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  1. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

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    Katalin Úri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.

  2. The transcription factor HNF1α induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in pancreatic islets from evolutionarily conserved promoter motifs.

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    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Nguyen, Van K; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has previously been shown to be critical for maintaining glycemia and β-cell function. Efforts to maintain or increase ACE2 expression in pancreatic β-cells might therefore have therapeutic potential for treating diabetes. In our study, we investigated the transcriptional role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) in induction of ACE2 expression in insulin-secreting cells. A deficient allele of HNF1α or HNF1β causes maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 3 and 5, respectively, in humans. We found that ACE2 is primarily transcribed from the proximal part of the ACE2 promoter in the pancreas. In the proximal part of the human ACE2 promoter, we further identified three functional HNF1 binding sites, as they have binding affinity for HNF1α and HNF1β and are required for induction of promoter activity by HNF1β in insulinoma cells. These three sites are well-conserved among mammalian species. Both HNF1α and HNF1β induce expression of ACE2 mRNA and lead to elevated levels of ACE2 protein and ACE2 enzymatic activity in insulinoma cells. Furthermore, HNF1α dose-dependently increases ACE2 expression in primary pancreatic islet cells. We conclude that HNF1α can induce the expression of ACE2 in pancreatic islet cells via evolutionarily conserved HNF1 binding sites in the ACE2 promoter. Potential therapeutics aimed at counteracting functional HNF1α depletion in diabetes and MODY3 will thus have ACE2 induction in pancreatic islets as a likely beneficial effect. © 2013.

  3. ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions

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    Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Kuan, Tang-Ching; Cheng, Kun-Shan; Liao, Yan-Chiou; Chen, Mu-Yuan; Lin, Pei-Heng; Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Huang, Chen-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Hua; Yu, Sheng-Yao; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates. Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28). Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions. Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy. PMID:23091417

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

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    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  5. Short-term treatment with diminazene aceturate ameliorates the reduction in kidney ACE2 activity in rats with subtotal nephrectomy.

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    Elena Velkoska

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2 is an important modulator of the renin angiotensin system (RAS through its role to degrade angiotensin (Ang II. Depletion of kidney ACE2 occurs following kidney injury due to renal mass reduction and may contribute to progressive kidney disease. This study assessed the effect of diminazine aceturate (DIZE, which has been described as an ACE2 activator, on kidney ACE2 mRNA and activity in rats with kidney injury due to subtotal nephrectomy (STNx. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into Control groups or underwent STNx; rats then received vehicle or the DIZE (s.c. 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. STNx led to hypertension (P<0.01, kidney hypertrophy (P<0.001 and impaired kidney function (P<0.001 compared to Control rats. STNx was associated with increased kidney cortical ACE activity, and reduced ACE2 mRNA in the cortex (P<0.01, with reduced cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05, and increased urinary ACE2 excretion (P<0.05 compared to Control rats. Urinary ACE2 activity correlated positively with urinary protein excretion (P<0.001, and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.04. In STNx rats, DIZE had no effect on blood pressure or kidney function, but was associated with reduced cortical ACE activity (P<0.01, increased cortical ACE2 mRNA (P<0.05 and increased cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05. The precise in vivo mechanism of action of DIZE is not clear, and its effects to increase ACE2 activity may be secondary to an increase in ACE2 mRNA abundance. In ex vivo studies, DIZE did not increase ACE2 activity in either Control or STNx kidney cortical membranes. It is not yet known if chronic administration of DIZE has long-term benefits to slow the progression of kidney disease.

  6. Downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing store-operated calcium entry.

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    Yu, Changhui; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yuhao; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Cai, Chunqing; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important component of the tumor microenvironment and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, migration and invasion. Meanwhile, the arm of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2/angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas axis in connection with RAS is associated with anti-proliferative, vasodilatory and anti-metastatic properties. Previous studies have shown that Ang-(1-7) reduces the proliferation of orthotopic human breast tumor growth by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, the role of ACE/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the metastasis of breast cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we found that ACE2 protein level is negatively correlated with the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells and breast tumor grade. Upregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activation inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways, and induces E-cadherin expression. In summary, our results demonstrate that downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates breast cancer metastasis through the activation of SOCE and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways. These results provide new mechanisms by which breast cancer develop metastasis and shed light on developing novel anti-metastasis therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer by modulating ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac ACE2/angiotensin 1-7/Mas receptor axis is activated in thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Diniz, Gabriela P; Senger, Nathalia; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela S; Santos, Robson A S; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) promotes marked effects on the cardiovascular system, including the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Some studies have demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key mediator of the cardiac growth in response to elevated TH levels. Although some of the main RAS components are changed in cardiac tissue on hyperthyroid state, the potential modulation of the counter regulatory components of the RAS, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) levels and Mas receptor induced by hyperthyroidism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac Ang 1-7, ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. Hyperthyroidism was induced in Wistar rats by daily intraperitoneal injections of T4 for 14 days. Although plasma Ang 1-7 levels were unchanged by hyperthyroidism, cardiac Ang 1-7 levels were increased in TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy. ACE2 enzymatic activity was significantly increased in hearts from hyperthyroid animals, which may be contributing to the higher Ang 1-7 levels observed in the T4 group. Furthermore, elevated cardiac levels of Ang 1-7 levels were accompanied by increased Mas receptor protein levels. The counter-regulatory components of the RAS are activated in hyperthyroidism and may be contributing to modulate the cardiac hypertrophy in response to TH. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. ACE2 activation by xanthenone prevents leptin-induced increases in blood pressure and proteinuria during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Ibrahim, Hisham Saleh; Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah; Omar, Effat; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of ACE2 activation on leptin-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, endothelial activation and ACE2 expression during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were given subcutaneous injection of either saline, or leptin, or leptin plus xanthenone (ACE2 activator), or xanthenone (XTN) alone. SBP, serum ACE, ACE2, endothelin-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were estimated; also their gene expressions were determined in the kidney and aorta respectively. Compared to control, SBP was higher in the leptin-only treated group (Pleptin-only treated rats (Pleptin-only treated rats when compared to controls (Pleptin administration during pregnancy significantly increases SBP, proteinuria, endothelial activation, but decreases ACE2 level and expression. These effects are prevented by concurrent administration of xanthenone.

  9. Captopril improves postresuscitation hemodynamics protective against pulmonary embolism by activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

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    Xiao, Hong-Li; Li, Chun-Sheng; Zhao, Lian-Xing; Yang, Jun; Tong, Nan; An, Le; Liu, Qi-Tong

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a very high mortality rate, especially at cardiac arrest and even after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). This study investigated the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril on postresuscitation hemodynamics, in a porcine model of cardiac arrest established by APE. Twenty-nine Beijing Landrace pigs were infused with an autologous thrombus leading to cardiac arrest and subjected to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolysis. Ten resuscitated pigs were randomly and equally apportioned to receive either captopril (22.22 mg/kg) infusion or the same volume saline, 30 min after ROSC. Hemodynamic changes and ACE-Ang II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis levels were determined. APE was associated with a decline in mean arterial pressure and a dramatic increase in pulmonary artery pressure and mean right ventricular pressure. After ROSC, captopril infusion was associated with significantly lower mean right ventricular pressure and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, faster heart rate, and higher Ang-(1-7) levels, ACE2/ACE, and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II, compared with the saline infusion. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway correlated negatively with external vascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability and positively with the right cardiac index. In conclusion, in a pig model of APE leading to cardiac arrest, captopril infusion was associated with less mean right ventricular pressure overload after resuscitation, compared with saline infusion. The reduction in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance associated with captopril may be by inhibiting the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

  10. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

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    Deshotels, Matthew R.; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significan...

  11. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

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    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  12. Angiotensin (1-7) ameliorates the structural and biochemical alterations of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via activation of ACE-2/Mas receptor axis.

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    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-05-23

    The local and systemic renin angiotensin system (RAS) influences the skeletal system micro-structure and metabolism. Studies suggested angiotensin 1-7 (Ang(1-7)) as the beneficial RAS molecule via Mas receptor activation. This study examines the function of Ang(1-7) in bone micro-architecture and metabolism in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model of osteoporosis. OVX rats showed structural and bone metabolic degeneration in parallel with suppressed expressions of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/Ang(1-7)/Mas components. The infusion of Ang(1-7) markedly alleviated the altered bone metabolism and significantly enhanced both trabecular (metaphyseal) and cortical (metaphyseal-diaphyseal) morphometry. Urinary and bones minerals were also improved in OVX rats by Ang(1-7). The infusion of the heptapeptide enhanced ACE-2/Mas receptor expressions, while down-regulated AngII, ACE, and AngII type-1 receptor (AT1R) in OVX animals. Moreover, Ang(1-7) markedly improved osteoprotegerin (OPG) and lowered receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expressions. The defensive properties of Ang(1-7) on bone metabolism, structure and minerals were considerably eradicated after blockage of Mas receptor with A-779. Ang(1-7)-induced up-regulated ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/Mas cascade and OPG expressions were abolished and the expressions of ACE/AngII/AT1R and RANKL were provoked by A-779. These findings shows for the first time the novel valuable therapeutic role of Ang(1-7) on bone health and metabolism through the ACE-2/Mas cascade.

  13. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice.

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    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10(-9) M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease.

  14. [Pyr1]Apelin-13(1–12) Is a Biologically Active ACE2 Metabolite of the Endogenous Cardiovascular Peptide [Pyr1]Apelin-13

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    Yang, Peiran; Kuc, Rhoda E.; Brame, Aimée L.; Dyson, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Glen, Robert C.; Cheriyan, Joseph; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Davenport, Anthony P.; Maguire, Janet J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr1]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) identified by mass spectrometry. Endogenous [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) was detected by immunostaining in human heart and lung localized to the endothelium. Expression was undetectable in lung from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In human heart [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) (pKi = 8.04 ± 0.06) and apelin-13(F13A) (pKi = 8.07 ± 0.24) competed with [125I]apelin-13 binding with nanomolar affinity, 4-fold lower than for [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pKi = 8.83 ± 0.06) whereas apelin-17 exhibited highest affinity (pKi = 9.63 ± 0.17). The rank order of potency of peptides to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.31 ± 0.28) > [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 9.67 ± 0.04) ≥ apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 9.54 ± 0.05) > [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) (pD2 = 9.30 ± 0.06). The truncated peptide apelin-13(R10M) retained nanomolar potency (pD2 = 8.70 ± 0.04) but shorter fragments exhibited low micromolar potency. In a β-arrestin recruitment assay the rank order of potency was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.26 ± 0.09) >> [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 8.43 ± 0.08) > apelin-13(R10M) (pD2 = 8.26 ± 0.17) > apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 7.98 ± 0.04) ≥ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) (pD2 = 7.84 ± 0.06) >> shorter fragments (pD2 < 6). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) and apelin-13(F13A) contracted human saphenous vein with similar sub-nanomolar potencies and [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) was a potent inotrope in paced mouse right ventricle and human atria. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in blood

  15. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

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    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  16. Protective role of ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas in myocardial fibrosis by downregulating KCa3.1 channel via ERK1/2 pathway.

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    Wang, Li-Ping; Fan, Su-Jing; Li, Shu-Min; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jun-Ling; Yang, Xiu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa3.1) channel plays a vital role in myocardial fibrosis induced by angiotensin (Ang) II. However, as the antagonists of Ang II, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis on KCa3.1 channel during myocardial fibrosis remains unknown. This study was designed to explore the function of KCa3.1 channel in the cardioprotective role of ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas. Wild-type (WT) mice, hACE2 transgenic mice (Tg), and ACE2 deficiency mice (ACE2(-/-)) were administrated with Ang II by osmotic mini-pumps. As the activator of ACE2, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) inhibited increase of blood pressure, collagen deposition, and KCa3.1 protein expression in myocardium of WT mice induced by Ang II. In Tg and ACE2(-/-) mice, besides the elevation of blood pressure, Ang II induced transformation of cardiac fibroblast into myofibroblast and resulted in augmentation of hydroxyproline concentration and collagen deposition, as well as KCa3.1 protein expression, but the changes in ACE2(-/-) mice were more obvious than those in Tg mice. Mas antagonist A779 reduced blood pressure, myocardium fibrosis, and myocardium KCa3.1 protein expression by Ang II in Tg mice, but activation of KCa3.1 with SKA-31 in Tg mice promoted the pro-fibrogenic effects of Ang II. Respectively, in ACE2(-/-) mice, TRAM-34, the KCa3.1 blocker, and Ang-(1-7) inhibited increase of blood pressure, collagen deposition, and KCa3.1 protein expression by Ang II. Moreover, DIZE and Ang-(1-7) depressed p-ERK1/2/t-ERK increases by Ang II in WT mice, and after blockage of ERK1/2 pathway with PD98059, the KCa3.1 protein expression was reduced in WT mice. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas protects the myocardium from hypertension-induced injury, which is related to its inhibiting effect on KCa3.1 channels through ERK1/2 pathway. Our results reveal that KCa3.1 channel is likely to be a critical target on the ACE2-Ang

  17. ACE2,diabetes mellitns and its complications%ACE2与糖尿病及其并发症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜乐; 刘志民

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a novel discovered mono-carboxypeptidase and the first homolog of ACE.It inhibits Ang Ⅱ signaling cascades mostly by cleaving Ang Ⅱ to generate Ang(1-7),which is mediated by the Mas receptor.The combined reduction in cell apoptosis and increment in islet blood flow caused by ACE2 could increase insulin secretion and preserve the islet function in diabetes.Besides,it is believed that ACE2 acts in a counter-regulatory manner to ACE in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications.The discovery of ACE2,its activator and antagonist may have considerable clinical value in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.%血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)2是近年来新发现的一种单羧肽酶,是已知的第一个ACE同系物.ACE2催化血管紧张素(Ang)Ⅱ生成Ang(1-7),后者与Mas受体结合,从而启动对AngⅡ信号级联反应的抑制作用.ACE2能够通过增加胰岛血流灌注、抑制细胞凋亡,促进胰岛素分泌,有效延缓糖尿病患者胰岛素功能衰退的发展.此外,在糖尿病微血管和大血管病变的病理生理过程中,ACE2发挥抗ACE效应,调控心脏、视网膜和肾脏的缩、扩血管的平衡.ACE2及其激活剂、拮抗剂,可能在糖尿病及其并发症的防治领域具有极其广阔的临床应用前景.

  18. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can inhibit hepatic insulin resistance.

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    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rong-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-08-05

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can reduce the risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has recently been proposed to function as a negative regulator of the RAS. In previous studies, we first demonstrated that ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/)(y)) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However the precise roles of ACE2 on glucose metabolism are unknown. Here we show that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis increases glucose uptake and decreases glycogen synthesis in the liver accompanied by increased expression of glucose transporters, insulin receptor substrates and decreased expression of enzymes for glycogen synthesis. ACE2 knockout mice displayed elevated levels of oxidative stress and exposure to Ang-(1-7) reduced the stress in hepatic cells. As a consequence of anti-oxidative stress, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis led to improved hepatic insulin resistance through the Akt/PI3K/IRS-1/JNK insulin signaling pathway. This is the first time documented that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. As insulin resistance in the liver is considered to be the primary cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, this axis may serve as a new diabetes target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Riquelme

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  20. Deficiency of ACE2 in Bone-Marrow-Derived Cells Increases Expression of TNF-α in Adipose Stromal Cells and Augments Glucose Intolerance in Obese C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E. Thatcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of ACE2 in macrophages has been suggested to promote the development of an inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype. We evaluated effects of ACE2 deficiency in bone-marrow-derived stem cells on adipose inflammation and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat (HF diet. ACE2 activity was increased in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF isolated from visceral, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue of HF-fed mice. Deficiency of ACE2 in bone marrow cells significantly increased mRNA abundance of F4/80 and TNF-α in the SVF isolated from visceral adipose tissue of HF-fed chimeric mice, supporting increased presence of inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. Moreover, deficiency of ACE2 in bone marrow cells modestly augmented glucose intolerance in HF-fed chimeric mice and increased blood levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. In summary, ACE2 deficiency in bone marrow cells promotes inflammation in adipose tissue and augments obesity-induced glucose intolerance.

  1. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Efg1 directly regulates ACE2 expression to mediate cross talk between the cAMP/PKA and RAM pathways during Candida albicans morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputo, Sarah; Kumar, Anuj; Krysan, Damian J

    2014-09-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and regulation of Ace2 and morphogenesis (RAM) pathways are important regulators of the yeast-to-hypha transition in Candida albicans that interact genetically during this process. To further understand this interaction, we have characterized the expression of ACE2 during morphogenesis. In normoxic, planktonic conditions, ACE2 expression is very low in stationary-phase cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Upon shifting to Spider medium, ACE2/Ace2p levels increase. Although Ace2 is not absolutely required for hypha formation, ace2Δ/Δ mutants show delayed hypha formation in Spider medium (but not others) and morphological changes to the hyphal tip and lateral yeast. We also show that Efg1 directly binds the promoter of Ace2 in stationary phase, and ACE2 levels are increased in strains lacking Efg1 and the protein kinase A proteins Tpk1 and Tpk2, indicating that the PKA pathway directly regulates ACE2 expression. ACE2 expression is positively regulated by Tec1 and Brg1, which bind the promoters of ACE2 in hyphal cells but not in the yeast phase. Under embedded conditions, Efg1 is dispensable for filamentation and Ace2 is required. We have found that ACE2 expression is much higher in embedded cells than in planktonic cells, providing a potential rationale for this observation. Taken together, our observations indicate that the PKA pathway directly regulates the RAM pathway under specific conditions and are consistent with a model where the two pathways carry out similar functions that depend on the specific environmental context.

  3. Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Simone M R; Singer, Dustin; Makrides, Victoria; Huggel, Katja; Pos, Klaas M; Wagner, Carsten A; Kuba, Keiji; Danilczyk, Ursula; Skovby, Flemming; Kleta, Robert; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2009-03-01

    Hartnup amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) is the major luminal sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter of small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. The expression of B(0)AT1 in kidney was recently shown to depend on its association with collectrin (Tmem27), a protein homologous to the membrane-anchoring domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2. Because collectrin is almost absent from small intestine, we tested the hypothesis that it is ACE2 that interacts with B(0)AT1 in enterocytes. Furthermore, because B(0)AT1 expression depends on an associated protein, we tested the hypothesis that Hartnup-causing B(0)AT1 mutations differentially impact on B(0)AT1 interaction with intestinal and kidney accessory proteins. Immunofluorescence, coimmunoprecipitation, and functional experiments using wild-type and ace2-null mice showed that expression of B(0)AT1 in small intestine critically depends on ACE2. Coexpressing new and previously identified Hartnup disorder-causing missense mutations of B(0)AT1 with either collectrin or ACE2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that the high-frequency D173N and the newly identified P265L mutant B(0)AT1 transporters can still be activated by ACE2 but not collectrin coexpression. In contrast, the human A69T and R240Q B(0)AT1 mutants cannot be activated by either of the associated proteins, although they function as wild-type B(0)AT1 when expressed alone. We thus show that ACE2 is necessary for the expression of the Hartnup transporter in intestine and suggest that the differential functional association of mutant B(0)AT1 transporters with ACE2 and collectrin in intestine and kidney, respectively, participates in the phenotypic heterogeneity of human Hartnup disorder.

  4. The role of ACE2 in cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Crackower, Michael A; Backx, Peter H; Penninger, Josef M

    2003-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in cardiovascular and renal function and in disease conditions, and has been shown to be a far more complex system than initially thought. A recently discovered homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)--ACE2--appears to negatively regulate the RAS. ACE2 cleaves Ang I and Ang II into the inactive Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7, respectively. ACE2 is highly expressed in kidney and heart and is especially confined to the endothelium. With quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, ACE2 was defined as a QTL on the X chromosome in rat models of hypertension. In these animal models, kidney ACE2 messenger RNA and protein expression were markedly reduced, making ACE2 a candidate gene for this QTL. Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice failed to elicit hypertension, but resulted in severe impairment in myocardial contractility with increased angiotensin II levels. Genetic ablation of ACE in the ACE2 null mice rescued the cardiac phenotype. These genetic data show that ACE2 is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo. Basal renal morphology and function were not altered by the inactivation of ACE2. The novel role of ACE2 in hydrolyzing several other peptides-such as the apelin peptides, opioids, and kinin metabolites-raises the possibility that peptide systems other than angiotensin and its derivatives also may have an important role in regulating cardiovascular and renal function.

  5. Role of the ACE2/Angiotensin 1-7 Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Zhong, Jiu-Chang; Grant, Maria B; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-04-15

    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common cause of death and disability, and a major economic burden, in industrialized nations. Physiological, pharmacological, and clinical studies have demonstrated that activation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key mediator of HF progression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homolog of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase that converts angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) which, by virtue of its actions on the Mas receptor, opposes the molecular and cellular effects of angiotensin II. ACE2 is widely expressed in cardiomyocytes, cardiofibroblasts, and coronary endothelial cells. Recent preclinical translational studies confirmed a critical counter-regulatory role of ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis on the activated renin-angiotensin system that results in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Although loss of ACE2 enhances susceptibility to HF, increasing ACE2 level prevents and reverses the HF phenotype. ACE2 and Ang 1-7 have emerged as a key protective pathway against HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Recombinant human ACE2 has been tested in phase I and II clinical trials without adverse effects while lowering and increasing plasma angiotensin II and Ang 1-7 levels, respectively. This review discusses the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ACE2 and the role of the ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiology of HF. The pharmacological and therapeutic potential of enhancing ACE2/Ang 1-7 action as a novel therapy for HF is highlighted.

  6. Angiotensin metabolism in renal proximal tubules, urine, and serum of sheep: evidence for ACE2-dependent processing of angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Hossam A; Westwood, Brian M; Averill, David B; Ferrario, Carlos M; Figueroa, Jorge P; Diz, Debra I; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    Despite the evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the influence of ACE2 on angiotensin metabolism within the kidney is not well known, particularly in experimental models other than rats or mice. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism of the angiotensins in isolated proximal tubules, urine, and serum from sheep. Radiolabeled [(125)I]ANG I was hydrolyzed primarily to ANG II and ANG-(1-7) by ACE and neprilysin, respectively, in sheep proximal tubules. The ACE2 product ANG-(1-9) from ANG I was not detected in the absence or presence of ACE and neprilysin inhibition. In contrast, the proximal tubules contained robust ACE2 activity that converted ANG II to ANG-(1-7). Immunoblots utilizing an NH(2) terminal-directed ACE2 antibody revealed a single 120-kDa band in proximal tubule membranes. ANG-(1-7) was not a stable product in the tubule preparation and was rapidly hydrolyzed to ANG-(1-5) and ANG-(1-4) by ACE and neprilysin, respectively. Comparison of activities in the proximal tubules with nonsaturating concentrations of substrate revealed equivalent activities for ACE (ANG I to ANG II: 248 +/- 17 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1)) and ACE2 [ANG II to ANG-(1-7): 253 +/- 11 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1)], but lower neprilysin activity [ANG II to ANG-(1-4): 119 +/- 24 fmol x mg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05 vs. ACE or ACE2]. Urinary metabolism of ANG I and ANG II was similar to the proximal tubules; soluble ACE2 activity was also detectable in sheep serum. In conclusion, sheep tissues contain abundant ACE2 activity that converts ANG II to ANG-(1-7) but does not participate in the processing of ANG I into ANG-(1-9).

  7. A single nucleotide polymorphism uncovers a novel function for the transcription factor Ace2 during Candida albicans hyphal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Calderón-Noreña

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C

  8. The ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis protects against pancreatic cell damage in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Li, Huihui; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product angiotensin-(1-7), and its receptor Mas have been shown to moderate the adverse effects of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 axis in many diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis could have similar effects in a cell culture model of pancreatic damage. AR42J cells were stimulated with 10 nmol/L cerulein to simulate acute pancreatitis. ACE2, Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and PI3K/AKT pathway were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. ACE2 and Mas receptor protein levels in AR42J cells were significantly increased (P Mas receptor gene expression was significantly increased (P Mas axis significantly inhibits pancreatitis in response to decreased inflammatory factors by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO signaling pathways.

