, o que permite fracionar o óleo em dois principais componentes: fração líquida, a oleína de palma e fração sólida, a estearina. A degradação do óleo de palma durante armazenamento pode ser provocada pela ação da luz natural ou artificial, hidrólise autocatalítica, umidade, temperatura, material utilizado nas embalagens, ar e por micro-orga...

  16. Climate, soil and land-use based land suitability evaluation for oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Tiemen; Fairhurst, Thomas; Zingore, Shamie; Fisher, Myles; Oberthür, Thomas; Whitbread, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the world's most important oil crop. The large demand for palm oil has resulted in a rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation across the globe. Because of the dwindling availability of land in Southeast Asia, most expansion of the i

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of six WRKY transcription factor loci across the spiny cocosoid palm subtribes Bactridinae and Elaeidinae (Areceaceae, Cocoseae),and comparison of several gene tree/species tree reconciliation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfamily Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor g...

  18. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  19. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, F.; Beukema, H.; Burgess, N.D.; Parish, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Murdiyarso, D.; Phalan, B.; Reijnders, L.; Struebig, M.; Fitzherbert, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  20. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands : Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D.; Parish, Faizal; Bruehl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  1. Fine-mapping and cross-validation of QTLs linked to fatty acid composition in multiple independent interspecific crosses of oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Yaakub, Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Katialisa; Mayes, Sean; Massawe, Festo; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Jansen, Hans; Low, Leslie Eng Ti; Ithnin, Maizura; Kushairi, Ahmad; Arulandoo, Xaviar; Rosli, Rozana; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Sritharan, Kandha; Lim, Chin Ching; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Background - The commercial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) produces a mesocarp oil (commonly called ‘palm oil’) with approximately equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). An increase in unsaturated FAs content or iodine value (IV) as a measure of the degree of unsaturat

  2. The Associate Program on Ethnobiology, Socio-Economic Value Assessment and Community Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    petandra (Silk cotton), Dracaena deisteliana (Peace plant) or from uprooting cultural plants - Raphia vinifera (Raffia palm), Elaeis guineensis ( oil palm...Agave sisalana Leaves, Stems Ageratum conyzoides Whole plant Allanblackia Seeds Aloe Vera Leaves Alstonia congensis Barks, latex Anacardium occidentale...medicinal plants for treatment. Common spices and herbs, however, are obtained from herb sellers. These: Aframomum sp, Capsicum sp, Piper sp, castor oil

  3. Abstracts of Plenary Lectures and Posters. International Symposium of the Structure and Function of Plant Lipids (7th) held in Davis, California on July 27-August 1, 1986,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and £Liete oLeifera) mesocarp 16 - 20 weeks after anthesis. Embryoids (EZaeis m’neenois) at different...fruit and was maximum at 20 weeks. The embryoid protoplasts were more active in lipid biosynthesis compared to mesocarp protoplasts and incorporated

  4. Preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras por dendezeiro, caiaué e por seu híbrido interespecífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inácio Lacerda Moura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, em campo, a preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras (Rhynchophorus palmarum por estipes de dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis, caiaué (Elaeis oleifera e pelo híbrido entre caiaué e dendezeiro. O experimento foi conduzido no banco de germoplasma de dendê da Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira. Entre os três genótipos testados, o caiaué é significativamente menos preferido por Rhynchophorus palmarum, seguido do híbrido interespecífico e do dendezeiro.

  5. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Hewitt; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; C. F. Di Marco; J. R. Dorsey; Evans, M,; Fowler, D; M. W. Gallagher; J. R. Hopkins; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; A. C. Lewis; S. F. Lim; McQuaid, J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

  6. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Walesa Edho Prabowo; Kevin Darras; Yann Clough; Manuel Toledo-Hernandez; Raphael Arlettaz; Yeni A Mulyani; Teja Tscharntke

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubb...

  7. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura p...

  8. Relationship between the 1997/98 El Niño and 1999/2001 La Niña events and oil palm tree production in Tumaco, Southwestern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena, M. C.; A. Devis-Morales; J. D. Pabón; Málikov, I.; Reyna-Moreno, J. A.; Ortiz, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Although the relationship between ENSO events and oceanographic and meteorological conditions of Southwestern Colombia is well-known, very little work has been done to assess the related socio-economic impacts. This is the first effort made to determine the effect of such events on local climate and the impact of this variability on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) production in the Tumaco municipality, which is located on Colombia's Pacific coast. First, we studied the correlation betw...

  9. AcEST: DK954239 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Popul... 186 1e-45 tr|Q5K4K7|Q5K4K7_GOSHI Cysteine proteinase OS=Gossypium hirsutum... 185 1e-45 tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil...18 >tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil palm polygalacturonase allergen PEST472 OS=Elaeis guineensis var. tenera PE=2

  10. Current Status of Agriculture and Plant Protection in Malaysia (Original papers in Kobe Symposium on Agriculture, Food and Environment in Asia : Towards the 21st Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Khew, K. l.

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia with the warm (21-32℃) and humid (200-250cm annual rainfall) climate, is a tropical wonderland for plants, conducive to the growth of a number of agricultural crops. The major agricultural commodities include oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), pepper (Piper nigrum) rice (Oryza sativus) and together with fruits, vegetables and floriculture which play a less dominant role. Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter o...

  11. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  12. Diel Patterns of Activity for Insect Pollinators of Two Oil Palm Species (Arecales : Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, Thomas; Frérot, Brigitte; Poveda, Roberto; Louise, Claude; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E. guineensis, and Grasidius hybridus O'Brien and Beserra specialized on E. oleifera. The average timing of activity was studied by using passive interception traps. Then the pattern and the duration were refined by using aspiration trapping within the active period for each insect species at the male and female inflorescences. All the experiments were conducted in an Ecuadorian oil palm plantation, located close to Amazonian forest. El. kamerunicus and G. hybridus were found to be the pollinators of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, respectively. The two species differed in their diel pattern of activity: E. kamerunicus was active in the morning and G. hybridus during a short period at dusk. For both palm species, insect visits were synchronous on both male and female inflorescences. The synchronicity is discussed as a strategy to maintain the relation mutualistic between partners. These findings increase our understanding of the oil palm pollination system.

  13. AcEST: DK946743 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 202 6e-51 tr|A7NWU5|A7NWU5_VITVI Chrom...osome chr5 scaffold_2, whole genome ... 200 4e-50 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassica napus ...GN=bal... 198 1e-49 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica c... ++ L SD E +K GCGKSFAPFP GC+F+++ GL+S+EHPL Sbjct: 161 SEGHLVLSDDEETVKKGCGKSFAPFPKGCFFTTSGGLRSFEHPL 204 >tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Alumin...um-induced protein OS=Elaeis guineensis var. tenera PE=2 SV=1 Length = 251 Score =

  14. Sustentabilidade da agroindústria de palma no estado do Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Augusto Oliveira Alves

    2011-01-01

    O dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) é uma planta originaria da África, pertencente à família Arecaceae e gênero Elaeis. A Indonésia e a Malásia são os maiores produtores, responsáveis por 90% da produção, enquanto o Brasil representa apenas 0,5 %. Entretanto, esses países esgotaram sua áreas de plantio e não podem mais avançar por força de comitês internacionais de sustentabilidade que não permitem o plantio em áreas nativas. E nesse contexto, que o estado do Pará surge em potencial para ...

  15. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... commonly used species were Elaeis guineensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Cocos nucifera, and Borassus aethiopum. Medicinal uses were in 25 different use categories of which the most common ones were Infections/Infestations and Digestive System Disorders. Twenty-four different parts of the palms were used...

  16. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  17. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.

  18. Cephaloleia sp. Cerca a Vagelineata Pic*, una Plaga de la Palma Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalolia sp. y Cephaloleila sp, se han empleado como sinónimos del género Cepaloleia sp. (Lepesme. 1947. Se sabe que los estados de larva y adulto atacan el follaje de la palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. trayendo muchas veces como consecuencia secamientos en los folíolos o su invasión por hongos. En Colombia el Cephaloleia próximo a vagelineata Pic se presenta en la zona de Urabá y posiblemente en el Departamento de Santander.

  19. Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber (Elaeis sp.) using supercritical ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline L P C; Almeida, Priscila S; Campos, Maria C V; Franceschi, Elton; Dariva, Cláudio; Borges, Gustavo R

    2017-04-01

    Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber was investigated using supercritical ethanol as solvent. A semi-continuous laboratory scale unit was developed to investigate the effects of temperature (300-500°C), heating rate (10-30°C.min(-1)) and cracking time (10-30min) on the conversion of biomass in bio-oil. The main advantage of the proposed process is that a pure solvent is pumping through the reactor that contains the biomass, dispensing the use of biomass slurries. The yield of bio-oil ranged from 56% to 84%, depending on the experimental conditions. It was observed that an increase in working temperature led to an increase in the bio-oil production. Cracking time and heating rate variation had not shown a considerable effect on the conversion of biomass. The chemical profiles of bio-oil determined by GC/MS, indicate that at low temperature mainly sugar derivatives are produced, while at higher temperatures alcohols and phenolic are the majority compounds of the bio-oil.

  20. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  1. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  2. El cultivo de la palma aceitera en Costa Rica en el contexto del TLC con los Estados unidos de Norteamérica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

     El mercado mundial de aceites y grasas es complejo, ya que son productos sustituibles entre sí. Costa Rica participa de este mercado por medio del aceite de palma, el cual ocupa un lugar importante en las exportaciones nacionales. Su cultivo se concentra en el Pacífico Central y en el Pacífico Sur, que son regiones económicamente deprimidas, por lo que la palma adquiere relevancia como una de las pocas actividades rentables en la zona. La producción palmera se encuentra concentrada en un por...

  3. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  4. 新干特早柚GPAT基因5'端克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequencing Analysis of the 5' Fragment of GPAT Gene from Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘勇

    2009-01-01

    Citrus maxima cv. Xingantezaoyou' s GPAT gene of 5' end fragment was isolated from the leaf by means of 5 ' - RACE technology. The cDNA fragment is 832 bp long ( GenBank Accession No: DQ193970). The nucleotide sequence analysis showed that these sequences of GPAT 5' end fragment are greatly different from those of other plants. The best nucleotide similarity to Citrus unshiu was 98.9% but those Carthamus tinctorius, Arabidopsis thaliana ,Elaeis guineensis, Pisum sativum and Viciafaba were 62.5% ,54.6% , 48.2% ,47.4% and 46.9% respectively. The deduce amino acids sequence analysis showed the similarity to Carthamus tinctorius,Arabidopsis thaliana, Elaeis guineensis,Pisum sativum and Capsicum annuum were 51.6% , 60% ,45.1% ,48% and 52.3%. The amino acid sequences of GPAT gene has genera specificity because the similarity of amino acid sequences to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is only 18.9%.%采用5'-RACE技术从新干特早柚(Citrus grandis cv. Xingantezaoyou)叶片中克隆出一条长832 bp的GPAT基因5'端cDNA片段(GenBank 登录号:DQ193970).序列分析结果表明:该cDNA片段序列与其它科属植物的GPAT基因序列的同源性差异较大,除与同类植物--温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu)的同源性高达98.9%,与红花(Carthamus tinctorius)、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)、非洲油棕榈(Elaeis guineensis)、豌豆(Pisum sativum)、蚕豆(Vicia faba)的同源性分别为62.5%、54.6%、48.2%、47.4%、46.9%;其所编码的氨基酸序列与红花、拟南芥、非洲油棕榈、豌豆、辣椒的同源性分别为51.6%、60%、45.1%、48%、52.3%,与细菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)的同源性仅为18.9%,说明GPAT基因的氨基酸序列具有种属特异性.

  5. Natural efficiency of parasitism by Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) for the control of Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, José Inacio L; Toma, Ronaldo; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the tachinid parasitoid Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) on larvae of the palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) was evaluated in plantations of piassava palm (Attalea funifera Mart.) and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The monthly percentages of parasitism were evaluated during 13 months, from November 2000 to November 2001, based on the comparison between the number of parasitized and non-parasitized cocoons of R. palmarum. Mean parasitism was 40% and ranged from 50% in November 2000 to 18% in July 2001. While there is no method of mass reproduction of the parasitoid, a simple management practice is recommended, in order to preserve its beneficial effects in palm plantations.

  6. Study of carbon foams synthesized by the pyrolysis of wastes coconut shells of african palm at different conditions and use of immersion calorimetry as a tool for characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we are analysing the behaviour of the wastes coconut shells of african palm (Elaeis guineensis when dealing with different gas mixtures and its influence on the development of lattice porous internal and its formation as foam. The study shows that samples worked with water vapour mixtures developed the highest percentage of carbon foam as foams. The greatest expansion of the material occurred when 300 g of precursor, in the presence of steam at a pressure of 2.0 MPa, was introduced into a 1000 mL stainless steel reactor placed inside a sand-bath furnace previously heated to 550 °C. A relationship between the heating rate and degree of foaming was observed with the synthesized materials. An interesting result of this work was the relation established between yield and degree of foaming and between degree of foaming and immersion enthalpy.

  7. 4种棕榈科植物在厦门越冬的生理指标比较%Comparative study of physiological indices of four palm species during winter in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮志平; 廖启炓; 丁印龙

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月至2005年1月,测定了4种棕榈科 Plamae植物蝴蝶椰子 Chrysalidocarpus lucubensis,油棕 Elaeis guineensis,山棕榈 Trachycarpus martianus 和加拿利海枣 Phoenix canariensis 在厦门越冬期间叶片的电导率、自由水/束缚水比值、叶绿素质量分数及叶绿素a/b值等生理指标.综合比较各指标可得4种棕榈科植物的抗寒性顺序为:加拿利海枣>蝴蝶椰子和山棕榈>油棕.

  8. Complete genome sequence and structural characterization of a novel iflavirus isolated from Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo A; Ardisson-Araujo, Daniel M P; Tinoco, Ricardo S; Fernandes, Odair A; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Bergmann M

    2015-09-01

    Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidopera: Nymphalidae) is a common pest of the African oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) in Brazil. Dead larvae were collected in canopy of oil palm trees cultivated in the amazon region (Para State) and analyzed for viral infection. Electron microscopy of caterpillar extracts showed an icosahedral picorna-like virus particle with 30nm in diameter. Total RNA extracted from partially purified virus particles was sequenced. A contig of 10,083 nucleotides (nt) was identified and showed to encode one single predicted polyprotein with 3185 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new virus was closely related to another lepidopteran infective virus Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 1(SeIV-1), with 35% amino acid pairwise identity. The novel virus fulfils all ICTV requirements for a new iflavirus species and was named Opsiphanes invirae Iflavirus 1 (OilV-1).

  9. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  10. ÓLEO DE DENDÊ NA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL:UM ESTUDO DE CASO DAS VANTAGENS E DESVANTAGENS ECONÔMICA, ECOLÓGICA E SOCIAL DA CULTURA DESTA OLEAGINOSA PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL.

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes, Jairo Afonso; Lebid, Taras

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é analisar as vantagens e desvantagens no campo econômico, social e ecológico da cultura do dendê (Elaeis guineensis) destinada à extração de óleo de palma e óleo de palmiste para produção do biodiesel. Conforme o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel (PNPB), o óleo diesel distribuído nos postos do Brasil possui em sua composição 6% de óleo vegetal e 94% de óleo diesel derivado do petróleo (B6) e esta mistura tende a crescer em percentual de óleo vegetal até...

  11. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  12. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  13. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  14. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  15. Ampliación del análisis de diversidad genética de palma de aceite proveniente de angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Rocha-Salavarrieta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm cultivars come from four oil palms located at Bogor´s botanical garden. However, experimental evidence suggests that the centre of origin of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., is the African continent. In order to develop oil palm cultivars in Colombia, it is necessary to increase the narrow genetic base currently available. For this reason, Cenipalma carried out prospections and collections of oil palm material in five natural regions of the Republic of Angola. Around 44 accessions (120 seeds per accession were collected, seeds were germinated and young palms were grown under field conditions at the Experimental Station Palmar de La Vizcaína (Barrancabermeja. In this paper, we report results of the molecular analysis, based in amplification of 16 microsatellite loci, of 72 genotypes, representing five populations, from Cenipalma´s E. guineensis germplasm collection. Evaluated plants showed a higher genetic variability when compared to similar studies on this species, although populations displayed high similarity (low genetic differentiation, FST=0,0484. The high similarity between individuals of the different species allows representing the full variation by selecting few individuals. Variability and genetic differentiation measurements are presented.

  16. Seasonal Changes of Tannin Content in Three Palm Species%不同棕榈植物单宁含量的季节性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮志平

    2012-01-01

    探讨了3种棕榈植物的总酚、可溶性单宁、结合态单宁和总缩合单宁含量的季节性变化规律.研究结果表明:布迪椰子的总酚、可溶性单宁和总缩合单宁含量在4个季节中几乎没有变化;沼地棕和油棕的总酚含量在冬季显著提高;布迪椰子和沼地棕的结合态单宁在冬季明显下降,而油棕不然;布迪椰子总缩合单宁含量与总酚含量的变化趋势相似,沼地棕和油棕的总缩合单宁含量与总酚含量的变化趋势不同.%The studies on the seasonal changes of total phenolics (TP),soluble condensed tannin (SCT),bound condensed tannin (BCT) and total condensed tannin (TCT) content in the leaves of high cold resistant Butia capitata,the medium cold resistant Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and cold sensitive Elaeis guineensis were conducted in the four seasons.Differences in the accumulation of tannins associated with different cold resistant palm species occurred in response to seasons.The content of BCT in B.capitata and A.wrightii markedly decreased from autumn to winter,but not for E.guineensis.The change trend of B.capitata TCT was the same as that of TP,but not the same for that of A.wrightii and E.guineensis.The results showed that the high cold resistant B.capitata,the medium cold resistant A.wrightii and cold sensitive E.guineensis had different tannin seasonal change patterns.This character may help the further investigations into the plant cold resistant mechanism.

  17. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in develop

  18. EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM PRESSED PALM OIL (Elaes guineensis FIBERS USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. FRANÇA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual fibers from palm oil production are a good source of carotene, since they contain more than 5% of the original oil, with about 5000 ppm of carotenoids. As carotenoids are thermosensitive molecules, supercritical CO2 can be used for oil recovery, because this technique employs low temperatures. In this work results of oil extraction experiments from pressed palm oil fibers are shown. Fibers were from AGROPALMA, an industry which is located in Tailândia (Pará, Brazil. Extractions were carried out at 200, 250 and 300 bar and at temperatures of 45 and 55oC. Oil was analyzed by UV/vis spectrophotometry for total carotene determination. Results showed a large increase in extraction rate from 200 to 250 bar and a small variation from 250 to 300 bar. The total amount of carotenes did not increase in the course of extraction at 300 bar, but it showed a large increase at 200 and at 250 bar. Free fatty acids are present in amounts larger than those found in commercial oils.As fibras residuais do processo de produção de óleo de palma (óleo de dendê, podem ser uma boa fonte de carotenos, pois contém, ainda, mais de 5% do óleo original, com cerca de 5.000 ppm de carotenóides. Como os carotenóides são moléculas termodegradáveis, é importante um estudo do emprego de CO2 supercrítico na extração deste óleo, visto que esta é uma técnica que emprega baixas temperaturas. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados de experimentos de extração do óleo das fibras prensadas de dendê, feitas a 200, 250 e 300 bar e temperaturas de 45 e 55oC. As fibras prensadas foram obtidas da produção industrial da indústria AGROPALMA, localizada em Tailândia (Pará, Brasil. O óleo obtido foi analisado por espectrofotometria UV/vis para a determinação do teor de carotenos totais. Os resultados mostram um aumento na taxa de extração entre 200 e 250 bar, mas esta variação foi pequena entre 250 e 300 bar. O teor de carotenos totais não aumenta durante a extração a 300 bar, mas tem variações importantes a 200 e a 250 bar. Os ácidos graxos livres estão presentes em quantidades superiores àquelas encontradas em óleos comerciais.

  19. DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA BRUTA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DE CONCENTRADOS E SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTRIAIS IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER, CRUDE PROTEIN AND FIBROUS FRACTION OF CONCENTRATE AND AGROINDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do milho (Zea mays, do farelo de soja (Glicyne max L., da torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. e do farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.. Incubaram-se amostras de cada alimento no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 e 48 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da MS, PB, FDN e FDA, para a taxa de passagem de 5%/hora, foram relativamente baixas (abaixo de 60%, exceto para a PB do farelo de soja (acima de 65%. O farelo de soja apresentou os maiores coeficientes de degradação, tanto para MS e PB como também para os constituintes da parede celular, seguido do milho, torta de dendê e farelo de cacau. O farelo de cacau apresentou as menores taxas de degradação ruminal.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Farelo de cacau, incubação ruminal, torta de dendê. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF ruminal degradability of corn (Zea mays, soybean meal (Glicyne max L., palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L.. Samples of each feed were incubated in rumens of three steers for periods of 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 and 48 hours. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF effective degradabilities, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were relatively low (lower than 60%, except for soybean meal CP (higher than 65%. Soybean meal showed the greatest degradation coefficients for DM and CP as so as for cellular wall constituents, followed by corn, palm kernel cake and cocoa meal. Cocoa meal showed the lowest ruminal degradation rates.

    KEY WORDS: Cocoa meal, incubation ruminal, palm kernel cake.

  20. Flutuação Populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em Plantios de Palma de Óleo em Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a flutuação populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantios de Elaeis guineensis Jacq, em ecossistemas de savana e floresta no estado de Roraima. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante o período de janeiro de 2011 a fevereiro de 2012 nos campos experimentais da Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo e Caroebe, numa área de 2 hectares com a cultura da Palma de Óleo, em cada campo. Foram distribuídas armadilhas iscadas com roletes de cana-de-açúcar e feromônio de agregação para captura dos insetos no entorno dos plantios. Ocorreu flutuação de R. palmarum com picos populacionais nos meses de julho e agosto no ecossistema de savana e de abril a setembro no ambiente de floresta. A população de R. palmarum foi menor em meses de baixa precipitação pluviométrica nos dois ambientes avaliados com a Palma de Óleo em Roraima Population Fluctuation of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantations of Oil Palm in Roraima Abstract. This research aimed to evaluate the population fluctuation Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Elaeis guineensis Jacq plantations in forest and savanna ecosystems in the state of Roraima. The research was conducted during the period from January 2011 to February 2012 in the experimental field of Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo and Caroebe in an area of 2 hectares with culture Oil Palm in each field. Traps baited with rollers cane sugar and aggregation pheromone for capturing insects in the vicinity of the plantations were distributed. Fluctuation occurred R. palmarum with population peaks in the months of July and August in the savanna ecosystem and from April to September in the forest environment. The population of R. palmarum was lower in months of low rainfall in the two environments assessed with a palm-oil-in Roraima.

  1. Tolerância de sementes de dendezeiro à criopreservação Oil palm seeds tolerance to cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de sementes de dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis à criopreservação. Cinco genótipos - CM589, C7201, C2528, C2001, C2501 - foram avaliados quanto à exposição ao nitrogênio líquido por sete dias. Os tratamentos foram repetidos três vezes e cada repetição foi formada por dez sementes. Cortes anatômicos foram realizados para comparação do efeito dos tratamentos nos embriões durante a germinação. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido acelerou a germinação das sementes do genótipo CM589 e aumentou o potencial de germinação das sementes do genótipo C2528. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido não teve efeito no genótipo C2501 e reduziu a germinação das sementes do genótipo C7201. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido não interferiu na diferenciação e no desenvolvimento dos tecidos embrionários durante a germinação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis seed tolerance to cryopreservation. Five genotypes (CM589, C7201, C2528, C2001, and C2501 were evaluated with or without exposure to liquid nitrogen for seven days. Treatments were replicated three times with ten seeds per replicate. Serial anatomical cuts were made to compare the effect of treatments on zygotic embryos. For CM589 and C2528, the exposition to liquid nitrogen accelerated and increased seed germination, respectively. For C2501, liquid nitrogen had no effect. For C7201, liquid nitrogen reduced seed germination (90.7% compared to the check (100%. Anatomically, the liquid nitrogen did not interfere with embryonic tissue differentiation or development during germination.

  2. 油棕高效胚培养技术研究%Efficient Embryo Culture Technique for Oil Palm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 彭金灵; 康娟; 邹积鑫; 林位夫

    2012-01-01

    分析不同灭菌时间和外植体的处理方式对油棕种子无菌苗获得效率的影响.为其高效的组织培养奠定基础。结果表明:以75%酒精处理1min,再用O.1%升汞处理30-40min对油棕种子的灭菌效果最好。灭菌后的种子去除胚乳后将胚接种于Ms培养基上,其出苗率最高。可达100%;接种后15d即可获得无菌苗,成苗率最高达88.9%。胚在光照及黑暗条件下均可萌发,但苗的生长需要光照条件。该方法适合油棕无菌苗的获得,也可为其它科属中种壳坚硬种子无菌苗的获得提供参考。%Different sterilizing time and treatment methods were carried out on Elaeis guineensis seeds to analyze their effects on obtaining sterile seedlings. The results show that sterilizing with 75% ethanol for lmin and then dipping into 0.1% HgCI2 for 30 or 40 min was the most effective methods for seed sterilization. Removing the endosperms before transforming onto the MS medium is the most efficiency to obtain sterile seedlings. The sterile seedlings were obtained after 15 d when the embryo was placed onto the culture medium. Seeds emergence rate reached 100% and the survival rate of seedlings would be 88.9%. The embryo could germinate with or without light, whereas sprouting need light. This results help us in obtaining sterile seedlings of Elaeis guineensis and other crops with hard seed shell.

  3. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia Some forms of organic carbon in soil with different uses in the Department of Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P Fractions of soil organic matter (SOM labile and humified, can be affected by use and management practices, but the impact of these changes has not been evaluated in soils of tropical environments. The present study investigated the contents and some forms of soil organic carbon (SOC in five warm tropical climate zones of the Department of Magdalena (Colombia, and the effect of the cropping practices on these forms of organic carbon in cultivated soils, associated with Coffee (Coffea arabica, Banana (Musa sp., African palm (Elaeis guineensis, Aloe (Aloe vera compared to natural forest soils. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were not found between zones as much use soil as. Low average values of SOM in the study areas and higher contents of total carbon in forest soils than in cultivated soils were reported. Forest soils had an average carbon accumulation total of 42.4 mg/ha at 20 cm, compared to 33.8 mg/ha in the cultivated soils, this equates to an average loss of 23% total C by the effect of crop management in these soils, compared to C humified (C extracted with sodium pyrophosphate, values are observed very low in cultivated soils and almost zero in forest soils, but forest soils had a higher number of stable forms of C (Cnox. In the soil cultivated

  4. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops.

  5. Development and Validation of a High-Density SNP Genotyping Array for African Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Heng, Huey Ying; Lee, Heng Leng; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Low, Joel Zi-Bin; Apparow, Sukganah; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Appleton, David Ross

    2016-08-01

    High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are powerful tools that can measure the level of genetic polymorphism within a population. To develop a whole-genome SNP array for oil palms, SNP discovery was performed using deep resequencing of eight libraries derived from 132 Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera palms belonging to 59 origins, resulting in the discovery of >3 million putative SNPs. After SNP filtering, the Illumina OP200K custom array was built with 170 860 successful probes. Phenetic clustering analysis revealed that the array could distinguish between palms of different origins in a way consistent with pedigree records. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium declined more slowly for the commercial populations (ranging from 120 kb at r(2) = 0.43 to 146 kb at r(2) = 0.50) when compared with the semi-wild populations (19.5 kb at r(2) = 0.22). Genetic fixation mapping comparing the semi-wild and commercial population identified 321 selective sweeps. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) detected a significant peak on chromosome 2 associated with the polygenic component of the shell thickness trait (based on the trait shell-to-fruit; S/F %) in tenera palms. Testing of a genomic selection model on the same trait resulted in good prediction accuracy (r = 0.65) with 42% of the S/F % variation explained. The first high-density SNP genotyping array for oil palm has been developed and shown to be robust for use in genetic studies and with potential for developing early trait prediction to shorten the oil palm breeding cycle.

  6. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  7. Some biological aspects of Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, in oil palm plantations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Martínez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scarabaeid Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister is described as causing damage to oil palm leaves, marking its first report as a pest in Colombia. The presence of this insect has necessitated determination of its life cycle, biometrics and food consumption as important aspects of its biology. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the municipality of San Vicente, Santander, Colombia. Mass rearing of L. femoratus was conducted, simulating field conditions and eating habits under laboratory conditions. Its life cycle and description of its developmental stages were determined, taking into account stage-specific survival. The duration of the life cycle of L. femoratus was determined to be 170.4±6.53, with an overall survival rate of 96.7%. Biometrical measurements were taken of the insect’s width, length and weight. Adults are black, and males and females are differentiated by size and by colour of their legs. The width, length and weight of the insect are proportional to the growth stage. Daily food consumption rate was evaluated in adult L. femoratus, and damage to leaves of Elaeis guineensis is described. Adult L. femoratus consumed 13 mm2 of foliage per day, and injury to leaves of E. guineensis was square or rectangular in shape. This insect’s life cycle duration and size are factors that could be considered in determining its feeding habits and pest status. Details of the life cycle, physical description and consumption rate of L. femoratus can help in the development of strategies to manage its populations in oil palm plantations.

  8. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  9. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  10. Description of the males of Lincus singularis and Lincus incisus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae

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    Aline S. Maciel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Lincus Stål, 1867 includes 35 species, thirteen of which are known only from females. Several species are vectors of Phytomonas staheli McGhee & McGhee, 1979, a trypanosomatid parasitic in palm-trees in South America that causes hart-rot, sudden and slow wilt diseases. The hitherto unknown males of L. singularis Rolston, 1983 ("swollen head" species group found in the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and L. incisus Rolston, 1983 ("hatchet-lobed" species group; found in the coconut tree Cocos nucifera L., are described with emphasis on the morphology of the genitalia, and taxonomic remarks are provided. Males of L. singularis can be distinguished from other species included in "swollen head" group by their pronotal lobes with anterior and posterior margins subparallel and projected laterally from the eye margin, while males of L. incisus can be distinguished from the species of the "swollen head" group by an obtuse projection with a deepest incision and several additional diagnostic characters of the genitalia.

  11. Air Quality and Climate Effects of Oil Palm Expansion in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    The natural rainforests of Southeast Asia have endured large-scale losses over the last few decades, principally driven by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests. Satellite-derived estimates of land cover represent snapshots in time of this highly-dynamic landscape. We apply multiple observational datasets and a global carbon-chemistry-climate model (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) to quantify the magnitude of altered biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes in Southeast Asia and the resulting impacts on atmospheric chemical composition due to the past two decades of land cover change in the region. NASA ModelE2-YIBs includes a fully interactive land carbon cycle. Isoprene production is energetically coupled to photosynthesis. Time-slice simulations for the period spanning 1990 - 2010 are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Simulated tropospheric chemical composition is compared to observations, including fire-free formaldehyde columns, TES vertically-resolved ozone concentrations, and surface-level ozone measurements. We assess the contribution of land cover change-induced BVOC emission changes to regional ozone and aerosol pollution and provide the first estimate of the impacts on global climate.

  12. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  13. AcEST: DK953412 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ein OS=Medic... 129 1e-28 tr|B3TLS9|B3TLS9_ELAGV Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Elaeis guin...eensis va... 128 2e-28 tr|A9PAM4|A9PAM4_POPTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Popul... 124 4e-27 tr|B6TL35|B6TL35_MAIZE Fiber... protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 122 2e-26 tr|B6TIV8|B6TIV8_MAIZE Fiber protein Fb2 O...|B7E6V3|B7E6V3_ORYSJ cDNA clone:001-039-B10, full insert seque... 117 3e-25 tr|B4FRH9|B4FRH9_MAIZE Fiber pro... Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 110 6e-23 tr|Q8GT87|Q8GT87_GOSBA Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Gossypiu

  14. AcEST: DK958090 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|B3TLS9|B3TLS9_ELAGV Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Elaeis guineensis va... 73 6e-12 tr|B4FRH9|B4FRH9_MAIZE Fiber pr...7e-11 tr|B6TL35|B6TL35_MAIZE Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 69 9e-11 tr|B6TIV8|B6TIV8_MAIZE Fiber p...seque... 61 2e-08 tr|A9RX94|A9RX94_PHYPA Predicted protein (Fragment) OS=Physcomit... 58 2e-07 tr|Q8GT87|Q8GT87_GOSBA Fiber...S=Oryza... 57 6e-07 tr|B6T3D5|B6T3D5_MAIZE Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 56 8e-07 tr|B4FDK3|B4FDK3_MAIZE Fiber...2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 55 2e-06 tr|B4FIX0|B4FIX0_MAIZE Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Zea

  15. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngomanda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. From ca. 4000 cal yr BP a progressive decline of inland evergreen rainforest, accompanied by the expansion of semi-deciduous rainforest, occurred synchronously with grassland colonisation in the coastal region of Gabon. The contraction of moist evergreen rainforest and the establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggest decreasing humidity from ca. 4000 cal yr BP. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was followed from 2700 cal yr BP by the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae. A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed were driven by human impact.

  16. Agroindustrial byproducts in diets for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate performance and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets containing byproducts aerial parts of cassava meal (Manihot esculenta, mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora, cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis and to analyze the economic viability of the feed. A total of 1,350 juvenile males (100 g were distributed in 15 cages (1 m³ in completely randomized design with five treatments (basal diet and four test diets and three replicates. The following aspects were evaluated: final weight, total feed intake, total weight gain, feed conversion, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and survival rate, dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash body, the average cost of feed per kilogram of weight gain and economic efficiency rate. No differences were observed for total consumption of food or survival rate. For other variables, the inclusion of cocoa and cassava meal impaired fish performance. No differences were observed for dry matter, crude protein and body ash. The lower body fat accumulation was recorded for the tilapia fed palm kernel cake. The best economic indicators were found to diets containing palm kernel cake. The byproducts evaluated can be used up to 150 g/kg in feed formulation, providing good performance and economic rate for Nile tilapia.

  17. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71.

  18. PEROXIDASA DE PLANTAS TROPICALES

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    Ivan Yu Sakharov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad de la peroxidasa (EC 1.11.1.7 en 7 frutos, 13 raíces y 31 hojas de plantas tropicales que crecen en Colombia. Se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa varía ampliamente de una especie a otra. Para el fruto de balazos (Monstera deliciosa se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa depende del grado de madurez. Por el contrario, la actividad de peroxidasa de las hojas de la palma de botella (Roystonea regia se mantiene constante todo el año. Algunas especies presentaron alta actividad de peroxidasa como la raíz de batata (Ipomoea batatas, las hojas de pasto guinea (Panicum máximum, las de dormidera (Mimosa pigra, las de higuerilla (Riciims communis L. y las de las siguientes palmas: mararai (Aiphanes caríotifolia, de botella (Roystonea regia, dactilera (Phoenix dactylifera y africana (Elaeis guineensis. Además, mediante isoelectroenfoque se hallaron peroxidasas aniónicas (pl 3.4 - 5.6 tanto en la raíz de batata como en las palmas analizadas.

  19. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally.

  20. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Phytocystatin Gene from Turmeric, Curcuma longa

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    Seow-Neng Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI, plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5′/3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1. It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel phytocystatin gene from turmeric, Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Seow-Neng; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Mahmood, Maziah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI), plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1). It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis.

  3. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-07-23

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

  4. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  5. Teratorhabditis palmarum n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditidae): An Associate of Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. cruentatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, K; Giblin-Davis, R M

    1990-07-01

    Teratorhabditis palmarum n. sp., an associate of the palm weevils Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. cruentatus is described. Teratorhabditis palmarum was isolated from newly emerged adults and cocoons of R. palmarum from red-ring diseased coconut palms, Cocos nucifera, in Trinidad and Ecuador, and from red-ring diseased oil palms, Elaeis guineensis, in Colombia. Teratorhabditis palmarum was also associated internally with newly emerged adults of R. cruentatus from mature transplanted cabbage palmettos, Sabal palmetto, in Florida. Dauer juveniles of T. palmarum infested the genital capsule and body cavity of newly emerged adult female and male palm weevils. Adult nematodes isolated from cocoons and dauer juveniles from newly emerged palm weevils were cuhurable on bacterial lawns on several solid media. Females of T. palmarum have a single anteriorly directed ovary; vulva at 93-96% of the body length; short, hemispherical spicate tail; three or four teeth in the metastom; cuticle with distinct transverse punctations that change abruptly at the level of the procorpus to indentations of alternating size and arrangement; and eggs with cuticular sculpturing. Males have a crenate, peloderan bursa with a 2 + 5 + 3 pattern of bursal rays (7 extend to the margin of bursa); spicules linear, completely fused at the distal tip and dorsally for 50% of the total spicule length.

  6. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  7. Potensi Lumpur Sawit (SOLID Sebagai Pakan Ruminansia di Kabupaten Pelalawan Provinsi Riau

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    Kodri Yanto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential of palm oil’s waste (solid as ruminant feed in Pelalawan district of Riau Province ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to know potential of solid waste in Pelalawan district, Riau province. Research was carried out from December 2007 – January 2008 in Pelalawan district by using 4 factories of Elaeis guineensis (PKS. The four factories that were used for data collection were PT. Multi Palma Sejahtera (MPS, PT. Inti Indo Sawit Subur (IIS, PT. Sinar Agro Raya (SAR and PT. Musim Mas (MM. The results of study showed that solid waste in Pelalawan district of Riau province had a great potential. Production of solid waste in Pelalawan district was around 76.176 tons/year and carrying capacity was 5.132 animals unit. Farmers will use solid waste at large quantity if they raise livestock in commercially, for instance for fattening purpose. The strategies which can be applied to maximize solid waste utilization are through partnership between farmers and factories or local government pihak PKS.

  8. Kinetic of biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Carillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de aceite de la palma Elaeis guineensis aporta residuales orgánicos como los racimos sin frutos (RSF que representan un 7%. Actualmente los RSF no se aprovechan en su totalidad consti tuyendo un problema medioambiental. Se estudia el empleo de RSF pretratados con NaOH para la producción de biogás. El tiempo de pretratamiento (TP de los RSF influye directamente sobre la c antidad de biogás producida logrando conversiones de sólidos volátiles a biogás de 96%, para TP = 60 min y 29 días de reacción. La pro ducción de biogás se ajusta a una ley cinética de orden 1 obteniéndose las constantes cinéticas de la generación de CH 4 (0,108 d -1 y CO 2 (0,107 d - 1 a la temperatura de operación del reactor (55°C. Se presenta un modelo generalizador que permite estimar la conversión de s ólidos volátiles a biogás en función del tiempo de pretratamiento y de l tiempo de permanencia en el reactor.

  9. Possibility analysis of combustion of torrefied biomass in 140 t/h PC boiler

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    Jagodzińska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to evaluate the impact of combustion of torrefied willow (Latin: Salix viminalis and palm kernel shell (Latin: Elaeis guineensis on the heat exchange in a 140 t/h PC boiler through an analysis of 6 cases for different boiler loads (60 %, 75 % and 100 % and a comparison with coal combustion. The analysis is premised on a 0-dimensional model based on the method presented in [15, 16, 17] and long-standing experimental measurements. Inter alia, the following results are presented: the temperature distribution of flue gases and the working medium (water/steam in characteristic points of the boiler as well as heat transfer coefficients for each element thereof. The temperature distribution of both fluids and the heat transfer coefficients are similar for all analysed fuels for each boiler load. However, the flue gas temperature at the outlet is higher in the case of torrefied biomass combustion. Due to that, there is an increase in the stack loss, which involves a decrease in the boiler efficiency. The conclusion is that torrefied biomass combustion is possible in a PC boiler without the need to change the boiler construction. However, it would be less effective than coal combustion.

  10. Quality of Pellets Made from Agricultural and Forestry Crops in Costa Rican Tropical Climates

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    Carolina Tenorio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pellets may be produced with different types of agriculture or forestry crops in Costa Rica. This work evaluated the energy, physical, and mechanical properties of pellets fabricated from 12 types of agricultural and forestry crops (Ananas cumosos, Arundo donax, Coffea arabica, Cupressus lusitanica, empty fruit bunch and oil palm mesocarp fiber of the fruit of Elaeis guineensis, Gynerium sagittatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Phyllostachys aurea, Saccharum officinarum, Sorghum bicolor, and Tectona grandis, and similarities among these crops were established by multivariate principal component analysis. High variation was found in the pellet properties. The energy evaluation revealed that C. lusitanica and P. aurea are the crops with the best qualities for fuel use because of their high calorific values (from 16807 kJ/kg and 19919 kJ/kg, respectively and low ash content (1.03% and 3.39%, respectively. As for physical properties, most crops exhibited values within the range noted by several authors and standards. All 12 pellet crops displayed high durability (from 72.12% to 92.98% and compression force (from 295.18 N to 691.86 N. Moreover, the evaluation of crop similarities allowed the determination of four group combinations. Within these groups, C. lusitanica, P. aurea, and G. sagittatum had similar energy qualities and the best caloric characteristics.

  11. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, Stanley U.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis, resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO has not established guidelines on how to measure and evaluate oil palm related land-cover change. While remote sensing methods are suitable in general, the use of Landsat images in the tropics for the monitoring and modeling of land-cover changes has been restricted due to the influence of cloud cover. This study presents a novel approach for mapping tropical land-cover change ­using the Google Earth Engine (GEE cloud-based platform and the System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis (SAGA GIS. Spatiotemporal land-use and land-cover changes in relation to oil palm cultivation are assessed using a median pixel composite mosaic of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 image scenes for the time periods 1999-2005 and 2009-2015. The proposed approach yields an overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70.33 % and 0.62 for the first image composite period, and 84.5 % and 0.80 for the second image composite period respectively.

  12. Beneifcial effect of reifned red palm oil on lipid peroxidation and monocyte tissue factor in HCV-related liver disease:a randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Catanzaro; Nicola Zerbinati; Umberto Solimene; Massimiliano Marcellino; Dheeraj Mohania; Angelo Italia; Antonio Ayala; Francesco Marotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large amount of endotoxin can be detected in the peripheral venous blood of patients with liver cirrhosis, contributing to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity because of its role in oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test the effect of the supplementation with red palm oil (RPO), which is a natural oil obtained from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) rich in natural fat-soluble tocopherols, tocotrienols and carot-enoids, on lipid peroxidation and endotoxemia with plasma endotoxin-inactivating capacity, proinlfammatory cytokines proifle, and monocyte tissue factor in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: The study group consisted of sixty patients (34 males and 26 females; mean age 62 years, range 54-75) with Child A/B, genotype 1 HCV-related cirrhosis without a history of ethanol consumption, randomly enrolled into an 8-week oral daily treatment with either vitamin E or RPO. All patients had undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy 8 months before, and 13 out of them showed esophageal varices. RESULTS: Both treatments signiifcantly decreased erythro-cyte malondialdehyde and urinary isoprostane output, only RPO signiifcantly affected macrophage-colony stimulating fac-tor and monocyte tissue factor. Liver ultrasound imaging did not show any change. CONCLUSIONS: RPO beneifcially modulates oxidative stress and, not least, downregulates macrophage/monocyte inlfam-matory parameters. RPO can be safely advised as a valuable nutritional implementation tool in the management of chron-ic liver diseases.

  13. Nectar Sources for the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera adansonii Revealed by Pollen Content

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    Olusola ADEKANMBI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nectar sources for the African honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii were investigated. The work involved analysis of three honey samples bought from open markets in Lagos, Nigeria. The pollen sediment of the honeys was acetolysed, mounted on slides and pollen types were identified and counted to determine the relative frequency of the different pollen types in the honey samples. The proportion of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 196 in sample A, 280 in sample B to 238 in sample C. The most abundant taxa identified from the honey samples were Tridax procumbens and Elaeis guineensis belonging to the families Asteraceae and Palmae. The highest proportion of Palm pollen grain was recorded in sample B with one hundred and ten (110 pollen grains per slide. The pollen grains in the families Palmae and Asteraceae are of great importance to the bees for honey production, this can be seen in the abundance displayed in sample B and C. Other pollen taxa recovered belong to the families Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae providing a clue on the ecological origin of the pollen grains in the honey sample. Pollen analysis of honey proved to be useful in deciphering nectar sources of Apis mellifera adansonii.

  14. Identification of QTLs associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis in oil palm using genetic linkage maps improved with SSR markers.

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    Ngoot-Chin Ting

    Full Text Available Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for dura (ENL48 and pisifera (ML161, the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs in 23 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

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    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  16. Efficient transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection.