  9. ACE-2 HILLCLOUD. An overview of the ACE-2 ground-based cloud experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, B.K.N.; Choularton, T.W.; Gallagher, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The ACE-2 HILLCLOUD experiment was carried out on the island of Tenerife in June-July 1997 to investigate the interaction of the boundary layer aerosol with a hill cap cloud forming over a ridge to the north-east of the island. The cloud was used as a natural flow through reactor to investigate......, (nocturnally for seven of the eight runs) and were carried out in a wide range of airmass conditions from clean maritime to polluted continental. Polluted air was characterised by higher than average concentrations of ozone (> 50 ppbv), fine and accumulation mode aerosols (>3000 and >1500 cm-3, respectively...... and hydrochloric acids were present as a result of outgassing from aerosol, the HNO3 from nitrate rich aerosol transported into the region from upwind of Tenerife, and HCl from sea salt aerosol newly formed at the sea surface. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and ozone were abundant (i.e., were well in excess over...

  10. Ace2, rather than ace1, is the major acetylcholinesterase in the silkworm, Bombyx moil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Chen; Zhen Liao; Xiao-Ming Hui; Guo-Qing Li; Fei Li; Zhao-Jun Han

    2009-01-01

    Two acetylcholinesterase (ace) genes have been reported in many insect species. In pests such as Helicoverpa assulta and Plutella xylostellas, acel gene encodes the predominant synaptic enzyme that is the main target of organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides. It has been reported that pesticide selection has an impact on the ace gene evolution. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, also has two ace genes. We studied ace gene expression and enzyme activities in silkworm as this has not faced pesticide selection over the past decades. The expression levels of two ace genes, Bm-acel and Bin-ace2, were estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bm-ace2 was expressed more highly than Bm-acel in all tested samples of different developmental stages or tissues, suggesting ace2, rather than ace 1, is the major type of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) in Bombyx mori. This is inconsistent with the aforementioned lepidopterons agricultural pests, partly be due to the widespread use of pesticides that may induce high expression of the acel gene in these pests. Besides high expression in the head, Bm-acel also expresses highly in the silk glands and Bm-ace2 is abundant in the germline, implying both ace genes may have potential non-hydrolytic roles in development. Furthermore, we found that the m_RNA levels of two ace genes and their ratios (ace2/ace1) change day to day in the first and third instars. This challenges the conventional method of estimating enzymatic activity using crude extract as an enzyme solution, as it is a mixture of ACHE1 and ACHE2. An efficient and simple method for separating different ACHEs is necessary for reliable toxicological analyses.

  11. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  12. ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates vascular repair-relevant functions of CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Joshi, Shrinidh; Guo, Lirong; Baker, Matthew B; Li, Yan; Castellano, Ronald K; Raizada, Mohan K; Jarajapu, Yagna P R

    2015-11-15

    CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells have been identified as a promising cell population for the autologous cell-based therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease. The counter-regulatory axes of renin angiotensin system, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor, play an important role in the cardiovascular repair. This study evaluated the expression and vascular repair-relevant functions of these two pathways in human CD34(+) cells. CD34(+) cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs), obtained from healthy volunteers. Expression of ACE, ACE2, AT1, and angiotensin type 2 and Mas receptors were determined. Effects of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), and ACE2 activators, xanthenone (XNT) and diminazene aceturate (DIZE) on proliferation, migration, and adhesion of CD34(+) cells were evaluated. ACE2 and Mas were relatively highly expressed in CD34(+) cells compared with MNCs. Ang-(1-7) or its analog, Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), stimulated proliferation of CD34(+) cells that was associated with decrease in phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 levels and was inhibited by triciribin, an AKT inhibitor. Migration of CD34(+) cells was enhanced by Ang-(1-7) or Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7) that was decreased by a Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In the presence of Ang II, XNT or DIZE enhanced proliferation and migration that were blocked by DX-600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Treatment of MNCs with Ang II, before the isolation of CD34(+) cells, attenuated the proliferation and migration to stromal derived factor-1α. This attenuation was reversed by apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Adhesion of MNCs or CD34(+) cells to fibronectin was enhanced by Ang II and was unaffected by Ang-(1-7). This study suggests that ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway stimulates functions of CD34(+) cells that are cardiovascular protective, whereas Ang II attenuates these functions by acting on MNCs. These findings

  13. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Regulates the Development of Pancreatic Endocrine Cells in Mouse Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Juan; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and Ang-(1-7) receptor Mas, have been shown to regulate organogenesis during embryonic development in various species. However, it is not known whether a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is present in the fetal pancreas. It is hypothesized that there is a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the embryonic pancreas in mice that is involved in regulating islet cell development. To address this issue, the endogenous expression profile of axis constituents in embryonic mouse pancreata was examined. Involvement of the ACE2 axis in the regulation of pancreatic development was also examined. The present experiments showed in an in vivo animal model that endogenous expression levels of ACE2 and the Mas receptor were upregulated in mouse pancreata in late embryogenesis, peaking on embryonic day E16.5, when it reached 3 folds compared to that seen at E12.5. Consistently, endogenous expression of Ang-(1-7) also peaked at E16.5. Treatment with the ACE2 inhibitor DX600 did not alter islet development. However, prenatal treatment with A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, reduced the β-cell to α-cell ratio in neonatal islets, impaired islet insulin secretory function, and impaired the pups' glucose tolerance. In ex vivo pancreas explant cultures, A779 again decreased the β-cell to α-cell ratio, apparently through its effects on β-cell proliferation (reduced proliferation shown with Ki67 staining), and also decreased Insulin and Ngn3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment of explant cultures with Ang-(1-7) increased mRNA levels of Insulin and pancreatic progenitor marker Ngn3, as well as Nox4, the ROS generation enzyme; these stimulatory effects were attenuated by co-treatment with A779, suggesting that Ang-(1-7), via Mas receptor signaling, may promote differentiation of pancreatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species. These data together suggest that a Mas

  14. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  15. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Daniel W; Clarke, Nicola E; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2008-01-23

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus. We have previously shown that ACE2 can be shed from the cell surface in response to phorbol esters by a process involving TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17). In this study, we demonstrate that inhibitors of calmodulin also stimulate shedding of the ACE2 ectodomain, a process at least partially mediated by a metalloproteinase. We also show that calmodulin associates with ACE2 and that this interaction is decreased by calmodulin inhibitors.

  16. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  17. Protective Role of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 Axis in Cardiovascular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Ocaranza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.

  18. Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) increase the insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to fosthiazate in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Kun; Wu, Qin-Song; Peng, Huan; Kong, Ling-An; Liu, Shi-Ming; Yin, Hua-Qun; Cui, Ru-Qiang; Zhan, Li-Ping; Cui, Jiang-Kuan; Peng, De-Liang

    2016-11-29

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes severe damage to continuously cropping vegetables. The control of this nematode relies heavily on organophosphate nematicides in China. Here, we described resistance to the organophosphate nematicide fosthiazate in a greenhouse-collected resistant population (RP) and a laboratory susceptible population (SP) of M. incognita. Fosthiazate was 2.74-fold less toxic to nematodes from RP than that from SP. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) transcription level in the RP was significantly higher than that in the SP. Eighteen nonsynonymous amino acid differences in ace2 were observed between the cDNA fragments of the RP and SP. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein activity in the RP was significantly reduced compared with that in the SP. After knocking down the ace2 gene, the ace2 transcription level was significantly decreased, but no negative impact on the infection of juveniles was observed. The 50% lethal concentration of the RNAi RP population decreased 40%, but the inhibition rate of fosthiazate against AChE activity was significantly increased in RP population. Thus, the increased fosthiazate insensitivity in the M. incognita resistant population was strongly associated with mutations in ace2. These results provide valuable insights into the resistance mechanism of root-knot nematode to organophosphate nematicides.

  19. ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas pathway in the brain: the axis of good

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Ping; Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2011-01-01

    ...). Among them, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the Mas receptor have forced a reevaluation of the original cascade and led to the emergence of a new arm of the RAS: the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis...

  20. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of ACE-2/ANG1-7/Mas axis on lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopallawa, Indiwari; Uhal, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    An established body of recent literature has demonstrated potent inhibitory effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/ANG1-7/ Mas axis on acute lung injury and lung fibrogenesis. One of the mechanisms of this inhibition is the enzymatic action of ACE-2 to degrade its main substrate angiotensin (ANG) II, thereby reducing the injurious and profibrotic activities of this octapeptide. Another, potentially more important mechanism is the production by ACE-2 of the heptapeptide ANG1-7, which inhibits the actions of ANGII through its own receptor Mas, the product of the oncogene of the same name. Very recent efforts to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ANG1-7/Mas action have revealed a number of similar, but mechanistically distinct, pathways by which ANG1-7 and Mas act on various lung cell types to inhibit lung injury and fibrosis. In this review we summarize the beneficial actions of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway, specifically on lung cells in non-neoplastic lung injury. We also review the currently known downstream signaling mechanisms of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway in various lung cell types known to be key in acute injury and fibrogenesis.

  1. 肾素-血管紧张素系统的新调节分子:ACE2%New regulator in renin angiotensin system: ACE2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡棠; 程桂芳

    2006-01-01

    血管紧张素转化酶(angiotensin-converting enzyme,ACE)为含锌的金属蛋白酶,是肾素-血管紧张素系统(renin-angiotensin system,RAS)重要的调节分子.血管紧张素转化酶2(angiotensin-converting enzyme 2,ACE2)是迄今发现的唯一的ACE同系物(homologue),它主要分布于睾丸、肾脏和心脏.ACE2可水解血管紧张素Ⅰ(angiotensin Ⅰ,Ang Ⅰ)和血管紧张素Ⅱ(angiotensin Ⅱ,Ang Ⅱ)羧基端的1个氨基酸残基,分别形成Ang1-9和有血管舒张作用的Ang1-7.ACE 2的生理病理作用还不甚明了,传统的ACE抑制剂不能抑制ACE2的活性.ACE2在心血管、肾脏系统的作用可能与ACE相反,与ACE共同调节心脏、肾脏等脏器的正常功能.

  2. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  3. Research Progress of ACE2 against Cardiac Remodeling%ACE2抗心室重构作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培勇

    2013-01-01

    心室重构是心脏对损伤或室壁压力增高的适应性变化,病理性心室重构导致心功能进行性恶化,最终导致心力衰竭.肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)通过间接和直接作用在心室重构的发生、发展中发挥重要作用.血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)可水解血管紧张素Ⅱ生成血管紧张素-(1-7),负性调节RAS,延缓或逆转病理型心室重构.现对近年来ACE2抗心室重构作用的研究进展进行综述.%Remodeling of the heart which occurs in response to injury and/or an increase in wall stress plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of cardiac function that leads to heart failure. The renin-angiotensin system ( RAS ) is a key regulator in the progress of pathological remodeling, through indirect and direct effects on cells of heart. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2( ACE2 ), which can break down Ang Ⅱ while generating angiotensin-( 1 -7 ), can down-regulate RAS and have an important role against cardiac remodeling. Here is to make a review focusing on advances made in understanding the effects of ACE2 against cardiac remodeling.

  4. Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camargo, Simone M R; Singer, Dustin; Makrides, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hartnup amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) is the major luminal sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter of small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. The expression of B(0)AT1 in kidney was recently shown to depend on its association with collectrin (Tmem27...... on an associated protein, we tested the hypothesis that Hartnup-causing B(0)AT1 mutations differentially impact on B(0)AT1 interaction with intestinal and kidney accessory proteins. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence, coimmunoprecipitation, and functional experiments using wild-type and ace2-null mice showed...... that expression of B(0)AT1 in small intestine critically depends on ACE2. Coexpressing new and previously identified Hartnup disorder-causing missense mutations of B(0)AT1 with either collectrin or ACE2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that the high-frequency D173N and the newly identified P265L mutant B(0)AT1...

  5. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Mori, Jun; McLean, Brent A; Basu, Ratnadeep; Das, Subhash K; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Parajuli, Nirmal; Penninger, Josef M; Grant, Maria B; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. We studied the role of ACE2 in obesity-mediated cardiac dysfunction. ACE2 null (ACE2KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet and studied at 6 months of age. Loss of ACE2 resulted in decreased weight gain but increased glucose intolerance, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) inflammation, and polarization of macrophages into a proinflammatory phenotype in response to HFD. Similarly, human EAT in patients with obesity and heart failure displayed a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. Exacerbated EAT inflammation in ACE2KO-HFD mice was associated with decreased myocardial adiponectin, decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, increased cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, and myocardial insulin resistance, which worsened heart function. Ang 1-7 (24 µg/kg/h) administered to ACE2KO-HFD mice resulted in ameliorated EAT inflammation and reduced cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, resulting in normalization of heart failure. In conclusion, ACE2 plays a novel role in heart disease associated with obesity wherein ACE2 negatively regulates obesity-induced EAT inflammation and cardiac insulin resistance.

  6. Structural determinants for binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 and angiotensin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eClayton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 is a zinc carboxypeptidase involved in the renin angiotensin system (RAS and inactivates the potent vasopressive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II by removing the C-terminal phenylalanine residue to yield Ang1-7. This conversion inactivates the vasoconstrictive action of Ang II and yields a peptide that acts as a vasodilatory molecule at the Mas receptor and potentially other receptors. Given the growing complexity of RAS and level of cross-talk between ligands and their corresponding enzymes and receptors, the design of molecules with selectivity for the major RAS binding partners to control cardiovascular tone is an on-going challenge. In previous studies we used single β-amino acid substitutions to modulate the structure of Ang II and its selectivity for ACE2, AT1R and angiotensin type 2 (AT2R receptor. We showed that modification at the C-terminus of Ang II generally resulted in more pronounced changes to secondary structure and ligand binding, and here we further explore this region for the potential to modulate ligand specificity. In this study, 1 a library of forty-seven peptides derived from the C-terminal tetra-peptide sequence (-IHPF of Ang II was synthesised and assessed for ACE2 binding, 2 the terminal group requirements for high affinity ACE2 binding were explored by and N- and C-terminal modification, 3 high affinity ACE2 binding chimeric AngII analogues were then synthesized and assessed, 4 the structure of the full-length Ang II analogues were assessed by circular dichroism, and 5 the Ang II analogues were assessed for AT1R/AT2R selectivity by cell-based assays. Studies on the C-terminus of Ang II demonstrated varied specificity at different residue positions for ACE2 binding and four Ang II chimeric peptides were identified as selective ligands for the AT2 receptor. Overall, these results provide insight into the residue and structural requirements for ACE2 binding and angiotensin receptor

  7. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in transgenic mice overexpressing GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marina C; Burghi, Valeria; Miquet, Johanna G; Giani, Jorge F; Banegas, Ricardo D; Toblli, Jorge E; Fang, Yimin; Wang, Feiya; Bartke, Andrzej; Dominici, Fernando P

    2014-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological homeostasis and diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. In this cascade, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor axis induces pathological effects, such as vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and fibrosis, while the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective for end-organ damage. The altered function of the RAS could be a contributing factor to the cardiac and renal alterations induced by GH excess. To further explore this issue, we evaluated the consequences of chronic GH exposure on the in vivo levels of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), ACE, ACE2, and Mas receptor in the heart and the kidney of GH-transgenic mice (bovine GH (bGH) mice). At the age of 7-8 months, female bGH mice displayed increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), a high degree of both cardiac and renal fibrosis, as well as increased levels of markers of tubular and glomerular damage. Angiotensinogen abundance was increased in the liver and the heart of bGH mice, along with a concomitant increase in cardiac Ang II levels. Importantly, the levels of ACE2, Ang-(1-7), and Mas receptor were markedly decreased in both tissues. In addition, Ang-(1-7) administration reduced SBP to control values in GH-transgenic mice, indicating that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is involved in GH-mediated hypertension. The data indicate that the altered expression profile of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the heart and the kidney of bGH mice could contribute to the increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal alterations observed in these animals.

  8. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  9. Examination of the aerosol indirect effect under contrasting environments during the ACE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM has been adopted to examine the aerosol indirect effect in contrasting clean and polluted cloudy boundary layers during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2. Model results are in good agreement with available in-situ observations, which provides confidence in the results of ATHAM. Sensitivity tests have been conducted to examine the response of the cloud fraction (CF, cloud liquid water path (LWP, and cloud optical depth (COD to changes in aerosols in the clean and polluted cases. It is shown for two cases that CF and LWP would decrease or remain nearly constant with an increase in aerosols, a result which shows that the second aerosol indirect effect is positive or negligibly small in these cases. Further investigation indicates that the background meteorological conditions play a critical role in the response of CF and LWP to aerosols. When large-scale subsidence is weak as in the clean case, the dry overlying air above the cloud is more efficiently entrained into the cloud, and in so doing, removes cloud water more efficiently, and results in lower CF and LWP when aerosol burden increases. However, when the large-scale subsidence is strong as in the polluted case, the growth of the cloud top is suppressed and the entrainment drying makes no significant difference when aerosol burden increases. Therefore, the CF and LWP remain nearly constant. In both the clean and polluted cases, the COD tends to increase with aerosols, and the total aerosol indirect effect (AIE is negative even when the CF and LWP decrease with an increase in aerosols. Therefore, the first AIE dominates the response of the cloud to aerosols.

  10. ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade mediates ACE inhibitor, captopril, protective effects in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-08-01

    The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. 8 weeks after the surgical procedures, captopril was administered orally (40mgkg(-1) d(-1)), while the specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered at infusion rate of 400ngkg(-1)min(-1) for 6 weeks. Bone metabolic markers were measured in serum and urine. Minerals concentrations were quantified in serum, urine and femoral bones by inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Trabecular and cortical morphometry was analyzed in the right distal femurs using micro-CT. Finally, the expressions of RAS peptides, enzymes and receptors along with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined femurs heads. OVX animals markedly showed altered bone metabolism and mineralization along with disturbed bone micro-structure. Captopril significantly restored the metabolic bone bio-markers and corrected Ca(2+) and P values in urine and bones of estrogen deficient rats. Moreover, the trabecular and cortical morphometric features were repaired by captopril in OVX groups. Captopril also improved the expressions of ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG, while abolished OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) and RANKL. Inhibition of Ang1-7 cascade by A-779 significantly eradicated captopril protective effects on bone metabolism, mineralization and micro-structure. A-779 also restored OVX effects on RANKL expression and ACE-1/AngII/AT1R

  11. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  12. Shipboard measurements of concentrations and properties of carbonaceous aerosols during ACE-2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mass concentrations of total, organic and black carbon were derived by analyzing the supermicron and submicron aerosol fractions of shipboard collected samples in the easternAtlantic Ocean as part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2). These analyses were complemented by experiments intended to estimate the water-soluble fraction of the submicron carbonaceous material. Our results can be summarized as follows. Depending on the sample, between 35% and 80% of total aerosol c...

  13. 醛固酮通过调节ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas受体轴诱导内皮细胞凋亡的研究%Aldosterone induced endothelial cell apoptosis via modulation of ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas receptor axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 潘瑜; 金惠敏

    2013-01-01

    ACE2 receptor and Mas receptor was determined by Western blotting, the contents of AngII and Ang ( 1-7) protein and caspase-3 activity in the supernatant of culture fluid were measured by ELISA, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with FITC-Annexin V/PI fluorescein staining. Results Compared with control group, the expression of ACE2 receptor and Mas receptor in cells in aldosterone group significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.01). In 100 nmol/L aldosterone group, the expression of ACE2 receptor and Mas receptor in cells significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner (P <0.01) , while the expression of ACE2 receptor and Mas receptor in cells in aldosterone antagonist group was significantly higher than that in 100 nmol/L aldosterone group (P <0.01). The content of Ang II and caspase-3 activity in the supernatant of culture fluid in aldosterone group significantly increased with the time, while the content of Ang (1-7) significantly decreased. The apoptosis rate in aldosterone group was significantly higher than that in control group, while the apoptosis rate in aldosterone antagonist group was significantly lower than that in aldosterone group ( P < 0. 05).Conclusion Aldosterone may regulate ACE2 - Ang (1-7) - Mas receptor axis, which may play a role in inducing endothelial cell apoptosis.

  14. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  15. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas in ALI/ARDS%ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas在ALI/ARDS中作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳; 朱彪

    2016-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system(RAS)plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury(ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS).About 60% of ARDS patients are shown to develop pulmonary fibrosis with increased mortality rate.Recent researches have demonstrated potent inhibitory of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7)/Mas axis on ALI/ARDS.This review summarizes the beneficial action of ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas on ALI/ARDS and research progress on relative signaling pathway.%肾素-血管紧张素系统在 ALI/ARDS的病理过程中有重要作用。大约60% ARDS患者进展成肺纤维化且其病死率明显增加。目前研究显示 ACE/AngⅡ/AT1 R 与 ALI/ARDS 发病机制有关,而ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas起负向调节作用———ACE2和Ang1-7对ALI/ARDS有保护作用。因此,本文就 ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas在 ALI/ARDS中的保护作用和相关信号传导通路等方面最新研究进展作一阐述。

  16. Expression and function of the ACE2/angiotensin(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Dallmer, Andrea; Lässig, Florian; Lendeckel, Uwe; Wolke, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), via its classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-axis, is associated with proliferation and metastasis of numerous types of solid tumor. AT1R blockers reduce tumor volume and decrease liver and lung metastasis in murine models of osteosarcoma. Expression and function of the alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma is yet to be studied. In the present study, the basic and interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated expression of components of this alternative RAS axis were analyzed and the impact of Mas on proliferation and/or migration of U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma cells was studied. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the two cell lines expressed the Ang(1‑7)-generating peptidases ACE2, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and prolyl-endopeptidase together with the putative receptor for Ang(1-7), Mas. IL-1β provoked an induction of Mas mRNA and protein expression which was associated with a reduction of proliferation and migration. By contrast, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Mas expression led to increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells express a functional active alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis. The induction and reinforcement of this axis may be beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma by reducing growth and preventing cancer metastasis. These effects may be achieved directly by the administration of Mas agonists or, indirectly, via blocking the classical AngII RAS axis via ACE inhibitors or AT1R antagonists.

  17. Clinical studie in patients with acute serum ACE2 change%急性胰腺炎患者血ACE2变化的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云华; 王艳; 王国兴; 谢苗荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血管紧张素转化酶2(ACE2)在急性胰腺炎疾病中的表达及其临床意义。方法选取2015年2月至2015年11月健康体检者30例及急性胰腺炎患者60例,分为正常对照组、急性中重度胰腺炎组[( M)SAP)组]和急性轻度胰腺炎组( MAP组),胰腺炎组按照《中国急性胰腺炎诊治指南》进行规范化治疗,采用酶联免疫吸附方法测量患者第1、3、7天的ACE2表达,分析( M)SAP组和MAP组 ACE2水平与正常对照组、急性生理与慢性健康评分 II ( APACHEII)、改良的CT严重指数( MCTSI)、C反应蛋白、淀粉酶之间的关系。结果 AP组ACE2明显低于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。ACE2在(M)SAP组随时间变化呈逐步下降趋势,在MAP组中随时间变化早期下降后期成上升趋势,ACE2与APACHII评分呈弱线性相关,ACE2与CRP无线性相关性,ACE2与AMY呈弱线性相关。结论 ACE2在急性胰腺炎患者血清中明显下降,说明ACE2与急性胰腺炎的发生、发展有一定的关系,可能与其表达降低后舒张血管、提高氧供、调节血管损伤作用减弱有关。%Objective To discuss serum ACE2 in acute pancreatitis( Acute pancreatitis,AP)disease and its clinical significance. Methods From February 2015 to November 2015,90 cases were divided into normal control group(30 healthy cases)and pancreatitis group(60 cases)including severe acute pancreatitis group(( Moderately)severe acute pancreatitis,( M)SAP)and acute mild pancreatitis group( mild a-cute pancreatitis,MAP). The treatment of pancreatitis was according to the "Guide to Chinese diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis"standardized treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay,ELISA)method was used for measuring ACE2 expression in the first,3,7 days. Analysis the relationship between the levels of ACE2(M)SAP and MAP groups and the normal control group

  18. Collectrin and ACE2 in renal and intestinal amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R

    2011-01-01

    Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins.