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    Mat Yunus Abdul Masani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants.

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of oil palm: a preliminary analysis for cultivars and genomic DNA alteration

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    Warawut Chuthammathat

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA contents of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cultivars were analyzed by flow cytometry using different external reference plant species. Analysis using corn (Zea mays line CE-777 as a reference plant gave the highest DNA content of oil palm (4.72±0.23 pg 2C-1 whereas the DNA content was found to be lower when using soybean (Glycine max cv. Polanka (3.77±0.09 pg 2C-1 or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stupicke (4.25±0.09 pg 2C-1 as a reference. The nuclear DNA contents of Dura (D109, Pisifera (P168 and Tenera (T38 cultivars were 3.46±0.04, 3.24±0.03 and 3.76±0.04 pg 2C-1 nuclei, respectively, using soybean as a reference. One haploid genome of oil palm therefore ranged from 1.56 to 1.81±109 base pairs. DNA contents from one-year-old calli and cell suspension of oil palm were found to be significantly different from those of seedlings. It thus should be noted that genomic DNA alteration occurred in these cultured tissues. We therefore confirm that flow cytometric analysis could verify cultivars, DNA content and genomic DNA alteration of oil palm using soybean as an external reference standard.

  18. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  19. 不同品种油茶嫁接苗根系生长动态研究%Study on Root Growth Dynamic Characteristics of Grafted Seedlings of Different Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康乐; 杨水平; 姚小华; 王开良; 洪友君; 王毅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 油茶(Camellia oleifera Abel)为山茶科(Theaceae)山茶属(Camellia L.)常绿灌木或小乔木,是我国南方重要的经济林木.油茶与油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)、油橄榄(Olea europaea L.)和椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)并称为世界四大木本食用油料植物[1],其主要产品茶油是一种高级食用油,不饱和脂肪酸含量高达90%以上;同时,茶油是一种重要的生物质原料,在工业、医药、化妆业等都有广泛的利用[2-3].榨油后的茶枯和茶壳中含有大量的多糖、蛋白质和皂素,经过深加工也可以利用.榨去脂肪油的渣滓称茶子饼,花称茶子木花,根皮称油茶根皮,均收载为药用[4-5].

  20. Silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake

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    Rângelis de Sousa Figueredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of Piata palisadegrass ensiled with palm kernel in the levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a natural basis of the Piata palisadegrass. The material was minced, mixed, packed into experimental silos and opened after 60 days of fermentation. The palm kernel cake is an agro-industrial by-product that can enrich the silage, increasing its nutritional value.The addition of palm kernel cake improved the fermentative and bromatological parameters of the silage, increasing the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients, with a reduction in the fiber fraction, values of pH, ammonia nitrogen, and titratable acidity. The use of palm kernel cake in Piata palisadegrass silage increase the fractions A, B1, B2 and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and decrease the fractions B3 and C. For achieving the best quality silage it is recommended the addition of 15% palm kernel cake.

  1. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngomanda, A.; Chepstow-Lusty, A.; Makaya, M.; Favier, C.; Schevin, P.; Maley, J.; Fontugne, M.; Oslisly, R.; Jolly, D.

    2009-10-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. From ca. 4000 cal yr BP a progressive decline of inland evergreen rainforest, accompanied by the expansion of semi-deciduous rainforest, occurred synchronously with grassland colonisation in the coastal region of Gabon. The contraction of moist evergreen rainforest and the establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggest decreasing humidity from ca. 4000 cal yr BP. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was followed from 2700 cal yr BP by the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed were driven by human impact.

  2. 油茶籽仁中油脂的水酶法提取研究%Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil-tea Camellia (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方学智; 王开良; 姚小华; 王亚萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 油茶(Camellia oleifera Abel.)作为我国特有的木本油料树种,在我国南方地区有广泛的分布[1].油茶与油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)、油橄榄(Olea europaea L.)、椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)并称为世界四大木本油料作物[2],其果仁含油率高达40 %以上,茶油不饱和脂肪酸含量可高达91.5%以上,其中油酸含量可达50%83%[1].总体而言,茶油脂肪酸组成与橄榄油相似,但价格低于橄榄油,作为高档油发展潜力极大.如何有效地提取山茶油并保持其丰富的营养,对茶油的推广具有重要的意义.

  3. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  4. Relationship between the 1997/98 El Niño and 1999/2001 La Niña events and oil palm tree production in Tumaco, Southwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, M. C.; Devis-Morales, A.; Pabón, J. D.; Málikov, I.; Reyna-Moreno, J. A.; Ortiz, J. R.

    2006-02-01

    Although the relationship between ENSO events and oceanographic and meteorological conditions of Southwestern Colombia is well-known, very little work has been done to assess the related socio-economic impacts. This is the first effort made to determine the effect of such events on local climate and the impact of this variability on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) production in the Tumaco municipality, which is located on Colombia's Pacific coast. First, we studied the correlation between sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the various El Niño regions and those observed off Tumaco. Next, we scrutinized the ENSO impact on regional climatic indicators, e.g. active solar radiation (hrs/day), air temperature (°C), and rain (mm). Finally, we analyzed the relationship between ENSO, Tumaco climate variability, and oil palm production (tons/hectare-month). Hours of active radiation increased (decreased) under El Niño (La Niña) conditions, as did average monthly precipitation rates and air temperature. ENSO-related climatic variability also had an important effect on the different developmental stages of the oil palm tree, thereby affecting its production. The worst scenario was found during La Niña, when reduced intensity of the rainy season (second semester) caused severe droughts in the region.

  5. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Protocols for Oil Palm Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daim, Leona Daniela Jeffery; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Karsani, Saiful Anuar Bin

    2015-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is an important economic crop cultivated for its nutritional palm oil. A significant amount of effort has been undertaken to understand oil palm growth and physiology at the molecular level, particularly in genomics and transcriptomics. Recently, proteomics studies have begun to garner interest. However, this effort is impeded by technical challenges. Plant sample preparation for proteomics analysis is plagued with technical challenges due to the presence of polysaccharides, secondary metabolites and other interfering compounds. Although protein extraction methods for plant tissues exist, none work universally on all sample types. Therefore, this study aims to compare and optimize different protein extraction protocols for use with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of young and mature leaves from the oil palm. Four protein extraction methods were evaluated: phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate, trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation, sucrose and trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol. Of these four protocols, the trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol method was found to give the highest resolution and most reproducible gel. The results from this study can be used in sample preparations of oil palm tissue for proteomics work.

  6. Isolation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase cDNA and Basal Regulatory Region from Metroxylon sagu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Ching Ching; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is a versatile enzyme involved in many biochemical pathways in plants such as in germination and stress tolerance. Sago palm is plant with much importance to the state of Sarawak as one of the most important crops that bring revenue with the advantage of being able to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses such as heat, pathogens, and water logging. Here we report the isolation of sago palm Adh cDNA and its putative promoter region via the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and genomic walking. The isolated cDNA was characterized and determined to be 1464 bp long encoding for 380 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that the Adh is similar to the Adh1 group with 91% and 85% homology with Elaeis guineensis and Washingtonia robusta, respectively. The putative basal msAdh1 regulatory region was further determined to contain promoter signals of TATA and AGGA boxes and predicted amino acids analyses showed several Adh-specific motifs such as the two zinc-binding domains that bind to the adenosine ribose of the coenzyme and binding to alcohol substrate. A phylogenetic tree was also constructed using the predicted amino acid showed clear separation of Adh from bacteria and clustered within the plant Adh group.

  7. Will Forests Remain in the Face of Oil Palm Expansion? Simulating Change in Malinau, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Sandker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe tensions between conservation and development are illustrated by events in Malinau Dstrict (Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conservationists decry proposed plans for logging and conversion of pristine tropical forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Although the local government is willing to declare the district a "conservation district," at the same time, it shows interest in oil palm conversion. This article explores the impact of the potential conversion of 500 000 ha of forest to oil palm on forest cover, in-migration, and the local economy in Malinau. The simulation model was developed using STELLA® software, and relies on a combination of empirical data, data from the literature, and stakeholder perceptions. If a company were to clear the forest for timber without planting oil palm (as commonly happens, poverty levels are likely to rise rather than decline over the long term. If large-scale oil palm plantations were to be established, they could yield significant benefits to local authorities. However, such development would induce massive employment-driven migration, with wide-ranging consequences for the current inhabitants of the region. By visualizing and quantifying these trade-offs between conservation and development, the model stimulates debate and information exchange among conservationists, development actors, and district authorities so that well-informed choices can be made.

  8. Wastes Management Can Minimize CH4 and N2O Emissions from Wetlands in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paddy (Oriza sativa L. and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jack are two important crops and are potential to produce wastes which may lead to huge greenhouse gas emissions if they are not managed properly.  Open burning and conventional composting are commonly practiced by farmers and/or planters to managed agricultural wastes in Indonesia.  A series of research has been carried out  to elucidate (1 the reductions of CH4 and N2O due to incertion of a catalitic converter on burning kiln, (2 the best composting technique of oil palm field wastes, and (3 the effects of oil palm field wastes compost application in oil palm fields and of paddy field wastes biochar in integrated oil palm-paddy fields.  The results showed that CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy field wastes (i.e., rice straw or rice husk was lower than that from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB.  Furthermore, insertion of a catalytic converter into pyrolysis installation reduced the CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy field wastes as much as 14.5, 17.8 and 11.1%, respectively.  Incorporation of EFB compost did not increase greenhouse gas emission from oil palm fields. These results suggest that biochar and EFB compost can be practiced to manage agricultural wastes in Indonesia.

  9. How Do “Renewable Products” Impact Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – The Example of Natural Rubber in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cotter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the implications brought by the expansion of “renewable products” plantation systems in the tropics with cultivation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis as a main focus. Throughout South East Asia, natural forest is being replaced by rubber or oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations, with severe consequences for the local flora and fauna. Main aspects of this review are: i The provision of an overview over renewable resources in general and rubber in particular, with eco-physiological and agronomical information concerning rubber cultivation. ii The effect of rubber plantations on biodiversity and species composition under different rubber farming approaches. In addition we debate the possible influences of such large scale land cover transformations on ecosystem services. iii The conversion of natural forests into rubber plantations releases considerable amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. We estimated these values for different land cover types in southern China and assessed the carbon sequestration potential of local rubber plantations.

  10. Development of Binderless Fiberboards from Steam-exploded and Oxidized Oil Palm Wastes

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    Elizabeth Mejía Henao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards were made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunches with two treatments: steam explosion and Fenton reagent oxidation. Fiberboards were prepared with a targeted density of 1.20 g/cm3 and a thickness of 4 mm. A factorial experimental design 22 with two center repetitions and one repetition was applied for each treatment. The oil palm waste was oxidized with Fenton reagent using a H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 2%/0.2% to 4%/0.4% and a pressing temperature of 170 to 190 °C. Steam explosion was carried out at a severity factor of 3.5 to 4.0 at the same pressing temperature. Both treatments were examined under two major response variables: mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, MOR, and modulus of elasticity, MOE and physical properties (thickness swelling, TS, and water absorption, WA. Steam-exploded samples developed better physico-mechanical properties than those that underwent Fenton reagent oxidation. The best results were obtained from fiberboards treated with the highest steam explosion design conditions (severity 4 and pressing temperature 190 °C to give optimum values of MOE 3100.09 MPa, MOR 28.49 MPa, TS 11.80%, and WA 22.74%. Binderless fiberboards made from steam explosion-treated pulp satisfied favorably well the Colombian Standard NTC 2261.

  11. Future climate effects on suitability for growth of oil palms in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The production of palm oil (PO) is highly profitable. The economies of the principal producers, Malaysia and Indonesia, and others, benefit considerably. Climate change (CC) will most likely have an impact on the distribution of oil palms (OP) (Elaeis guineensis). Here we present modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability of growing OP, in Malaysia and Indonesia. A process-oriented niche model of OP was developed using CLIMEX to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of CC under the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Decreases in climatic suitability for OP in the region were gradual by 2030 but became more pronounced by 2100. These projections imply that OP growth will be affected severely by CC, with obvious implications to the economies of (a) Indonesia and Malaysia and (b) the PO industry, but with potential benefits towards reducing CC. A possible remedial action is to concentrate research on development of new varieties of OP that are less vulnerable to CC.

  12. The Effect of Chitosan on Organogenesis of Oil Palm Embryo-Derived Callus

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    Kantamaht KANCHANAPOOM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zygotic embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. tenera were excised and cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l 2, 4-D either with or without 0.05% activated charcoal (AC. Improved growth of embryos was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.05% AC. Callus cultures were initiated from embryos, young leaves and roots on MS medium containing 2, 4-D, NAA and 0.05% AC. On these media, two morphologically distinct types of white and yellow compact calluses were produced. Green shoots regenerated after several transfers of the yellow compact calluses from zygotic embryos to MS medium supplemented with 15 mg/l chitosan either with or without 5 mg/l 2, 4-D. Histological sectioning revealed that regenerated shoots originated from a clump of meristematic cells that had dense cytoplasm. Regenerated shoots rooted when transferred to MS medium in the presence of 0.05% AC. Transfer of plantlets to soil was achieved. Callus from young seedling leaves and roots did not regenerate shoots or roots in medium containing 2, 4-D or TDZ, with or without chitosan. This finding shows that chitosan can initiate organogenesis in oil palm callus.

  13. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  14. Effect of Soil Use and Coverage on the Spectral Response of an Oxisol in the VIS-NIR-MIR Region

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    Javier M. Martín-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spectral responses obtained from a Typic Red Hapludox (oxisol were analyzed under different uses and occupations: Ficus elastica cultivation, Citrus + Arachis association cultivation, transitional crops, forest, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Elaeis guineensis (18 years, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, and Musa × paradisiaca + Zea mays at the La Libertad Research Center in the department of Meta in Colombia (4°04′ North latitude, 73°30′ West longitude, 330 MAMSL. Sampling was performed with four random replicates of the horizon A and B to determine the contents of organic carbon (CO, pH, exchangeable acidity (Ac. I, cation exchange capacity (Cc, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, sand, lime, and clay and spectral responses were obtained in the visible band (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and infrared (MIR for each sample under laboratory conditions. A comparison was made between the obtained spectra, determining the main changes in soil properties due to their use and coverage. Variation of soil characteristics such as color, organic carbon content, presence of ferrous compounds, sand, silt, and clay content and mineralogy allow the identification of the main spectral changes of soils, demonstrating the importance of the use of reflectance spectroscopy as a tool of comparison and estimation between physical-chemical properties of the soils.

  15. Apport des arbres fruitiers à la sécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain tropical: cas de la commune de Limete- Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

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    Luyindula, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit Trees Contribution to Food Security in Tropical Urban Environment: Instance of Commune of Limete in Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. Problems of hunger and malnutrition in urban environnements force the populations to exploit all the food resources available. This work investigates the contribution to the diet of the population of the edible fruits produced by the 19 species of trees found in a district of Kinshasa. An investigation carried out in 1.09% of the 18,475 household plots of the commune of Limete permitted to estimate at approximately 47,000 feet the number of trees planted there and their annual production at approximately 4.087 tons. The six main species (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis and Musa paradisiaca account on their own for an approximate total of 36,400 feet. The contribution of these species to the population alimentation was estimated respectively at 10.9 g, 6.1 g, 4.5 g, 4.4 g, 1.8 g and 0.6 g of fruits per person and per day. The control of certain environmental- friendly techniques and environmental education relating to the trees in urban environment should increase the importance of this contribution.

  16. 马来西亚的油棕(Elaeis huneesis)花粉营养成分研究%Study on Nutritional Composition of Elaeis huneesis Pollen from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开发; 支崇远; 周天一

    2004-01-01

    对马来西亚油棕花粉进行了蛋白质、氨基酸、游离氨基酸、还原糖、蔗糖、粗脂肪、磷脂、维生素C、维生素E、类胡萝卜素、黄酮类、多糖、多肽以及矿物元素的测试和研究,结果表明油棕花粉营养成分丰富而全面,且具特色,很有利用价值.

  17. Resposta do dendezeiro à adição de nitrogênio e sua influência na população de bactérias diazotróficas Response of African oil palm to nitrogen addition and its influence on the diazotrophic bacteria population

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    André Vieira de Carvalho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jaquim pode produzir até sete toneladas de óleo por hectare por ano. O óleo vegetal é muito versátil e pode ser usado desde a indústria alimentícia até a produção de biocombustíveis. A planta é capaz de se associar com bactérias diazotróficas que colonizam raízes e caules. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à adubação nitrogenada de 17 genótipos de dendê no primeiro ano de cultivo e avaliar a influência da adição do N mineral sobre a população de bactérias diazotróficas, naturalmente presentes nas plântulas de dendezeiro. Foram utilizados potes de plástico completados com 50% de areia quartzoza e 50% de horizonte B de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, série Itaguaí, não esterilizado e extremamente pobre em nitrogênio. A uréia foi aplicada na dosagem de 33,68 kg ha-1 de N. Na presença do N, todos os genótipos melhoram os parâmetros biométricos, e houve aumento tanto do N total quanto do N acumulado. As populações de bactérias diazotróficas não foram influenciadas pela adição desse elemento. Dois genótipos foram selecionados, na presença e ausência de N, respectivamente, C-2001 e La Mé.African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jaquim can produce up to 7 tons of oil per hectare per year. The vegetable oil is greatly versatile in its use, since food industry up to the production of fuels favorable to environmental protection. The plant has the potential to be associative with diazotrophic bacteria which colonize the roots and stem. The objective of this work was to evaluate 17 genotypes of E. guineensis in response to nitrogen addition and to verify the influence of this nitrogen on the diazotrophic population in an experiment using plastic pots filled with 50% quartz sand and 50% of non sterilized Horizon B; Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil series Itaguaí, extremely poor in nitrogen. Urea was used at a dose of 33.68 kg ha-1 de N. In the presence of the nitrogen, all

  18. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

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    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  19. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

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    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  20. Vegetative development of cultivars of palm oil from 14 to 34 months of age in ecosystems Roraima = Desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade em ecossistemas de Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development of cultivars oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq from 14 to 34 months of age in the field in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two experiments were conducted, one in another area of savanna and forest area changes in the assessment of BRS C-2528, C-3701 and BRS BRS C-2301, in experimental design of randomized blocks with six replications. 18 reviews were conducted monthly from August 2008 to April 2010, the number of sheets issued, four leaf length (cm and girth circumference (cm. Analyses of variance individual and joint. For the statistical analysis of the characteristics evaluated test was used Scott-Knott at 5% probability. By comparing the averages of the characteristics evaluated in two environments, we found that, at 34 months old, the forest ecosystem plants had a higher number of leaves, leaf length greater than 4 and greater girth circumference, differing significantly the results obtained in the savanna ecosystem. In forest area changes, independent of cultivar evaluated, plants showed, 3.0 leaves emitted / month, four leaf growth of 8.9 cm / month and girth circumference of 9.6 cm / month, while in savanna, issued 2.5 leaves / month, 4 leaf length of 7.5 cm / month and girth circumference of 6.1 cm / month. It is concluded that changes in forest environment, cultivars have vegetative growth higher than in the environment of savanna. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo Elaeis guineensis Jacq dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade no campo, em dois ecossistemas de Roraima. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em área de savana e outro em área de floresta alterada com a avaliação das cultivares BRS C-2528, BRS C-3701 e BRS C-2301, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. Foram realizadas 18 avaliações mensais, no período de agosto de 2008 a abril de 2010, quanto ao número de folhas

  1. 石蒜核糖体蛋白L21的基因克隆及氨基酸序列分析%Gene cloning and amino acid sequence analysis of ribosomal protein L21 from Lycoris radiata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟金凤; 汪仁; 李晓丹; 江玉梅; 彭峰; 夏冰

    2011-01-01

    根据已知核糖体蛋白L21( RPL21)基因的保守序列设计1对引物,采用PCR技术从石蒜[Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.) Herb.]叶片全长cDNA文库中筛选出阳性克隆.通过测序和分析,获得1条石蒜RPL21基因全长cDNA 序列,命名为LrRPL21,GenBank登录号为FJ972626;序列全长709 bp,编码1条具有164个氨基酸残基的多肽.采用多种分析程序对石蒜RPL21的理化性质以及氨基酸序列的同源性进行了分析比较.结果显示:石蒜RPL21的预测分子量为18 628,理论等电点为10.36,分子式为C833 H1348 N254S4,总平均疏水性指数为-0.668,为亲水性蛋白;石蒜RPL21与其他8种植物RPL21的氨基酸序列同源性百分率均较高,达到85%~95%;根据系统树可推测其与油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) RPL21的进化关系最近.%A pair of primers were designed according to the known conserved sequence of ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) gene, and the positive clone was selected from full length Cdna library of Lycoris radiata (L'Her.) Herb, leaf by PCR technology. By means of sequencing and analyzing, a full length Cdna sequence of L. Radiata RPL21 gene was obtained, which was named LrRPL2\\ and its Gen Bank accession number was FJ972626. The full length of LrRPL21 is 709 bp, which encodes a polypeptide being composed of 164 ami no acid residues. Physicochemical property and amino acid sequence homology of L. Radiata RPL21 were analyzed and compared by some analysis programs. The results show that the putative molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of L. Radiata RPL21 are 18 628 and 10. 36, respectively, the molecular formula is C833H 1348N254S4, and the grand average index of hydrophobicity is -0. 668, which is a hydrophilic protein. Homologous percentage of amino acid sequence of RPL21 between L. Radiata and other eight species is higher with a percentage of 85%-95%. And according to phylogenetic tree, it can be conjectured that the evolutionary relationship of RPL21 between

  2. 海南岛巴西橡胶和香蕉cat相关基因的克隆及分析%Cloning and Analysis of the cat Associated Genes of Hevea brasiliensis and Banana in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余乃通; 孙玉娟; 张雨良; 罗志文; 刘志昕

    2012-01-01

    According to the existence of plant cat genes in CenBank, we designed a pair of degenerate primers, and amplified cat genes of banana, Hevea brasiliensis, yellow lantern pepper, pineapple, sugar cane, papaya from Hainan island. Ultimately, we cloned the rubber cat-1 and banana cat-2 genes, while the others not. Sequence analysis showed that open reading frame (ORF) of rubber cat-\\ and banana cat-2 genes were both 1 479 bp, and encoded 492 amino acids. GenBank accession number were HQ660587 and HQ660588. Using bioinfor-matics software, the tertiary structures of rubber' s CAT-1 and banana' s CAT-2 proteins were predicated, which were similar to Exiguobacteriu Oxidotolerans ( PDB code; 2j2mA0) and Pseudomonas Syringae ( PDB code: 1m7sA), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hainan H. Brasiliensis CAT-1 possessed the highest homology with Ricinus communis CAT-1 (XP_002521709. 1), while banana CAT-2 was the highest homology with Elaeis guineensis CAT-2 (ACF06566.1).%根据GenBank上已有的植物cat基因序列,设计一对兼并引物.在海南岛采集香蕉、巴西橡胶、黄灯笼辣椒、菠萝、甘蔗、番木瓜等作物的叶片并提取总RNA,反转录成cDNA,PCR进行同源克隆.结果获得了巴西橡胶cat-1和香蕉的cat-2基因,而未获得其它4种作物cat相关基因.序列分析发现,巴西橡胶cat-1和香蕉的cat-2基因开放阅读框(ORF)都为1 479 bp,编码492个氨基酸,GenBank登陆号分别为HQ660587和HQ660588.生物信息学软件分析巴西橡胶CAT-1和香蕉CAT-2蛋白的三级结构分别与Exiguobacteriu Oxidotolerans(PDB code:2j2mA0)和Pseudomonas Syringae( PDB code:1 m7sA)相似.构建系统发育树表明巴西橡胶CAT-1与蓖麻CAT-1氨基酸序列(Ricinus communis:XP_002521709.1)同源性最高,为92.1%;香蕉CAT-2与油棕CAT-2氨基酸序列(Elaeis guineensis:ACF06566.1)同源性最高,达90.9%.