  19. Functional Screening of Core Promoter Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Dan Y; Kedmi, Adi; Ideses, Diana; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The core promoter is the DNA sequence that recruits the basal transcription machinery and directs accurate initiation of transcription. It is an active contributor to gene expression that can be rationally designed to manipulate the levels of expression. Core promoter function can be analyzed using different experimental approaches. Here, we describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of engineered core promoter functions using the EGFP reporter gene that is driven by distinct core promoters. Expression plasmids are transfected into different mammalian cell lines, and the resulting fluorescence is monitored by live cell imaging , as well as by flow cytometry. In order to verify that the transcriptional activity of the examined core promoters is indeed a function of their activity, as opposed to differences in DNA uptake, real-time quantitative PCR analysis is performed. Importantly, the described methodology for functional screening of core promoter activity has enabled the analysis of engineered potent core promoters for extended time periods.

  20. Promoting Business Education through Student Organization Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, Sandra

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the promotion of business education through the activities of student organizations. Describes specific programs, projects, and leadership development activities and their effectiveness in publicizing business education programs. (JOW)

  1. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, [No Value; Timens, W; Bulthuis, MLC; Lely, AT; Navis, GJ; van Goor, H

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identifie

  3. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, [No Value; Timens, W; Bulthuis, MLC; Lely, AT; Navis, GJ; van Goor, H

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been

  4. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Ship, Aircraft and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, J. M.; Kapustin, V. N.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Durkee, P. A.; Nielsen, K.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.; Covert, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We present analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements taken with a shipboard six-channel tracking sunphotometer during ACE-2. For 10 July 1997, results are also shown for measurements acquired 70 km from the ship with a fourteen-channel airborne tracking sunphotometer.

  5. Investigation of ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 genes for association with nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D; McKnight, A J; Patterson, C C; Sadlier, D M; Maxwell, A P

    2010-10-01

    Polymorphisms in ACE and AGTR1 genes have been assessed in multiple studies for association with diabetic nephropathy; however, results are conflicting. The ACE2 gene has not been studied extensively for association with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated variants in ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 for association with nephropathy in a case-control group (1467 participants with Type1 diabetes, case subjects n=718; control subjects n=749) of white descent with grandparents born in the British Isles. All recruited individuals were carefully phenotyped and genotyping was performed using Sequenom, Taqman and gel electrophoresis methods. The χ(2) -test for contingency tables was used to compare genotype and allele frequencies in case and control groups. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in cases or controls. Two variants within the ACE gene (rs4293, P(allelic) =0.02, P(genotypic) =0.008; rs4309, P(allelic) =0.02, P(genotypic) =0.01) were significantly associated with nephropathy at the 5% level. No variant remained statistically significant following adjustment for multiple comparisons. No single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ACE2 or AGTR1 genes were significantly associated with nephropathy when analysed either by genotype or allele frequencies. Our independent case-control study provides no evidence that common variants in ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in a white population with Type1 diabetes. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  7. Promotion marketing activities in universities

    OpenAIRE

    Guseva I.B.; Ledentcova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the need for promotion of educational services through such means of marketing communications as advertising and personal selling , able to satisfy user requests. The results of market research - questioning school graduates of Perm, which was carried out in order to create an effective advertising campaign to attract entrants. Experience can be used in the advertising campaign universities in Russia , in particular , Perm State National Research University.

  8. Differential regulation of renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 during ACE inhibition and dietary sodium restriction in healthy rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, I.; van Goor, H.; Turner, A. J.; Rushworth, C. A.; Michaud, A. A.; Corvol, P.; Navis, G.

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is thought to counterbalance ACE by breakdown of angiotensin (Ang) II and formation of Ang(1-7). Both enzymes are highly expressed in the kidney, but reports on their regulation differ. To enhance our understanding of the regulation of renal ACE and ACE2, we inv

  9. Promotional activities of banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenović Vera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.

  10. THE PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE TOURISTIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Iliuta Negricea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.

  11. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  12. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-01-01

    An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  13. Public relations as promotional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Almira Curri-Mehmeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public. It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a two-way street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensa-tional promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  14. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  15. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  16. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  17. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping

    2013-06-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (pword, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  18. The ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade enhances bone structure and metabolism following angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-07-15

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) regulates numerous systemic functions and is expressed locally in skeletal tissues. Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) is a beneficial member of the RAS, and the therapeutic effects of a large number of angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) are mediated by an Ang1-7-dependent cascade. This study examines whether the reported osteo-preservative effects of losartan are mediated through the angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE-2)/Ang1-7/Mas pathway in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sham and OVX animals received losartan (10mg/kg/d p.o.) for 6 weeks. A specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered via mini-osmotic pumps during the losartan treatment period. Serum and urine bone metabolism biomarker levels were measured. Bone trabecular and cortical morphometry were quantified in distal femurs, whereas mineral contents were estimated in ashed bones, serum and urine. Finally, the expression of RAS components, the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) was determined. Losartan significantly improved the elevated bone metabolism marker levels and altered trabecular and cortical structures in OVX animals, and restored normal urinary and skeletal mineral levels. Mas receptor inhibition significantly abolished all osteo-protective effects of losartan and enhanced the deleterious effects of OVX. Losartan enhanced OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor and RANKL expression, and increased ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG expression in OVX animals. However, A-779 significantly eradicated the effects of losartan on RAS components and RANKL/OPG expression. Thus, Ang1-7 are involved in the osteo-preservative effects of losartan via Mas receptor, which may add therapeutic value to this well-known antihypertensive agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  20. Correlation between polymorphism of ACE gene I/D and ACE2 gene A9570G and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-zhu WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between the polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE gene I/D and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2 gene A9570G and atrial fibrillation.Methods In chronological order of hospitalization,305 patients were selected and divided into two groups: atrial fibrillation group(148 cases and control group(157cases without atrial fibrillation.The control group was matched with the atrial fibrillation group in terms of age,gender,and presence of left ventricular dysfunction,coronary heart disease,diabetes,and primary hypertension.The polymorphisms of the ACE gene I/D and ACE2 gene A9570G were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP and gene sequencing approach.Results There were no statistical differences between the atrial fibrillation group and the control group in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the ACE gene I/D(P=0.841;OR=0.948,95% CI 0.680-1.322,P=0.755.Moreover,there was no significant difference among the different genotypes of ACE gene I/D in the left and right atrial dimensions(P=0.887 and P=0.664,respectively.In the male subgroup,there was no statistical difference in the ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphism between the two groups(OR=1.631,95% CI 0.880-3.023,P=0.119.However,in the subgroup of males with atrial fibrillation,the left and right atrial dimensions of subjects with G genotype(40.1±6.4 and 40.1±5.7mm,respectively were larger than those with A genotype(37.0±4.4 and 36.5±4.4mm,respectively,indicating a statistical difference(P=0.028,P=0.010.In the female subgroup,there were no statistical differences between the atrial fibrillation group and the control group in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphism(P=0.286;OR=1.415,95% CI 0.885-2.264,P=0.146.In the subgroup of females with atrial fibrillation,no significant difference was found in the left or right atrial dimension among the

  1. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of ACE2 gene in the kidney of the soft-shelled turtle,Pelodiscus sinensis%中华鳖肾脏ACE2基因克隆及其遗传进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春生; 姚一琳; 杨平; JAMEEL Ahmed Gandahi; 包慧君; 卞勋光; 邬丽; 陈秋生

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin-convertingenzyme 2 ( ACE2) is an important regulatory factor in salt and water metabolism of kidney. which can affect renal function by regulating the renal blood flow. According to the consensu s sequence of ACE2 gene from human, zebrafish and chicken in GenBank, a pair of primers was designed. The total RNA was extracted from the kidney of Pelodiscus sinensis. ACE2 gene was amplified and identified by RT-PCR. ACE2 gene in soft-shelled turtle was 355 nucleotides in length. The sequence analysis showed 70. 3% , 80% and 65. 1% of identities with those in human, chicken and zebrafish, respectively. The sequence similarities in amino acids were 63.8% ,79. 3% and 56. 9% , respectively. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the renal ACE2 in the turtle were highly homologous to those of chicken and human, whereas showed the highest homology with that of chicken. It suggested that ACE2 of turtle has the closest relationship with the birds, which is consistent with the evolution theory of species.%血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)为肾脏水盐代谢的重要调控因子,其通过调节肾脏局部血流量影响肾脏功能.为了证明爬行动物是否存在ACE2基因,本研究以中华鳌作为实验材料,应用RT-PCR方法扩增并克隆ACE2基因.结果表明,克隆的这段中华鳌ACE2序列长度为355 bp,与人、鸡和斑马鱼ACE2核苷酸序列的同源性分别达到70.3%、80%和65.1%,推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为63.8%、79.3%和56.9%.表明中华鳌肾脏ACE2与鸡、人的ACE2均有较高的同源性,其中,与鸡的同源性最高.通过遗传进化分析发现,中华鳌肾脏ACE2与鸟类亲缘关系最近,符合物种进化理论.

  2. Controller for the Power Converters of the O/OMOTOR Prototype Switched Reluctance Machine of the ACE2 Project; Controlador de los Convertidores Electronicos de Potencia de la Maquina Variable Prototipo O/OMOTOR del Proyecto ACE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, C.

    2006-12-19

    The ACE2 project deals with the development of a kynetic energy storage (KES) system for power peak shaving in high speed railway substations. This KES system consists in a double power converter which drives a switched reluctance machine (SRM) along with a flywheel operating in a wide speed range. This document presents from a technical point of view the features of the controller of the power converters for the U and UMOTOR SRM prototypes of that project. Hardware and software issues are treated in detail and the guide for the final user managing the KES module is introduced. (Author) 3 refs.

  3. The transcription factor Ace2 and its paralog Swi5 regulate ethanol production during static fermentation through their targets Cts1 and Rps4a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Du, Jie; Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used fermentation organism for ethanol production. However, the gene expression regulatory networks behind the ethanol fermentation are still not fully understood. Using a static fermentation model, we examined the ethanol yields on biomass of deletion mutants for 77 yeast genes encoding nonessential transcription factors, and found that deletion mutants for ACE2 and SWI5 showed dramatically increased ethanol yields. Overexpression of ACE2 or SWI5 in wild type cells reduced their ethanol yields. Furthermore, among the 34 target genes regulated by Ace2 and Swi5, deletion of CTS1,RPS4a,SIC1,EGT2,DSE2, or SCP160 led to increased ethanol yields, with the former two showing higher effects. Overexpression of CTS1 or RPS4a in both ace2/ace2 and swi5/swi5 mutants reduced their ethanol yields. In contrast, deletion of MCR1 or HO significantly decreased ethanol yields, with the former one showing the highest effect. Therefore, Ace2 and Swi5 are two negative regulators of ethanol yield during static fermentation of yeast cells, and both CTS1 and RPS4a are major effectors mediating these two transcription factors in regulating ethanol production.

  4. Heavy drinking and health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Susan L; French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that individuals who consume relatively large amounts of alcohol are more likely to use expensive acute medical care and less likely to use preventive or ambulatory services than other individuals. The few studies that investigated the associations between heavy drinking and health promotion activities did not try to address omitted-variable biases that may confound the relationships. To fill this void in the literature, we examined the effects of heavy alcohol use on three health promotion activities (routine physical exam, flu shot, regular seatbelt use) using the US 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Although specification tests indicated that omitted variable bias was not present in the majority of the single-equation probit models, we cautiously interpret our findings as evidence of strong associations rather than causal effects. Among both men and women, heavy alcohol use is negatively and significantly associated with each of our three outcomes. These findings suggest that heavy drinkers may be investing less in health promotion activities relative to abstainers and other drinkers. Policy options to address the associated externalities may be warranted.

  5. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  6. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  7. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  8. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  9. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  10. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoin Tei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.

  11. Marine and continental aerosol effects on the upwelling solar radiation flux in Southern Portugal during the ACE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Bonafé

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An overall number of 447 spectral series of aerosol optical depth were determined in the 0.4-3.7 mm wavelength range by examining the IR-RAD sun-radiometer measurements carried out at Sagres (Portugal on six clear-sky days, during the CLEARCOLUMN (ACE-2 experiment in June and July 1997. These spectral series were then analysed with the King inversion method to defi ne the size-distribution curves of columnar aerosol particle total number and volume, assuming values of both real and imaginary parts of the particulate refractive index obtained on the six days by combining our measurements with simultaneous sky-brightness measurements taken by the Leipzig University group. For these results, we then calculated the daily time-patterns of the average single scattering albedo of the columnar aerosols, fi nding instantaneous values ranging between 0.70 and 0.96 on those days, with daily mean values varying from 0.83 to 0.95. Furthermore, for each spectral series of aerosol optical depth, we determined the instantaneous change DF^ induced by the columnar aerosols on the upwelling solar radiation fl ux leaving the atmosphere, over oceanic areas presenting low surface albedo. The 24-h average values of DF^ obtained on the six days were found to increase as a function of the daily mean value of aerosol optical depth at the 0.55 mm wavelength, following relationship curves whose positive slope coeffi cients decrease gradually with the single scattering albedo of the columnar aerosols. The said curves can be used to achieve reliable estimates of change DF^ directly from daily ground-based multispectral measurements of aerosol optical depth and skybrightness at different angular distances from the Sun.An overall number of 447 spectral series of aerosol optical depth were determined in the 0.4-3.7 mm wavelength range by examining the IR-RAD sun-radiometer measurements carried out at Sagres (Portugal on six clear-sky days, during the

  12. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shoin Tei; Hiroaki Mitsuhashi; Shoichi Ishiura

    2016-01-01

    This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our pro...

  13. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are not associated with orthostatic blood pressure dysregulation in hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohan FAN; Yi-bo WANG; Hu WANG; Kai SUN; Wei-li ZHANG; Xiao-dong SONG; Jing-zhou CHENG; Hai-ying WU; Xiang-liang ZHOU; Ru-tai HUI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The genetic background of orthostatic blood pressure dysregulation remains poorly understood. Since the renin-angiotensin sys-tem plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and response to position change, we hypothesized that angiotensin-convert-ing enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 genetic polymorphisms might contribute, at least partially, to orthostatic blood pressure dysregulation in hypertensive patients. Methods: Two tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2 and ACE I/D were genotyped in 3630 untreated hypertensive patients and 826 normotensive subjects. Orthostatic hypertension was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg or more and orthostatic hypotension as a drop in blood pressure of 20/10 mmHg or more within three minutes of assumption of upright posture. Results: Female and male patients had similar rates of orthostatic hypertension (16.5% vs 15.3%) and hypotension (22.5% vs 23.8%). No significant differences were detected in the minor allele frequency of ACE2 rs2106809, rs2285666, or ACE I/D in either female or male patients with orthostatic hypertension (15.1%, 22.7%, 19.6%, respectively), hypotension (13.8%, 25%, 16.5%), or normal ortho-static blood pressure response (14.4%, 21.9%, 15.8%) in additive, dominant or recessive models after adjustment for confounders (all P>0.05). The orthostatic changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also comparable among patients carrying different genotypes. Similar results were observed in normotensive subjects. Conclusion: These data provide no support for the involvement of ACE or ACE2 in the genetic predisposition to orthostatic hypotension or hypertension.

  14. Structure and promoter activity of the 5' flanking region of ace-1, the gene encoding acetylcholinesterase of class A in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culetto, E; Combes, D; Fedon, Y; Roig, A; Toutant, J P; Arpagaus, M

    1999-07-30

    We report the structure and the functional activity of the promoter region of ace-1, the gene encoding acetylcholinesterase of class A in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that ace-1 was trans -spliced to the SL1 spliced leader and that transcription was initiated at a cluster of multiple starts. There was neither a TATA nor a CAAT box at consensus distances from these starts. Interspecies sequence comparison of the 5' regions of ace-1 in C. elegans and in the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae identified four blocks of conserved sequences located within a sequence of 2.4 kilobases upstream from the initiator ATG. In vitro expression of CAT reporter genes in mammalian cells allowed the determination of a minimal promoter in the first 288 nucleotides. In phenotype rescue experiments in vivo, the ace-1 gene containing 2.4 kilobases of 5' flanking region of either C. elegans or C. briggsae was found to restore a coordinated mobility to the uncoordinated double mutants ace-1(-);ace-2(-)of C. elegans. This showed that the ace-1 promoter was contained in 2.4 kilobases of the 5' region, and indicated that cis -regulatory elements as well as coding sequences of ace-1 were functionally conserved between the two nematode species. The pattern of ace-1 expression was established through microinjection of Green Fluorescent Protein reporter gene constructs and showed a major mesodermal expression. Deletion analysis showed that two of the four blocks of conserved sequences act as tissue-specific activators. The distal block is a mesodermal enhancer responsible for the expression in body wall muscle cells, anal sphincter and vulval muscle cells. Another block of conserved sequence directs expression in pharyngeal muscle cells pm5 and three pairs of cephalic sensory neurons. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Influence of humidity on the aerosol scattering coefficient and its effect on the upwelling radiance during ACE-2[Special issue with manuscripts related to the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), 16 June-25 July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasso, S. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Geophysics Program; Hegg, D.A.; Covert, D.S. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science; Collins, D. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Noone, K.J.; Oestroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Schmid, B. [Bay Area Environmental Research Inst., San Francisco, CA (United States); Russell, P.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center; Livingston, J.M. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durkee, P.A.; Jonsson, H.H. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Aerosol scattering coefficients ({sigma}{sub sp}) have been measured over the ocean at different relative humidities (RH) as a function of altitude in the region surrounding the Canary Islands during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June and July 1997. The data were collected by the University of Washington passive humidigraph (UWPH) mounted on the Pelican research aircraft. Concurrently, particle size distributions, absorption coefficients and aerosol optical depth were measured throughout 17 flights. A parameterization of {sigma}{sub sp} as a function of RH was utilized to assess the impact of aerosol hydration on the upwelling radiance (normalized to the solar constant and cosine of zenith angle). The top of the atmosphere radiance signal was simulated at wavelengths corresponding to visible and near-infrared bands of the EOS-AM ('Terra') detectors, MODIS and MISR. The UWPH measured {sigma}{sub sp} at 2 RHs, one below and the other above ambient conditions. Ambient {sigma}{sub sp} was obtained by interpolation of these 2 measurements. The data were stratified in terms of 3 types of aerosols: Saharan dust, clean marine (marine boundary layer background) and polluted marine aerosols (i.e., 2- or 1-day old polluted aerosols advected from Europe). An empirical relation for the dependence of {sigma}{sub sp} on RH, defined by {sigma}{sub sp} P(RH)= k. (1 - RH/100){sup -{gamma}}, was used with the hygroscopic exponent {gamma} derived from the data. The following {gamma} values were obtained for the 3 aerosol types: {gamma}(dust) = 0.23 {+-} 0.05, {gamma}(clean marine) = 0.69 {+-} 0.06 and {gamma}(polluted marine) = 0.57 {+-} 0.06. Based on the measured {gamma}'s, the above equation was utilized to derive aerosol models with different hygroscopicities. The satellite simulation signal code 6S was used to compute the upwelling radiance corresponding to each of those aerosol models at several ambient humidities. For the prelaunch

  16. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew J D; McCormick, Darren; Shawis, Teshk; Impson, Rebecca; Griffin, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitation.

  17. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Kaplan, Shai; Bren, Anat; Jinich, Adrian; Mayo, Avi; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2009-10-01

    Cells need to allocate their limited resources to express a wide range of genes. To understand how Escherichia coli partitions its transcriptional resources between its different promoters, we employ a robotic assay using a comprehensive reporter strain library for E. coli to measure promoter activity on a genomic scale at high-temporal resolution and accuracy. This allows continuous tracking of promoter activity as cells change their growth rate from exponential to stationary phase in different media. We find a heavy-tailed distribution of promoter activities, with promoter activities spanning several orders of magnitude. While the shape of the distribution is almost completely independent of the growth conditions, the identity of the promoters expressed at different levels does depend on them. Translation machinery genes, however, keep the same relative expression levels in the distribution across conditions, and their fractional promoter activity tracks growth rate tightly. We present a simple optimization model for resource allocation which suggests that the observed invariant distributions might maximize growth rate. These invariant features of the distribution of promoter activities may suggest design constraints that shape the allocation of transcriptional resources.

  18. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Zaslaver

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to allocate their limited resources to express a wide range of genes. To understand how Escherichia coli partitions its transcriptional resources between its different promoters, we employ a robotic assay using a comprehensive reporter strain library for E. coli to measure promoter activity on a genomic scale at high-temporal resolution and accuracy. This allows continuous tracking of promoter activity as cells change their growth rate from exponential to stationary phase in different media. We find a heavy-tailed distribution of promoter activities, with promoter activities spanning several orders of magnitude. While the shape of the distribution is almost completely independent of the growth conditions, the identity of the promoters expressed at different levels does depend on them. Translation machinery genes, however, keep the same relative expression levels in the distribution across conditions, and their fractional promoter activity tracks growth rate tightly. We present a simple optimization model for resource allocation which suggests that the observed invariant distributions might maximize growth rate. These invariant features of the distribution of promoter activities may suggest design constraints that shape the allocation of transcriptional resources.

  19. Promoter activities in Vibrio cholerae ctx phi prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fando, R; Pérez, J L; Rodriguez, B L; Campos, J; Robert, A; García, L; Silva, A; Benitez, J A

    1997-04-01

    Comparison of cholera toxin (CT) production directed by different gene constructs and S1 nuclease mapping revealed the presence of a ctxB-specific promoter within the ctxA coding sequence. Initiation of transcription in this region occurred in wild-type El Tor and classical biotype choleragenic vibrios. We propose that transcription from the ctxB-specific promoter and a stronger ribosomal binding site on the ctxB mRNA synergistically contribute to achieve the correct (5B:1A) subunit stoichiometry. Plasmid pB, a CT promoterless vector expressing only CTB, was used to detect promoter activity by restoration of A-subunit synthesis. Promoter activity expressed in vitro and in vivo was detected upstream of the zonula occludens toxin gene, suggesting that this factor could be produced in vivo to contribute to fluid accumulation. No promoter activity was detected in vitro and in vivo upstream from the accessory cholera enterotoxin gene.

  20. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  1. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  2. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  3. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  4. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-08-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  5. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang;

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory...... element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked...

  6. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding ...

  7. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...

  8. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  9. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN RESTAURANT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.

  10. Mobility devices to promote activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Brandt, Ase; Samuelsson, Kersti A M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of mobility device interventions in terms of activity and participation for people with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Systematic review. Search of 7 databases during the period 1996 to 2008. METHODS: Controlled studies and non-controlled follow-up studies...... were included if they covered both baseline and follow-up data and focused on activity and participation. Study participants had to be aged over 18 years with mobility limitations. Mobility device interventions encompassed crutches, walking frames, rollators, manual wheelchairs and powered wheelchairs......, and 3 follow-up studies that included before and after data. Two studies dealt with the effects of powered wheelchair interventions and the other studies with various other types of mobility device. Two studies were of high, internal and external methodological quality. Interventions were found...

  11. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site...... RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes use specialized termination mechanisms to maintain high transcription levels.......Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...

  12. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  13. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  14. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  15. Promotion of nutrition and physical activity in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.; Hiddink, G.J.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Promotion of nutrition and physical activity is important to slow down the increase of overweight. General practitioners (GPs) are in an unique position to communicate with their patients about nutrition and physical activity, because of the high referral score, high perceived expertis

  16. Promoting Learning through Active Interaction. Project PLAI. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deborah; Haney, Michele

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of Promoting Learning through Active Interactions, a research-to-practice 4-year project that developed, implemented, and validated a five-module curriculum with 25 infants (ages 6-30 months) who are deaf-blind, their parents, and early interventionists. The project had the following…

  17. Ethics Centers' Activities and Role in Promoting Ethics in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania

    2017-01-01

    In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…

  18. Corporate responsibility for childhood physical activity promotion in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Liliana; Ling, Tom; Baldassarre, Laura; Barnett, Lisa M; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-12-01

    The alarming epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity at paediatric age urges societies to rise to the challenge of ensuring an active lifestyle. As one response to this, business enterprises are increasingly engaged in promoting sport and physical activity (PA) initiatives within the frame of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, comparative analyses among industry sectors of CSR strategies for PA promotion with a particular focus on children are still lacking. This study aimed to explore (i) what are the CSR strategies for PA promotion adopted in different industry sectors and (ii) whether corporate engagement in promoting PA for children is supportive of children's rights to play and be physically active. Corporate pledges pertaining to CSR initiatives to promote PA were analysed. The hypothesis was that companies from different sectors employ different CSR strategies and that companies with a higher profile as regard to public health concerns for children tend to legitimate their action by adopting a compensatory strategy. Results show that the issue of PA promotion is largely represented within CSR commitments. CSR strategies for PA promotion vary across industry sectors and the adoption of a compensatory strategy for rising childhood obesity allows only a limited exploitation of the potential of CSR commitments for the provision of children's rights to play and be physically active. Actors within the fields of public health ethics, human rights and CSR should be considered complementary to develop mainstreaming strategies and improve monitoring systems of PA promotion in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential c...