  3. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  4. Nutritional value of some feedstuffs used in the diet of captive capybaras

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    Djalma Nóbrega Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Five pen-raised adult female capybaras were used in five digestibility trials in a Latin square design, to determine, for capybaras, the nutritional values of Cameroon grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon; Napier grass (P. purpureum cv. Napier; corn grain; cassava hay, comprising leaves and stems; and palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis cake. These feedstuffs were provided separately or mixed, in a completely randomized manner, in different experimental periods. The digestibility of each feedstuff not supplied alone was estimated by difference. The animals were individually introduced in metabolism pens. Following a 10-day period of adaptation to each diet, feed intake was recorded and total fecal output was collected over five consecutive days. Energy, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities of Cameroon grass were, respectively, 0.88 (±0.07, standard deviation, 0.63 (±0.39 and 0.82 (±0.15. For Napier grass they were 0.84 (±0.05, 0.63 (±0.12 and 0.72 (±0.10; for corn grain, 0.92 (±0.05, 0.97 (±0.20 and 0.83 (±0.14; for cassava hay, 0.86 (±0.12, 0.84 (±0.14 and 0.43 (±0.16; and for palm kernel cake 0.94 (±0.05, 0.85 (±0.14, and 0.97 (±0.05. These digestibilities in capybaras were higher than the digestibilities of the same feedstuffs in other livestock. These results can be explained by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the capybara, which lead to a high rate of nutrient digestion and absorption.

  5. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  6. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil development in the fruit ripening process is a good way to monitor harvest time and recommendation to evaluate the palm oil performance in food industries. This research is done on Tenera oil palm variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8-year-old planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB Research Station. Fresh fruit Bunches were carried and were divided to three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom then were removed the fruits from outer and inner layers of them randomly, during the ripening process between 8, 12,16 and 20 weeks after anthesis for these aims: The relationship between maturity and oil development in mesocarp and kernel also investigate to fatty acid compositions during the ripening process at each three regions of bunch by Gas Chromatography (GC and Physical properties of oil palm fresh fruits such as length, width, thickness, weight, apparent volume, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and surface area. Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and physical properties were done by MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  7. Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicien Amakpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perennial plants are the main pollen and nectar sources for bees in the tropical areas where most of the annual flora are burned in dry seasons. Therefore perennial plants constitute the most reliable bio materials for determining and evaluating the beekeeping regions of the Republic of Benin. A silvo-melliferous region (S-MR is a geographical area characterised by a particular set of homogenous melliferous plants that can produce timber. Using both the prevailing climatic and the agro-ecological conditions six S-MRs could be identified, i.e. the South region, the Common Central region, the Central West region, the Central North region, the Middle North region and the Extreme North region. At the country level, the melliferous plants were dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa which is common to all regions. The most diversified family was the Caesalpiniaceae (12 species followed by the Combretaceae (10 species and Combretum being the richest genus. The effect of dominance is particularly high in the South region where Elaeis guineensis alone represented 72.6% of the tree density and 140% of the total plant importance. The total melliferous plant density varied from 99.3 plants ha^(−1 in the Common Central region to 178.0 plants ha^(−1 in the Central West region. On the basis of nectar and pollen source, the best region for beekeeping is the CentralWest region with 46.7% of nectar producing trees, 9.4% of pollen producing trees and 40.6% of plants that issue both, this in opposition to the South region which was characterised by an unbalanced distribution of melliferous trees.

  8. New mechanized system for circle spraying of oil palms seedling emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius El Pebrian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new machine system has been designed, developed and evaluated for extensive circle spraying of oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in an effort to overcome the inefficient spraying problem with the conventional spraying system. The machine system consists of a four-wheeled drive 4WD prime mover with front mounted machine attachments for the circle spraying operation. The configuration of the circle spraying attachment consists of a hexagonal curved spray boom, lifting arm, opening-tilting mechanism unit, storage tank, spray pump, solid cone nozzles, and associate hydraulic system. Field performance tests on the machine system showed an average effective field capacity of 7.89 ha per man per day and when compared to the earlier reported effective field capacity of the walking spray-operated equipment using Serena LT16 knapsack sprayer; a difference of 1.97 time for circle spraying of mature palms grove. Reduction in the human energy expenditure of 101.28 kJ man-1 h-1 or 10.68 % but an increase in the spraying cost of 1.53 USD ha-1 or 24.9 % were obtained with the machine system against the walking spraying-operated equipment using Serena LT16 knapsack sprayer. Justification for machine system to be cost effective could be satisfied if the present effective field capacity is increased to 1.263 time with good skilled operator or if the current R&D cost is reduced to 0.41 time. This is because the improved field capacity of new machine system could not rationalize its current R&D cost. Admittedly, the machine system has great potential to overcome the limitations with the current employed machine/equipment in the circle spraying operation of oil palms in the plantation.

  9. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  10. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walesa Edho Prabowo

    Full Text Available Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  11. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Darras, Kevin; Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  12. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity. PMID:27224063

  13. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  14. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-04-03

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis of Cocos nucifera: transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for subsequent functional genomics approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocos nucifera (coconut, a member of the Arecaceae family, is an economically important woody palm grown in tropical regions. Despite its agronomic importance, previous germplasm assessment studies have relied solely on morphological and agronomical traits. Molecular biology techniques have been scarcely used in assessment of genetic resources and for improvement of important agronomic and quality traits in Cocos nucifera, mostly due to the absence of available sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To provide basic information for molecular breeding and further molecular biological analysis in Cocos nucifera, we applied RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly to gain a global overview of the Cocos nucifera transcriptome from mixed tissue samples. Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained 54.9 million short reads and conducted de novo assembly to obtain 57,304 unigenes with an average length of 752 base pairs. Sequence comparison between assembled unigenes and released cDNA sequences of Cocos nucifera and Elaeis guineensis indicated that the assembled sequences were of high quality. Approximately 99.9% of unigenes were novel compared to the released coconut EST sequences. Using BLASTX, 68.2% of unigenes were successfully annotated based on the Genbank non-redundant (Nr protein database. The annotated unigenes were then further classified using the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a large quantity of novel genetic information for Cocos nucifera. This information will act as a valuable resource for further molecular genetic studies and breeding in coconut, as well as for isolation and characterization of functional genes involved in different biochemical pathways in this important tropical crop species.

  16. Floristic indicators of tropical landuse systems: Evidence from mining areas in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehinde Akinbiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most forests in the tropics have not only been reduced in size but have also experienced forest degradation. The delicate balance of the components of the forest ecosystem has been altered largely by the landuse systems which have resulted in the disappearance of some species and the introduction of new ones. In order to understand the influence of human disturbance caused by artisanal mining on plant biodiversity and the physical environment, this study assessed changes in vegetation characteristics using plant functional groups, such as invasive, pioneer and understory species. The study was conducted at two sites in two Southwestern states of Nigeria, Itagunmodi in Atakumosa West Local Government Area of Osun State and Olode in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. Complete enumerations of woody, non-woody and herbaceous plant species were carried out in 20 m by 20 m plots selected using stratified random sampling as representative of landuse classes: freshly mined (6 months and a control plot (secondary forest. The results showed that the control plot in Itagunmodi had undergone degradation as indicated by the presence of Alchornea laxiflora, Geophilia obvallata, Musa sapientum,Elaeis guineensis and Keetia hispida. However, if left undisturbed, it has the potential of regeneration back to its original state because of its woody tree species composition and lianas (Triclisia gilletii. In addition the forest soils in the mines had been exposed to direct insolation for a long period, and the soil structure and texture have been affected, consequently altering the viability of the seed bank. Poaceae and Papilionoideae were the most common in the freshly mined plots while invasive species were the most common in abandoned mined plots. In conclusion, the floristic composition in the mining sites has been altered and there was no clear evidence that regrowth would bring restoration of the lost ecosystem services.

  17. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T.; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W.; Brown, Clyde R.; Kuek, Alex C. S.; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.; Shah, Shivam A.; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  18. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  19. Cloning and functional analysis of a novel ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene from Anthurium andraeanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-chun LIU; Dan-qing TIAN; Jian-xin LIU; Guang-ying MA; Qing-cheng ZOU; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2013-01-01

    An 888-bp ful-length ascorbate peroxidase (APX) complementary DNA (cDNA) gene was cloned from Anthurium andraeanum, and designated as AnAPX. It contains a 110-bp 5′-noncoding region, a 28-bp 3′-noncoding region, and a 750-bp open reading frame (ORF). This protein is hydrophilic with an aliphatic index of 81.64 and its structure consisting ofα-helixes,β-turns, and random coils. The AnAPX protein showed 93%, 87%, 87%, 87%, and 86% similarities to the APX homologs from Zantedeschia aethiopica, Vitis pseudoreticulata, Gossypium hirsutum, Elaeis guineensis, and Zea mays, respectively. AnAPX gene transcript was measured non-significantly in roots, stems, leaves, spathes, and spadices by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Interestingly, this gene expression was remarkably up-regulated in response to a cold stress under 6 °C, implying that AnAPX might play an important role in A. andraeanum tolerance to cold stress. To confirm this function we overexpressed AnAPX in tobacco plants by transformation with an AnAPX expression construct driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The transformed tobacco seedlings under 4 °C showed less electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than the control. The content of MDA was correlated with chilling tolerance in these transgenic plants. These results show that AnAPX can prevent the chilling challenged plant from cellmembrane damage and ultimately enhance the plant cold tolerance.

  20. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future.

  1. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  2. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  3. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain.

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoë othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora vitícola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also

  5. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  6. Manuel de zootechnie comparée Nord-Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théwis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Diversity in Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp. in Vietnam and Their Potential for the Biocontrol of Pest Insects'. Les problèmes de sous-alimentation et de malnutrition en milieu urbain poussent les populations à exploiter toutes les ressources alimentaires disponibles. Ce travail s'intéresse à la contribution au régime alimentaire de la population des fruits comestibles produits par les 19 espèces d'arbres trouvés à Kinshasa. Une enquête réalisée dans 1,09% des 18.475 parcelles de la commune de Limete a permis d'estimer à environ 47.000 pieds le nombre d'arbres plantés dans celles-ci et leur production annuelle à environ 4.087 tonnes. Les six espèces majeures (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis et Musa paradisiaca comptent à elles seules pour un total approximatif de 36.400 pieds. La contribution de ces espèces à l'alimentation de la population a été estimée respectivement à 10,9 g; 6,1 g; 4,5 g; 4,4 g; 1,8 g et 0,6 g de fruits par personne et par jour. La maîtrise de certaines écotechniques et l'éducation environnementale relative aux "arbres en ville" devraient accroître l'importance de cette contribution.

  7. Reproduction et régime alimentaire de Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichodontidae dans la zone de confluence du fleuve Congo et des rivières Lindi et Tshopo à Kisangani (R.D. Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osombause Sango, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and Feeding of Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichopdontidae in the Confluence Area of the Congo River and Rivers Lindi and Tshopo in Kisangani (R.D. Congo. The study of the reproduction and the feeding of D. antonii in the confluence area of the Congo river and rivers Lindi & Tshopo in Kisangani (R. D. Congo was carried out across 105 fish. The species D. antonii has a phytophagous regime and does not seem to have a preference for a given species of semi-aquatic macrophyte. This diet shows the variation related to the seasonal periods and to the sex of the individuals. The species of plant ingested are: Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae, Pseudospondias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae, Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Commelina diffusa (Commelinaceae, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Poaceae, Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae, Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae, Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae et Eicchornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae but the organs consumed of these plants remain the leaves, stems, fruits, roots, and seeds. The evolution of the gonadosomatic ratio presents two peaks in april and september. The estimated absolute fertility varies from 94,000 to 344,500 oocytes for an average of 196,878±72,122 oocytes and the relative fertility varies from 11,750 to 73,600 oocytes kg-1 for an average of 38,224± 15,893 oocytes kg-1. The diameter of the oocytes varies from 0, 95 to 1, 42 mm with an average of 1, 16±1,13 mm. The absolute fertility is correlated to the total length according to F= 4,28 Lt5, 35.

  8. Alternative Fiber Sources from Gracilaria Sp and Eucheuma Cottonii for Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Private sectors have invested in the technology to grow some Gelidialian red algae families and also tried to convert the algae to pulp and paper over the last few years in order to replace raw materials from wood. Several modern systems with their all complexities which are similar to the wood pulp-based papermaking technology have been offered to overcome any recent issues settle in the converting process. Chemical bleaching agents have even been still a standard treatment that must be established for properly converting the algae pulp to a sheet of paper. In this present work, the two genus of red algae, called Gracilaria and Eucheuma, were simply processed to make pulps without use of any bleaching chemical agents. The potential use of pulps made of the red algae as raw materials for papermaking was mechanically studied by testing the sheets made of the red algae through a tensile test at a room temperature under 20 mm/min according to ASTM D 828-97 (2002. Tensile properties of the proposed algae-based paper sheets obtained under the constant rate are discussed. Tensile properties of the selected wood-based paper sheets obtained under the same condition are also presented in this paper. The results showed that pulps made of the red algae would be the alternative to those of the wood and other natural fibers as raw materials for papermaking. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.1-10 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,1-10. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.1-10 忽地笑酌-生育酚甲基转移酶基因LaTMT的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis on γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene LaTMT from Lycoris ;aurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡黎丽; 徐晟; 马蕊; 汪仁; 夏冰

    2016-01-01

    采用RACE技术从忽地笑也Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb.页叶片中克隆获得γ-生育酚甲基转移酶(γ-TMT)基因,命名为LaTMT。序列分析结果显示:该基因cDNA全长1458 bp,其中开放阅读框( ORF)长1017 bp,编码338个氨基酸残基。 LaTMT基因编码蛋白质的理论相对分子质量37560,理论等电点pI 8.70,为亲水性蛋白,无跨膜结构但具有信号肽结构;并具有S-腺苷甲硫氨酸( SAM)甲基转移酶保守结构域,包含3个SAM结合位点;该蛋白的二级结构中包含44.08%的α-螺旋、32.84%的无规则卷曲、12.72%的延伸链和10.36%的β-转角。序列比对和系统进化树分析结果显示:LaTMT蛋白属于S-腺苷甲硫氨酸-依赖性γ-生育酚甲基转移酶家族,与其他植物γ-TMT蛋白的一致性为64%~75%;在 NJ系统树上, LaTMT蛋白与单子叶植物γ-TMT蛋白聚为同一大类,并与油棕( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) EgTMT和美洲油棕也Elaeis oleifera ( Kunth) Cortés页EoTMT聚为同一类,亲缘关系最近。基因表达分析结果显示:LaTMT基因可在大肠杆菌中成功表达,且表达量随异丙基硫代半乳糖苷( IPTG)诱导时间的延长而增加;在忽地笑的根、叶片、花苞、子房、雄蕊、花瓣和鳞茎中LaTMT基因均可表达,其中在叶片中的相对表达量最高,在子房、雄蕊和鳞茎中的相对表达量相对较低,具有明显的组织特异性。研究结果表明:忽地笑LaTMT基因在进化过程中具有很高的保守性;该基因主要定位于叶绿体中,并与忽地笑对非生物逆境胁迫的抗性相关。%Using RACE method,γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) gene was cloned from leaf of Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb., which was named LaTMT. The result of sequence analysis shows that full-length cDNA of LaTMT gene is 1 458 bp, in which, length of open reading frame ( ORF) is 1 017 bp, and 338 amino acid residues are encoded. Theoretical relative molecular mass of the protein encoded by

  9. Pengaruh Pupuk Daun Bayfolan Dan Dekamon 22,43 L Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis Gutneensis Jacq) Di Pembibitan Utama

    OpenAIRE

    Naiborhu, Josua

    2013-01-01

    "Pengaruh Pupuk Daun Bayfolan dan Dekamon 22,43 L terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (FJaeis guineemis Jacq) di Pembibitan Utama". Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk daun Bayfolan dan Dekamon 22,43 L terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit di pembibitan ulama. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kompleks Kejaksaan Gang Pertambangan, Medan dengan ketinggian 25 meter di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan mulai bulan Maret sampai dengan Agustus 2000. Ran...

  10. Respon Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis gueneensis Jacq) Terhadap Pemberian Dekamon 22,43L dan Plant Catalyst 2006 di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit terhadap pemberian Dekamon 22,43 L dan Plant Catalyst 2006 di Main Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Jalan Ternak Simalingkar B Medan, yang berlangsung dari bulan i Oktober 2002 sampai dengan bulan Januari 2003. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam psnelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok(RAK) faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama...

  11. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq.) frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF) can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was car

  12. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  13. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq. frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was carried out by storing 2 kg samples in airtight glass jars at 25- 30°C for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the silage samples were subjected to proximate analyses, an in vitro digestibility assay and measures on selected indices of fermentation. Fermentation of OPF without additives appeared to be unsuccessful as both pH and ammonia content were too high (4.9 and 9.9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of cellulase or LAB resulted in silages with a pH<4.5 and ammonia fractions <8.4%, but the lowest values were found when both cellulase and LAB were used, i.e. pH=4.1 and ammonia fraction=6.7%. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was significantly higher in the cellulase treated silages. The process of ensiling was associated with both a significant decrease of the fat content of OPF and a significant change of the fatty acid profile. However, the proportions of major fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:2n-6 were not affected by the process of ensiling. In conclusion, the use of cellulase additive appears a practical tool to safeguard the process of fermentation. Using a cellulase enzyme or its combination with LAB improves the fermentation profile and increases the nutritional value of the OPF silage.

  14. Afro-colombia en los años post-durban

    OpenAIRE

    Arocha Rodríguez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Desde 1997, destierro forzado, propagación de monocultivos de palma aceitera y tala de bosques -a ser legitimados mediante la llamada Ley Forestal- deterioran los patrimonios étnico-territoriales de los pueblos afrocolombianos. A tales hecatombes les ha c

  15. Study of the shelf-life of a mixed araça (Psidium guineensis Sw. and marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. jam Estudo da vida útil de geleia mista de araçá (Psidium guineensis Sw. e marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to add value to araça and marolo fruits by developing jams and verifying changes in their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during storage. The analyses were carried out every 2 months. From the results, it was shown that the levels of moisture (35.89 - 26.34%, lipids (0.43 - 0.27%, sucrose (30.62 - 28.98%, total pectin (0.83 - 0.50%, soluble pectin (0.52 - 0.38%, total phenolic compounds (180.31 - 135.52 mg.GAE 100 g-1, and organic acids (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 citric acid decreased during storage. However, the levels of protein (0.83 - 0.95%, carbohydrate (62.52 - 72.5%, calories (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, fiber (0.72 - 1.4%, total soluble sugar (62.52 - 70.44%, reducing sugar (32.05 - 41.41%, soluble solids (68.4 - 72.18 °Brix, consistency (0.33 - 0.44 N, total antioxidant potential (11.3 - 22.63%, and color (a* 7.56 - 9.49, and b* 8.63 - 10.49 increased during 1-year storage. The quality of the fruit jams studied was in accordance with the microbiological standards established by the Brazilian legislation. It was concluded that the mixed araça and marolo jam can be stored for 1 year without the addition of additives.O objetivo do trabalho foi agregar valor ao araçá e marolo com o desenvolvimento de geleias e verificar as mudanças ocorridas em variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas, durante o seu armazenamento. As análises foram realizadas, a cada 2 meses. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se que os teores de umidade (35,89 - 26,34%, lipídios (0,43 - 0,27%, sacarose (30,62 - 28,98%, pectina total (0,83 - 0,50%, pectina solúvel (0,52 - 0,38%, compostos fenólicos totais (180,31 - 135,52 mg.EAG 100 g-1 e ácidos orgânicos (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 de ácido cítrico reduziram durante o armazenamento. Contudo os teores de proteínas (0,83 - 0,95%, carboidratos (62,52 - 72,5%, valor calórico (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, teores de fibras (0,72 - 1,4%, açúcar solúvel total (62,52 - 70,44%, açúcar redutor (32,05 - 41,41% e sólidos solúveis (68,4 - 72,18 °Brix, bem como a consistência (0,33 - 0,44 N, o potencial antioxidante total (11,3 - 22,63% e os parâmetros de coloração (a* 7,56 - 9,49 e b* 8,63 - 10,49, apresentaram ascensão durante 1 ano de estocagem. As geleias estudadas conservaram-se dentro das normas microbiológicas estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira. A geleia mista de araçá e de marolo, portanto, pode ser armazenada por 1 ano, sem qualquer conservante químico.

  16. Control Químico de la Mosca de los Establos, Stomoxys Calcitrans (L y Otros Insectos Asociados con Estipes de Palma Africana en Descomposición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available En ensayos para determinar el efecto del diazinon 1% I.A. (ingrediente activo; bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A., 2% I.A. y methomyl 0.1 % I.A. sobre larvas de Stomoxys calcilrans y otros insectos asociados con tipes de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis en descomposición, se encontró que los tratamientos con diazinon 1% I.A. y bromophos 1% I.A. fueron los más efectivos para impedir la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de Slomoxys calcilralls. Ambos insecticidas protegieron eficientemente los estipes por lo menos durante dos semanas. El dieldrin al 0.5% I. A. y 2% I. A., aunque inferior al bromophos 1% I.A. y al diazinon 1% I.A. también fue efectivo para impedir la proliferación de larvas de la mosca en los troncos de palma africana en descomposición. El tratamiento con methomyl 0.1 % I. A. al parecer no impidió la multiplicación de las larvas en los estipes, según pudo observarse en muestras tomadas a las dos semanas de haber sido aplicado el producto. El diazinon 1% I.A: bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A. y 2% I.A., aparentemente fueron eficaces para controlar los adultos de Limnobaris calandriformis y Metamasius hemipterus, los cuales eran atraídos en grandes cantidades a los trozos de tallo de palma recién rajada, así como también impidieron la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de los dípteros Ormidea obesa y Hermelia sp./Abstract Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of diazinon 1% I.A., bromophos 1% I.A., dieldrin 0.5 and 2% I.A., and methomyl 0.1 % on larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other insects associated with dead trunks of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis.The results showed by the author indicate that diazinon and bromophos were the most effective materials tested. Both insecticides protected well the dead trunks for at least two weeks. Dieldrin (both doses although less efficient than diazinon, was also effective in preventing the development of great numbers of

  17. Climate and air quality impacts of altered BVOC fluxes from land cover change in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kandice; Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale transformation of the natural rainforests of Southeast Asia in recent decades, driven primarily by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests, may have altered the prevailing regime of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes from this tropical region. Chemical processing of isoprene in the atmosphere impacts the magnitude and distribution of several short-lived climate forcers, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Consequently, modification of the fluxes of isoprene and other BVOCs from vegetation serves as a mechanism by which tropical land cover change impacts both air quality and climate. We apply satellite-derived snapshots of land cover for the period 1990 - 2010 to the NASA ModelE2-Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon-chemistry-climate model to quantify the impact of Southeast Asian land cover change on atmospheric chemical composition and climate driven by changes in isoprene emission. NASA ModelE2-YIBs features a fully interactive land carbon cycle and includes a BVOC emission algorithm which energetically couples isoprene production to photosynthesis. The time-slice simulations are nudged with large-scale winds from the GMAO reanalysis dataset and are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning reactive air pollution emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Relative to the year 1990, regional isoprene emissions in 2010 increased by 2.6 TgC/yr from the expansion of Southeast Asian oil palm plantations and decreased by 0.7 TgC/yr from the loss of regional dipterocarp rainforest. Considering only the impact of land-cover-change-induced isoprene emission changes in Southeast Asia over this period, we calculate a spatially heterogeneous impact on regional seasonal surface-level ozone concentrations (minimum: -1

  18. Infestation of Palm Trees by Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    Resumo. As palmeiras desempenham papéis importantes como habitats de reprodução e alimentação para triatomíneos silvestres, vetores da doença de Chagas. A ocorrência de triatomíneos em palmeiras peridomiciliares pode aumentar o risco de invasão desses insetos em domicílios e deve ser considerada para desenvolver estratégias de prevenção. Com objetivo de investigar a infestação de palmeiras por triatomíneos no Estado da Bahia e determinar a infecção natural desses insetos por Trypanosoma spp., foram amostradas 183 palmeiras em 12 municípios entre 2006 e 2011 utilizando captura manual e/ou armadilhas adesivas iscadas com camundongos. Os triatomíneos foram detectados em 79 palmeiras (43% das espécies Copernicia prunifera (Mart. Becc., Mauritia flexuosa L. e Attalea spp. (Attalea burretiana Bondar ou Attalea salvadorensis Glassman. Em outras espécies de palmeiras (Syagrus coronata (Mill H.E. Moore, Attalea funifera Mart ex. Spreng e Elaeis guineensis Jacq não foram detectados triatomíneos. Rhodnius neglectus Lent, Triatoma sordida (Stål, e Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola ocorreram em C. prunifera ao longo do rio São Francisco. No extremo oeste da Bahia, R. neglectus e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg foram detectados em M. flexuosa, enquanto Triatoma tibiamaculata (Pinto ocorreu em Attalea sp. em áreas urbanas de Salvador. No total, 180 triatomíneos foram capturados, principalmente R. neglectus. A maior taxa de infecção natural (61% foi observada em T. tibiamaculata. Os resultados indicam que pelo menos três espécies de palmeiras são habitats favoráveis para triatomíneos no estado da Bahia e ocorrem no ambiente peridomiciliar, o que pode aumentar a probabilidade de invasão de triatomíneos nas casas.

  19. Variabilité selon le captureur de l'efficacité de répulsifs à base d'huiles végétales dans la protection individuelle contre les piqûres de Simulium damnosum s. l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylla M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le présent article, nous faisons état de la variabilité selon le captureur de l'efficacité de répulsifs à base d'huiles végétales appliquées sur la peau contre les piqûres de Simulium damnosum s. l. Les expérimentations ont été effectuées en zones de savane (Chaussée-Niaka et de forêt (Soubré de Côte d'Ivoire. Les formulations (lotions, crèmes] testées lors de ces travaux ont été obtenues à partir d'huiles d'amande de palme (Elaeis guineensis, de coco (Cocos nucifera et de gobi (Carapa procera. La technique classique de capture sur homme à l'aide de tubes à hémolyse en matière plastique a été utilisée. Pour chaque journée d'expérimentation, un captureur non traité (jambes non enduites de répulsif servait de témoin. Les résultats indiquent qu'en savane, quels que soient le répulsif et le captureur, la densité simulidienne se situait de 1 à 4, 1 à 6 et de 2 à 10 simulies par homme et par jour lorsque le captureur était respectivement protégé avec le coco, le palmiste et le gobi. Avec les mêmes répulsifs, en zone de forêt, l'agressivité simulidienne variait de 9 à 16, de 2 à 30 et de 8 à 49 piqûres par jour. En comparaison, le témoin recevait de 67 à 90 et de 310 à 533 piqûres par jour, respectivement en zones de savane et de forêt. Malgré les variations importantes dans le nombre de simulies capturées en fonction du captureur choisi, nos résultats montrent que quels que soient le répulsif et l'espèce simulidienne, une protection similaire est conférée à tous les captureurs. Ils indiquent également que le recours à des substances naturelles locales, utilisées comme répulsifs en application dermique, est l'une des meilleures méthodes de protection personnelle contre les simulies.

  1. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

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    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  2. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  3. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

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    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  4. Application of Trichoderma harzianum in the control of basal stem rot of oil palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah F; Ilias G N M

    2004-01-01

    @@ The palm, Elaeis guineensis, has its origins in Africa but is planted on a commercial basis in several countries Statistics for 2002 showed that in the lead for land mass under oil palm cultivation is Indonesia, at 3,769,000 ha, followed by Malaysia at 3,376,000 ha; however, the world' s leading producer of palm oil is still Malaysia, since the 1970's. Both countries are predicted to produce 82.4%of the world's palm oil production by the year 2005. However, the palm is susceptible to basal stem rot, a devastating disease which results in direct loss of field stands and to which no effective chemical control is yet available. Caused by Ganoderma boninense, infected palms appear symptomless, at the first sign of disease, at least 50 % of the internal trunk tissue stem would have actually rotted. This study investigated the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate FA 1132) as a biological control agent, using 6-month old oil palm seedlings as models and the experiment performed in a greenhouse at 29-30 ℃ ambient conditions. The plants were artificially infected with G. boninense and a conidial suspension of 1 × 109-9 × 109 spores/mL was applied as a soil drench at 1L/plant every 2 weeks for 20weeks. The parameters examined were efficacy of the biocontrol agent and the effect of Trichodermaincorporated mulch in addition to the soil drench. Efficacy was assessed in terms disease severity index (DSI) where a higher percentage indicates a higher severity. Results showed that infection first sets in on untreated plants at week 12 and got worse progressively. The completely untreated plants were all infected and the DSI at 20 weeks after infection (wa. i.) was 92. 5%. Plants given only a Trichoderma -infused food base supplement without conidial suspension gave a DSI of 70% whereas those given a conidial soil drench without supplemental food base gave a DSI of 85% at 20 w.a.i.Infected plants given a conidial treatment together with a food base supplement gave a DSI

  5. Spatial-Temporal Yield Trend of Oil Palm as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilizer Management

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    Abdul R. Anuar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations today is proper interpretation of yield maps for site-specific management and identification and understanding of the causal factors influencing the variability of oil palm yields. A study was conducted to examine the structural yield variation in order to assess the spatial and temporal yield trends so as to interpret multi-year yield maps of oil palm as influenced by the long-term N fertilizer applications in the palm circle in fertilizer response trial in Sabah, Malaysia. Two clusters of palms were selected for the study; with and without N fertilizer applications for the past 10 years. Fresh fruit bunch (ffb yields were recorded and summarized on an annual basis. Geostatistical analysis was used to characterize the spatial structure of the semivariogram while point kriging was used to interpolate the ffb yields at unsampled locations. A classified management zone map was developed based on the spatial and temporal stability yield maps from 1992-1999. Semivariance analysis revealed that the yield variations between plots and within plots could be distinguished from the structural semivariogram. The variability between plots was relatively higher compared with within plots. The maximum range of the semivariance of both fertilizer treatments was about 6-palm distance which corresponded well to the experimental plot size of 30 (5×6 palms. It was also observed that the structure of the semivariogram was governed by the sampling pattern and the experimental plot size. The annual yield maps suggested that the application of N could sustain ffb yields above 30 t ha-1 year-1 whereas its removal could result in a drastic decline in ffb yields after 1992. Long-term N fertilizer applications reduced the annual ffb yield fluctuations to between 35 and 45% based on the coefficient of variations between years obtained from individual palms. The results further demonstrate the

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Enolase Gene from Ornamental Bromeliads%观赏凤梨烯醇酶基因的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉林; 刘建新

    2012-01-01

    Enolase catalyze only one-step dehydration reaction in glycolytic pathway, and relate closely to plant stress resistance. Based on EST monoclones of enolase gene obtained from bromeliads full length cD-NA library of ornamental bromeliads,its full length cDNA sequence was obtained by Primer Walking sequencing. The gene,named for GoEnolasel (GenBank accession No. JN896863) .consisted of 1 703 bp cD-NA sequence, 1 335 bp ORF(open reading frame) which encoded a protem with 445 amino acids residues, and a putative protein which was 47. 9 kD at estimated molecular weight,5. 7 at isoelectric point and had a 'TIM-phosphate-binding superfamily' conservative domain. The secondary structure of the protein was composed of alpha helix (44. 49%), random coil (33. 71%), extend strand (13. 71%) and beta turn (8. 09%) by SPOMA analysis. Furthermore, its tertiary structure was also build based on A chain of 2PSN. Through phylogenetic tree analysis,GoEnolasel was gather to a same group with enolase protein in Oryza sativa ,Zea mays and Elaeis guineensis. The research was beneficial to breeding for stress resistance in ornamental bromeliads.%烯醇酶催化着糖酵解途径中的唯一一步脱水反应,与植物的抗逆性有着密切的联系.基于前期从擎天凤梨全长cDNA文库中获得的烯醇酶基因的EST单克隆,进行引物步移测序,获得其全长cDNA序列.序列长1703hp,编码445个氨基酸残基,命名为GoEnolasel(GenBank登录号JN896863),蛋白质理论分子质量为47.9kD,等电点为5.7,包含1个TIM磷酸结合超家族保守区,二级结构主要由α螺旋(44.49%)、随机卷曲(33.71%)、延伸链(13.71%)和β转角(8.09%)组成.系统进化树分析表明,GoEnolasel蛋白与水稻、玉米、油棕等的烯醇酶蛋白聚为一类,它们的亲缘关系最近.

  7. Correlation Analysis on the Relationship Between the Biological Characteristic of Ten Ornamental Tree Species and the Wind-resistance Ability in Hainan Island%海南10种园林乔木生物学特性与抗风性关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗冠勇; 宋希强; 杨冬华; 张哲

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to select ornamental tree species with stronger wind-resistance ability, especially in those areas with typhoon attacking frequently. Taking 10 common landscaping tree species in Danzhou , Hainan Province, graded and built data column depending on damaged scores of each species, carried the wind -resistance analysis depending on 4 indicators including tree height, diameter breast-high (DBH), under branch height and crown width, and took the Grey association analysis to explore the relations between the wind resistance and tree indicators after strong typhoon " Dawei" attack. The result showed that the rank of the relational extent between the tree indicators and wind resistance as follows: DBH>height>crown width>under branch height. For wind resistant ability of 10 species, Roystonea regia, Ficus microcarpa, Ficus microcarpa, Ciniuunomum camphora, Elaeis guineensis, Khara senegalenss and Delonix regia are strong, Mimusops elengi is medium, Bauhinia purpurea and Pterocarpus indie us are poor.%针对受强台风“达维”侵袭之后,海南省儋州地区常用的10种园林乔木,进行受损情况分级打分并以各树种的得分为参考数据列,以树高、胸径、枝下高和冠幅作为抗风性能分析评价指标,采用灰色关联分析方法对树种的自身指标因素与其抗风性能的关系进行分析.研究结果表明:树种的自身指标因素与其抗风性能的关联度大小依次为:胸径>树高>冠幅>枝下高;10种园林乔木的抗风能力,大王棕、黄葛榕、小叶榕、樟树、油棕、桃花心木和凤凰木较强,伊朗紫硬胶中等;羊蹄甲与印度紫檀较差.

  8. 香蕉水通道蛋白 SIP2-1基因的克隆和表达分析%Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Aquaporins SIP2-1 Gene from Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许奕; 侯晓婉; 徐碧玉; 金志强; 胡伟; 宋顺

    2016-01-01

    In the present study,we isolated an aquaporin gene from banana,and designated as MaSIP2-1. MaSIP2-1’s complete ORF was 717 bp,and it encoded 239 amino acids. Alignment of amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein encoded by MaSIP2-1 was in high similarity with AQP-encoding protein in the other known plants ;and highly homologous with amino acid sequences in Musa acuminate,Elaeis guineensis,Jatropha curcas,and Camellia sinensis by 98%,74%,65%,and 63%,respectively. Organ-specific analysis showed that MaSIP2-1 constitutively expressed in roots,stems,leaves,flowers and fruits,and the highest in stems. Stress analysis demonstrated that MaSIP2-1 responded to the stress such as the drought,salt and waterlogging.%从香蕉中克隆了一个水通道蛋白(AQP)基因 MaSIP2-1。序列分析表明,该基因存在一个完整的开放阅读框(ORF)717 bp,编码239个氨基酸。多序列比对和进化树分析表明,MaSIP2-1所编码的蛋白与其他植物中 AQP 编码的蛋白具有较高的一致性。其中与马来西亚野生香蕉、油棕、麻风树、野茶树的 AQP 编码的氨基酸序列的同源性较高,分别为98%、74%、65%和63%。器官特异性分析表明,MaSIP2-1在香蕉的根、茎、叶片、花和果实中均有所表达,其中在茎中表达量较高。通过对其在干旱、高盐、低温、涝害胁迫下的表达结果分析显示,该基因响应干旱、高盐、涝害3种胁迫。

  9. 香蕉MaCAM基因克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of MaCAM in Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小萌; 徐碧玉; 刘菊华; 贾彩红; 张建斌; 王甲水; 金志强

    2012-01-01

    A calmodulin gene named MaCAM was obtained by RACE technology based on a fragment from banana's root cDNA library. The full length of this gene was 845 bp and encoded 149 amino acids. The result of bioinformatics showed that this protein is a stable protein with two conserved function domains―EFh, which pI is 4. 12. Compared with other plant calmodulin genes, the identity of MaCAM was more than 90%. Amino acids identity analysis indicated that MaCAM had 99. 33%,96. 71%,98. 00%,98. 66% similarity compared with Oryza sativa var. japonica ,Elaeis guineensis ,Daucus carota and Saccharum offici-narum respectively. This gene had the most familiar genetic relationship with that of S. officinarum. RT-PCR analysis showed that MaCAM was constitutively expressed in roots,stems,leaves,flowers and fruits. The expression level was the highest in root,flower followed in,and was the lowest in leaves.%从香蕉根的cDNA文库中获得了一段香蕉钙调蛋白基因的片段,采用RACE技术获得其全长,命名为MaCAM.该基因全长845 bp,编码149个氨基酸.生物信息学分析表明,该蛋白属稳定蛋白,其等电点为4.12,有2个保守的EFh功能结构域.与已知植物的钙调蛋白基因相比,一致性达90%以上.其中与粳稻、油棕、胡萝卜、甘蔗的CAM编码的氨基酸序列的一致性分别为99.33%、96.71%、98.00%、98.66%.系统进化树比对分析显示,香蕉与甘蔗的亲缘关系最为密切.器官特异性分析表明,MaCAM在香蕉的根、球茎、叶片、花和果实中均有所表达,在根中表达量最高,花中次之,而在叶片中的表达量最低.

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

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    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  11. 油棕P450基因在果皮发育过程中的动态表达%Dynamic expression of one cytochrome P450-like gene in mesocarp of oil palm nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁远学; 袁怡君; 鲍玉佳; 李东栋

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic expression of one cytochrom P450-like gene in mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) nut at five different development stages were analyzed. The content of fatty acid in mesocarp tissues was investigated with chloroform-methanol method. The results showed that mRNA level of the P450-like gene was the highest at the fourth period with 201. 07 times of the first stage. The ratio of fatty acid accumulation reached the maximum during the 3rd-4th stage (15. 79%). The change of fatty acid accumulation during five stages fitted well with P450 gene expression. According to previous studies,the expression of P450 in the development of oil palm nuts may affect the oxidation, epoxidation or alkyla-tion of fatty acid in oil palm. This study will provide a basis for further research about the regulation of P450 gene during the maturation of oil palm,and open up a new field of modifying oil palm fatty acid metabolism pathway by genetic improvement.%对油棕果实5个不同发育时期果皮中脂肪酸含量和类细胞色素P450(cytochrome P450,P450)基因的表达情况进行了分析.结果表明:在所选择的5个不同发育时期中第4个时期P450的表达量最高,为第1个时期表达量的201.07倍.脂肪酸总含量分析表明第3、4个时期之间增加速率最高(15.79%).在第3个时期脂肪酸的合成较少,脂肪酸含量变化趋势与同样组织中的P450基因表达趋势类似.由于细胞色素P450在植物脂肪酸代谢中起重要作用,油棕果实发育中细胞色素P450的表达极有可能对其脂肪酸的氧化、环氧化、烃基化等代谢产生影响,进而对脂肪酸的组成、产量及一些保护性化合物等的合成产生影响.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF “WAKOUBA '' ON THE LIPID PROFILE, SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (SBP DIASTOLIC (DBP AND BLOOD GLUCOSE IN HYPERTENSIVE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiekpa Wawa J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Wakouba, an extract of the fronds of oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis (Jacq traditionally used in the treatment of high blood pressure, on lipid profile, urea, creatinine, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic (DBP and heart rate (HR in hypertensive rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits (24 divided into six (06 groups of four rabbits each weighing between 1.5 ±3.0 to 2± 1.5 kg were used. Group 1 served as witness, group 2 sick and untreated control, groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 were used as experimental groups (sick+treatment. Throughout the experiment the witness group received distilled water; adrenaline was administered to the sick control group. After 10 days of adrenaline injection, hypertension has been stabilized in sick groups (group 2 to 6 and blood was taken for the determination of urea, creatinine, and lipids. Four (04 of the five (05 groups of hypertensive rabbits were treated with two (2 doses of " Wakouba " 950 and 2500 mg / kg bw and two ( 02 doses of ténordate 10 and 20 mg / kg BW, two(2 group by two(2 group . After ten (10 days of treatment, the SBP and DBP and HR were measured, blood was collected for determination of the same biochemical parameters. Results: The study of the effect of Wakouba and ternodate on the changes in systolic blood pressure SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR showed a significant decrease (P up to normalization of these parameters after 10 days of treatment. Similarly, the measurement of serum lipid profile in hypertensive rabbits treated with Wakouba (950mg / kg bw and tenordate (20 mg / kg bw showed a significant reduction in (P values of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in contrast to HDL cholesterol which has increased significantly compared to the control group. Same doses also normalize serum glucose, urea and creatinine. Histological sections performed on the kidney and the heart of hypertensive rabbit showed congestion of

  13. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  14. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  15. 麻疯树Jc-Tctp1基因的同源性分析及时空表达模式鉴定%Sequencing and Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) of Jatropha curcas L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莎; 高帆; 罗洪; 牛蓓; 林颖; 秦小波; 徐莺; 陈放

    2008-01-01

    从麻疯树胚乳cDNA文库中获得了翻译调节肿瘤蛋白(translationally controlled tumor protein,TCTP)cDNA 序列,命名为 Jc-Tctp 1 (GenBank 登录号为EF091818).该序列全长1410 bp,开放阅读框由507个碱基组成.Jc-Tctp 1 编码的推测蛋白产物含有168个氨基酸残基,该蛋白具有典型的TCTP蛋白特点:由3个α螺旋组成α螺旋核心、4个β片层结构构成β片层核心,及微管结合结构域(MTB)和钙结合结构域(CaB).其推测氨基酸序列与巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)、油棕(Elaeis guineensis)、大豆(Glycine max)、水稻(Oryza sativa,japonica cultivar-group)、黑杨(Populus trichocarpa)、番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)、西加云杉(Picea sitchensis)、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)以及玉米(Zea may)的TCTP同源性依次为93%、90%、85%、84%、85%、84%、77%、80%和77%.经构建含Jc-TCTP1在内的植物TCTP蛋白分子进化树分析,发现单子叶植物并未按照其生物学分类的地位出现聚合.用半定量RT-PCR研究Jc-Tctp1 基因的表达模式,结果显示,其表达在转录水平上具有一定的组织和时间特异性,茎、I期胚乳、胚中最为丰富,而在Ⅱ期胚乳和花中表达最弱.