  20. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  1. Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Humsa S; Johung, Tessa B; Caretti, Viola; Noll, Alyssa; Tang, Yujie; Nagaraja, Surya; Gibson, Erin M; Mount, Christopher W; Polepalli, Jai; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Woo, Pamelyn J; Malenka, Robert C; Vogel, Hannes; Bredel, Markus; Mallick, Parag; Monje, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Active neurons exert a mitogenic effect on normal neural precursor and oligodendroglial precursor cells, the putative cellular origins of high-grade glioma (HGG). By using optogenetic control of cortical neuronal activity in a patient-derived pediatric glioblastoma xenograft model, we demonstrate that active neurons similarly promote HGG proliferation and growth in vivo. Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived HGG cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. NLGN3 induced PI3K-mTOR pathway activity and feedforward expression of NLGN3 in glioma cells. NLGN3 expression levels in human HGG negatively correlated with patient overall survival. These findings indicate the important role of active neurons in the brain tumor microenvironment and identify secreted NLGN3 as an unexpected mechanism promoting neuronal activity-regulated cancer growth.

  2. Has physical activity anything to do with health promotion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Lone Friis

    Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientatio...... issues connected to physical inactivity. References: Michie S, Atkins L, West R. (2014) The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions. London: Silverback Publishing. www.behaviourchangewheel.com.......Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientation...... of Danish society as an expression of a continued civilizing of the body. In national governmental health messages sports participation and general physical activity are presented as an essential health-promoting instrument that keeps illness and disease away, thereby prolong life. But the all...

  3. Promoters active in interphase are bookmarked during mitosis by ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mansi; Zhang, Jie; Heine, George F; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2012-11-01

    We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promoters of nearly half of the active genes were highly ubiquitinated specifically during mitosis. The ubiquitination at the coding regions in interphase but not at promoters during mitosis was enriched for ubH2B and dependent on the presence of RNF20. Ubiquitin labeling of both promoters during mitosis and transcribed regions during interphase, correlated with active histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 but not a repressive histone modification, H3K27me3. The high level of ubiquitination at the promoter chromatin during mitosis was transient and was removed within 2 h after the cells exited mitosis and entered the next cell cycle. These results reveal that the ubiquitination of promoter chromatin during mitosis is a bookmark identifying active genes during chromosomal condensation in mitosis, and we suggest that this process facilitates transcriptional reactivation post-mitosis.

  4. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheo...

  5. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  6. Healthy and wellbeing activities' promotion using a Big Data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet Páez, Diego; de Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel; Puertas Sánz, Enrique; Villalba, María Teresa; Muñoz Gil, Rafael

    2016-08-04

    The aging population and economic crisis specially in developed countries have as a consequence the reduction in funds dedicated to health care; it is then desirable to optimize the costs of public and private healthcare systems, reducing the affluence of chronic and dependent people to care centers; promoting healthy lifestyle and activities can allow people to avoid chronic diseases as for example hypertension. In this article, we describe a system for promoting an active and healthy lifestyle for people and to recommend with guidelines and valuable information about their habits. The proposed system is being developed around the Big Data paradigm using bio-signal sensors and machine-learning algorithms for recommendations.

  7. Regularities in the E.coli promoters composition in connection with the DNA strands interaction and promoter activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEREZHNOY Andrey Yu; SHCKORBATOV Yuriy G.; HISANORI Kiryu

    2006-01-01

    The energy of interaction between DNA strands in promoters is of great functional importance. Visualization of the energy of DNA strands distribution in promoter sequences was achieved. The separation of promoters in groups by their energetic properties enables evaluation of the dependence of promoter strength on the energetic properties. The analysis of groups (clusters)of promoters distributed by the energy of DNA strands interaction in -55, -35, -10 and +6 sequences indicates their connection with the transcriptional activity.

  8. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  9. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  10. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  11. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  12. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  13. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  14. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  15. Active Chemical Thermodynamics promoted by activity of cortical actin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Bhaswati; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2011-03-01

    The spatial distribution and dynamics of formation and breakup of the nanoclusters of cell surface proteins is controlled by the active remodeling dynamics of the underlying cortical actin. To explain these observations, we have proposed a novel mechanism of nanoclustering, involving the transient binding to and advection along constitutively occuring ``asters'' of cortical actin. We study the consequences of such active actin-based clustering, in the context of chemical reactions involving conformational changes of cell surface proteins. We find that the active remodeling of cortical actin, can give rise to a dramatic increase in efficiency and extent of conformational spread, even at low levels of expression at the cell surface. We define a activity temperature (τa) arising due to actin activities which can be used to describe chemical thermodynamics of the system. We plot TTT (time-temparature-transformation) curves and compute the Arrhenius factors which depend on τa . With this, the active asters can be treated as enzymes whose enzymatic reaction rate can be related to the activity.

  16. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  17. cis Determinants of Promoter Threshold and Activation Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Hansen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between DNA cis-regulatory sequences and gene expression has been extensively studied at steady state, how cis-regulatory sequences affect the dynamics of gene induction is not known. The dynamics of gene induction can be described by the promoter activation timescale (AcTime and amplitude threshold (AmpThr. Combining high-throughput microfluidics with quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we control the activation dynamics of the budding yeast transcription factor, Msn2, and reveal how cis-regulatory motifs in 20 promoter variants of the Msn2-target-gene SIP18 affect AcTime and AmpThr. By modulating Msn2 binding sites, we can decouple AmpThr from AcTime and switch the SIP18 promoter class from high AmpThr and slow AcTime to low AmpThr and either fast or slow AcTime. We present a model that quantitatively explains gene-induction dynamics on the basis of the Msn2-binding-site number, TATA box location, and promoter nucleosome organization. Overall, we elucidate the cis-regulatory logic underlying promoter decoding of TF dynamics.

  18. TALE factors poise promoters for activation by Hox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seong-Kyu; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles G

    2014-01-27

    Hox proteins form complexes with TALE cofactors from the Pbx and Prep/Meis families to control transcription, but it remains unclear how Hox:TALE complexes function. Examining a Hoxb1b:TALE complex that regulates zebrafish hoxb1a transcription, we find maternally deposited TALE proteins at the hoxb1a promoter already during blastula stages. These TALE factors recruit histone-modifying enzymes to promote an active chromatin profile at the hoxb1a promoter and also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and P-TEFb. However, in the presence of TALE factors, RNAPII remains phosphorylated on serine 5 and hoxb1a transcription is inefficient. By gastrula stages, Hoxb1b binds together with TALE factors to the hoxb1a promoter. This triggers P-TEFb-mediated transitioning of RNAPII to the serine 2-phosphorylated form and efficient hoxb1a transcription. We conclude that TALE factors access promoters during early embryogenesis to poise them for activation but that Hox proteins are required to trigger efficient transcription.

  19. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simran Bhullar; Suma Chakravarthy; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2009-12-01

    Variations in transgene expression due to position effect and copy number are normalized when analysing and comparing the strengths of different promoters. In such experiments, the promoter to be tested is placed upstream to a reporter gene and a second expression cassette is introduced in a linked fashion in the same transfer DNA (T-DNA). Normalization in the activity of the test promoter is carried out by calculating the ratio of activities of the test and reference promoters. When an appropriate number of independent transgenic events are analysed, normalization facilitates assessment of the relative strengths of the test promoters being compared. In this study, using different modified versions of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter expressing the reporter gene -glucuronidase (gus) (test cassette) linked to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene under the wild-type 35S promoter (reference cassette) in transgenic tobacco lines, we observed that cat gene expression varied depending upon the strength of the modified 35S promoter expressing the gus gene. The 35S promoter in the reference cassette was found to have been upregulated in cases where the modified 35S promoter was weaker than the wild-type 35S promoter. Many studies have been carried out in different organisms to study the phenomenon of transcriptional interference, which refers to the reduced expression of the downstream promoter by a closely linked upstream promoter. However, we observed a positive interaction wherein the weakened activity of a promoter led to upregulation of a contiguous promoter. These observations suggest that, in situations where the promoters of the test and reference gene share the same transcription factors, the activity of the test promoter can influence the activity of the reference promoter in a way that the test promoter’s strength is underestimated when normalized by the reference promoter.

  20. The promotion of phisical activity in shockvertising campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawska-Stanisz Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferring passive life style and the problems with obesity eventuating from this fact, have become very common in many countries. According to research, the physical activity of Poles turns out to be under the average for EU countries. (Sport activity of Poles, 2015, p.3 The promotion of physical activity is one of the most important tasks of public health. The publicity of physical activity, habits of caring for health and wellbeing should be realized by national and local authorities, media and organisations connected w sport and recreation. Next, there are subjects providing sport- recreation services, which use properly worked out marketing programs, apart from purely business goals, they can also become the promoters of physical activity. The aim of this article is to present shocking advertisement as the part of social campaigns influencing the changing the passive lifestyle for the active one. Shown in this article research was conducted among students of one university. The goal of research was the assessment of emotions which were aroused by showing examples of campaigns and their influence on the willingness to take up physical activities by the youth. The article contains the examples of campaigns and the results of research into using this kind of actions among young people. It was assumed, that the showing shocking messages concerning the consequences of lack physical activity, influences on taking up such activity by young people.

  1. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  2. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.

  3. An Ikaros Promoter Element with Dual Epigenetic and Transcriptional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Elizabeth A; Georgopoulos, Katia; Yoshida, Toshimi

    2015-01-01

    Ikaros DNA binding factor plays critical roles in lymphocyte development. Changes in Ikaros expression levels during lymphopoiesis are controlled by redundant but also unique regulatory elements of its locus that are critical for this developmental process. We have recently shown that Ikaros binds its own locus in thymocytes in vivo. Here, we evaluated the role of an Ikaros binding site within its major lympho-myeloid promoter. We identified an Ikaros/Ets binding site within a promoter sub-region that was highly conserved in mouse and human. Deletion of this binding site increased the percentage of the reporter-expressing mouse lines, indicating that its loss provided a more permissive chromatin environment. However, once transcription was established, the lack of this site decreased transcriptional activity. These findings implicate a dual role for Ikaros/Ets1 binding on Ikzf1 expression that is exerted at least through its promoter.

  4. An Ikaros Promoter Element with Dual Epigenetic and Transcriptional Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Perotti

    Full Text Available Ikaros DNA binding factor plays critical roles in lymphocyte development. Changes in Ikaros expression levels during lymphopoiesis are controlled by redundant but also unique regulatory elements of its locus that are critical for this developmental process. We have recently shown that Ikaros binds its own locus in thymocytes in vivo. Here, we evaluated the role of an Ikaros binding site within its major lympho-myeloid promoter. We identified an Ikaros/Ets binding site within a promoter sub-region that was highly conserved in mouse and human. Deletion of this binding site increased the percentage of the reporter-expressing mouse lines, indicating that its loss provided a more permissive chromatin environment. However, once transcription was established, the lack of this site decreased transcriptional activity. These findings implicate a dual role for Ikaros/Ets1 binding on Ikzf1 expression that is exerted at least through its promoter.

  5. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  6. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.

  7. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  8. TERT promoter mutations and monoallelic activation of TERT in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V

    2015-12-14

    Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer.

  9. Has physical activity anything to do with health promotion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Lone Friis

    Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientatio...... issues connected to physical inactivity. References: Michie S, Atkins L, West R. (2014) The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions. London: Silverback Publishing. www.behaviourchangewheel.com....

  10. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  11. Mannoproteins from Cryptococcus neoformans promote dendritic cell maturation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrella, Donatella; Corbucci, Cristina; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Giovanni; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2005-02-01

    Our previous data show that mannoproteins (MPs) from Cryptococcus neoformans are able to induce protective responses against both C. neoformans and Candida albicans. Here we provide evidence that MPs foster maturation and activation of human dendritic cells (DCs). Maturation was evaluated by the ability of MPs to facilitate expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD86, CD83, and major histocompatibility complex classes I and II and to inhibit receptors such as CD14, CD16, and CD32. Activation of DCs was measured by the capacity of MPs to promote interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion. DC-induced maturation and interleukin-12 induction are largely mediated by engagement of mannose receptors and presume MP internalization and degradation. DC activation leads to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, which is necessary for nuclear factor kappaB transmigration into the nucleus. MP-loaded DCs are efficient stimulators of T cells and show a remarkable capacity to promote CD4 and CD8 proliferation. In conclusion, we have evidenced a novel regulatory role of MPs that promotes their candidacy as a vaccine against fungi.

  12. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins.

  13. PARP activation promotes nuclear AID accumulation in lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Sandra; Jeschke, Julia; Böttcher, Katrin; Schmidt, Angelika; Davari, Kathrin; Müller, Peter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hemmerich, Peter; Pfeil, Ines; Jungnickel, Berit

    2016-03-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin diversification in germinal center B cells by targeted introduction of DNA damage. As aberrant nuclear AID action contributes to the generation of B cell lymphoma, the protein's activity is tightly regulated, e.g. by nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear degradation. In the present study, we asked whether DNA damage may affect regulation of the AID protein. We show that exogenous DNA damage that mainly activates base excision repair leads to prevention of proteasomal degradation of AID and hence its nuclear accumulation. Inhibitor as well as knockout studies indicate that activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by DNA damaging agents promotes both phenomena. These findings suggest that PARP inhibitors influence DNA damage dependent AID regulation, with interesting implications for the regulation of AID function and chemotherapy of lymphoma.

  14. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  15. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses.

  16. Effect of captopril on the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/ ACE2 induced by albumin in human proximal tubular cells%卡托普利对白蛋白引起HK-2细胞ACE/ACE2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高珺; 刘必成; 王艳丽; 李青; 张晓良

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂(ACEI)卡托普利 (captopril, CAP)对白蛋白引起的肾小管上皮细胞表达ACE、 ACE2及其作用产物Ang Ⅱ的影响. 方法实验分组:对照组(未干预的人近端肾小管上皮细胞株,HK-2);牛血清白蛋白(BSA)组(10 mg·ml-1); CAP组(10 μmol·L-1);BSA加CAP组.分别采用实时定量RT-PCR和Western Blot检测ACE、ACE2 mRNA和蛋白的表达水平;采用放射免疫法(RIA)检测细胞上清液中Ang Ⅱ的浓度. 结果实时定量RT-PCR显示,与对照组比较(相对表达量为0), CAP组ACE mRNA表达差异无统计学意义(0.27±0.09 vs 0,P>0.05);CAP能显著抑制BSA引起的ACE mRNA表达上调[(BSA+CAP)组∶BSA组为(0.80±0.05) vs (1.58±0.20),P<0.05].同时,由BSA引起的ACE2 mRNA表达下调作用也被显著抑制[(BSA+CAP)组∶BSA组为(-0.59±0.08) vs (0.24±0.11),P<0.05].Western Blot显示BSA引起的ACE蛋白表达增加被显著抑制[(BSA+CAP)组∶BSA组为(0.85±0.09) vs (1.2±0.10),P< 0.05],而ACE2蛋白表达的减少也明显减轻[(BSA+CAP)组∶BSA组为(0.49±0.09) vs (0.35±0.09),P<0.05].RIA结果显示CAP可显著抑制BSA引起的细胞上清液中Ang Ⅱ浓度增加 [(BSA+CAP)组∶BSA组为(55.25±4.8) vs (97.25±10.4)pg·ml-1,P<0.05]. 结论 CAP可通过抑制ACE和增加ACE2表达而抑制白蛋白所引起的HK-2细胞肾素-血管紧张素系统激活.

  17. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  18. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  19. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein promotes neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, C; Pai, R K; Noss, E H; Berger, M; Boom, W H; Harding, C V

    2001-08-01

    Certain microbial substances, e.g., LPS, can activate neutrophils or prime them to enhance their response to other activating agents, e.g., fMLP. We investigated the role of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) 19-kDa lipoprotein in activation of human neutrophils. MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein initiated phenotypic changes characteristic of neutrophil activation, including down-regulation of CD62 ligand (L-selectin) and up-regulation of CD35 (CR1) and CD11b/CD18 (CR3, Mac-1). In addition, exposure of neutrophils to MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein enhanced the subsequent oxidative burst in response to fMLP as assessed by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (determined by flow cytometry). LPS also produced these effects with similar kinetics, but an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a CpG motif failed to induce any priming or activation response. Although the effects of LPS required the presence of serum, neutrophil activation by MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein occurred independently of serum factors, suggesting the involvement of different receptors and signaling mechanisms for LPS and MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein. Thus, MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern that promotes neutrophil priming and activation.

  1. Promoting effective decision-making in sexually active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauer, K M

    1983-06-01

    Promoting effective decision-making in adolescents who are active sexually and those who are not incorporates knowledge of the changes occurring in the intellectual, psychological, and emotional realms. The health professional must provide comprehensive and effective counseling in a variety of creative ways during the adolescent period. The time to begin is with the young adolescent, 10 or 11 years old, and continue over time. The key to success is prevention: prevention of sex without full consent, unwanted pregnancy, ignorance of one's own body, and decisions by default.

  2. Cationic Nanocylinders Promote Angiogenic Activities of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Bok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have been used extensively taking forms as scaffolds, patterned surface and nanoparticle for regenerative medicine applications. Angiogenesis is an essential process for successful tissue regeneration, and endothelial cell–cell interaction plays a pivotal role in regulating their tight junction formation, a hallmark of angiogenesis. Though continuous progress has been made, strategies to promote angiogenesis still rely on small molecule delivery or nuanced scaffold fabrication. As such, the recent paradigm shift from top-down to bottom-up approaches in tissue engineering necessitates development of polymer-based modular engineering tools to control angiogenesis. Here, we developed cationic nanocylinders (NCs as inducers of cell–cell interaction and investigated their effect on angiogenic activities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vitro. Electrospun poly (l-lactic acid (PLLA fibers were aminolyzed to generate positively charged NCs. The aninolyzation time was changed to produce two different aspect ratios of NCs. When HUVECs were treated with NCs, the electrostatic interaction of cationic NCs with negatively charged plasma membranes promoted migration, permeability and tubulogenesis of HUVECs compared to no treatment. This effect was more profound when the higher aspect ratio NC was used. The results indicate these NCs can be used as a new tool for the bottom-up approach to promote angiogenesis.

  3. Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Fen Pang,1 Li-Hui Zhang,2 Feng Bai,1 Ning-Ping Wang,3 Ron E Garner,3 Robert J McKallip,4 Zhi-Qing Zhao1,3 1Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cardiology, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences and Shanxi Dayi Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA; 4Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA Abstract: Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2 receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02% vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05. These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was

  4. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  5. Melatonin activates the peroxidase-oxidase reaction and promotes oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L F; Lunding, A; Lauritsen, F R; Allegra, M

    2001-06-22

    We have studied the peroxidase-oxidase reaction with NADH and O2 as substrates and melatonin as a cofactor in a semibatch reactor. We show for the first time that melatonin is an activator of the reaction catalyzed by enzymes from both plant and animal sources. Furthermore, melatonin promotes oscillatory dynamics in the pH range from 5 to 6. The frequency of the oscillations depends on the pH such that an increase in pH was accompanied by a decrease in frequency. Conversely, an increase in the flow rate of NADH or an increase in the average concentration of NADH resulted in an increase in oscillation frequency. Complex dynamics were not observed with melatonin as a cofactor. These results are discussed in relation to observations of oscillatory dynamics and the function of melatonin and peroxidase in activated neutrophils.

  6. Vanadium promotes hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickl, Heidi; Theron, Annette J; Grimmer, Heidi; Oommen, Joyce; Ramafi, Grace J; Steel, Helen C; Visser, Susanna S; Anderson, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vanadium in the +2, +3, +4, and +5 valence states on superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils in vitro, using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL), autoiodination, and electron spin resonance with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide as the spin trap, respectively. At concentrations of up to 25 microM, vanadium, in the four different valence states used, did not affect the LECL responses of neutrophils activated with either the chemoattractant, N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (1 microM), or the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate (25 ng/ml). However, exposure to vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4, but not the +5, valence states was accompanied by significant augmentation of hydroxyl radical formation by activated neutrophils and attenuation of MPO-mediated iodination. With respect to hydroxyl radical formation, similar effects were observed using cell-free systems containing either hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) or xanthine/xanthine oxidase together with vanadium (+2, +3, +4), while the activity of purified MPO was inhibited by the metal in these valence states. These results demonstrate that vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4 valence states interacts prooxidatively with human neutrophils, competing effectively with MPO for hydrogen peroxide to promote formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical.

  7. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  8. Active aging promotion: results from the vital aging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  9. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Devaux, C.; Voss, K.; Lelieveld, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  10. Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Roger W; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE During energy stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) promotes glucose transport and glycolysis for ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle. Paradoxically......, chronic activation of AMPK causes an increase in glycogen accumulation in skeletal and cardiac muscles, which in some cases is associated with cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which AMPK activation promotes muscle glycogen accumulation. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS We recently generated knock-in mice in which wild-type muscle GS was replaced by a mutant (Arg582Ala) that could not be activated by glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), but possessed full catalytic activity and could still be activated normally by dephosphorylation. Muscles from GS knock-in or transgenic...

  11. 连续性血液透析滤过治疗犬多器官功能不全综合征对心房肌RAS及ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas轴的影响及作用机制%The changes of atrial muscle RAS and ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis in MODS dogs treated by CVVHDF and the mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雯雯; 俞婧; 叶蕾; 刘红艳; 刘曾华; 陈继红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the members' dynamic change of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2)-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis during the continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) treating the dogs with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS),and to investigate the efficacy mechanism on cardiac function.Methods Dogs were subjected to hemorrhagic shock plus resuscitation and endotoxemia to establish MODS model,then they were randomly divided into 2 groups:CVVHDF group (n=8) and MODS group (n=6).After endotoxin injection completion,the CVVHDF group received CVVHDF for 12 h,MODS group didn't.Radioimmunoassay,euzymelinked mmunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect the content of renin,Ang Ⅰ,Ang Ⅱ,Ang (1-7).Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of renin mRNA and ACE2 mRNA.Western blotting was used to detect the protein content of renin,Ang Ⅱ,ACE2 and Ang (1-7).Results (1) Organ function:Compared with the MODS group,the vital signs,heart,lung and renal function were significantly ameliorated in the CVVHDF group,the difference had statistical significance (P< 0.05).(2) RAS changes:To detect index from the level of organs,genetic and molecular in arterial tissue,the results displayed that the content of renin,Ang Ⅰ,Ang Ⅱ,the expression of renin mRNA,the protein content of renin,Ang Ⅱ in CVVHDF group were lower than that in MODS group,the difference had statistical significance (P < 0.01).(3)ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis's changes:Using the same methods above to detect corresponding indicators,the results displayed that the content of ACE2,Ang(1-7),the expression of ACE2 mRNA and the protein content of ACE2,Ang(1-7) in CVVHDF group were significantly improved than that in MODS group,the difference had statistical significance (P < 0.01).Conclusions In the process of CVVHDF treating MODS,the ACE2 -Ang(1-7)-Mas axis plays the role which antagonizes the RAS system,and to protect the cardiac function.This research may be

  12. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.

  13. Promotion of European coal to liquids R&D activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The IEA Clean Coal Centre, with its partners Fuel Consult GmbH (Germany), Glowny Instytut Gornictwa (Poland), Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia) and Stredisko Pro Efektivni Vyuzivani Energie O.P.S. (Czech Republic) is undertaking a promotion and dissemination project. This is supported with a financial grant from the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel under contract number RFC2-CT-2008-00006. The aim is to undertake an overall assessment of the competitiveness and environmental performance of coal to liquids technology from a European perspective. The major deliverable is this report, which comprises a review of CTL activities, worldwide and a consideration of possible future CTL R, D & D needs for Europe, building both on the global state of the art arising from work undertaken previously and the current worldwide activities including the planned and ongoing demonstration programmes in the USA and China respectively. This is complemented with comment on the capabilities and expertise in EU universities as well as EU industry should there be a need to implement larger-scale development and demonstration programmes and ultimately to build large CTL plant. Finally the benefits of seeking international cooperation on CTL R, D & D with stakeholders outside of Europe rather than limiting activities to EU member states is discussed. The information is being promoted and disseminated to all European stakeholders, in particular to those major coal- and oil shale-using member states, Poland, the Czech Republic and Estonia, in which there is significant potential for an uptake of CTL technology and where industry is now starting to reconsider the development of CTL processes.

  14. Promoting Active Learning: The Use of Computational Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Tom

    The increased emphasis on active learning in essentially all disciplines is proving beneficial in terms of a student's depth of learning, retention, and completion of challenging courses. Formats labeled flipped, hybrid and blended facilitate face-to-face active learning. To be effective, students need to absorb a significant fraction of the course material prior to class, e.g., using online lectures and reading assignments. Getting students to assimilate and at least partially understand this material prior to class can be extremely difficult. As an aid to achieving this preparation as well as enhancing depth of understanding, we find the use of software programs such as Mathematica®or MatLab®, very helpful. We have written several Mathematica®applications and student exercises for use in a blended format two semester E&M course. Formats include tutorials, simulations, graded and non-graded quizzes, walk-through problems, exploration and interpretation exercises, and numerical solutions of complex problems. A good portion of this activity involves student-written code. We will discuss the efficacy of these applications, their role in promoting active learning, and the range of possible uses of this basic scheme in other classes.

  15. Promoting Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Overweight Minority Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Olvera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3±1.2 years. Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention that included traditional fitness, sport skills, games, dancing, and flexibility sessions. Results. On average 62% of participants met the MVPA recommended guidelines (60 min/5d/wk with an average of 68.5±14 minutes of MVPA across the three weeks. Traditional fitness sessions elicited the highest percent of MVPA (mean time spent in MVPA=32%, followed by dancing and games (mean time spent in MVPA=21%, sports skills (mean time spent in MVPA=18%, and flexibility (mean time spent in MVPA=7%. Step aerobics and rumba fitness elicited the highest proportions of MVPA. Conclusion. Traditional fitness activities were identified as the most successful in eliciting MVPA in overweight Latina and African American girls.

  16. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Graham, Marilynn; McLeod, Jessica; Kellam, Stephanie F; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI >/= 85th percentile) Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3 +/- 1.2 years). Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention that included traditional fitness, sport skills, games, dancing, and flexibility sessions. Results. On average 62% of participants met the MVPA recommended guidelines (60 min/5d/wk) with an average of 68.5 +/- 14 minutes of MVPA across the three weeks. Traditional fitness sessions elicited the highest percent of MVPA (mean time spent in MVPA = 32%), followed by dancing and games (mean time spent in MVPA = 21%), sports skills (mean time spent in MVPA = 18%), and flexibility (mean time spent in MVPA = 7%). Step aerobics and rumba fitness elicited the highest proportions of MVPA. Conclusion. Traditional fitness activities were identified as the most successful in eliciting MVPA in overweight Latina and African American girls.

  17. [Actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-hui; Zhao, Jia-liang

    2010-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is a medical subspecialty concerned on the nervous system diseases with ocular manifestations, this could be both sensory and motor, including ocular movements, papillary responses, and the structure changes of the brain and nervous system with ocular manifestations. Although neuro-ophthalmology in China has achieved some progress, certain problems still exist, such as the professional neuro-ophthalmology team and related academic organization are still absent in China; neuro-ophthalmology knowledge has not been popularized; the new technologies for diagnosis and treatment in neuro-ophthalmology have not been absorbed and applied; the coordination and cooperation with other related disciplines are not enough. We should actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China, including organization of a professional team of neuro-ophthalmology, popularization of neuro-ophthalmology knowledge to the ophthalmologists, development of research work in neuro-ophthalmology and the collaboration with international neuro-ophthalmologists.

  18. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  19. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions.

  20. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  1. Stress-mediated p38 activation promotes somatic cell reprogramming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiu Xu; Quan Wang; Yuan Long; Ru Zhang; Xiaoyuan Wei; Mingzhe Xing; Haifeng Gu

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stress-mediated adaptation plays essential roles in the evolution of life.Cellular adaptation mechanisms usually involve the regulation of chromatin structure,transcription,mRNA stability and translation,which eventually lead to efficient changes in gene expression.Global epigenetic change is also involved in the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by defined factors.Here we report that environmental stress such as hyperosmosis not only facilitates four factor-mediated reprogramming,but also enhances two or one factor-induced iPS cell generation.Hyperosmosis-induced p38 activation plays a critical role in this process.Constitutive active p38 mimics the positive effect of hyperosmosis,while dominant negative p38 and p38 inhibitor block the effect of hyperosmosis.Further study indicates stress-mediated p38 activation may promote reprogramming by reducing the global DNA methylation level and enhancing the expression of pluripotency genes.Our results demonstrate how simple environmental stress like hyperosmosis helps to alter the fate of cells via intracellular signaling and epigenetic modulation.

  2. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert (co-PI); and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  3. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Land, Ship, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, John M.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Durkee, Philip A.; Smith, Peter J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Covert, Dave S.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and colurnmn water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's 6-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V Professor Vodyanitskiy during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA-14/AVHRR satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30-80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering mearured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from radiosonde measurements during 8 soundings on 7 days and also with values calculated from measurements taken on 10 July with

  4. Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifen; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Junyang; Yang, Zhuanbo; Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    Adiponectin is an important insulin-sensitizing adipokine with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-associated medical complications. It is secreted from adipocytes into circulation as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW, and LMW). Each oligomeric form of adiponectin exerts non-overlapping biological functions, with the HMW oligomer possessing the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity. In this study, we reported that emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, activates AMPK in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 293T cells. Activation of AMPK by emodin promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW adiponectin to total adiponectin in 3T1-L1 adipocytes. Emodin might activate AMPK by an indirect mechanism similar to berberine. We also found that emodin activates PPARγ and promotes differentiation and adiponectin expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Therefore, emodin is a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity. Our results demonstrate that the effects of emodin on adiponectin expression and multimerization are the ultimate effects resulting from both AMPK activation and PPARγ activation. The dual-activity makes emodin or the derivatives potential drug candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  5. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  6. Promoting Physical Activity through Priming the Content of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Non-conscious processes are important in influencing the performance of a number of behaviors, such as physical activity. One way that such processes can be influenced is through priming. Despite this, approaches within health psychology have predominantly focused on reflective processes with a number of psychological theories dedicated to identifying the predictors of intention. In doing so, critical beliefs and thoughts are first identified and then altered within interventions. Such work has shown limited effectiveness, however, with a gap apparent between what one intends to do and what subsequently ensues. Although there have been attempts to bridge this gap, such as theoretical integration, recent efforts include priming implicit processes. The aim of this commentary is to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of priming non-conscious processes and to suggest that the content of motivation should also succumb to priming influences. This brief review suggests that priming one of the most influential conscious processes, that of self-efficacy, could demonstrate particular effectiveness in promoting physical activity. Thus, the main purpose of the article is to suggest that the content of implicit processes as well their more traditional conscious counterparts may provide useful intervention targets. To achieve this, the article will first introduce the role of non-conscious processes and behavioral priming. Following this, the more common reflective processes will be outlined as well as attempts at theoretical integration. Finally, the article will identify studies priming non-conscious processes and will then suggest priming self-efficacy.

  7. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation of metha......Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation...... of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...

  8. Regulation of U6 Promoter Activity by Transcriptional Interference in Viral Vector-Based RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linghu Nie; Meghna Das Thakur; Yumei Wang; Qin Su; Yongliang Zhao; Yunfeng Feng

    2010-01-01

    The direct negative impact of the transcriptional activity of one component on the second one in c/s is referred to as transcriptional interference (TI).U6 is a type Ⅲ RNA polymerase Ⅲ promoter commonly used for driving small hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression in vector-based RNAi.In the design and construction of viral vectors,multiple transcription units may be arranged in close proximity in a space-limited vector.Determining if U6 promoter activity can be affected by TI is critical for the expression of target shRNA in gene therapy or loss-of-function studies.In this research,we designed and implemented a modified retroviral system where shRNA and exogenous gene expressions were driven by two independent transcriptional units.We arranged U6 promoter driving.shRNA expression and UbiC promoter in two promoter arrangements.In primary macrophages,we found U6 promoter activity was inhibited by UbiC promoter when in the divergent arrangement but not in tandem.In contrast,PKG promoter had no such negative impact.Instead of enhancing U6 promoter activity,CMV enhancer had significant negative impact on U6 promoter activity in the presence of UbiC promoter.Our results indicate that U6 promoter activity can be affected by TI in a proximal promoter-specific and arrangement-dependent manner.

  9. Activator protein 1 promotes the transcriptional activation of IRAK-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peipei; Bo, Lulong; Liu, Yongjian; Lu, Wenbin; Lin, Shengwei; Bian, Jinjun; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) is a well-known negative regulator for Toll-like receptor signaling, which can regulate immune homeostasis and tolerance in a number of pathological settings. However, the mechanism for IRAK-M regulation at transcriptional level remains largely unknown. In this study, a 1.4kb upstream sequence starting from the major IRAK-M transcriptional start site was cloned into luciferase reporter vector pGL3-basic to construct the full-length IRAK-M promoter. Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the full-length and the deletion mutants of IRAK-M were transfected into 293T and A549 cells, and their relative luciferase activity was measured. The results demonstrated that activator protein 1(AP-1) cis-element plays a crucial role in IRAK-M constitutive gene transcription. Silencing of c-Fos and/or c-Jun expression suppressed the IRAK-M promoter activity as well as its mRNA and protein expressions. As a specific inhibitor for AP-1 activation, SP600125 also significantly suppressed the basal transcriptional activity of IRAK-M, the binding activity of c-Fos/c-Jun with IRAK-M promoter, and IRAK-M protein expression. Taken together, the result of this study highlights the importance of AP-1 in IRAK-M transcription, which offers more information on the role of IRAK-M in infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of the NAR promoter activated during hyphal stage of Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The promoter of N4R gene in Magnaporthe grisea was isolated and sequenced. The promoter sequences contained the "TATA" box, the "CAAT" box, and binding sites for fungal regulatory proteins. Programs that predict promoter sequences indicated that promoter sequence lies between locations 430 and 857 of the NAR promoter fragment. GFP expression under the NAR promoter and NAR transcript analysis revealed that this promoter is activated primarily at the mycelial stage in the rice blast fungus and could be used to express native or extrinsic genes in the mycelia of the rice blast fungus.

  11. The Hierarchy of Transcriptional Activation: From Enhancer to Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernimmen, Douglas; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    Regulatory elements (enhancers) that are remote from promoters play a critical role in the spatial, temporal, and physiological control of gene expression. Studies on specific loci, together with genome-wide approaches, suggest that there may be many common mechanisms involved in enhancer-promoter communication. Here, we discuss the multiprotein complexes that are recruited to enhancers and the hierarchy of events taking place between regulatory elements and promoters.

  12. Promotion of sink activity of developing rose shoots by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Y; Halevy, A H

    1980-11-01

    Holding young rose shoots (Rosa hybrida cv. Marimba) in darkness while the rest of the plant was in light reduced the amount of (14)C assimilates recovered from the darkened shoot by half. Relative specific activity of the shoot tip grown in light was 13.5 times greater than that of the darkened one. The flower bud at the shoot tip degenerated in darkness and died. Shoots 2 to 3 centimeters long, after flower initiation, were most sensitive to the dark treatment. The degeneration is a gradual and reversible process in the first 8 days of darkness, followed by irreversible damage and atrophy. Darkening enhanced the ability of the young leaves to compete for the available assimilates over that of the darkened shoot tip. The enhancement of the mobilizing ability of the shoot tip by light is independent of photosynthesis since spraying with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or holding shoots in a CO(2)-free atmosphere did not diminish the promoting effect of light on flower bud development or assimilate import. The possibility that light exerts its effect by photoproduction of ATP was also excluded inasmuch as no differences were found in ATP levels of shoot tips held in darkness and those held in light.

  13. Activities Patients and Nurses Undertake to Promote Patient Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiano, Georgia; Marshall, Andrea; Bucknall, Tracey; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    To describe and understand activities patients and nurses undertake to enact patient participation in nursing care. This observational study was conducted on two medical units at a public hospital in Australia. Twenty-eight nurse-patient dyads were observed for at least 4 hr. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014. Field notes were collected and were analyzed both inductively and deductively. Nurse-patient interactions promoted patient participation through dialogue and knowledge sharing. Less evident was patient involvement in planning or self-care. Nurses exerted control over patient care, which influenced the extent of patient participation. Patient participation appears to be difficult to enact. Nurses' controlling approach, influenced by organizational issues, was in conflict with a patient-centered approach to care. Nurse-patient communication is one aspect of patient-centered care enacted more frequently. Nurses may benefit from strategies at the individual and organizational level to enhance their patient-centered practices. Fostering nurses' communication may enhance patient-centered practices in hospitals. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  15. Genetic background affects human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu Bai

    Full Text Available The human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP promoter has been used to generate numerous transgenic mouse lines, which has facilitated the analysis of astrocyte function in health and disease. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of various hGFAP transgenes at different ages in the two most commonly used inbred mouse strains, FVB/N (FVB and C57BL/6N (B6N. In general, transgenic mice maintained on the B6N background displayed weaker transgene expression compared with transgenic FVB mice. Higher level of transgene expression in B6N mice could be regained by crossbreeding to FVB wild type mice. However, the endogenous murine GFAP expression was equivalent in both strains. In addition, we found that endogenous GFAP expression was increased in transgenic mice in comparison to wild type mice. The activities of the hGFAP transgenes were not age-dependently regulated. Our data highlight the importance of proper expression analysis when non-homologous recombination transgenesis is used.

  16. Evaluation of tumor-specific promoter activities in melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, B; Makhija, SK; Nettelbeck, DM; Rivera, AA; Komarova, S; Zhou, F; Yamamoto, M; Haisma, HJ; Alvarez, RD; Curiel, DT; Zhu, ZB

    Gene therapy is a novel therapy for melanoma. To date, however, there is still no powerful tumor specific promoter (TSP) to restrict the transgene expression in melanoma cells. In order to define a useful TSP for targeting in the context of melanoma gene therapy, four promoters, the cyclooxygenase-2

  17. "I am active": effects of a program to promote active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. "I am Active" is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders.

  18. [Comparative analysis of activity of different promoters for NIS gene expression in melanoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mich, A I; Kopantsev, E P; Vinogradova, T V; Sverdlov, E D

    2014-01-01

    Development of targeted drug delivery system is key problem of cancer gene therapy. To ensure specific delivery of these therapeutic compounds to the tumor it is preferable for therapeutic gene expression to occur predominantly in cancer cells. Therefore, when testing drug in vivo, it is necessary to study distribution of therapeutic gene expression products in different tissues of the organism. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is attractive reporter because its tissue level is easily quantitatively detected by noninvasive imaging methods. Different promoters are used to direct expression of therapeutic genes in tumor cells: strong nonspecific, moderate tissue-specific and tumor-specific. Tumor-specific promoters function in wide range of tumor cells, however they are relatively weak. Relationship between promoter and sodium iodide symporter activity is unclear to date. In this report we examined activity of different promoters in two melanoma cell lines, functional activity of NIS driven by these promoters, also we compared promoter strength and NIS activity. We demonstrated that in spite of strong differences in promoter activity functional activity of NIS directed by these promoters varies weakly. Relatively weak melanoma-specific promoter directs high NIS activity in melanoma cell, however weaker cancer-specific promoters drive high NIS activity only in certain melanoma cell line.

  19. HDAC Activity Is Required for Efficient Core Promoter Function at the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang C. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have been shown to be required for basal or inducible transcription at a variety of genes by poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrated previously that HDAC inhibition rapidly repressed transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter by a mechanism that does not require the binding of upstream transcription factors. In the current study, we find that HDACs work through the core promoter sequences of MMTV as well as those of several cellular genes to facilitate transcriptional initiation through deacetylation of nonhistone proteins.

  20. Coaches' Perceptions of French Sports Clubs: Health-Promotion Activities, Aims and Coach Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Aurélie; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Kokko, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the benefits of participating in sport, sports clubs have been recognised as health promoting organizations. To examine health-promotion activities in Finnish sports clubs, Kokko et al. developed a set of standards for health-promoting sports clubs (HPSC). Objective: The present study extends this line of research, by (1)…

  1. Coaches' Perceptions of French Sports Clubs: Health-Promotion Activities, Aims and Coach Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Aurélie; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Kokko, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the benefits of participating in sport, sports clubs have been recognised as health promoting organizations. To examine health-promotion activities in Finnish sports clubs, Kokko et al. developed a set of standards for health-promoting sports clubs (HPSC). Objective: The present study extends this line of research, by (1)…

  2. 78 FR 24393 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I Project... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Promoting Student Success in Algebra I... Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 208. Abstract: The Promoting Student Success in Algebra I (PSSA...

  3. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms and childhood primary nephrotic syndrome%ACE2基因多态性与儿童原发性肾病综合征的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱明瑜; 谢琴芳; 王丽娜; 于力

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveAngiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms have been shown to be implicated in hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and other diseases. However, it remains unclear whether ACE2 gene polymorphisms are involved in the development of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) in children. The aim of this study was to assess the association between A9570G polymorphisms of ACE2 gene and PNS in a group of Han children in Guangdong Province, China.MethodsThe genotype distribution and allele frequency of ACE2 gene A9570G in 66 children with PNS and 60 healthy subjects (control group) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.ResultsAllele frequency and genotype distribution showed no signiifcant difference between the PNS and control groups whether in female or in male children (P>0.05). The PNS group was classiifed into the glucocorticoid-sensitive and glucocorticoid-resistant subgroups according to glucocorticoid treatment response. Subgroup analysis revealed that in female children, the frequency of GG genotype was 17% in the glucocorticoid-sensitive group vs 45% in the glucocorticoid-sensitive group (P=0.018); the frequency of G allele was 31% in the glucocorticoid-sensitive group vs 61% in the glucocorticoid-resistant group (P=0.023). In male children, the frequency of G genotype/G allele was 36% in the glucocorticoid-sensitive group vs 64% in the glucocorticoid-resistant group (P=0.017).ConclusionsThere is no clear association between ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphisms and childhood PNS, but ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphisms might be associated with glucocorticoid treatment response in children with PNS. The G allele might be a genetic susceptibility factor of glucocorticoid resistance in children with PNS.%目的:血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)基因多态性与高血压病、糖尿病肾病等多种疾病相关,是否参与儿童原发性肾病综合征(PNS)的发病尚不明确,该研究探讨广东汉族儿童ACE

  4. Activity of heat shock genes' promoters in thermally contrasting animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lyubov N; Zatsepina, Olga G; Funikov, Sergei Yu; Zelentsova, Elena S; Schostak, Natalia G; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Evgen'ev, Michael B; Garbuz, David G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock gene promoters represent a highly conserved and universal system for the rapid induction of transcription after various stressful stimuli. We chose pairs of mammalian and insect species that significantly differ in their thermoresistance and constitutive levels of Hsp70 to compare hsp promoter strength under normal conditions and after heat shock (HS). The first pair includes the HSPA1 gene promoter of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and humans. It was demonstrated that the camel HSPA1A and HSPA1L promoters function normally in vitro in human cell cultures and exceed the strength of orthologous human promoters under basal conditions. We used the same in vitro assay for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider-2 (S2) cells to compare the activity of the hsp70 and hsp83 promoters of the second species pair represented by Diptera, i.e., Stratiomys singularior and D. melanogaster, which dramatically differ in thermoresistance and the pattern of Hsp70 accumulation. Promoter strength was also monitored in vivo in D. melanogaster strains transformed with constructs containing the S. singularior hsp70 ORF driven either by its own promoter or an orthologous promoter from the D. melanogaster hsp70Aa gene. Analysis revealed low S. singularior hsp70 promoter activity in vitro and in vivo under basal conditions and after HS in comparison with the endogenous promoter in D. melanogaster cells, which correlates with the absence of canonical GAGA elements in the promoters of the former species. Indeed, the insertion of GAGA elements into the S. singularior hsp70 regulatory region resulted in a dramatic increase in promoter activity in vitro but only modestly enhanced the promoter strength in the larvae of the transformed strains. In contrast with hsp70 promoters, hsp83 promoters from both of the studied Diptera species demonstrated high conservation and universality.

  5. TLR4-2242 T→C variant increases transcriptional activity of its promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongtang; Jiang Jianxin; Liu Qing; Duan Zhaoxia; Gu Wei; Zeng Ling; Chen Kehong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of-2242, -1892 and -1837 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) promoter activity. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and site direct mutation technology were used to construct TLR4 basic promoter and -2242C, -1892A and -1837G mutate promoter plasmids. Dual-Luciferase Reporter assay system was used to detect the activity of constructed promoter following human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were transiently cotransfected with the constructed plasmids and the control plasmid pRL-CMV. Results: In HEK293 cells, the activity of-2242C mutate promoter was higher than -2242T promoter, and there was no significant difference when both -1892A and -1837G mutate promoter compared with -1892G and -1837A promoter, respectively. Conclusion: It is implied that -2242T→C base variation can enhance the activity of TLR4 promoter, while -1892 and -1837 SNPs have no effect on TLR4 promoter activity.

  6. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant...

  7. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  8. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  9. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  10. Immunomodulator CD200 promotes neurotrophic activity by interacting with and activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Bjornsdottir, Halla; Christensen, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    in the suppression of microglia activation. We for the first time demonstrated that CD200 can interact with and transduce signaling through activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), thereby inducing neuritogenesis and promoting neuronal survival in primary neurons. CD200-induced FGFR...... phosphorylation was abrogated by CD200R, whereas FGF2-induced FGFR activation was inhibited by CD200. We also identified a sequence motif located in the first Ig-like module of CD200, likely representing the minimal CD200 binding site for FGFR. The FGFR binding motif overlaps with the CD200R binding site......, suggesting that they can compete for CD200 binding in cells that express both receptors. We propose that CD200 in neurons functions as a ligand of FGFR....

  11. Interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Meester, Femke; van Lenthe, Frank J; Spittaels, Heleen; Lien, Nanna; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity is considered to yield substantial health benefits, the level of physical activity among European teenagers is not sufficient. Adolescence is characterized by a decline in physical activity level. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of interventions promoting physical activity among young people, but none dealt with the available evidence specific for Europe. This review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of interventions to promote phy...

  12. nifH Promoter Activity Is Regulated by DNA Supercoiling in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jie LIU; Biao HU; Jia-Bi ZHU; Shan-Jiong SHEN; Guan-Qiao YU

    2005-01-01

    In prokaryotes, DNA supercoiling regulates the expression of many genes; for example, the expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae nifLA operon depends on DNA negative supercoiling in anaerobically grown cells, which indicates that DNA supercoiling might play a role in gene regulation of the anaerobic response. Since the expression of the nifH promoter in Sinorhizobium meliloti is not repressed by oxygen, it is proposed that the status of DNA supercoiling may not affect the expression of the nifH promoter. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing nifH promoter activity in wild-type and gyr- Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Our results show that gene expression driven by the S.meliloti nifH promoter requires the presence of active DNA gyrase. Because DNA gyrase increases the number of negative superhelical turns in DNA in the presence of ATP, our data indicate that negative supercoiling is also important for nifH promoter activity. Our study also shows that the DNA supercoilingdependent S. meliloti nifH promoter activity is related to the trans-acting factors NtrC and NifA that activate it. DNA supercoiling appeared to have a stronger effect on NtrC-activated nifH promoter activity than on NifA-activated promoter activity. Collectively, these results from the S. meliloti nifH promoter model system seem to indicate that, in addition to regulating gene expression during anaerobic signaling, DNA supercoiling may also provide a favorable topology for trans-acting factor binding and promoter activation regardless of oxygen status.