  16. Cellular and Pectin Dynamics during Abscission Zone Development and Ripe Fruit Abscission of the Monocot Oil Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsattham, Peerapat; Morcillo, Fabienne; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Amblard, Philippe; Collin, Myriam; Mouille, Gregory; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Tranbarger, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit primary abscission zone (AZ) is a multi-cell layered boundary region between the pedicel (P) and mesocarp (M) tissues. To examine the cellular processes that occur during the development and function of the AZ cell layers, we employed multiple histological and immunohistochemical methods combined with confocal, electron and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy approaches. During early fruit development and differentiation of the AZ, the orientation of cell divisions in the AZ was periclinal compared with anticlinal divisions in the P and M. AZ cell wall width increased earlier during development suggesting cell wall assembly occurred more rapidly in the AZ than the adjacent P and M tissues. The developing fruit AZ contain numerous intra-AZ cell layer plasmodesmata (PD), but very few inter-AZ cell layer PD. In the AZ of ripening fruit, PD were less frequent, wider, and mainly intra-AZ cell layer localized. Furthermore, DAPI staining revealed nuclei are located adjacent to PD and are remarkably aligned within AZ layer cells, and remain aligned and intact after cell separation. The polarized accumulation of ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and vesicles suggested active secretion at the tip of AZ cells occurred during development which may contribute to the striated cell wall patterns in the AZ cell layers. AZ cells accumulated intracellular pectin during development, which appear to be released and/or degraded during cell separation. The signal for the JIM5 epitope, that recognizes low methylesterified and un-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG), increased in the AZ layer cell walls prior to separation and dramatically increased on the separated AZ cell surfaces. Finally, FT-IR microspectroscopy analysis indicated a decrease in methylesterified HG occurred in AZ cell walls during separation, which may partially explain an increase in the JIM5 epitope signal. The results obtained

  17. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  18. Non-refractory PM1 in SE Asia: Chemically speciated aerosol fluxes and concentrations above contrasting land-uses in SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gavin; Farmer, Delphine; di Marco, Chiara; Misztal, Pawel; Sueper, Donna; Kimmel, Joel; Jimenez, Jose; Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    New measurements of VOC emissions (measured with leaf cuvettes, and ecosystem fluxes obtained from eddy covariance measurements) suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest, in Borneo. These larger sources of isoprene measured over oil palm, allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions, contrasts with the composition of the atmosphere in the semi-remote tropical forest environment. The difference in the atmospheric composition above different land-uses has the potential to lead to contrasting chemistry and physics controlling the formation and processing of particulate matter. Thus land use changes, driven by the economics of biofuels, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions, chemical processing and composition of organic aerosol over both (semi-)natural and anthropogenic land uses in the tropical environment. Ecosystem flux measurements of chemically-speciated non-refractory PM1 were made over two contrasting land uses in the Malaysian state of Sabah, on the island of Borneo during 2008. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) site at a tropical rain forest location as well as the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as a collaboration between three UK NERC funded projects (OP3, APPRAISE/ACES and DIASPORA). Recent technical developments using ToF detectors allow us to record 10 Hz full mass spectra at both high resolution (HR) and unit-mass resolution (UMR), suitable for the calculation of local eddy-covariance fluxes. The measurements provide information on the deposition rate of anthropogenic aerosol components (e.g. sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrocarbon-like aerosol) to tropical forest and oil palm. At the same time, any biogenic secondary organic

  19. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  20. [Evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm nut (Eleais guineensis) and gobi (Carapa procera) lotions and creams in indivirual protection against Simulium damnosum s.l. bites in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, M; Konan, L; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-05-01

    With the interruption of larva treatments done by OCP as part of onchocerciasis control in West Africa, Simulium came back in abundance in forest regions and savannah fertile valleys. In addition to the severe discomfort, nuisance by Simulium is in certain cases incompatible with land use. Since ground treatment of larval breading sites using insecticides is not always possible or efficient, it is therefore a necessity to develop other methods among which individual protection against Simulium bites. The general objective of our study was to evaluate different vegetable oil compound repellent formulas against Simulium bites. Activities were carried out in savannah zone (Niakaramandougou) and in forest zone (Soubré) in Côte d'Ivoire. The methodology consisted in catching blackflies on volunteers whose legs were rubbed with a repellent. Gobi raw oil and coconut, palm nut and gobi formulas (lotions and creams) were tested. During each session, which lasted from 07:00 am to 12:00 and from 03:00 pm to 06:00 pm, one person did not apply any repellent and was used as the control person. The results of our experimentations show that for a given zone (savannah, forest), a repellent (coconut, palm nut, gobi) and a compound (shea butter, vaseline), there is no significant difference between protection rates obtained with lotions (maximum: 21 bites/person/day) and those obtained with creams (maximum: 30 bites/person/day). In other respects, the lotion of a given repellent seems to be efficient in savannah as in the forest, in protecting against Simulium bites. It is the same situation with creams. So, repellents can be an efficient solution against Simulium nuisance. However, experimentations should continue to confirm the high repellency of tested formulas, proceed to the identification of principles and evaluate the toxicity and irritant effect of repellents to be applied on the skin.

  1. Simulating carbon, water and energy fluxes of a rainforest and an oil palm plantation using the Community Land Model (CLM4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanchao; Bernoux, Martial; Roupsard, Olivier; Panferov, Oleg; Le Maire, Guerric; Tölle, Merja; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation driven by the expansion of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations has become the major source of GHG emission in Indonesia. Changes of land surface properties (e.g. vegetation composition, soil property, surface albedo) associated with rainforest to oil palm conversion might alter the patterns of land-atmosphere energy, water and carbon cycles and therefore affect local or regional climate. Land surface modeling has been widely used to characterize the two-way interactions between climate and human disturbances on land surface. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a third-generation land model that simulates a wide range of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. This project utilizes the land-cover/land-use change (LCLUC) capability of the latest CLM versions 4/4.5 to characterize quantitatively how anthropogenic land surface dynamics in Indonesia affect land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes. Before simulating land use changes, the first objective is to parameterize and validate the CLM model at local rainforest and oil palm plantation sites through separate point simulations. This entails creation and parameterization of a new plant functional type (PFT) for oil palm, as well as sensitivity analysis and adaptation of model parameters for the rainforest PFTs. CLM modelled fluxes for the selected sites are to be compared with field observations from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers (e.g. a rainforest site in Bariri, Sulawesi; an oil palm site in Jambi, Sumatra). After validation, the project will proceed to parameterize land-use transformation system using remote sensing data and to simulate the impacts of historical LUCs on carbon, water and energy fluxes. Last but not least, the effects of future LUCs in Indonesia on the fluxes and carbon sequestration capacity will be investigated through scenario study. Historical land cover changes, especially oil palm coverage, are retrieved from Landsat or MODIS archival

  2. Analyse-diagnostic du système agraire de la région d'Ahépé, au sud du Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the agricultural system of the region of Ahépé, south Togo. The agricultural system of the region of Ahépé, 80 km north of Lomé, Togo, was studied. Eighteen historical surveys and 44 farm surveys were carried out. We distinguished four main stages in the evolution of the farming system in the region. 1. Pioneer farming based on burning, with fallow land lasting more than 20 years. 2. When access to land starts to decrease, and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis starts being the main source of revenue, the system becomes fallow-land with oil palm based. Such a system necessitates an available surface at least three times larger than the cultivated area. 3. Due to lack of available land, the third system is based on pruning and burning of oil palm fallow lands with alternative cultivation and fallow land every three years. 4. Finally, after cultivated land becomes really short, rural depopulation, sale of labour force, and work intensification per unit of surface and of capital areobserved. In the actual farming system, we distinguished 5 different categories of farms. The ""survival threshold"" (the minimal amount of resources needed, estimated for a family with two adults and three children, is F CFA 79,000 per working adult and per year, of which F CFA 47,000 in cash (to buy everything that cannot be produced on farm. The first category is a food-producing system on short time fallow-land with palm trees. With farms smaller than 1 ha, food crops are dominant (80% of the agricultural revenue and the total agricultural revenue per working adult is less than F CFA 200,000 per year. The second category is a food-producing system on short time fallow-land with palm trees and cash crops. The annual agricultural revenue per working adult varies from F CFA 200,000 to 1,600,000. In the third category, cash crops are dominant (mainly cotton but the farms are in difficult financial conditions. The surfaces in this system vary between 1.1 and 1

  3. 低温胁迫后抗寒茶树品种‘紫阳圆叶’的基因差异表达分析%Analysis on gene differential expression of cold-resistance cultivar ‘ Ziyangyuanye’ of Camellia sinensis after low temperature stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国山; 游新才; 武艳; 张今今

    2013-01-01

    采用DDRT-PCR技术,对低温(4℃)胁迫处理不同时间(0、8、12、24和48 h)后茶树[Camellia sinensis(Linn.)O.Ktze.]抗寒品种‘紫阳圆叶’(‘Ziyangyuanye’)叶片中差异表达的基因进行分离和测序,并采用半定量RT-PCR对差异表达基因的表达特性进行了比较.结果表明:有12个引物对扩增出有明显差异的cDNA片段,其中3个片段是与抗寒性相关的差异片段,分别被命名为Csgsf、Cscaf1和Cscaf2,碱基数分别为217、316和232 bp.比对结果显示:Csgsf与茶树品种‘安吉白茶’(‘Anjibaicha’)和‘龙井43’(‘Longjing 43’)的谷氨酰胺合成酶基因的同源性分别为96%和91%,与菜豆(Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.)、蒺藜苜蓿(Medicago truncatula Gaertn.)、油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)、西洋参(Panax quinquefolius Linn.)和水稻(Oryza sativa Linn.)等植物的谷氨酰胺合成酶的基因序列同源性均达到90%以上,因此,Csgsf应为茶树谷氨酰胺合成酶基因片段;Cscaf2与干旱胁迫条件下茶树表达的cDNA的同源性为100%,为茶树应答干旱和低温胁迫的基因片段;Cscaf1未检索出同源序列,推测其为与冷胁迫相关的未知基因片段.半定量RT-PCR分析结果表明:Csgsf和Cscaf1在低温胁迫的初始期即开始表达且表达量随低温胁迫时间延长逐渐下调;而Cscaf2的表达量随低温胁迫时间延长逐渐上调并在胁迫48 h后达到最大,3个片段的表达特性均与差异扩增结果相符.

  4. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  5. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  6. 蝴蝶兰S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶基因的克隆及低温下的表达分析%Cloning of a S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase Gene from Phalaenopsis ama-bilis and Its Expression under Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秀云; 雷志华; 梁芳; 蒋素华; 许申平; 王默霏; 崔波

    2015-01-01

    The full-length sequence cDNA of SAMS (GenBank accession number:KP966096) was cloned from Phalaenopsis amabilis cultivar‘Red Sky’ using RT-PCR combined with RACE techniques. This sequence con-sists of 1 550 bp with an intact open reading frame of 1 194 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced SAMS protein was highly homologous to SAMS proteins from different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SAMS was closely related to the SAMS of Elaeis guineensis. The results of real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR using the combination of GAPDH, ACTIN and EF1αas internal control genes showed that the transcript levels of SAMS in P. amabilis were increased obvious-ly under day/night 13℃/8℃for 3, 6, 9 and 15 d, then declined after the recovery of normal temperature. Un-der the cold stress of 4℃, the expressions of SAMS were also increased signiifcantly at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after cold treatment, and declined at 8 h to the level before treatment. The transcript levels of SAMS were not obvi-ously up-regulated and down-regulated at 12, 24 and 48 h after cold treatment. It suggested that SAMS play a role in cold tolerance in P. amabilis.%利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从蝴蝶兰品种‘满天红’中克隆获得SAMS基因的cDNA序列, GenBank登录号为KP966096。用生物信息学方法预测分析其序列, cDNA全长1550 bp,含有1个1194 bp的完整开放阅读框(ORF),编码397个氨基酸,其氨基酸序列与多种植物的SAMS蛋白有很高的相似性。系统进化树分析显示,蝴蝶兰SAMS与油棕的SAMS蛋白亲缘关系较近。采用GAPDH、ACTIN和EF1α这3个不同的内参基因作为标准对蝴蝶兰SAMS基因进行实时荧光定量分析,结果表明,在13℃/8℃的昼夜温度条件下,蝴蝶兰SAMS基因的转录表达在3、6、9和15 d时明显升高,恢复正常温度条件后,该基因的表达下降;在4℃低温条件下, SAMS基因的表达在处理0.5、1、2和4 h

  7. Molecular Cloning and Expression of MaNPR1E Gene from Banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)%香蕉NPR 1E 基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓; 徐碧玉; 贾彩红; 李健平; 刘菊华; 张建斌; 苗红霞; 金志强

    2015-01-01

    NPR1基因可参与调节植物对病原菌的广谱抗性,在植物系统抗性中起着关键的调控作用。通过RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)方法从香蕉根系中获得NPR1E基因,命名为MaNPR1E(GenBank登录号分别为: KF582550)。 MaNPR1E是香蕉NPR1基因编码框全长cDNA,包含一个1755 bp的最大开放阅读框,编码一个含584个氨基酸的蛋白质。经蛋白质序列同源比对发现,其含有完整的BTB/POZ结构域、锚蛋白重复ANK序列和NPR1-like-C结构域,属于典型的NPR1蛋白。系统进化树比对分析表明, MaNPR1E与海枣PdNPR3(XP_008808341.1)和油棕EgNPR3(XP_010914123.1)的亲缘关系较近。组织特异性研究表明,该基因组成型表达于香蕉各组织。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明,接种枯萎病菌后MaNPR1E的表达在感病品种中被抑制,而在抗病品种中被激活; MaNPR1E的表达受乙烯利和水杨酸的诱导。上述结果表明, MaNPR1E可能在香蕉抗枯萎病过程中扮演重要的调控角色。%NPR1(nonexpressor of PR gene 1), involved in regulating plant broad-spectrum resistance, plays important roles in plant system resistance. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of NPR1E gene cloned from banana(Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. MaNPR1E(accession number: KF582550) contained an open reading frame of 1 755 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 584 amino acids. Protein alignment showed that they contain the complete typical conserved BTB/POZ (BR-C, ttk and bab/Pox virus and Zinc finger)domain, ankyrin repeats and NPR1/NIM1 like defence protein C terminal, which belongs to a typical NPR1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaNPR1E also have high similarity to PdNPR3 (XP_008808341.1) and EgNPR3 (XP_010914123.1) from Phoenix dactylifera and Elaeis guineensis, respectively. Tissue-specific studies showed that the expression of MaNPR1E was constitutive

  8. Cloning and Expression Analysis of GA20-Oxidase Gene from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)%番荔枝GA20氧化酶基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴栋; 袁长春; 黎海利; 刘金祥; 陈燕; 莫亿伟; 李华富

    2015-01-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence of homologousGA20ox gene was cloned by employing homology gene cloning and RACE-PCR from sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.), which was named asAsGA20ox(Gen-Bank accession KR676623). Sequence analysis showed that theAsGA20oxgene has a 1 257 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 418 amino acids. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 71% and 70% with GA20ox ofElaeis guineensis andPhoenix dactylifera, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that sugar appleAsGA20ox andDasypyrum villosum GA20ox are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed byMusa acuminatasubsp. Malaccensis GA20ox. It was speculated that AsGA20ox protein is located in the extracellular matrix and peroxisomal. It do not have a signal peptide. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.2 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.21. The real-time PCR results suggested thatAsGA20ox gene showed a high transcription level in lfower buds I, immature seeds, young stems of fruiting branches and pistils. The results laid a solid foundation for further research on AsGA20ox protein structure and the relation-ship between the gene and plant lfower development.%本研究利用同源克隆和RACE-PCR的方法获得番荔枝GA20ox基因的全长cDNA序列,命名为AsGA20ox, GenBank登录号为KR676623。序列分析表明,克隆获得的番荔枝AsGA20ox基因编码区长为1257 bp,编码418个氨基酸。序列比对显示与油棕和海枣等GA20ox的相似度分别为71%和70%。构建类似蛋白系统进化树显示,番荔枝AsGA20ox与簇毛麦、香蕉等分子进化距离较近。预测AsGA20ox蛋白定位在细胞外基质和过氧化物酶体中,不具备信号肽。蛋白质分子量为47.2 kDa,等电点为6.21。实时定量RT-PCR结果表明,在不同的组织、不同的器官中,AsGA20ox的表达量存在差异,其中在花蕾期I、未成熟的种子、结果枝的幼嫩茎段和雌蕊中的表达量相对较高。

  9. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day−1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day−1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground

  10. “Bio” combustibles o el mito del oro verde ¿Política ambiental, “exportación de naturaleza”, o etnocidio?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-01-01

    El término “biocombustible” se refiere en su aceptación general a los combustibles que pueden ser obtenidos a partir de biomasa, de leña, y de más de 14 variedades de cultivos (caña de azúcar, soya, palma aceitera, ricino, maíz, colza, girasol, sorgo, trigo, mandioca, etc.). Los dos “biocombustibles”, “bio”etanol y “bio”diesel, son obtenidos, respectivamente, por fermentación de productos ricos en azúcares, almidones o celulosas (bioetanol) y de aceites vegetales como la palma africana, giras...

  11. Proyecto de desarrollo para evaluar la factibilidad del cultivo de palma africana como materia prima exportable para la producción de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Marcillo Chasy, Lorena Elizabeth; Vargas Campoverde, Maria Fernanda; Veloz Pacheco, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Hay cultivos agrícolas, como el de la Palma Africana, que están sustituyendo a la producción de oleaginosas tradicionales en el Ecuador y los productos provenientes del extranjero, que poco a poco van teniendo un impacto positivo en la vida de las comunidades indígenas y campesinas (generación de empleo). La palma africana también es conocida como palma aceitera, porque de ella se extrae aceite comestible, pero también tiene diversos usos, como por ejemplo; para productos alimenticios, med...

  12. Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis fue la evaluación de los Gases de Efecto Invernado (GEI) asociados al ciclo de vida de los principales biocombustibles colombianos, a saber: bioetanol a partir de caña de azúcar y biodiesel a partir de palma aceitera, a las condiciones actuales del país. Adicionalmente, se lleva a cabo el mismo estudio para otras materias tanto de primera como de segunda generación. A lo largo de este documento se muestra una propuesta esquemática del estudio de la cadena de sumi...

  13. La industria invisible. La producción de aceites en Argentina y Santa Fe, 1895-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Lanciotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la industria aceitera argentina desde fines del siglo XIX hasta la segunda guerramundial, con especial atención a la participación de la provincia de Santa Fe en la actividad. El objetivo es anali-zar la industria aceitera en el largo plazo, evaluando los obstáculos y condiciones que limitaron su despegue antesde los años 1940, así como las condiciones que favorecieron su desarrollo antes de la formación del complejooleaginoso sojero. Se reconstruye la evolución de la producción e industrialización de maní, lino y maíz en Ar-gentina y en Santa Fe, la evolución de las exportaciones e importaciones de aceites vegetales y las políticas eco-nómicas que incidieron en la actividad.

  14. 不同时间下低温胁迫对油棕幼苗生理生化变化的影响%Effect of Low Temperature Stress on Physiological Changes in Oil Palm (Elaesis guineensis Jacg.) Seedling under Different Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳菊; 曹红星; 张如莲

    2015-01-01

    为了研究不同时间的低温胁迫对油棕幼苗生理生化变化的影响,以8个月苗龄的油棕幼苗为材料,根据海南的气温变化规律,设置4个不同的最低温度处理,分别为28℃(CK处理),18℃(T1处理)、12℃(T2处理)、6℃(T3处理),分别处理0、7、14、21 d时取样.结果发现,随着温度的下降和低温胁迫时间的延长,幼苗叶片含水量、SOD活性不断下降;可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖含量、H2O2、MDA含量不断升高;POD、CAT、APX活性先上升而后下降;T2、T3处理2周后的幼苗其心叶都变褐色,且生长明显减缓.低温会对油棕幼苗造成了明显地氧化伤害,但油棕幼苗可能通过提高可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖等物质的含量,抗氧化酶维持一定活性的适应机制,以抵抗低温造成的氧化伤害,维持其正常生长.