  13. [experience Of Adolescents In An Activity Of Health Promotion].

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Júnior, Antonio Rodrigues; de Barros, Erineide Melo Albuquerque; Sousa, Rosalice Araújo de; Souza, Luiza Jane Eyre de

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experience that occurred in the municipality of Uruoca-CE, Brazil, where nurses from the Family Health Strategy involved a group of teenagers in practices of health promotion. Pregnant women were chosen as priority because of their resistance to perform dental consultation and small family participation in prenatal care. It was built up a play for the pregnant women and their families, focusing on the theme, in which the adolescents were the writers, set designers and ...

  14. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  15. INVESTIGATION INTO CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SALES PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES: THE CASE OF UNILEVER GHANA LIMITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Owusu Ansah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The promotional activities have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of companies are using them to ensure their survival in today’s competitive market. Essentially, the study analyzed the nature of sales promotional activities of Unilever Ghana Limited; determined factors that influence the consumption of Unilever products in Kumasi and finally examined the relationship between sales promotions and the consumption of Unilever products. Primary and secondary data sources were used to select 220 consumers of Unilever in Kumasi and an in-depth interview with the Managers of the companies in Kumasi. Convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Cross tabulation was done on the demographics whilst a regression model was used to establish the relationship between sales promotions and consumption of products. The findings revealed that Personalities in promotions, Prices in promotions, Messages in promotions and Promotional tools have strong influence on consumption but the Medium in promotion did not have influence on consumption during promotions. It was therefore recommended for celebrities to be used in the company’s promotions.

  16. CanScript, an 18-Base pair DNA sequence, boosts tumor cell-specific promoter activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hung; Cozzitorto, Joseph A; Richards, Nathan G; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Yeo, Charles J; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Brody, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy protocols for the treatment of cancer often employ gene promoter sequences that are known to be overexpressed in specific tumor cell types relative to normal cells. These promoters, while specific, are often weakly active. It would be desirable to increase the activity of such promoters, while at the same time retain specificity, so that the therapeutic gene is more robustly expressed. Using a luciferase reporter DNA construct in both in vitro cell transfection assays and in vivo mouse tumor models, we have determined that in the absence of any other DNA sequence, a previously identified 18-base pair enhancer sequence called CanScript, lying upstream of the MSLN gene, has ∼25% of the promoter activity of CAG, a very strong non-specific promoter/enhancer, in tumor cells in which MSLN is highly expressed. Furthermore, tandem repeat copies of CanScript enhance transcription in a dose-dependent manner and, when coupled with promoter sequences that are active in tumor cells, increase promoter activity. These findings suggest that the incorporation of CanScript into gene constructs may have application in enhancing activity of promoters used in cancer-targeting gene therapy strategies, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20798601

  17. CMV promoter is repressed by p53 and activated by JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodova, Marianna; Jayini, Renuka; Singasani, Reddy; Chipps, Elizabeth; Islam, M Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Viral promoters are widely utilized in commercial and customized vectors to drive expression of genes of interest including reporter, effector and transfection control, because of their high transcription efficiency in a variety of primary and transformed cell lines. However, we observed altered rate of transcription for these promoters under conditions such as presence of an effector protein. These variations in viral promoter driven expressions can potentially lead to incorrect conclusion, especially in comparative and quantitative experiments. We found significantly reduced viral promoter activity in cells overexpressing tumor suppressor protein p53, whereas markedly induced transcription in cells overexpressing MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 (Mekk 1). Using deletion constructs generated from the CMV promoter, we found the transcription reduction by p53 is possibly mediated through the TATA motif present in proximal CMV promoter. The activation of the CMV promoter by Mekk 1, on the other hand, is attributed to the proximal CRE binding site in the promoter. These findings may be of interest to investigators who use CMV (or other viral) promoter driven vectors for either comparative or quantitative gene expression, or effect on promoter activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals.

  19. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A

  20. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  1. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the

  2. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  3. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the I

  4. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the I

  5. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase-regulated activation of the PGC-1alpha promoter in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Irrcher

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled in skeletal muscle remains largely undefined. Thus, we sought to investigate the transcriptional regulation of PGC-1alpha using AICAR, an activator of AMPK, that is known to increase PGC-1alpha expression. A 2.2 kb fragment of the human PGC-1alpha promoter was cloned and sequence analysis revealed that this TATA-less sequence houses putative consensus sites including a GC-box, a CRE, several IRSs, a SRE, binding sites for GATA, MEF2, p 53, NF-kappaB, and EBox binding proteins. AMPK activation for 24 hours increased PGC-1alpha promoter activity with concomitant increases in mRNA expression. The effect of AICAR on transcriptional activation was mediated by an overlapping GATA/EBox binding site at -495 within the PGC-1alpha promoter based on gel shift analyses that revealed increases in GATA/EBox DNA binding. Mutation of the EBox within the GATA/EBox binding site in the promoter reduced basal promoter activity and completely abolished the AICAR effect. Supershift analyses identified USF-1 as a DNA binding transcription factor potentially involved in regulating PGC-1alpha promoter activity, which was confirmed in vivo by ChIP. Overexpression of either GATA-4 or USF-1 alone increased the p851 PGC-1alpha promoter activity by 1.7- and 2.0-fold respectively, while co-expression of GATA-4 and USF-1 led to an additive increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activity. The USF-1-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activation led to similar increases at the mRNA level. Our data identify a novel AMPK-mediated regulatory pathway that regulates PGC-1alpha gene expression. This could represent a potential therapeutic target to control PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle.

  7. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  8. Anthracyclines induce double-strand DNA breaks at active gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kemp, Christopher J; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that intercalates between DNA base-pairs and poisons Topoisomerase II, although the mechanistic basis for cell killing remains speculative. Doxorubicin and related anthracycline compounds have been shown to increase nucleosome turnover and/or eviction around promoters, which suggests that the resulting enhanced exposure of DNA might underlie cell killing. Previously, we showed that low doses of anthracyclines increase nucleosome turnover around active gene promoters, which suggests that loss of nucleosomes might contribute to cancer cell killing. Here we apply a genome-wide method to precisely map DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cancer cells. We find that spontaneous DSBs occur preferentially around promoters of active genes, and that both anthracyclines and etoposide, a Topoisomerase II poison, increase DSBs around promoters, although CpG islands are conspicuously protected from DSBs. We propose that torsion-based enhancement of nucleosome turnover by anthracyclines exposes promoter DNA, ultimately causing DSBs around promoters.

  9. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.

    2012-01-01

    of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...

  10. Activated gammadelta T cells promote the activation of uveitogenic T cells and exacerbate EAU development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Hong; Shao, Hui; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Born, Willi K; Kaplan, Henry J; Sun, Deming

    2011-07-29

    To determine how the activation of γδ T cells affects the generation of uveitogenic αβ T cells and the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). γδ T cells were isolated from B6 mice immunized with the uveitogenic peptide IRBP(1-20) and αβ T cells from immunized TCR-δ(-/-) mice. Resting γδ T cells were prepared by culture of separated γδ T cells in cytokine-free medium for 3 to 5 days, when they showed downregulation of CD69 expression. Activated γδ T cells were prepared by incubating resting γδ T cells with anti-γδ TCR (GL3) for 2 days. Responder αβ T cells were cocultured with immunizing antigen and antigen-presenting cells. The numbers of antigen-specific T cells expressing IL-17 or IFN-γ were determined by intracellular staining followed by FACS analysis after stimulation, with or without the addition of purified γδ T cells. The cytokines in the culture medium were measured by ELISA. Highly enriched γδ T cells exert widely different effects on autoreactive αβ T cells in EAU, depending on the activation status of the γδ T cells. Whereas nonactivated γδ T cells had little effect on the activation of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-specific αβ T cells in vitro and in vivo, activated γδ T cells promoted the generation of uveitogenic T cells and exacerbated the development of EAU. The functional ability of γδ T cells is greatly influenced by their activation status. Activated γδ T cells exacerbate EAU through increased activation of uveitogenic T cells.

  11. Staff's perceptions of the use of evidence-based physical activity promotion strategies for promoting girls' physical activity at afterschool programs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Huberty, Jennifer; Beets, Michael; Tibbits, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    There is a need to improve girls' physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs as girls' PA levels are consistently lower than boys'. An evidence-based professional development framework, the 5 Ms, has been effective in helping staff to improve PA in both girls and boys but further improvements in girls' PA are needed. Little is known about staff's perceptions of using PA promotion strategies to promote girls' PA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore staff perceptions of the use of evidence-based PA promotion strategies for promoting PA in girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from three community-based afterschool programs located within a school setting (n=18). Data were analyzed using the process of immersion/crystallization. A majority of staff had some knowledge of PA promotion strategies but few staff consistently utilized these strategies and a majority felt several strategies were unnecessary (i.e., having a PA policy). Newer staff reported depending on senior staff to promote PA in girls. Overall, findings suggest that staff's perceptions may impact their use of PA promotions strategies. The results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of an existing staff training framework (the 5 Ms) to improve girls' PA in afterschool programs.

  12. Optimization of reporter gene assay: several factors influencing detection of promoter activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li-xiang; WENG Mo; ZHANG Zong-yu; TONG Tan-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Promoter analysis is currently applied to detect the expression of the targeted gene in studies of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. As a reporter gene, luciferase plays an important role and has been used widely in the promoter assay.Methods Human embryonic lung fibroblast cells (2BS), HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells were transfected with various genes embedded by lipofectamine. This study determined various factors that affect promoter activity determination,such as the selection of the reporter genes and internal references, the dose and the type of the vectors carrying the transcription factors, the host cells and the instruments.Results The sensitivity of the luciferase assay was much higher than that of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Moreover, promoter activity is increased in a dose-related manner only in certain ranges outside of which the results may be reversed and the promoter activity is related to the expression vector which is carrying the cDNA.Otherwise, the length of the promoter, internal references and the host cell can also influence the promoter activity.Conclusions To detect the promoter activity accurately, a few factors including dose, vector, length and host cell which influence reporter gene assay aforementioned should be considered.

  13. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  14. An empirical analysis of the roles, activities and performance of commercial diplomats in promoting international business

    OpenAIRE

    Naray, Olivier; Bezençon, Valéry; Kostecki, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Governments seek to promote – beyond the support for individual businesses – increased exports but also the intangible elements, such as nation branding and country positioning for inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and other economic benefits. In this context, commercial diplomats work as State representatives with diplomatic status conducting trade and business promotion activities between a home and a host country supporting directly individual business firms or promoting t...

  15. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  16. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew

    2009-03-20

    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  17. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-Solís

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV. Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5 and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  18. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  19. Green care farms promote activity among elderly people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.R.; Oosting, S.J.; Kuin, Y.; Hoefnagels, E.C.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, an increasing number of green care farms are providing day care to community-dwelling elderly people with dementia. Currently, it is unknown whether activities, activity participation, and facility use of elderly people with dementia at green care farms differ from those at

  20. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  1. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  2. Green care farms promote activity among elderly people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, S.R. de; Oosting, S.J.; Kuin, Y.; Hoefnagels, E.C.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, an increasing number of green care farms are providing day care to community-dwelling elderly people with dementia. Currently, it is unknown whether activities, activity participation, and facility use of elderly people with dementia at green care farms differ from those at regul

  3. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition.

  4. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  5. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension%ACE2基因多态性与原发性高血压的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曹进; 单志新; 陈富荣; 符永恒; 衣文君

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究血管紧张素转化酶2(angiotensin converting enzyme 2,ACE2)基因多态性与广东地区原发性高血压的相关性.方法 高血压组选择门诊与住院的汉族无血缘关系的原发性高血压369例,男194例,女175例;对照组为同期体检的广东地区健康汉族居民199例,男101例,女98例.排除冠心病、高血压、糖尿病、脑血管病及肝功能不良、肾功能不良.按照性别分为两组,采用病例对照的原则,应用聚合酶链反应和限制性内切酶片段长度多态性(polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism,PCR-RFLP)的方法检测ACE2基因G9570A多态性,并随机抽取20份标本进行基因测序以核实基因分型.在分析各亚组的年龄、体重指数、血压及生化指标的基础上综合分析ACE2基因多态性与原发性高血压的关系.结果 高血压组G等位基因频率:男75.3%,对照组男60.4%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.0086,P=0.0081),高血压组,女57.4%,对照组45.4%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.9443,P=0.0084);女高血压组GG基因型的频率明显高于对照组(χ2=12.9499,P=0.0015);G等位基因人群发生高血压的风险高于A等位基因人群,男OR:1.9945,95% CI:1.1916~3.3385,P=0.0082;女OR:1.603,95% CI:1.1274~2.2792,P=0.0085.结论 ACE2-G9570A多态性与原发性高血压相关;携带G等位基因的男性和仅仅携带G基因的女性人群发生高血压的危险性相对较大,提示ACE2基因可作为原发性高血压的候选易感基因.

  6. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are

  7. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  8. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to

  9. Promoting Physical Activity among International Students in Higher Education: A Peer-Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    International students have become an important and growing group in U.S. higher education. Although many universities offer various types of support to international students, little attention is given to preventive health services or health promotion efforts, such as the promotion of physical activity. This article outlines a theory-based…

  10. Promoting evidence-based practice: the roles and activities of professional nurses' associations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, T. van; Holleman, G.; Ven, M. van de; Grypdonck, M.H.; Eliens, A.; Vliet, M. van

    2006-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports a study exploring the role perceptions and current activities in evidence-based practice promotion of professional nurses' associations in the Netherlands. Background: The promotion of evidence-based practice contributes to professional standards in nursing and good quality c

  11. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are in

  12. State activities that promote fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi, J. [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States). Breakthrough Technologies Inst.

    2007-07-01

    The fuel cell and hydrogen industry provide environmental benefits in addition to economic benefits in the form of jobs and business. This presentation outlined the initiatives, policy and partnerships that individual states are initiating to promote the commercialization of fuel cells and hydrogen fuels. Multi-state partnerships and regional organizations and initiatives were highlighted along with state programs, regulations, demonstrations and incentives that include hydrogen, fuel cells and zero emission vehicles. It was shown that 47 states and the District of Columbia (DC) are involved in the promotion of fuel cell or hydrogen legislation and funding. Breakthrough Technologies Institute, the parent organization of Fuel Cells 2000, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program has launched a searchable database that catalogues all stationary installations, hydrogen fueling stations and vehicle demonstration programs in the United States, including cars, buses and specialty vehicles. The database is intended to be a guide for local, state and federal lawmakers to implement similar legislation and initiatives in their jurisdictions. The database includes regulations such as interconnection standards, renewable portfolio standards and net metering as well as legislation such as tax credits, grants, and loans. Roadmaps and funding/support for business incubators and relocation are included. The database is also an important tool for the general public who are trying to learn more about the technology. Although federal research money has mainly focused on transportation and related fuel technologies, individual states are targeting other applications and areas such as materials and components, stationary power and fuel storage.

  13. Promoting Physical Activity through Hand-Held Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C.; Ahn, David K.; Oliveira, Brian M.; Atienza, Audie A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Design Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Setting/Participants Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Intervention Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Conclusions Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults. PMID:18201644

  14. Promoting physical activity through hand-held computer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Ahn, David K; Oliveira, Brian M; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (pfirst-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults.

  15. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation.

  16. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  17. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  18. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  19. Transcription activation by the bacteriophage Mu Mor protein: analysis of promoter mutations in Pm identifies a new region required for promoter function.

    OpenAIRE

    Artsimovitch, I; Howe, M M

    1996-01-01

    Middle transcription of bacteriophage Mu requires Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme and a Mu-encoded protein, Mor. Consistent with these requirements, the middle promoter, Pm, has a recognizable -10 region but lacks a -35 region. Mutagenesis of this promoter (from -70 to +10) was performed using mutagenic oligonucleotide-directed PCR. The resulting fragments were cloned into a promoter-lacZfusion vector and analyzed for promoter activity by assaying beta-galactosidase production. Sin...

  20. Activation of stress-activated MAP protein kinases up-regulates expression of transgenes driven by the cytomegalovirus immediate/early promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruening, W; Giasson, B; Mushynski, W; Durham, H D

    1998-01-01

    The immediate/early promoter/enhancer of cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter) is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression of transgenes in eukaryotic cells. In practice, the CMV promoter is often thought of as a constitutively active unregulated promoter. However, we have observed that transcription from the CMV promoter can be up-regulated by a variety of environmental stresses. Many forms of cellular stress stimulate MAP kinase signalling pathways, resulting in activation of stress-...

  1. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  2. Public health strategies promoting physical activity and healthy eating in Canada: are we changing paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Hanusaik, Nancy; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    To compare the extent to which Canadian public health organizations incorporated the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion action areas in promoting physical activity and healthy eating in 2004 and 2010. Data were available from repeat censuses of all regional, provincial, and national organizations with mandates to promote physical activity [n = 134 (2004); n = 118 (2010)] or healthy eating [n = 137 (2004); n = 130 (2010)]. Eleven strategies to promote these behaviors were grouped according to the five action areas. Descriptive analyses were conducted to document the level of involvement in each action area over time. The proportion of organizations promoting physical activity and "heavily involved" in creating supportive environments increased from 51 % (2004) to 70 % (2010). The proportion also increased for reorienting health services (29 % to 39 %). The proportion of organizations promoting healthy eating and "heavily involved" in building healthy public policy increased from 47 to 53 %. Individual skill building remained stable for physical activity but declined for healthy eating. While developing personal skills remains important in promoting physical activity and healthy eating in Canada, public health organizations increased involvement in structural-level strategies.

  3. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  4. Anti-tumour promoter activity in Malaysian ginger rhizobia used in traditional medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vimala, S; Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1999-01-01

    Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA...

  5. AKT1 Activation Promotes Development of Melanoma Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastases are the major cause of melanoma-related mortality. Previous studies implicating aberrant AKT signaling in human melanoma metastases led us to evaluate the effect of activated AKT1 expression in non-metastatic BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull mouse melanomas in vivo. Expression of activated AKT1 resulted in highly metastatic melanomas with lung and brain metastases in 67% and 17% of our mice, respectively. Silencing of PTEN in BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull melanomas cooperated with activated AKT1, resulting in decreased tumor latency and the development of lung and brain metastases in nearly 80% of tumor-bearing mice. These data demonstrate that AKT1 activation is sufficient to elicit lung and brain metastases in this context and reveal that activation of AKT1 is distinct from PTEN silencing in metastatic melanoma progression. These findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms driving melanoma metastasis and may provide valuable insights for clinical management of this disease.

  6. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  7. Armodafinil promotes wakefulness and activates Fos in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Elaine M; Lin, Yin-Guo; Aimone, Lisa; Gruner, John A; Flood, Dorothy G

    2009-05-01

    Modafinil increases waking and labeling of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation. In the present study, armodafinil, the R-enantiomer of racemic modafinil, was administered to rats at 30 or 100 mg/kg i.p. about 5 h after lights on (circadian time 5 and near the midpoint of the sleep phase of the sleep:wake cycle) to assess its effects on sleep/wake activity and Fos activation. Armodafinil at 100 mg/kg increased wakefulness for 2 h, while 30 mg/kg armodafinil only briefly increased wakefulness. Armodafinil (30 and 100 mg/kg) also increased latencies to the onset of sleep and motor activity. Armodafinil had differential effects in increasing neuronal Fos immunolabeling 2 h after administration. Armodafinil at 100 mg/kg increased numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in striatum and anterior cingulate cortex, without affecting nucleus accumbens. Armodafinil at 30 mg/kg only increased numbers of light Fos-labeled neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex. In brainstem arousal centers, 100 mg/kg armodafinil increased numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmentum, laterodorsal tegmentum, locus coeruleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus. Fos activation of these brainstem arousal centers, as well as of the cortex and striatum, is consistent with the observed arousal effects of armodafinil.

  8. PKC-δ activation in neutrophils promotes fungal clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Cullere, Xavier; Nishi, Hiroshi; Saggu, Gurpanna; Durand, Enrique; Mansour, Michael K; Tam, Jenny M; Song, Xiu-Yu; Lin, Xin; Vyas, Jatin M; Mayadas, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 and the integrin Mac-1 have key roles in controlling fungal infection. Here, we demonstrate that dectin-1- and Mac-1-induced activation of protein kinase Cδ in neutrophils, independent of the Card9 adaptor, is required for reactive oxygen species production and for intracellular killing upon Candida albicans uptake. Protein kinase Cδ was also required for zymosan-induced cytokine generation in neutrophils. In macrophages, protein kinase Cδ deficiency prevented fungi-induced reactive oxygen species generation but had no effect on activation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1, an effector of Card9, or nuclear factor κB activation, nor did it affect phagolysosomal maturation, autophagy, or intracellular C. albicans killing. In vivo, protein kinase Cδ-deficient mice were highly susceptible to C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus infection, which was partially rescued with adoptively transferred wild-type neutrophils. Thus, protein kinase Cδ activation downstream of dectin-1 and Mac-1 has an important role in neutrophil, but not macrophage, functions required for host defense against fungal pathogens.

  9. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing. PMID:28335475

  10. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  11. Drosophila gypsy insulator and yellow enhancers regulate activity of yellow promoter through the same regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Larisa; Kostuchenko, Margarita; Silicheva, Margarita; Georgiev, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    There is ample evidence that the enhancers of a promoterless yellow locus in one homologous chromosome can activate the yellow promoter in the other chromosome where the enhancers are inactive or deleted, which is indicative of a high specificity of the enhancer-promoter interaction in yellow. In this paper, we have found that the yellow sequence from -100 to -69 is essential for stimulation of the heterologous eve (TATA-containing) and white (TATA-less) promoters by the yellow enhancers from a distance. However, the presence of this sequence is not required when the yellow enhancers are directly fused to the heterologous promoters or are activated by the yeast GAL4 activator. Unexpectedly, the same promoter proximal region defines previously described promoter-specific, long-distance repression of the yellow promoter by the gypsy insulator on the mod(mdg4) ( u1 ) background. These finding suggest that proteins bound to the -100 to -69 sequence are essential for communication between the yellow promoter and upstream regulatory elements.

  12. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Wang, Lin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2014-03-01

    Blood vessel growth in the skeletal system and osteogenesis seem to be coupled, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between endothelial and osteoblastic cells. Understanding the nature of the mechanisms linking angiogenesis and bone formation should be of great relevance for improved fracture healing or prevention of bone mass loss. Here we show that vascular growth in bone involves a specialized, tissue-specific form of angiogenesis. Notch signalling promotes endothelial cell proliferation and vessel growth in postnatal long bone, which is the opposite of the well-established function of Notch and its ligand Dll4 in the endothelium of other organs and tumours. Endothelial-cell-specific and inducible genetic disruption of Notch signalling in mice not only impaired bone vessel morphology and growth, but also led to reduced osteogenesis, shortening of long bones, chondrocyte defects, loss of trabeculae and decreased bone mass. On the basis of a series of genetic experiments, we conclude that skeletal defects in these mutants involved defective angiocrine release of Noggin from endothelial cells, which is positively regulated by Notch. Administration of recombinant Noggin, a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, restored bone growth and mineralization, chondrocyte maturation, the formation of trabeculae and osteoprogenitor numbers in endothelial-cell-specific Notch pathway mutants. These findings establish a molecular framework coupling angiogenesis, angiocrine signals and osteogenesis, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic applications.

  13. Creativity in the English Class: Activities to Promote EFL Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán A. Avila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a pedagogical intervention that includes a set of creative activities designed to improve the oral and written production of students in the English classroom, especially those who have shown a lack of interest or attention. It was observed that participants initially seemed careless about studying the language. Eventually they responded to the proposed methods positively and were more willing and motivated to participate in chain games, creative writing, and screenwriting exercises. The activities helped develop the students’ fluency in both oral and written production and improved their understanding of English grammar and structure.

  14. Trans activation of plasmid-borne promoters by adenovirus and several herpes group viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, R D; Dunlop, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes experiments to test the ability of a number of viruses of the Herpes group, and also Adenovirus-2 and SV40, to activate transcription from the Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and the rabbit beta-globin promoters. Plasmids containing these genes were transfected into HeLa cells which were then infected with various viruses. Transcriptional activation in trans of the plasmid-borne promoters was monitored by quantitative S1 nuclease analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA is...

  15. Genetic variation in the proximal promoter of ABC and SLC superfamilies: liver and kidney specific expression and promoter activity predict variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Hesselson

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the cellular uptake and efflux of an array of small molecules including nutrients, environmental toxins, and many clinically used drugs. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the proximal promoter regions of transporter genes contribute to observed variation in drug response. A total of 579 polymorphisms were identified in the proximal promoters (-250 to +50 bp and flanking 5' sequence of 107 transporters in the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC superfamilies in 272 DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations. Many transporter promoters contained multiple common polymorphisms. Using a sliding window analysis, we observed that, on average, nucleotide diversity (pi was lowest at approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site, suggesting that this region may harbor important functional elements. The proximal promoters of transporters that were highly expressed in the liver had greater nucleotide diversity than those that were highly expressed in the kidney consistent with greater negative selective pressure on the promoters of kidney transporters. Twenty-one promoters were evaluated for activity using reporter assays. Greater nucleotide diversity was observed in promoters with strong activity compared to promoters with weak activity, suggesting that weak promoters are under more negative selective pressure than promoters with high activity. Collectively, these results suggest that the proximal promoter region of membrane transporters is rich in variation and that variants in these regions may play a role in interindividual variation in drug disposition and response.

  16. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  17. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  18. Laminar flow downregulates Notch activity to promote lymphatic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Seong, Young Jin; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Esak; Hong, Mingu; Lee, Sunju; Ishida, Hiroaki; Burford, James; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Adams, Ralf H; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Chen, Christopher S; Vogel, Hans J; Koh, Chester J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-03

    The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of DTX1 and DTX3L. DTX1 and DTX3L, functioning as a heterodimeric Notch E3 ligase, concertedly downregulate NOTCH1 activity and enhance lymphatic sprouting. Notably, overexpression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3 unexpectedly inhibited lymphatic sprouting, presumably by disturbing calcium signaling. Endothelial-specific knockouts of Orai1 and Klf2 also markedly impaired lymphatic sprouting. Moreover, Dtx3l loss of function led to defective lymphatic sprouting, while Dtx3l gain of function rescued impaired sprouting in Orai1 KO embryos. Together, the data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying laminar flow-induced lymphatic sprouting.

  19. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  20. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  1. Community Resources for Promoting Youth Nutrition and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly R.; McGowan, Melissa K.; Donato, Karen A.; Kollipara, Sobha; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a national public health crisis. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the National Institutes of Health and Kaiser Permanente have developed community tools and resources for children and families to lower their risk for obesity through healthier, active lifestyles. The authors describe innovative practices and…

  2. Tissue specificity of enhancer and promoter activities of a HERV-K(HML-2) LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Trubetskoy, D O; Manuylov, N L; Vetchinova, A S; Zavalova, L L; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2004-08-01

    Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate tissue-specific promoter and enhancer activities of a solitary extraviral long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in several human and CHO cell lines. The promoter activity of the LTR varied from virtually not detectable (GS and Jurkat cells) to as high as that of the SV40 early promoter (Tera-1 human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells). The negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR retained its activity in all cell lines where the LTR could act as a promoter, and was also capable of binding host cell nuclear proteins. The enhancer activity of the LTR towards the SV40 early promoter was detected only in Tera-1 cells and was not observed in a closely related human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line of different origin, NT2/D1. A comparison of proteins bound to central part of the LTR in nuclear extracts from Tera-1 and NT2/D1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed striking differences that could be determined by different LTR enhancer activities in these cells. Tissue specificity of the SV40 early promoter activity was also revealed.

  3. Combining balneotherapy and health promotion to promote active and healthy ageing: the Balaruc-MACVIA-LR(®) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Bernard, P L; Canovas, G; Raffort, N; Desfour, H; Soriteau, L; Noguès, M; Camuzat, T; Mercier, J; Dupeyron, A; Quéré, I; Laffont, I; Hérisson, C; Solimene, H; Bousquet, J

    2016-12-01

    Scaling up and replication of successful innovative integrated care models for chronic diseases is one of the targets of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). MACVIA-LR(®) (MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon) is a Reference Site of the EIP on AHA. The main objective of MACVIA-LR(®) is to develop innovative solutions in order to (1) improve the care of patients affected by chronic diseases, (2) reduce avoidable hospitalization and (3) scale up the innovation to regions of Europe. The MACVIA-LR(®) project also aims to assess all possible aspects of medicine-including non-pharmacologic approaches-in order to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases. These approaches include hydrotherapy and balneotherapy which can be of great importance if health promotion strategies are considered. Balneotherapy at Balaruc-les-Bains focusses on musculoskeletal diseases and chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Each year, over 46,000 people attend an 18-day course related to a new falls prevention initiative combining balneotherapy and education. On arrival, each person receives a flyer providing information on the risk of fall and, depending on this risk, a course is proposed combining education and physical activity. A pilot study assesses the impact of the course 6 and 12 months later. This health promotion strategy for active and healthy ageing follows the FEMTEC (World Federation of Hydrotherapy and Climatotherapy) concept.

  4. Health behaviors and participation in health promotion activities among hospital staff: which occupational group performs better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2014-10-22

    Staff health behaviors affect not only their own health but also their provision of health promotion services to their patients. Although different occupational groups work in hospitals, few studies have compared health behaviors among them. The objectives of this study were to examine health behaviors, including physical activity, eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day (5 a day), and stress adaptation, and participation in hospital-based health promotion activities by occupational groups in hospitals. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among full-time employees in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. This analysis included 4202 physicians, 31639 nurses, 2315 pharmacists, 8161 other health professionals, and 13079 administrative personnel. Administrative personnel attended more health promotion lectures and clubs/groups than other health professionals, pharmacists and physicians, and those workers participated more than nurses. Participation in health promotion activities provided by hospitals was associated with better practice of health behaviors. After adjustment for socio-demographics and participation in health promotion activities, physicians, pharmacists, and other health professionals reported more 5 a day than administrative staff. Other health professionals reported more physical activity than administrative staff, and they reported more than physicians. Nurses reported the lowest level of physical activity, 5 a day, and stress adaptation of all occupational groups. Nurses had worse health behaviors and less participation in health promotion activities than other groups. Workplace health promotion program for health professionals is needed, with special emphasis on nurses. Hospital-based health promotion programs could take the differences of occupational groups into consideration to tailor programs to the needs of different occupational groups.

  5. Oxidant stress promotes disease by activating CaMKII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    CaMKII is activated by oxidation of methionine residues residing in the regulatory domain. Oxidized CaMKII (ox-CaMKII) is now thought to participate in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancer. This invited review summarizes current evidence for the role of ox-CaMKII in disease, considers critical knowledge gaps and suggests new areas for inquiry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbonless footprints: promoting health and climate stabilization through active transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Greenwald, Michael J; Winkelman, Steve; Chapman, James; Kavage, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to describe how active transportation can help meet health and greenhouse gas emissions goals, and the ability of urban form strategies to impact both issues. In addition, we wanted to assess if there is an inverse relationship between active and motorized forms of travel. A cross-sectional analysis of travel diary data was used to measure relationships among energy (kcal) burned from walking, energy (kcal) burned from motorized transportation, and the ratio of the two (the transport energy index) with regional accessibility and local walkability when adjusting for demographic factors. Multiple linear regression and descriptive statistics were employed to estimate these relationships. Transit accessibility, residential density, and intersection density were positive predictors of walk energy and the energy index and inverse predictors of motorized energy. The land use mix variable was negatively and significantly associated with energy burned from walking and from motorized transportation, with no significant impact on the transport energy index. Because a mixed land use pattern places destinations closer together, it reduces distances and thus energy demands for both walking and driving. The results support the concept, previously untested empirically, that similar urban form strategies can have cobenefits for both physical activity and climate change.

  7. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  8. Activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Lin, Huan; Li, Yehua; Liu, Ling; Meng, Qinghang; Cui, Ting; Liu, Jing; Li, Zhen

    2011-06-23

    Adiponectin is assembled into trimer (LMW), hexamer (MMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimer in adipocytes. The HMW adiponectin is more metabolically active and closely associated with peripheral insulin sensitivity. In this study, we reported that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with insulin-sensitizing effect, inhibits the expression of adiponectin, but promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin. Berberine activates AMPK. Knockdown of AMPKα1 abolishes the effect of berberine. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increases the level of HMW adiponectin. Our study suggested that activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization.

  9. SALSA: SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (=50;=42 years who participated were overweight (BMI=29.7 kg/m2; bodyfat=38.5% and reported low levels of leisure time PA (=10.7 MET-min/wk and FV consumption (=4.2 servings/day. All were randomized to a four-week (1 semiweekly Latin dance group or (2 internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (=10.7 MET-min/wk to follow up (=34.0 MET-min/wk, <.001, and FV consumption increased over time by group (=.02. Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color.

  10. Perceiving Promotion Activities İn Politic Marketing By Gazi University’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÇATLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotions. With this project inquiry work that consists of 9 parts also has done to know about how the university students are affected and which promotion activities affect the students more. İnquiry appliers are students in University of Gazi TTEF. In the inquiry, questioned to students that students' gender, incomes, the place they live, their enroling in political parties, being affected by promotion activities, if they are affected, by which promotion activity and how much they are affected, advertsement, public relations,personal marketing and marketing development.

  11. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-05-31

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells.

  12. Boswellia carterii liquisolid systems with promoted anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Ammar, Nagwa Mohammed; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Hussein, Rehab Ali; Awad, Gamal; El-Awdan, Sally Abdul-Wanees

    2015-01-01

    Boswellia carterii (BC) Birdwood oleogum resin is an ancient remedy of inflammation processes known since Ancient Egyptian time. Of boswellic acids, 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most potent anti-inflammatory active principle. Liquisolid systems of the biologically active fraction of BC oleogum resin were prepared for improving dissolution properties using low dose oral delivery to achieve enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, in comparison with the standard oral anti-inflammatory; Indomethacin. AKBA was assayed, employing an accurate and sensitive HPLC method. Detection was carried out at 210 nm using UV/Vis detector. A solubility study for the bioactive fraction was conducted. Microcrystalline cellulose and Aeroperl®300 Pharma were used as carrier and coating materials. Angle of slide, liquid load factor and Carr's flow index were estimated. Six systems were prepared using polyethylene glycol 400, solvent and two drug loading concentrations; 20 and 40 %. For each concentration, three carrier: coat ratios were dispensed; 20:1, 10:1, and 5:1. Dissolution study was performed and two systems were selected for characterization and in vivo evaluation by investigating upper GIT ulcerogenic effect and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Results indicate absence of ulcers and significantly higher and prolonged anti-inflammatory efficacy for formulations F1 and F2, with carrier: coat ratio, 5:1 and drug loads of 20 and 40 %, respectively, compared with standard oral indomethacin. We conclude higher efficacy of BC bioactive fraction liquisolids compared with Indomethacin with greater safety on GIT, longer duration of action and hence better patient compliance.

  13. SIRT1 promotes DNA repair activity in response to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Lee, Kee-Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Human SIRT1 controls various physiological responses including cell fate, stress, and aging, through deacetylation of its specific substrate protein. In processing DNA damage signaling, SIRT1 attenuates a cellular apoptotic response by deacetylation of p53 tumor suppressor. Ectopically over-expressed SIRT1 resulted in the increase of repair of DNA strand breakages produced by radiation. On the other hand, repression of endogenous SIRT1 expression by SIRT1 siRNA led to the decrease of this repair activity, indicating that SIRT1 can regulate DNA repair capacity of cells with DNA strand breaks.

  14. MAGEB2 is activated by promoter demethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita M Pattani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although promoter hypermethylation has been an accepted means of tumor suppressor gene inactivation, activation of otherwise normally repressed proto-oncogenes by promoter demethylation has been infrequently documented. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study we performed an integrative, whole-genome analysis for discovery of epigenetically activated proto-oncogenes in head and neck cancer tumors. We used the 47K GeneChip U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression microarray platform to obtain re-expression data from 5-aza treated normal cell line and expression data from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC tumor tissues and normal mucosa tissues. We then investigated candidate genes by screening promoter regions for CpG islands and bisulfite sequencing followed by QUMSP and RT PCR for the best candidate genes. Finally, functional studies were performed on the top candidate gene. RESULTS: From the top 178 screened candidates 96 had CpG islands in their promoter region. Seven candidate genes showed promoter region methylation in normal mucosa samples and promoter demethylation in a small cohort of primary HNSCC tissues. We then studied the demethylation of the top 3 candidate genes in an expanded cohort of 76 HNSCC tissue samples and 17 normal mucosa samples. We identified MAGEB2 as having significant promoter demethylation in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues. We then found significantly higher expression of MAGEB2 in tumors in a separate cohort of 73 primary HNSCC tissues and 31 normal tissues. Finally, we found that MAGEB2 has growth promoting effects on minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell lines but not a definite effect on HNSCC cell lines. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified MAGEB2 as activated by promoter demethylation in HNSCCand demonstrates growth promoting effects in a minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell line. More studies are needed to evaluate MAGBE2's exact role in HNSCC.

  15. Promoting physical activity for people with neurological disability: perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Hilda; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Hale, Leigh; Thomas, David; Häger-Ross, Charlotte

    2011-08-01

    Both New Zealand and Sweden have health and disability policies that promote recreational exercise within society for people with disability. Despite these policies, levels of physical activity by people with disability in these countries are low. Physiotherapists are equipped to assist people with disabling conditions into physical activity. This qualitative study explored the perspectives and experiences of physiotherapists in New Zealand and Sweden toward promoting physically active recreation for adults with chronic neurological conditions. Nine physiotherapists who worked with adults with neurological disability in a range of long-term rehabilitation and community (home) health services were interviewed and the data analysed for themes. The physiotherapists described innovative and resourceful expertise to assist patients to be physically active. However, they perceived a lack of support for their work from within the health system and a lack of knowledge of disability issues within the recreational arena, both of which they perceived hindered their promotion of physical activity for people with neurological disability. Physiotherapists feel unable to fully support health and disability policies for the promotion of physically active recreation for people with neurological conditions, because of perceived constraints from within the recreational arena and their own health systems. If these constraints were addressed, then physiotherapists could be better agents to promote physical activity for people with neurological conditions.

  16. CDPP activities: Promoting research and education in space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, V. N.; Andre, N.; Cecconi, B.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Pitout, F.; Budnik, E.; Lavraud, B.; Rouillard, A. P.; Heulet, D.; Bellucci, A.; Durand, J.; Delmas, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Briand, C.; Biegun, A.

    2015-12-01

    The French Plasma Physics Data Centre (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/) addresses for more than 15 years all issues pertaining to natural plasma data distribution and valorization. Initially established by CNES and CNRS on the ground of a solid data archive, CDPP activities diversified with the advent of broader networks and interoperability standards, and through fruitful collaborations (e.g. with NASA/PDS): providing access to remote data, designing and building science driven analysis tools then became at the forefront of CDPP developments. For instance today AMDA helps scientists all over the world accessing and analyzing data from ancient to very recent missions (from Voyager, Galileo, Geotail, ... to Maven, Rosetta, MMS, ...) as well as results from models and numerical simulations. Other tools like the Propagation Tool or 3DView allow users to put their data in context and interconnect with other databases (CDAWeb, MEDOC) and tools (Topcat). This presentation will briefly review this evolution, show technical and science use cases, and finally put CDPP activities in the perspective of ongoing collaborative projects (Europlanet H2020, HELCATS, ...) and future missions (Bepicolombo, Solar Orbiter, ...).

  17. Active video games to promote physical activity in children with cancer: a randomized clinical trial with follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kauhanen, Lotta; Järvelä, Liisa; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M.; Arola, Mikko; Olli J Heinonen; Axelin, Anna; Lilius, Johan; Vahlberg, Tero; Salanterä, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity, musculoskeletal morbidity and weight gain are commonly reported problems in children with cancer. Intensive medical treatment and a decline in physical activity may also result in reduced motor performance. Therefore, simple and inexpensive ways to promote physical activity and exercise are becoming an increasingly important part of children’s cancer treatment. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of active video games in promotio...

  18. Promoting Active Learning in Electrical Engineering Basic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lehtovuori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Active learning, project-based teaching, and student collaboration are current trends in engineering education. Incorporating these have also been the goal of the basic studies development project EPOP started at the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in 2011. In the project, two obligatory basic courses in circuit analysis and electromagnetic field theory have been taught using interactive engagement during the spring of 2012. This paper presents the implementation of the teaching, including methods and evaluation with several concrete examples. As a result of the novel teaching, motivation and the engagement of students were at a high level during the whole course and learning results were better than those of the students participating the traditional lecture course.

  19. Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phophatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-06-01

    The first objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and the role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Nonspecific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. We have previously shown that PO43- accumulation during growth on a model organophosphorus compound was attributable to the overproduction of alkaline phosphatase by genetically modified subsurface pseudomonads [Powers et al. (2002) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 41:115-123]. During this report period, we have extended these results to include indigenous metal resistant subsurface microorganisms cultivated from the Field Research Center (FRC), in Oak Ridge Tennessee.

  20. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  1. c-Myc activates BRCA1 gene expression through distal promoter elements in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The BRCA1 gene plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. BRCA1 inactivation contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis. An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to regulate BRCA1 expression. c-Myc can act as a transcriptional activator, regulating up to 15% of all genes in the human genome and results from a high throughput screen suggest that BRCA1 is one of its targets. In this report, we used cultured breast cancer cells to examine the mechanisms of transcriptional activation of BRCA1 by c-Myc. Methods c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. BRCA1 mRNA expression and BRCA1 protein expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively and BRCA1 promoter activities were examined under these conditions. DNA sequence analysis was conducted to search for high similarity to E boxes in the BRCA1 promoter region. The association of c-Myc with the BRCA1 promoter in vivo was tested by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We investigated the function of the c-Myc binding site in the BRCA1 promoter region by a promoter assay with nucleotide substitutions in the putative E boxes. BRCA1-dependent DNA repair activities were measured by a GFP-reporter assay. Results Depletion of c-Myc was found to be correlated with reduced expression levels of BRCA1 mRNA and BRCA1 protein. Depletion of c-Myc decreased BRCA1 promoter activity, while ectopically expressed c-Myc increased BRCA1 promoter activity. In the distal BRCA1 promoter, DNA sequence analysis revealed two tandem clusters with high similarity, and each cluster contained a possible c-Myc binding site. c-Myc bound to these regions in vivo. Nucleotide substitutions in the c-Myc binding sites in these regions abrogated c-Myc-dependent promoter activation. Furthermore, breast cancer cells with reduced BRCA1 expression due to depletion of c-Myc exhibited impaired DNA repair activity. Conclusions The distal

  2. Interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lien Nanna; Spittaels Heleen; van Lenthe Frank J; De Meester Femke; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although physical activity is considered to yield substantial health benefits, the level of physical activity among European teenagers is not sufficient. Adolescence is characterized by a decline in physical activity level. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of interventions promoting physical activity among young people, but none dealt with the available evidence specific for Europe. This review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of interventions to pro...

  3. Interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Meester, Femke; van Lenthe, Frank J; Spittaels, Heleen; Lien, Nanna; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    Background Although physical activity is considered to yield substantial health benefits, the level of physical activity among European teenagers is not sufficient. Adolescence is characterized by a decline in physical activity level. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of interventions promoting physical activity among young people, but none dealt with the available evidence specific for Europe. This review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of interventi...

  4. [Physical activity based on the new health promotion perspective: contradictions of an institutional program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Santos; Castiel, Luis David; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to discuss how the ambiguity of health promotion occurs in one physical activity institutional program. Firstly, different approaches to health promotion are presented as embodiments of such ambiguities. Then, after a brief discussion about manifestations of such ambiguity in everyday media coverage, we analyze the Agita São Paulo Program, regarded by the World Health Organization as an example of health promotion initiative. The conclusion is that, in spite of being under the umbrella of the so-called new health promotion movement, the Agita São Paulo Program is based upon behavioral/conservative approaches of health promotion because it demonizes sedentarism, blames its followers and supports its strategies in terms of behavioral changes as a way of reducing epidemiologic risks, in spite of social, economic and cultural determinants.

  5. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  6. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  7. Physical activity, black carbon exposure, and DNA methylation in the FOXP3 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Jezioro, Jacqueline R; Torrone, David Z; de Planell-Saguer, Mariangels; Yan, Beizhan; Perera, Frederica P; Rundle, Andrew G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chillrud, Steven N; Miller, Rachel L

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with improvement in lung function; however, pollution exposure during physical activity can lead to a transient reduction in lung function. This paradoxical relationship may be linked to altered T regulatory (Treg) cell activity, which increases with exercise and suppresses airway inflammation, but decreases in association with exposure to air pollution. To clarify these relationships, we investigated buccal cell DNA methylation of the forkhead box p3 (FOXP3) gene promoter, a proposed biomarker of Treg activity. We hypothesized that active urban children would have lower FOXP3 promoter methylation, associated with better lung function compared to non-active children. We also hypothesized that this relationship would be attenuated by high exposure to the air pollutant black carbon (BC). We performed a cross-sectional study of 135 children ages 9-14 who live in New York City. Activity was measured across 6 days. BC exposure was assessed by personal monitors worn for two 24-h periods, followed by lung function assessment. Buccal swabs were collected for DNA methylation analysis of three regions (six CpG sites) in the FOXP3 promoter. In multivariable regression models, overall, there was no significant relationship between physical activity and FOXP3 promoter methylation (p > 0.05). However, in stratified analyses, among children with higher BC exposure (≥1200 ng/m(3)), physical activity was associated with 2.37% lower methylation in promoter 2 (CpGs -77, -65, and -58) (βestimate = -2.37%, p  0.05). Differences across strata were statistically significant (pinteraction = 0.04). Among all children, after controlling for BC concentration, promoter 2 methylation was associated with reduced FEV1/FVC (βestimate = -0.40%, p promoter methylation, a possible indicator of greater Treg function, under conditions of high BC exposure. Reduced FOXP3 promoter methylation was associated with higher lung function. These

  8. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences.

  9. Recent Activities of the Physical Society of Japan for the Promotion of Gender Equality (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Tajima, Setsuko; Hiyama, Emiko; Torikai, Eiko

    2009-04-01

    We present activities of the Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) untaken after the Second IUPAP Women in Physics Conference, Rio de Janiero, 2005. These include: (1) summer and spring classes for high school girls, (2) symposia on the promotion of gender equality at annual JPS meetings, (3) continuous cooperation with the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE), (4) consultation for JPS members on the Restart Postdoctoral Fellowship (RPD) program conducted by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), (5) publication of a series of articles in the JPS membership journal, and (6) presentation at international meetings such as the Asia Pacific Physics Conference 10 (APPC10). We report that these activities were successful.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Classroom Teachers' Physical Activity Promotion from a Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…

  11. Efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression requires two neighboring RY elements on its promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the main structural protein of oil body,OLEOSIN is highly expressed only during seed development. OLEOSIN promoter is a very useful tool for seed-specific gene engineering and seed bioreactor designing. The B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) plays an important role in regulating seed development and seed-specific gene expression. Here,we first report how seed-specific B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) efficiently activates OLEOSIN expression. The central promoter region of OLEOSIN,responsible for seed specificity and LEC2 activation,was determined by 5’-deletion analysis. Binding experiments in yeast cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that LEC2 specifically bound to two conserved RY elements in this region. In transient expression assays,mutation in either RY element dramatically reduced LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN promoter activity,while double mutation abolished it. Analysis of the distribution of RY elements in seed-specific genes activated by LEC2 also supported the idea that genes containing neighboring RY elements responded strongly to LEC2 activation. Therefore,we conclude that two neighboring RY elements are essential for efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression. These findings will help us better utilize seed-specific promoter activity.