  15. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  16. Cloning and expression analysis ofHbWRKY75 gene in leaf fromHevea brasiliensis%橡胶树WRKY家族转录因子HbWRKY75基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓丽; 闫栋; 孙丽娜; 曾日中; 杨礼富

    2016-01-01

    A novel WRKY gene was cloned by RT-PCR from the leaf tissue ofHevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree) and designated asHbWRKY75. The open reading frame (ORF) ofHbWRKY75 gene was 603 bp encoding a protein with 201 amino acid residues. The HbWRKY75 had a typical WRKY domain from amino acid 110 to 160 and belonged to the class II protein of the WRKY transcription factor family. The homology analysis re-vealed that HbWRKY75 shared amino acid sequence identities of 92%, 85%, 71%, 63% and 57% with the WRKY75 protein fromVitis vinifera, Zea mays,Elaeis guineensis,Nelumbo nucifera, andGossypium hirsutum. The expression pattern ofHbWRKY75 gene was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR, and the results demonstrated that the transcript level ofHbWRKY75 gene in leaves was signiifcantly higher than those in other parts of rubber trees.HbWRKY75 gene was differentially expressed in leaves with different developmental stag-es, and mostly expressed in the leaf at the late stage of senescence. The expression level ofHbWRKY75 gene in the young leaves greatly increased compared with those of the control samples of rubber trees treated with Ethephon, MeJA (methyl jasmonic acid), PEG (polyethylene glycol), H2O2, NaCl, low temperature and bark tapping (mechanical damage); but ABA treatment down-regulated the expression ofHbWRKY75. The presented data suggested that HbWRKY75 may be a transcription factor involved in the leaf senescence and the responses to phytohormones such as ethylene etc., and play a regulatory role in response to abiotic stresses such as NaCl and low temperature of rubber trees.%从巴西橡胶树无性系PR107的叶片组织中克隆了1个新的WRKY家族转录因子基因,命名为HbWRKY75,其ORF序列长为603 bp,编码201个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明, HbWRKY75在N端第110~160氨基酸之间含有1个典型的WRKY结构域,属II类WRKY转录因子家族成员,与葡萄、大豆、油棕、陆地棉和拟南芥等同类基因

  17. “Bio” combustibles o el mito del oro verde ¿Política ambiental, “exportación de naturaleza”, o etnocidio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El término “biocombustible” se refiere en su aceptación general a los combustibles que pueden ser obtenidos a partir de biomasa, de leña, y de más de 14 variedades de cultivos (caña de azúcar, soya, palma aceitera, ricino, maíz, colza, girasol, sorgo, trigo, mandioca, etc.. Los dos “biocombustibles”, “bio”etanol y “bio”diesel, son obtenidos, respectivamente, por fermentación de productos ricos en azúcares, almidones o celulosas (bioetanol y de aceites vegetales como la palma africana, girasol, higuerilla, soya, etc. (biodiesel

  18. AcEST: DK957399 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 171 5e-41 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein...S=Avicennia ma... 169 1e-40 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 169 2e-40 tr...otein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 167 4e-40 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee...... 167 7e-40 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 163 8e-39 tr|Q2QXS4|Q2QXS4_

  19. 油棕枯萎病研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤玉; 覃伟权; 朱辉; 马子龙

    2009-01-01

    油棕枯萎病的病原菌为油棕尖镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend. f. sp. elaeidis Toovey) ,该菌为土壤习居菌,菌丝体和厚垣孢子可以在土壤中长期存活,特别是厚垣孢子的存活力更强。该菌主要危害非洲油棕(Elaeis guineensis),但通过人工接种从西非分离到的菌株也可使南美棕(Elaeis oleifera)发病。此外,把从刺苋(Amaranthus spinosus)、

  20. 棕榈粕在畜禽饲料中的应用和市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大鹏

    2011-01-01

    棕榈仁粕是棕榈树上的棕果(Elaeis Guineensis)脱壳榨取棕榈油后的副产品。马来西亚和印度尼西亚是主要的棕榈仁粕生产国。1棕榈粕的营养特性1.1营养指标棕榈粕的营养指标见表1,马

  1. The ecological impact of tidal pond channelization on the distribution of tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae on Buguma creek, Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Julius Oribhabor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the tilapia species (Perciformes: Cichlidae of a tidal creek in the Southeast of theNiger Delta, Nigeria was conducted to assess the ecological impact of tidal pond channelization. Therewas no significant difference (p>0.05 in the values of the physical and chemical parameters, except fortransparency, water level and salinity (pSarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were recorded during the studies, with S. melanotheron being the dominant species.Orthogonal comparison using Duncan’s Multiple Range test showed that S. melanotheron was the causeof the observed difference in the tilapia population. Although there was positive correlation betweensalinity and the tilapia species at all stations, there was no significant correlation between tilapia speciesand the environmental variables. The findings of this study showed that channelized water bodies havelower qualify fish assemblage when compared to natural water bodies due to a loss of heterogeneoushabitat. Although channelization is inevitable in the development of brackishwater fish ponds,amelioration measures of its adverse effects deserve high priority. However since no significantdifference (p>0.05 existed in the distribution of T. guineensis, this study indicated that not all speciesare impacted by tidal pond channelization.

  2. Soybean phospholipase D activity determination. A comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ré, E.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to a discrepancy between previously published results, two methods to determine the soybean phospholipase D activity were evaluated. One method is based on the extraction of the enzyme from whole soybean flour, quantifying the enzyme activity on the extract. The other method quantifies the enzymatic activity on whole soybean flour without enzyme extraction. In the extraction-based-method, both the extraction time and the number of extractions were optimized. The highest phospholipase D activity values were obtained from the method without enzyme extraction. This method is less complex, requires less running-time and the conditions of the medium in which phospholipase D acts resemble the conditions found in the oil industrySe evaluaron dos métodos para determinar la actividad de la fosfolipasa D en soja debido a que existe discrepancia entre los resultados publicados. Un método se basa en la extracción de la enzima de la harina resultante de la molienda del grano de soja entero, cuantificando la actividad sobre el extracto. En el otro método, la cuantificación se realiza sobre la harina del grano entero molido, sin extraer la enzima. En el método de extracción se optimizaron tanto el tiempo como el número de extracciones. Los mayores valores de actividad de la fosfolipasa D se obtuvieron por el método sin extracción de la enzima. Este método es más simple, exige menos tiempo de ejecución y las condiciones del medio en que actúa la fosfolipasa D se asemejan a las condiciones encontradas en la industria aceitera.

  3. REVIEW: Species Diversity of Local Fruit Trees in Kalimantan: Problems of Conservation and Its Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAID SIREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in population of local fruit trees due to the forest destruction in some places in Kalimantan is a worrying trend.The genetic diversity of fruits in Kalimantan has been saved partly through indigenous agroforestry, as species cultivated from generation to generation by indigenous people have created miniature forests in the village agroecosystem. However, there is no doubt that the existence of local fruit trees has been threatened by the introduction of a superior fruit cultivars and other commercial plant species such as coconuts (Cocos nucifera, oil palm (Elaeis guinensis and rubber trees (Hevea braziliensis. An ex-situ conservation program is proposed for the maintenance of diversity amongst local fruit species.

  4. [Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

    2014-04-01

    Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease.

  5. AcEST: DK962501 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein OS=Picea... 208 2e-52 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS..... 197 5e-49 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica camp... 196 1e-48 tr|Q94BR2|Q94BR2_...VI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Vitis... 195 2e-48 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassic...a napus GN=bal... 195 2e-48 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 194 3e-48 tr

  6. AcEST: DK953061 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S=Ar... 77 9e-13 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 77 9e-13 tr|B4YYA6|B4YY...A6_THEHA ST7-5-2 OS=Thellungiella halophila PE=2 SV=1 77 9e-13 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum...num-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 69 3e-10 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum-in..... 69 3e-10 tr|Q5MCR8|Q5MCR8_9ASTR Aluminum-induced protein OS=Codonopsis la... 68 3e-10 tr|B4FQW0|B4FQW0_MA...RFVEKNPSAVSVQVGDYVQLAYS 58 Query: 218 HHKQALLRPR 247 HH ++ LRPR Sbjct: 59 HHNESPLRPR 68 >tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum

  7. AcEST: DK959671 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available paten... 171 5e-41 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein OS=Brassica camp... 169 1e-40 tr|Q94KH9|...Q94KH9_AVIMR Aluminium induced protein OS=Avicennia ma... 169 1e-40 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Aluminum-induced ...e-40 tr|A9TLC6|A9TLC6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 167 4e-40 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum...-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 167 7e-40 tr|B3TLT4|B3TLT4_ELAGV Aluminum

  8. AcEST: DK952090 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ARATH Putative aluminium-induced protein OS=Ara... 190 6e-47 tr|A8IXL5|A8IXL5_BRACM Aluminum-induced protein... protein OS=Oryza... 182 1e-44 tr|B3TM05|B3TM05_ELAGV Aluminum-induced protein OS=Elaeis guinee... 179 1e-43... tr|A9TLC6|A9TLC6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 188 2e-46 tr|O64461|O64461_BRANA Alum...inum-induced OS=Brassica napus GN=bal... 188 2e-46 tr|B4YYA6|B4YYA6_THEHA ST7-5-2 O

  9. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.......Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African...... ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis...

  10. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  11. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.

  12. Estrategia ambiental en el manejo de efluentes en la extracción de aceite de palma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bonomie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el proceso de extracción de aceite de palma, se consideran alternativas de separación de los residuos sólidos y líquidos para el aprovechamiento (si es posible total del efluente. Estos residuos sólidos de naturaleza orgánica, y las descargas líquidas, suelen considerarse de bajo impacto en comparación con otros procesos productivos de algunos sectores industriales. En este sentido, la presente investigación tiene como propósito analizar el manejo de los efluentes en el proceso de extracción de aceite de palma o aceite rojo. Asimismo, se presenta la estrategia ambiental en este tipo de proceso utilizando la producción más limpia. La investigación es de tipo analítica, no experimental de campo; la población se delimitó a las empresas del sector de palma aceitera que desarrolla el proceso de extracción de aceite. Se realizaron varias visitas y entrevistas al personal de estas empresas; siendo necesario aclarar que para efectos de esta investigación, solamente se considera la producción de aceite rojo, en virtud de que del proceso de producción se obtienen dos sub productos, aceite de palmiste y harina de palmiste. Los resultados, indican que existen efluentes en las diferentes etapas del proceso de extracción de aceite, los cuales reciben un tratamiento especial, por lo que requieren de áreas que desempeñan actividades de apoyo, tales como: control de calidad, mantenimiento y generación de energía, las cuales intervienen en la generación y tratamiento de los efluentes. Se concluye que las empresas que utilizan este tipo de proceso productivo, emplean estrategias innovadoras para disminuir el impacto ambiental, en aras de mejorar el desempeño ambiental en este tipo de organización.

  13. CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Hazlewood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nos lleva, más allá de la crisis económica, hacia el calentamiento global y nos advierte de un problema profundo: un defecto estructural en el capitalismo. Vinculando teóricamente cambio climático, colonialismo y capitalismo, se estudia a San Lorenzo como una frontera agrícola en la que el CO2lonialismo se despliega a través del cultivo de palma aceitera y la producción de agrocombustibles. Esta investigación resalta las prácticas culturales y espaciales a través de las cuales las comunidades afro-ecuatoriana, chachi, y awá construyen y sostienen “geografías de esperanza” en medio de bosques talados, ríos envenenados y conflictos sociales. A través de la exposición detallada de la deuda ecológica del Norte global con el Sur global, este artículo condena discursos y acciones que se enfocan en el mejoramiento del clima económico mientras arrasan los bosques húmedos, las prácticas culturales de vida de las comunidades y las soluciones reales al cambio climático.This paper takes us beyond the present economic crisis to where global warming warns of a much more profound problem: a structural flaw in capitalism. Theoretically linking relations between climate change, colonialism, and capitalism, San Lorenzo is investigated as an agricultural frontier where “CO2lonialism” unfolds in African oil palm cultivation and agrofuel production. This research highlights the cultural and spatial practices through which Afro-Ecuadorian, Chachi, and Awá communities construct and sustain “geographies of hope” amid landscapes of fallen forests, poisoned rivers and social conflicts. Expounding on the ecological debt of the Global North to the Global South, this paper condemns discourses and actions that solely focus on improving the economic climate while bulldozing rainforests, livelihoods, and real solutions to climate change.

  14. Características fisicoquímicas del aceite del mesocarpio de la coroba (Jessenia polycarpa Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario J.

    2002-12-01

    mesocarpio de la coroba es una materia prima potencial para la industria aceitera Venezolana.

  15. Endocrine-disruptor molecular responses, occurrence of intersex and gonado-histopathological changes in tilapia species from a tropical freshwater dam (Awba Dam) in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Onibonoje, Kolawole; Ibor, Oju R.; Omiwole, Roseline A.; Chukwuka, Azubuike V.; Ugwumba, Alex O.; Ugwumba, Adiaha A.A. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Occurrence and severity of intersex in Nigerian aquatic environment. • Estrogenic and reproductive developmental effects of effluents from a University community. • Biomarker of endocrine disruption in fish from a developing country. • Relationship between estrogenic responses and sediment contaminants burden in a dam used for University domestic water supply and for fisheries. • Possible health consequences of environmental contamination - Abstract: In the present study, the occurrence of endocrine disruptive responses in Tilapia species from Awba Dam has been investigated, and compared to a reference site (Modete Dam). The Awba Dam is a recipient of effluents from University of Ibadan (Nigeria) and several other anthropogenic sources. A total of 132 Tilapia species (Sarotherodon malenotheron (n = 57 and 32, males and females, respectively) and Tilapia guineensis (n = 23 and 20, males and females, respectively)) were collected from June to September 2014. At the reference site, samples of adult male and female S. melanotheron (48 males and 47 females) and T. guineensis (84 males and 27 females) were collected. Gonads were morphologically and histologically examined and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Hepatic mRNA transcriptions of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) genes were analyzed using validated RT-qPCR. Significant increase in Vtg and Zrp transcripts were observed in male tilapias from Awba Dam, compared to males from the reference site. In addition, male tilapias from Awba Dam produced significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to females in June and July. However, at the natural peak spawning period in August and September, females produced, significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to males. Fish gonads revealed varying incidence of intersex with a striking presence of two (2) pairs of testes and a pair of ovary in S. melanotheron from Awba Dam. The entire fish population examined at Awba Dam

  16. Endocrine-disruptor molecular responses, occurrence of intersex and gonado-histopathological changes in tilapia species from a tropical freshwater dam (Awba Dam) in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Onibonoje, Kolawole; Ibor, Oju R; Omiwole, Roseline A; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Ugwumba, Alex O; Ugwumba, Adiaha A A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of endocrine disruptive responses in Tilapia species from Awba Dam has been investigated, and compared to a reference site (Modete Dam). The Awba Dam is a recipient of effluents from University of Ibadan (Nigeria) and several other anthropogenic sources. A total of 132 Tilapia species (Sarotherodon malenotheron (n=57 and 32, males and females, respectively) and Tilapia guineensis (n=23 and 20, males and females, respectively)) were collected from June to September 2014. At the reference site, samples of adult male and female S. melanotheron (48 males and 47 females) and T. guineensis (84 males and 27 females) were collected. Gonads were morphologically and histologically examined and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Hepatic mRNA transcriptions of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) genes were analyzed using validated RT-qPCR. Significant increase in Vtg and Zrp transcripts were observed in male tilapias from Awba Dam, compared to males from the reference site. In addition, male tilapias from Awba Dam produced significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to females in June and July. However, at the natural peak spawning period in August and September, females produced, significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to males. Fish gonads revealed varying incidence of intersex with a striking presence of two (2) pairs of testes and a pair of ovary in S. melanotheron from Awba Dam. The entire fish population examined at Awba Dam showed a high prevalence of intersex (34.8%), involving phenotypic males and females of both species. Analysis of sediment contaminant levels revealed that As, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni (heavy metals), monobutyltin cation, 4-iso-nonyphenol and PCB congeners (138, 153 and 180) were significantly higher in Awba Dam, compared to the reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fish variables were positively correlated with sediment contaminant burden at Awba Dam, indicating

  17. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Property of the Oils from Oil Palm Produced in Wenchang City, Hainan%海南文昌油棕油脂的脂肪酸组成及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秋瑜; 李瑞; 唐敏敏; 王威; 雷新涛; 赵松林

    2011-01-01

    采用GC-MS测定了海南文昌小叶杜拉种(E.guineensis-S.L Dura)油棕果中棕榈油(P0)和棕榈仁油(PKO)的脂肪酸组成,并对二者的体外抗氧化活性进行评价.结果表明,PO中总酚含量为(0.014±0.000 2)mg/g,而PKO中未测出多酚;PO及PKO的硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)显著低于空白样品;75%PO对DPPH,的清除能力显著高于Vc、苹果酸和儿茶酸,达98.86%,而PKO对DPPH·的清除能力低于对照;PO中多酚提取物(PO-PF)及75% PKO对Fe2+的络合能力显著高于Vc、苹果酸和儿茶酸;PO-PF和75%PO对Fe3+的还原能力显著高于Vc及苹果酸,75% PKO对Fe3+的还原能力与Vc相当.PO-PF及25%~75%PKO对ABTS+·的清除能力优于Vc和苹果酸.%GC-MS was used to detect fatty acid composition of palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) from oil palm (E. Guineensis -S.L.Durd) produced in Wenchang, Hainan, and the antioxidant property of the oils was evaluated. The results showed that the polyphenol content of PO was (0.014±0.000 2) mg/g and which was not detected in PKO. The TBARS value of PO and PKO were obviously lower than the check. The scavenging ability to DPPH radical of 75% PO was 98.86%, which was remarkably higher than Vc, malic acid and catechin, while the scavenging ability to DPPH radical of PKO was lower than the three contrasts. The complexation ability to ferrous iron of 75% PKO and polyphenol fraction of palm oil (PO-PF) were obviously higher than Vc, malic acid and catechin. The reducing capacity to Fe3+ of PO-PF and 75% PO were obviously hither than Vc and malic acid, which of 75% PKO was comparable to Vc. The scavenging rate to ABTS+ radical of PO-PF and 25%~75% PKO were higher than Vc and malic acid.

  18. AcEST: DK957345 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 176 1e-42 tr|B3TLS9|B3TLS9_ELAGV Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Elaeis guineen...4 tr|B7E413|B7E413_ORYSJ cDNA clone:006-203-G01, full insert seque... 138 2e-31 tr|B6TL35|B6TL35_MAIZE Fiber... protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 137 4e-31 tr|B6TIV8|B6TIV8_MAIZE Fiber protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 ...hole genome... 135 3e-30 tr|A9RX96|A9RX96_PHYPA Predicted protein (Fragment) OS=Physcomit... 129 1e-28 tr|B4FRH9|B4FRH9_MAIZE Fiber... protein Fb2 OS=Zea mays PE=2 SV=1 126 1e-27 tr|Q8GT87|Q8GT87_GOSBA Fiber

  19. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos domiciliados y, Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus y dos Didelphis marsupialis infectados con T. cruzi en palmas de Attalea butyracea y Elaeis oleifera del área urbana de Aguachica. Se analiza la participación del R. pallescens y el rol de las palmas en el ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi y para la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas. Incursiones esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus y E. cuspidatus silvestres desde palmas cercanas al domicilio humano pueden provocar brotes cada vez más frecuentes de Chagas oral.

  20. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. R. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil. Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02 were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.

  1. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  2. Evaluation of Fermentation Products of Palm Wine Yeasts and Role of Sacoglottis gabonensis Supplement on Products Abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented with Sacoglottis gabonensis. Palm wine samples from two different trees Elaeis sp. and Raphia sp. (pH less than 5 that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeast species identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA genes were used. Evaluation was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Samples contained 5.9–11.6, 2.2–7.1, 4.2–43.0, and 4.4–43.7 g/L of acetic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and glucose, respectively. Ethyl acetate, acetic acid and ethanol had the most aroma intensity and an assessment on the yeast metabolome database showed that 23 out of the 31 products detected were present in the database. Addition of Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement to a Raphia sp. palm wine sample showed lower abundance of acetoin, acetic acid, methylpropyl lactate, ethyl octanoate and propyl acetate. We conclude that Sacoglottis gabonensis supplementation could suppress specific compounds during palm wine fermentation. This knowledge could be applied in new product development for the beverage.

  3. Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites Community of Fish Species in a Niger Delta Tidal Creek, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ekata Ogbeibu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pool of fish species in a Niger Delta tidal creek, Buguma Creek, Nigeria, collected monthly from November 2004 to June 2006, at flood tides, were examined for gastrointestinal helminth parasites. The fish species were caught with hooks and lines and cast nets. Only nematode parasites were encountered in the study. Of the 1,149 fish specimens examined, 213 (representing 18.5% were infected with various nematodes parasites. Dasyatis margarita had the highest prevalence rate of 66.7% (2 infected out of 3 examined, followed by Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus senegalensis with a prevalence of 41.7% (10 infected out of 24, while the least infected were Arius gigas and Pomadasys jubelini with prevalence of 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. No infection was recorded in Elops lacerta, Gobius sp., Lutjanus agennes, L. goreensis, Argyrosomus regius, Sphyraena guachancho, S. sphyraena, Cynoglossus senegalensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis, Liza falcipinnis, Mugil cephalus, and M. curema. The nematode parasites, Capillaria zederi, and Aplectana hamatospicula had the highest prevalence of 33.3% in D. margarita. Laurotravassoxyuris sp. also had the same prevalence in Trichiurus lepturus. Goezia sigalasi had the second highest prevalence of 12.5% in P. (Fonticulus elongatus which had the highest number examined, due to its high dominance in the water.

  4. Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

    2009-12-01

    Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

  5. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  6. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    para la industria aceitera venezolana.

  7. Estudio de los posibles eventos químicos y bioquímicos que inciden en el incremento de la acidez en el proceso de extracción de aceite de maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, Danabely

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the objective of studying the chemical and biochemical factors that promote the increase in acidity in oil produced from maize grains during storage in silos, the degermination and palletizing. A water activity ((aw of 0,805 ± 0,003 was determined in maize grains, a peroxide index (IP of 6,75 ± 0,20 in degermination, and a % acidity of 4,07 ± 0,06 in palletized oil. The lipase activity was performed by potentiometry in the presence of bovine bile and olive oil. The enzymes were extracted in a 1% (p/v saline medium at 13000 rpm (15 min, resulting in an activity at pH 7,6, 36 °C of 2.6 meq/g min in samples without physical processing treatments, and 0,02-0,04 meq/g min in samples submitted to processing . A bifactorial design and central stars surface type composition studied the hydrolytic deterioration of the oil. The water flow was significant. The mathematical equation obtained was: % acidity = 4.88 - 0.741557A, with a regression coefficient of (R2 91.76%.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar los factores químicos y bioquímicos que promueven el aumento de acidez en el aceite obtenido de granos de maíz durante las etapas de almacenamiento en silos, desgerminación y peletizado de una empresa aceitera. Se determinó una actividad de agua (aw de 0.805 ± 0.003 en granos de maíz, un índice de peróxido (IP de 6.75 ± 0.20 en desgerminación, y una acidez de 4.07% ± 0.06 en paletizado. Se evaluó también la actividad lipolítica por potenciometría en presencia de bilis bovina y aceite de oliva. Las enzimas fueron extraídas en un medio salino (1% p/v a 13000 rpm (15 minutos, resultando una actividad a pH 7.6, 36 °C, de 2.6 meq/g min en muestras no sometidas a tratamientos físicos de proceso, y de 0.02-0.04 meq/g min en muestras sometidas a tratamientos de proceso. Un diseño bifactorial y superficie de composición central tipo estrella en paletizado estudió el deterioro hidrolítico del aceite siendo

  8. Utilization of immobilized lipases as catalysts in the transesterification of non-edible vegetable oils with ethanol

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    P. C. Tiosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of commercially available immobilized lipase preparations (Novozym® 435 and Lipozyme TL IM, both from Novozymes, and Lipase PS IM from Amano as catalysts in the transesterification reaction of different alkyl-chain triglycerides with ethanol. The ethanolysis of native oils from Brazilian Amazon plants andiroba (Carapa guianensis, babassu (Orbignya sp., jatropa (Jatropha curcas, and palm (Elaeis sp. was studied in a solvent-free system. In a typical reaction, the immobilized preparations were added to the mixture of vegetable oil-to-ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:9. The reactions were performed at 50 ºC for a maximum period of 48 h. Under the conditions used, all the immobilized lipase preparations were able to generate the main esters of fatty acids present in the tested feedstocks, and both the reaction rate and ester yield were dependent on the source of lipase and vegetable oil. The viscosity values for the samples obtained in each reaction displayed a consistent reduction in relation to their original feedstocks, which also confirms the high conversion of triglycerides to ethyl esters (99.8-74.0%. The best performances were obtained with Amano PS IM and Novozym® 435, with the biodiesel samples from the babassu and jatropha oils exhibiting viscosity values in accordance with those predicted by the technical standards of ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm²/s. Lipozyme TL IM displayed an unsatisfactory performance, indicating that the conditions of the transesterification reaction should be improved. This comparative study using different catalysts and several vegetable oil sources with varying fatty acid compositions is particularly important for all tropical countries with a diversity of native vegetable oil sources.

  9. Distribution and dynamics of a tropical waterfalls ecosystem

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    Offem B.O.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterfalls gives the impression of a lifeless zone because researchers have historically focused on the hydrology, ecotourism and geological features. Effective management will require an understanding of changes in species composition and distribution of macro-biota. Monthly samples were taken in wet and dry seasons, over two year period in three regions along the 6817.7 m length of the Agbokum waterfalls. Macro-biota exhibited distinct pattern in respect of seasonal and spatial changes. Trachelomonas volzii, the most abundant phytoplankton species reduced from 686 in the dry season to 143 in the wet, and from 455 downstream to 91, midstream (waterfalls region. Zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus decreased from 511 during dry season to 36 in the wet and from 334 downstream to 7, midstream. 71.7 percent of the total macro-invertebrates were recorded from downstream reaches while only 6.3 percent were contributed by midstream. Percentage cover of marginal vegetation by Bambusasp, Symphonia and Elaeis guineesis displayed progressive increase from upstream reaching a maximum of 38.5 mean percent cover in the relatively undisturbed downstream. In contrast, Raphia vinifera, Havea brasiliensis, Grewia sp. and Cocos nucifera shrank in size from 34% to 8% at the midstream stretches of the river while only nymphia- rich vegetation becomes more frequent in the middle reaches. The disturbance regimes of the midstream reaches of Agbokum waterfalls combined with its very low faunal and floral diversity has made the environment unstable therefore susceptible to the invasion of disturbance tolerant biota.

  10. Produção de cachos e parâmetros genéticos de híbridos de caiaué com dendezeiro

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    Ricardo Lopes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de cachos e estimar os parâmetros genéticos de progênies F1 de caiaué (Elaeis oleifera com dendezeiro (E. guineenses. As progênies foram plantadas em parcelas com número variável de plantas. Avaliaram-se número (NC, peso médio (PMC e peso total de cachos (PTC por planta, do sétimo ao décimo-terceiro ano após o plantio. Estes dados foram analisados por REML/BLUP em 59 progênies, com delineamento desbalanceado em linha e coluna. Todos os caracteres apresentaram considerável variabilidade, com coeficientes de variação genética entre 18,1 e 25,5%, quanto à progênie, e de 25,6 a 36,0% quanto a indivíduo. Pela seleção das cinco melhores progênies, podem ser obtidos ganhos superiores a 30%, para NC e PTC, e acima de 20% para PMC; e, com a seleção dos cinco melhores indivíduos, ganhos acima de 65%, para NC e PTC, e acima de 60% para PMC. As progênies apresentam alta variabilidade genética quanto à produção de cachos. Ganhos genéticos elevados podem ser obtidos pela seleção tanto de indivíduos para clonagem quanto de progênies para reprodução sexuada.

  11. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  12. Structure spatiale des trois espèces les plus abondantes dans la Réserve Forestière de la Yoko, Ubundu, République Démocratique du Congo

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    Kumba, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Pattern of the Three Most Abundant Species in the Yoko Forest Reserve, Ubundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The spatial pattern of species is one of the key parameters studied in ecology for the understanding of the ecological processes and functioning of forest ecosystems. This study analyzes the spatial pattern of three plant species at a local scale: Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (De Wild J. Léonard, Scorodophloeus zenkeri Harms and Uapaca guineensis Müll. Arg., for which a forest inventory in the Yoko Forest Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo showed that they were characterized by a high abundance. The methods of Clark and Evans and of Hines and Hines, based on the distances between nearest neighbors, were used. The analysis was carried out in two plots of different sizes: 6.25 and 25 ha. The method of Clark and Evans showed a random distribution for the 6.25 ha plot and an aggregated distribution at 25 ha, and this for all three species. The T-Square Sampling Procedure associated with the statistical test of Hines and Hines revealed an aggregated distribution for the two plot sizes and for all three species. It appears from this study that the aggregated distribution is the main spatial pattern observed for the most abundant species of the Yoko Forest Reserve. Environmental conditions combined with the seed dispersal mode characterized by weak distances could explain this aggregated distribution. The method of Clark and Evans proved to be sensitive to the effect of the extent of the plot. Indeed, the random distribution observed for a 6.25 ha plot has changed to an aggregated distribution after the extent was increased to 25 ha. Because less sensible to the plot size, the T-Square Sampling Procedure appears more suitable for spatial pattern analysis of species in this forest.

  13. Comparative morphology of spermatozoa and reproductive systems of zorapteran species from different world regions (Insecta, Zoraptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Mashimo, Yuta; Matsumura, Yoko; Rafael, José Albertino; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2014-07-01

    The male and female reproductive apparatus of Zorotypus magnicaudelli (Malaysia), Zorotypus huxleyi (Ecuador) and Zorotypus weidneri (Brazil) were examined and documented in detail. The genital apparatus and sperm of the three species show only minor differences. The testes are larger in Z. magnicaudelli. Z. huxleyi lacks the helical appendage in the accessory glands. A long cuticular flagellum is present in Z. magnicaudelli and in the previously studied Zorotypus caudelli like in several other species, whereas it is absent in Z. weidneri, Z. huxleyi, Zorotypus hubbardi, Zorotypus impolitus and Zorotypus guineensis. Characteristic features of the very similar sperm are the presence of: a) two dense arches above the axoneme; b) a 9 + 9+2 axoneme with detached subtubules A and B of doublets 1 and 6; c) the axonemal end degenerating with enlarging accessory tubules; d) accessory tubules with 17 protofilaments; e) three accessory bodies beneath the axoneme; and f) two mitochondrial derivatives of equal shape. The first characteristic (a) is unknown outside of Zoraptera and possibly autapomorphic. The sperm structure differs distinctly in Z. impolitus and Z. hubbardi, which produce giant sperm and possess a huge spermatheca. The presence of the same sperm type in species either provided with a sclerotized coiled flagellum in males or lacking this structure indicates that a different organization of the genital apparatus does not necessarily affect the sperm structure. The flagellum and its pouch has probably evolved within Zoraptera, but it cannot be excluded that it is a groundplan feature and was reduced several times. The fossil evidence and our findings suggest that distinct modifications in the genital apparatus occurred before the fragmentation of the Gondwanan landmass in the middle Cretaceous.

  14. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

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    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  15. Out of Africa: Phylogeny and biogeography of the widespread genus Acanthodactylus (Reptilia: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Carranza, Salvador; Sindaco, Roberto; Moravec, Jiří; Trape, Jean-François; Meiri, Shai

    2016-10-01

    Acanthodactylus lizards are among the most diverse and widespread diurnal reptiles in the arid regions spanning from North Africa across to western India. Acanthodactylus constitutes the most species-rich genus in the family Lacertidae, with over 40 recognized species inhabiting a wide variety of dry habitats. The genus has seldom undergone taxonomic revisions, and although there are a number of described species and species-groups, their boundaries, as well as their interspecific relationships, remain largely unresolved. We constructed a multilocus phylogeny, combining data from two mitochondrial (12S, cytb) and three nuclear (MC1R, ACM4, c-mos) markers for 302 individuals belonging to 36 known species, providing the first large-scale time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus. We evaluated phylogenetic relationships between and within species-groups, and assessed Acanthodactylus biogeography across its known range. Acanthodactylus cladogenesis is estimated to have originated in Africa due to vicariance and dispersal events from the Oligocene onwards. Radiation started with the separation into three clades: the Western and scutellatus clades largely distributed in North Africa, and the Eastern clade occurring mostly in south-west Asia. Most Acanthodactylus species diverged during the Miocene, possibly as a result of regional geological instability and climatic changes. We support most of the current taxonomic classifications and phylogenetic relationships, and provide genetic validity for most species. We reveal a new distinct blanfordii species-group, suggest new phylogenetic positions (A. hardyi, A. masirae), and synonymize several species and subspecies (A. lineomaculatus, A. boskianus khattensis and A. b. nigeriensis) with their phylogenetically closely-related species. We recommend a thorough systematic revision of taxa, such as A. guineensis, A. grandis, A. dumerilii, A. senegalensis and the pardalis and erythrurus species-groups, which exhibit high

  16. Effects of salinity on fish assemblage structure: An evaluation based on taxonomic and functional approaches in the Casamance estuary (Senegal, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantoussan, Justin; Ecoutin, Jean Marc; Simier, Monique; Tito de Morais, Luis; Laë, Raymond

    2012-11-01

    The utility of taxonomic and functional approaches in assessing the structure of fish communities is tested in the hypersaline estuary of the Casamance river using data from surveys of commercial fisheries conducted between April and July of 2005. Both taxonomic and functional diversity decrease from downstream to upstream regions of the estuary. In terms of species composition, marine-estuarine species (33.3-46.3%, depending on the site) and estuarine species of marine origin (29.3-41.7%) dominate the exploited population in the Casamance estuary. In contrast, the proportion of strictly estuarine species observed upstream is twice that observed downstream. Quantitative analysis based on biomass landed distinguishes two groups in the population: (1) a group of species that is dominant downstream, containing primarily terminal predators and secondary consumers categorised as marine species that are occasional or accessory in estuaries, estuarine marine species, and estuarine species of marine origin; and (2) a group of species characteristic of the upstream region, dominated by a few species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis, and Mugil cephalus) mainly of strictly estuarine and/or herbivorous categories and Elops lacerta, a carnivore fish. The outcomes of the two approaches are similar, and both indicate that the fish community in this estuary is under the influence of strong environmental disturbance. However, the scales at which the specific and functional approaches most reliably reflect environmental conditions are different. The taxonomic approach, i.e., the use of specific biomass is more appropriate at the ecosystem scale and therefore more accessible to local human communities, whereas the functional approach is better suited to regional and sub-regional studies because of the change in species composition from one environment to another.

  17. Impact of salinity on early life history traits of three estuarine fish species in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Maylis; Morize, Eric; Scolan, Pierre; Lae, Raymond; Dabas, Eric; Bohn, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    The adaptive mechanisms on the early life stages of fishes to hypersaline stress are still poorly understood and probably determine the resistance of a population to disruption, compared with other less plastic species. The Casamance River in Senegal is an ideal location to test the adaptation to salinity as a dam was built in 1998 to exclude saline water intrusion. This lowered the salinity from 70 to 5 upstream and 60 downstream. The salinity influence on the growth in the early life of three West African fish species ( Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Tilapia guineensis) was studied using the width of microstructures in the otoliths and the individual migratory behaviour analysed from strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in the otoliths. The Sr:Ca ratio was quantified along individual transects measured from the posterior edge of the otolith to the core. The fishes were sampled on both sides of the dam that separated water with low salinity upstream from metahaline and hyperhaline water downstream. The results showed that salinity has different influence on the growth of each species. Ethmalosa fimbriata has the highest growth during the first 180 days in the freshwaters, indicating growth inhibition in the hyperhaline areas. For the two other species no growth difference were found. The Sr/Ca ratio varied widely, in Tilapia and Sarotherodon from below the dam. Individual life histories were more heterogeneous than upstream and showed a crossing of the dam for some individuals which could reach half of the fishes analysed. On the contrary in E. fimbriata, despite the large range of salinity, identical Sr/Ca profiles were found both upstream and downstream. This indicated that Sr/Ca ratio was not appropriate to evaluate life history patterns linked to salinity for this specie.

  18. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  19. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    extract. Thus it can be concluded that sunflower hull is a potential source of nutraceuticals.

    Este trabajo fue planificado con el objetivo de agregar valor a un producto de desecho de la industria aceitera, como es la cáscara de girasol, mediante la preparación de un extracto fenólico rico en ácido clorogénico (CGA. Para cumplir con este objetivo, se investigó la optimización de la extracción del concentrado fenólico de las cáscaras. Los parámetros estudiados fueron: tipo de disolvente, relación disolvente: agua y la relación cáscara:disolvente. Además, también se ha estudiado el uso de diferentes mezclas de disolventes. Los extractos fenólicos resultantes fueron evaluados por sus actividades biológicas. Esto incluye la determinación del contenido fenólico, la evaluación de las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana. El ácido clorogénico se determinó en dos extractos de cáscara mediante espectrofotometría UV y análisis mediante HPLC. La actividad anticarcinogénica de los dos extractos elegidos fue probada en siete líneas diferentes de células carcinogénicas. Los resultados revelaron que todos los extractos fenólicos de cáscaras de girasol contienen entre 190-312.5 mg de fenoles/ 100 g cáscaras. La mayor extracción fenólica se logró con el 80% de metanol (relación 1:30, cascara:disolvente, w/v y metanol:etanol:agua (7:7:6 v/v/v, con valores de 312,5 y 306.5mg fenólicos/100 g cáscaras, respectivamente. La actividad captadora de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante de todas las muestras variaron entre 33,6-72,6%. Las mayores actividades antioxidante y captadora de radicales libres fueron alcanzados por los mismos extractos que poseen mayores contenidos de fenoles, a saber: extractos de metanol:etanol:agua y 80% de metanol con valores de 71,8 y 72,6%, 68,2 y 70,9% respectivamente, en comparación con el 77,9 y el 76,9%, respectivamente para TBHQ. Todos los extractos fenólicos poseen actividad antimicrobiana, pero a

  20. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Chalcone Isomerase Gene from Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis%中国水仙查尔酮异构酶基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雪玲; 陈晓静; 叶一江; 何玮毅; 申艳红

    2011-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase(CHI)is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids and plays an important role in the process of flower color development. Three genes, named NtCHIW, NtCHIJ and NtCHIY respectively, were cloned from Narcissus tazetta var. Chinensis petal by RT-PCR and RACE. The open reading frame encompassed 735 bp encoding a polypeptide of 244 amino acids. Sequencing analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of Baihua Narcissus was 93.03%, 93.44%, 64.75%, 55.42%, 50.58%, 59.43%, and 58.20% homologous with CHI genes from Jinzhanyintai Narcissus, Huanghua Narcissus, Allium cepa, Elaeis oleifera, Vitis labrusca, Oryza saliva Japonica, Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The result of real time RT-PCR showed that the transcription expression of CHI gene changed accordingly during flower blooming, indicating the possible role of CHI genes in the change of flower color.%查尔酮异构酶(CHI)是影响类黄酮合成的一个重要限速酶,在植物花色发育过程中起着重要作用.通过RT-PCR和RACE技术从中国水仙的花瓣中克隆得到3条CHI基因,分别命名为NtCHIW、NtCHIJ和NtCHIY.3个基因均含有一个735 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码244个氨基酸.氨基酸序列分析表明:白花水仙与金盏银台、黄花水仙、洋葱、粳稻、拟南芥、油棕榈、葡萄相应基因的氨基酸序列同源性分别为93.03%、93.44%、64.75%、55.42%、50.58%、59.43%、58.20%.荧光定量PCR分析表明:随着花开放的过程,中国水仙的CHI基因转录水平发生变化,说明CHI基因可能参与花色变化的过程.

  1. ACC oxidase and miRNA 159a, and their involvement in fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) via sex ratio determination in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Sunner, Supreet Kaur; Wanlayaporn, Kitti; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tragoonrung, Somvong

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) is the most productive oil-bearing crop, yielding more oil per area than any other oil-bearing crops. However, there are still efforts to improve oil palm yield, in order to serve consumer and manufacturer demand. Oil palm produces female and male inflorescences in an alternating cycle. So, high sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to the total inflorescences, is a favorable trait in term of increasing yields in oil palm. This study aims to understand the genetic control for SR related traits, such as fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB), by characterizing genes at FFB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage 10 (chromosome 6) and linkage 15 (chromosome 10). Published oil palm sequences at the FFB QTLs were used to develop gene-based and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We used the multiple QTL analysis model (MQM) to characterize the relationship of new markers with the SR traits in the oil palm population. The RNA expression of the most linked QTL genes was also evaluated in various tissues of oil palm. We identified EgACCO1 (encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) oxidase) at chromosome 10 and EgmiR159a (microRNA 159a) at chromosome 6 to be the most linked QTL genes or determinants for FFB yield and/or female inflorescence number with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) from 10.4 to 15 % and suggest that these play the important roles in sex determination and differentiation in oil palm. The strongest expression of EgACCO1 and the predicted precursor of EgmiR159a was found in ovaries and, to a lesser extent, fruit development. In addition, highly normalized expression of EgmiR159a was found in female flowers. In summary, the QTL analysis and the RNA expression reveal that EgACCO1 and EgmiR159a are the potential genetic factors involved in female flower determination and hence would affect yield in oil palm. However, to clarify how these genetic factors regulate female flower determination, more investigation

  2. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    -emitting species in the genera Bambusa, Elaeis, Eucalyptus, Hevea, Pinus, and Populus (among others). This could result in profound changes in atmospheric chemistry in these regions, for instance, terpene emissions from H. brasiliensis could increase wet season biogenic organic aerosol burdens by approximately a factor of 2 in the Xishuangbanna region. Increases in plantation area established with high isoprene emitting species, (e.g. Bambusa spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) are also projected for China and other parts of Southeast Asia in the near future. Thus, landcover change in South Asian landscapes is usually associated with large increases in BVOC flux with the potential to alter the atmospheric chemical composition and air quality over this rapidly developing region.

  3. 油棕象甲室内生物学特性及形态观察%Biological and morphological observations on Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建军; 严珍; 陈泽坦; 林位夫; 黄贵修

    2014-01-01

    在室内对油棕象甲Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust生物学特性及其形态进行系统观察.在温度为24-28℃,RH 75%-95%,光照12 h的条件下用油棕Elaeis guineensis雄花饲养油棕象甲各虫态,每4h观察记录各虫态的形态学特征及其发育情况,测量各虫态体长、体宽、体重等重要发育指标.结果表明油棕象甲卵的发育历期平均为16.00±0.71 h,整个幼虫期的历期平均为2.63±0.05 d,预蛹和蛹的平均发育历期分别为3.21±0.37 d和2.21±0.41 d,油棕象甲完成一个世代平均需要13.67±0.75 d.1龄幼虫体长1.70±0.08 mm,体重0.0006±0.0001 g,之后随龄期迅速增加,至3龄时,体长为2.88±0.06 mm,体重增加到0.0021±0.0001 g.蛹期体长为2.17-3.05 mm,蛹重0.0015-0.0028 g.油棕象甲成虫具有雌雄二型现象,子代性比(雌∶雄)为1.65∶1.油棕象甲是油棕最高效、最安全的授粉昆虫,其基础生物学和形态学研究是该虫室内扩繁技术研究的基础,本研究结果旨在为油棕象甲的保护利用提供理论依据.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and biotransformation responses in relation to condition factor and contaminant burden in tilapia species from Ogun River, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Regoli, Francesco; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    A major development in fishery science has been the Fulton's condition factor (CF) as a reliable physiological index of fish growth and health status (Fulton 1902). As a general rule, CF-value greater than 1 (>1) should be regarded as an indicator for good growth and health. Therefore, exposure of fish to contaminants in the environment will be expected to produce a reduction in scope for growth, since energy for growth will be allocated to overcome stressful conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that tilapia species from Ogun River (Nigeria) are experiencing severe contaminant-induced obesogen effects leading to high CF (≥ 2) in fish with pathological alterations. The environmental obesogen hypothesis has related the interaction between environmental pollutants and PPAR isoform activation In this respect, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and biotransformation responses in relation to contaminant burden were investigated in a total of 1074 specimens of Tilapias species (Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon galileaus and Oreochromis niloticus) collected from three areas with different degrees of anthropogenic contamination and from a putative control site along the Ogun River. Liver mRNA expression of cytochrome cyp1 isoforms (cyp1a, 1b and 1c) and PPAR isoforms (ppar-α, β and γ) were analyzed using validated real-time PCR. Fish were also analyzed for CF and muscle contaminant burden (aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls). A significant increase in mRNA expression of cyp1- and ppar isoforms was observed in fish from polluted areas, and these results paralleled data on PCBs and PAHs tissue concentrations. Further, cyp1 isoforms showed clear sex-related differences, with higher mRNA expression in male fish than in females. Principal component analysis revealed a relationship between cyp1 isoforms, ppar-α, β, PCBs and PAHs and these interactions may suggest a crosstalk

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea: its relation to sanitary conditions and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio

    2012-08-15

    , Schistosoma intercalatum/guineensis has been detected for the first time as an autochthonous parasite on the island.

  6. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. METHODOLOGY: Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72% and S. guineensis (0.14%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%. The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%, Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90% and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%, with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85% across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75% in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17% and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51% regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  7. Systematics of Old World Odontacolus Kieffer s.l. (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.: parasitoids of spider eggs

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    Alejandro Valerio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Odontacolus Kieffer and Cyphacolus Priesner are among the most distinctive platygastroid wasps because of their laterally compressed metasomal horn; however, their generic status has remained unclear. We present a morphological phylogenetic analysis comprising all 38 Old World and four Neotropical Odontacolus species and 13 Cyphacolus species, which demonstrates that the latter is monophyletic but nested within a somewhat poorly resolved Odontacolus. Based on these results Cyphacolus syn. n. is placed as a junior synonym of Odontacolus which is here redefined. The taxonomy of Old World Odontacolus s.str. is revised; the previously known species O. longiceps Kieffer (Seychelles, O. markadicus Veenakumari (India, O. spinosus (Dodd (Australia and O. hackeri (Dodd (Australia are re-described, and 32 new species are described: O. africanus Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe, O. aldrovandii Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Nepal, O. anningae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Cameroon, O. australiensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, O. baeri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, O. berryae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, O. bosei Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, O. cardaleae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, O. darwini Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand, O. dayi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Indonesia, O. gallowayi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, O. gentingensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Malaysia, O. guineensis Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Guinea, O. harveyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, O. heratyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji, O. heydoni Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Malaysia, Thailand, O. irwini Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji, O. jacksonae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Cameroon, Guinea, Madagascar, O. kiau Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Papua New Guinea, O. lamarcki Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand, O. madagascarensis Valerio & Austin sp. n