  12. El Interprete: A Pair Activity to Promote Communicative Competence in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homstad, Alice

    1986-01-01

    "El Interprete," a communicative activity designed for third- or fourth-semester Spanish language students, promotes communicative competence through: (1) lowering stress; (2) having students work in pairs; and (3) helping students concentrate on the transmission of real messages. These activities are appended with suggestions for creating,…

  13. Efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression requires two neighboring RY elements on its promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE NanYing; YANG Yang; LI YanDong; WANG LiLi; HUANG Ping; GAO Yin; An ChengCai

    2009-01-01

    As the main structural protein of oil body, OLEOSIN is highly expressed only during seed development. OLEOSIN promoter is a very useful tool for seed-specific gene engineering and seed bioreactor designing. The B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) plays an important role in regulating seed development and seed-specific gene expression. Here, we first report how seed-specific B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) efficiently activates OLEOSIN expression. The central promoter region of OLEOSIN, responsible for seed specificity and LEC2 activation, was determined by 5'-deletion analysis. Binding experiments in yeast cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that LEC2 specifically bound to two conserved RY elements in this region, in transient expression assays, mutation in either RY element dramatically reduced LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN promoter activity, while double mutation abolished it. Analysis of the distribution of RY elements in seed-specific genes activated by LEC2 also supported the idea that genes containing neighboring RY elements responded strongly to LEC2 activation. Therefore, we conclude that two neighboring RY elements are essential for efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression. These findings will help us better utilize seed-specific promoter activity.

  14. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  15. Effect of losartan on the expression of angiotensin-coverting enzyme 2 mRNA and protein in renovascular hypertensive rats%氯沙坦对肾性高血压大鼠血管中ACE2 mRNA和蛋白质表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 田海红; 秦旭平; 郑兴; 陈临溪

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察血管紧张素转换酶2(ACE2)在两肾一夹高血压大鼠(2K1C)血管中的表达以及氯沙坦对其干预后ACE2 mRNA和蛋白质表达水平的影响.方法 建立两肾一夹高血压大鼠模型,用夹尾法测定血压.在实验结束时,使用磷酸盐缓冲溶液对大鼠进行灌注,再用4%多聚甲醛在体灌注,剪取胸主动脉,10%福尔马林中保存进行形态学分析.RT-PCR和Wester-blot分别测定血管组织中ACE2 mRNA及蛋白质表达水平.结果 肾动脉狭窄大鼠血压较假手术大鼠明显升高(P<0.01),肾性高血压大鼠较正常大鼠ACE2显著降低(P<0.01).氯沙坦能剂量依赖性的显著降低血压(P<0.05),减少大鼠主动脉管壁厚度(P<0.01),剂量依赖性地增加ACE2 mRNA 和蛋白质的表达(P<0.05).结论 氯沙坦降低血压和逆转高血压血管重构的机制可能与增加ACE2表达有关.

  16. Leptin activates chicken growth hormone promoter without chicken STAT3 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Daisuke; Namekawa, Shoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that not only regulates food intake and energy homeostasis but also induces growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression and release, thereby controlling growth and metabolism in mammals. The molecular mechanism of leptin-induced regulation of GH gene transcription is unclear. The current study investigated the effects of leptin on the chicken GH (cGH) promoter and the molecular mechanism underlying leptin-induced cGH gene expression in vitro. Leptin activated the cGH promoter in the presence of chPit-1α in CHO cells stably expressing the chicken leptin receptor. Promoter activation did not require STAT-binding elements in the cGH promoter or STAT3 activity. However, JAK2 activation was required for leptin-dependent activity. JAK2-dependent pathways include p42/44 MAPK and PI3K, and inhibition of these pathways partially blocked leptin-induced cGH gene transcription. Although CK2 directly activates JAK2, a CK2 inhibitor blocked leptin-dependent activation of the cGH gene without affecting JAK2 phosphorylation. The CK2 inhibitor suppressed Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Additional data implicate Src family kinases in leptin-dependent cGH gene activation. These results suggest that leptin activates the cGH gene in the presence of chPit-1α via several leptin-activated kinases. Although further study is required, we suggest that the leptin-induced JAK2/p42/44 MAPK and JAK2/PI3K cascades are activated by Src-meditated CK2, leading to CBP phosphorylation and interaction with chPit-1α, resulting in transactivation of the cGH promoter.

  17. Enhancer activity of Helitron in sericin-1 gene promoter from Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Li, Chun-Feng; Wu, Jie; Wei, Jun-Hong; Zou, Yong; Han, Min-Jin; Zhou, Ze-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Sericin is a kind of water-soluble protein expressed specifically in the middle silk gland of Bombyx mori. When the sericin-1 gene promoter was cloned and a transgenic vector was constructed to express a foreign protein, a specific Helitron, Bmhel-8, was identified in the sericin-1 gene promoter sequence in some genotypes of Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina. Given that the Bmhel-8 Helitron transposon was present only in some genotypes, it could be the source of allelic variation in the sericin-1 promoter. The length of the sericin-1 promoter sequence is approximately 1063 or 643 bp. The larger size of the sequence or allele is ascribed to the presence of Bmhel-8. Silkworm genotypes can be homozygous for either the shorter or larger promoter sequence or heterozygous, containing both alleles. Bmhel-8 in the sericin-1 promoter exhibits enhancer activity, as demonstrated by a dual-luciferase reporter system in BmE cell lines. Furthermore, Bmhel-8 displays enhancer activity in a sericin-1 promoter-driven gene expression system but does not regulate the tissue-specific expression of sericin-1.

  18. Effectiveness of Social Marketing Interventions to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius

    2016-11-01

    Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ(2), Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.

  19. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (≥10 foci following exposure to BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses.

  20. Activated T cell exosomes promote tumor invasion via Fas signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijian; Yang, Fei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Zhou; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Qingqing; Yang, Yunshan; Wang, Lie; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2012-06-15

    Activated T cells release bioactive Fas ligand (FasL) in exosomes, which subsequently induce self-apoptosis of T cells. However, their potential effects on cell apoptosis in tumors are still unknown. In this study, we purified exosomes expressing FasL from activated CD8(+) T cell from OT-I mice and found that activated T cell exosomes had little effect on apoptosis and proliferation of tumor cells but promoted the invasion of B16 and 3LL cancer cells in vitro via the Fas/FasL pathway. Activated T cell exosomes increased the amount of cellular FLICE inhibitory proteins and subsequently activated the ERK and NF-κB pathways, which subsequently increased MMP9 expression in the B16 murine melanoma cells. In a tumor-invasive model in vivo, we observed that the activated T cell exosomes promoted the migration of B16 tumor cells to lung. Interestingly, pretreatment with FasL mAb significantly reduced the migration of B16 tumor cells to lung. Furthermore, CD8 and FasL double-positive exosomes from tumor mice, but not normal mice, also increased the expression of MMP9 and promoted the invasive ability of B16 murine melanoma and 3LL lung cancer cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that activated T cell exosomes promote melanoma and lung cancer cell metastasis by increasing the expression of MMP9 via Fas signaling, revealing a new mechanism of tumor immune escape.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifL and nifH promoters and in vivo analysis of promoter activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, M; Khan, H.; Dixon, R

    1985-01-01

    The role of conserved nucleotides in nitrogen-fixation promoter function has been examined using both oligonucleotide and chemical mutagenesis to introduce base changes in the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifL and nifH promoters. Among ten mutations analysed, including six spontaneous mutations, base changes at -12, -13, -14, and -26, located in previously identified conserved sequences, perturbed the activity of the promoters, demonstrating that these sequences are required for transcription. Not a...

  2. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  3. Physical activity promotion among churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California: does neighborhood cohesion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Roesch, Scott

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the reciprocal relationship between Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion following the implementation of a 6-month promotora-delivered pilot intervention. A one-group study design was used to promote leisure-time physical activity and build neighborhood cohesion among 143 churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California. Using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged panel model, leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion (assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months) were analyzed. Leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion increased across time. Neighborhood cohesion at 3 months predicted leisure-time physical activity at 6 months. A promotora model in the context of a faith-based setting may be appropriate to promote Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and make socioenvironmental improvements.

  4. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  5. [Activities of voivodeship occupational medicine centers in workplace health promotion in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to present the activities of the largest Voivodeship Occupational Medicine Centers (VOMCs) in Poland in the area of workplace health promotion in 2008. It was compiled on the basis of written reports concerning these activities sent by the Centers to the Polish National Center for Workplace Health Promotion, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź. Their analysis shows a greatly varied level of engagement in and understanding of health promotion--from simple single actions (in the field of health education and screening) to long-running programs, including various ways of influencing people the programs are addressed to. In 2008, there were 78 such programs in the country, the most popular of them were those focused on occupational voice disorders and tobacco smoke). VOMCs perceive external factors, unfavorable or indifferent attitudes towards promoting health of their employees on the part of employers as well as financial constraints, as the most common obstacles in undertaking activities in the field of workplace health promotion. At the same time, they link achievements in this field mostly with their own activities, including effective cooperation with various partners and their well qualified and experienced employees.

  6. Promoting social skills of mexican high school students through virtual activities in the Moodle platform

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Yolanda RODRÍGUEZ MATAMOROS; Cacheiro González, María Luz; Gil Pascual, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    With the intention of promoting social skills of Mexican high school students based on the graduate profile of this level, virtual activities were implemented in the Moodle platform to 169 students of second year, adopting the proposed Goldstein social skills. In order to establish the impact of these activities to a pretest-postest a one group design was used. The results show that the activities had a positive and significant impact in beginning social skills, advanced social skills, skills...

  7. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle S; Duda, Joan L; Guerin, Eva; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2012-03-02

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  8. Orchestrated activation of mGluR5 and CB1 promotes neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Edleusa M L; Doria, Juliana G; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Moreira, Fabricio A; Ribeiro, Fabiola M

    2016-08-20

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) exhibit a functional interaction, as CB1 regulates pre-synaptic glutamate release and mGluR5 activation increases endocannabinoid synthesis at the post-synaptic site. Since both mGluR5 and CB1 promote neuroprotection, we delineated experiments to investigate a possible link between CB1 and mGluR5 activation in the induction of neuroprotection using primary cultured corticostriatal neurons. We find that either the pharmacological blockade or the genetic ablation of either mGluR5 or CB1 can abrogate both CB1- and mGluR5-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate insult. Interestingly, decreased glutamate release and diminished intracellular Ca(2+) do not appear to play a role in CB1 and mGluR5-mediated neuroprotection. Rather, these two receptors work cooperatively to trigger the activation of cell signaling pathways to promote neuronal survival, which involves MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation. Interestingly, although mGluR5 activation protects postsynaptic terminals and CB1 the presynaptic site, intact signaling of both receptors is required to effectively promote neuronal survival. In conclusion, mGluR5 and CB1 act in concert to activate neuroprotective cell signaling pathways and promote neuronal survival.

  9. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortier Michelle S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  10. Development of complex sales promotion of educational services in the specialty «Management of innovation activities»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Timokhina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article describes the complex of sales promotion of educational services in the specialty "Management of innovation activity" and proposed plan of decision to boost sales promotion for a new specialty in the Ukrainian education market.

  11. Using the tax system to promote physical activity: critical analysis of Canadian initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara; Larre, Tamara; Sauder, Joanne

    2011-08-01

    In Canada, tax incentives have been recently introduced to promote physical activity and reduce rates of obesity. The most prominent of these is the federal government's Children's Fitness Tax Credit, which came into effect in 2007. We critically assess the potential benefits and limitations of using tax measures to promote physical activity. Careful design could make these measures more effective, but any tax-based measures have inherent limitations, and the costs of such programs are substantial. Therefore, it is important to consider whether public funds are better spent on other strategies that could instead provide direct public funding to address environmental and systemic factors.

  12. HNF1 alpha activates the aminopeptidase N promoter in intestinal (Caco-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen; Laustsen, Lotte; Troelsen, J

    1994-01-01

    The importance of HNF1 binding proteins for intestinal aminopeptidase N expression was investigated using the Caco-2 cell-line. Aminopeptidase N promoter activity in Caco-2 cells depends on the HNF1 element (positions -85 to -58) and co-transfection with an HNF1 alpha expression vector demonstrates...... a direct activation of the promoter by HNF1 alpha through this element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from Caco-2 cells show the presence of high amounts of HNF1 binding proteins irrespective of their state of differentiation....

  13. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

  14. Identification of a type 1 diabetes-associated CD4 promoter haplotype with high constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Larsen, Z M;

    2004-01-01

    CD4 is a candidate gene in autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), because the CD4 receptor is crucial for appropriate antigen responses of CD4(+) T cells. We previously found linkage between a CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) promoter polymorphism and T1DM. In the present study, we...... screened the human CD4 promoter for mutations and identified three frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): CD4-181C/G, CD4-521C/G and CD4-1050T/C. The SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association with the CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) alleles, and we observed nine CD4 promoter haplotypes...... promoter activity and (2) the CD4-181G variant encodes higher stimulated promoter activity than the CD4-181C variant. This difference is in part neutralized in the frequently occurring CD4 promoter haplotypes by the more upstream genetic variants. Thus, we report functional impact of a novel CD4-181C/G SNP...

  15. Transcription Activity of Ectogenic Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Weining; FANG Huijuan; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shendao; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; ZENG Daxiong; ZHANG Huilan

    2006-01-01

    The transcription activity of ectogenic human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was investigated for the further gene-targeting therapy. The reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by CEA promoter and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were relatively constructed and named plasmid pCEA-EGFP and pCMV-GFP respectively. The intensity of fluorescence was detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis after the pCEA-GFP and pSNAV-GFP plasmids were transfected into A549 cells through liposome respectively. The results showed (4.08±0.63) % of the A549 cells transfected with pCEA-AFP plasmid expressed, significantly lower than that of the A549 cells transfected with pCMV-GFP [(43.27±3.54) %]. It was suggested that ectogenic human CEA promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was weakly expressed. The distinct specificity of CEA promoter in CEA high expression cells was regarded as a tool in selective gene therapy, but the transcription activity of ectogenic human CEA promoter was needed to increase in the future.

  16. Considerations on the promotional activity on the DIY market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai FÎNARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional techniques used by the companies in this field are very diverse. In this context, this paper aims at presenting a series of promotional aspects of the techniques used by two of the largest DIY companies on the Romanian market Dedeman and Praktiker.

  17. A new era for functional labeling of neurons: activity-dependent promoters have come of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKawashima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic labeling of neurons with a specific response feature is an emerging technology for precise dissection of brain circuits that are functionally heterogeneous at the single-cell level. While immediate early gene mapping has been widely used for decades to identify brain regions which are activated by external stimuli, recent characterization of the promoter and enhancer elements responsible for neuronal activity-dependent transcription have opened new avenues for live imaging of active neurons. Indeed, these advancements provided the basis for a growing repertoire of novel experiments to address the role of active neuronal networks in cognitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the usage and development of activity-dependent promoters and discuss the future directions of this expanding new field.

  18. PKCε ACTIVATION PROMOTES FGF-2 EXOCYTOSIS AND INDUCES ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND SPROUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martina; Donnini, Sandra; Morbidelli, Lucia; Giachetti, Antonio; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Mignatti, Paolo; Ziche, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) activation controls fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) angiogenic signaling. Here, we examined the effect of activating PKCε on FGF-2 dependent vascular growth and endothelial activation. ψεRACK, a selective PKCε agonist induces pro-angiogenic responses in endothelial cells, including formation of capillary like structures and cell growth. These effects are mediated by FGF-2 export to the cell membrane, as documented by biotinylation and immunofluorescence, and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation, as attested by ERK1/2-STAT-3 phosphorylation and de novo FGF-2 synthesis. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates PKCε in endothelial cells, and promotes FGF-2 export and FGF-2/FGFR1 signaling activation. ψεRACK fails to elicit responses in FGF-2−/− endothelial cells, and in cells pretreated with methylamine (MeNH2), an exocytosis inhibitor, indicating that both intracellular FGF-2 and its export toward the membrane are required for the ψεRACK activity. In vivo ψεRACK does not induce angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea. However, ψεRACK promotes VEGF angiogenic responses, an effect sustained by endothelial FGF-2 release and synthesis, since anti-FGF-2 antibody strongly attenuates VEGF responses. The results demonstrate that PKCε stimulation promotes angiogenesis and modulates VEGF activity, by inducing FGF-2 release and autocrine signaling. PMID:23880610

  19. Evaluation of physical activity in the health promotion for brazilian teenagers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Adolfo Duarte Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the methodological designs of national studies that assessed the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health. Methods: a systematic literature review of original researches and publications of MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS and ADOLEC electronic databases. It focused on determinant aspects of physical activity for health promotion using the following keywords: physical activity, physical fitness, physical activity, physical exercise, motor activity, sedentary and sedentariness, adolescent, adolescence, young, youth, teenager, and teenage, Brazil, Brazilian, South America, Low-middle income and country(ies. Data analysis covered the period from 2005 to 2011. First, 449 studies were identified. After analyzing the titles of the manuscripts, 130 articles were eligible for abstract evaluation and subsequent full text analysis. In the end, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Results: A total of 93.6% (n=29 of the evaluated studies used cross-sectional design, with samples ranging from 92 to 5028 subjects, and all of them used questionnaires for measuring physical activity. The main analysis of the studies was based on the association between physical activity, biodemographic data (age, gender and socioeconomic data (income, social class and parental education. Conclusion: The national studies assessing the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health appear with great methodological variability since there is no standardization in the methodological design, instrument and definition of variables, highlighting the need for longitudinal studies in this area. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p426

  20. Duchenne muscular dystrophy drug discovery - the application of utrophin promoter activation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorwood, Catherine; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2013-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene that in turn lead to an absence of dystrophin. Currently, there is no definitive therapy for DMD. Gene- and cell-based therapies designed to replace dystrophin have met some degree of success, as have strategies that seek to improve the dystrophic pathology independent of dystrophin. In this review the authors focus on utrophin promoter activation-based strategies and their implications on potential therapeutics for DMD. These strategies in common are designed to identify drugs/small molecules that can activate the utrophin promoter and would allow the functional substitution of dystrophin by upregulating utrophin expression in dystrophic muscle. The authors provide an overview of utrophin biology with a focus on regulation of the utrophin promoter and discuss current attempts in identifying utrophin promoter-activating molecules using high-throughput screening (HTS). The characterisation of utrophin promoter regulatory mechanisms coupled with advances in HTS have allowed researchers to undertake screens and identify a number of promising lead compounds that may prove useful for DMD. In principle, these pharmacological compounds offer significant advantages from a translational viewpoint for developing DMD therapeutics.

  1. DNA Topoisomerases maintain promoters in a state competent for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Madsen Pedersen

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence, and enrichment of a nucleosome at a critical position in the promoter region, in line with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. Single-gene studies with a range of genes belonging to this group demonstrate that topoisomerases play an important role during activation of these genes. Subsequent in-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation.

  2. Harpinxoo and Its Functional Domains Activate Pathogen-inducible Plant Promoters in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJian-Ling; BAOZhi-Long; LIPing; CHENGuang-Yong; WANGJin-Sheng; DONGHan-Song

    2004-01-01

    Harpins are bacterial proteins that can enhance plant growth and defense against pathogens and insects. To elaborate whether harpins perform the diverse functions in coordination with the activation of specific promoters that contain particular elements, we cloned pathogen-inducible plant promoters PPP1, PPP2, and PPP3 from tobacco and investigated their responses to harpinxoo or its truncated fragments DEG, DIR, and DPR (domains for enhancing plant growth, insect resistance and pathogen resistance). PPP1 contains an internal repeat composed of two tandem 111bp fragments; 111bp in the repeat was deleted in PPP2. PPP3 contains a bacteria-inducible element; PPP1 and PPP2 additionally contain TAC-1 and Eli boxes inducible correspondingly by salicylic acid (SA) and elicitors. Function of cloned PPPs was confirmed based on their activation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by Ralstonia solanacearum (Ralston) or SA. Harpinxoo, DEG, DIR, or DPR activated PPP1 and PPP2 but not PPP3, consistent with the presence of Eli boxes in promoters. PPP1 was ca. 3-fold more active than PPP2, suggesting that the internal repeat affects levels of the promoter activation.

  3. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  4. Three promoters regulate the transcriptional activity of the human holocarboxylase synthetase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengna; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-11-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is the only protein biotin ligase in the human proteome. HLCS-dependent biotinylation of carboxylases plays crucial roles in macronutrient metabolism. HLCS appears to be an essential part of multiprotein complexes in the chromatin that cause gene repression and contribute toward genome stability. Consistent with these essential functions, HLCS knockdown causes strong phenotypes including shortened life span and low stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster, and de-repression of long-terminal repeats in humans, other mammalian cell lines and Drosophila. Despite previous observations that the expression of HLCS depends on biotin status in rats and in human cell lines, little is known about the regulation of HLCS expression. The goal of this study was to identify promoters that regulate the expression of the human HLCS gene. Initially, the human HLCS locus was interrogated in silico using predictors of promoters including sequences of HLCS mRNA and expressed sequence tags, CpG islands, histone marks denoting transcriptionally poised chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and DNaseI hypersensitive regions. Our predictions revealed three putative HLCS promoters, denoted P1, P2 and P3. Promoters lacked a TATA box, which is typical for housekeeping genes. When the three promoters were cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, reporter gene activity was at least three times background noise in human breast, colon and kidney cell lines; activities consistently followed the pattern P1>P3>P2. Promoter activity depended on the concentration of biotin in culture media, but the effect was moderate. We conclude that we have identified promoters in the human HLCS gene.

  5. NEW CHALLENGES FOR TRADE PROMOTION ACTIVITY IN ACTUAL GLOBAL WORLD ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Liviu OLARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Export promotion strategy has to play play an important part in the development strategies of countries, especially of developing countries that seek to make exports an engine for economic growth. General category of Trade support institutions (TSI exist in every country to help businesses developement, promote and sell their goods and services abroad. Within TSI, we can consider that a TPO traditionally has a the leading role in “promoting” international trade, focusing on the most important activities in the field, in cooperation with the other component institutions of a national TSI. There may be more than one TPO per country, they are not homogeneous and can take many forms. There has not been a revolution in trade promotion activity over the the past 20 years, but there has certainly been an evolution in the context of new prerequisits of the global world economic framework.

  6. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  7. Gyrase-dependent stabilization of pSC101 plasmid inheritance by transcriptionally active promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, S L; Miller, C A; Cohen, S N

    1991-09-01

    The pSC101 plasmid encodes a cis-acting genetic locus termed par that ensures the stable inheritance of plasmids in a population of dividing cells. In the absence of selection, par-defective plasmids are lost rapidly from the bacterial population. We report here that the stability of par-deleted pSC101 derivatives is restored by introducing certain adventitious bacterial promoters onto the plasmid. Stabilization requires active transcription from the inserted promoter and is affected by the site and orientation of the insertion, the length of the nascent transcript and DNA gyrase activity. While a promotor-associated overall increase in negative superhelicity of plasmid DNA was observed, stabilized inheritance appeared to be dependent on localized rather than generalized supercoiling. Our demonstration that promoter-induced DNA supercoiling can mimic the effects of the pSC101 par locus provides evidence that the previously reported superhelicity-generating effects of par are intrinsic to its function.

  8. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, AndreAna N., E-mail: andreana.pena@gmail.com [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M. [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  9. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snijders Peter JF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential mechanisms underlying deregulated hTERT transcription in hrHPV-transformed cells. Methods Using luciferase reporter assays we analyzed hTERT promoter activity in primary keratinocytes, HPV16- and HPV18-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines and cervical cancer cell lines. In the same cells as well as cervical specimens we determined hTERT methylation by bisulfite sequencing analysis of the region spanning -442 to +566 (relative to the ATG and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP analysis of two regions flanking the hTERT core promoter. Results We found that in most telomerase positive cells increased hTERT core promoter activity coincided with increased hTERT mRNA expression. On the other hand basal hTERT promoter activity was also detected in telomerase negative cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT mRNA expression levels. In both telomerase positive and negative cells regulatory sequences flanking both ends of the core promoter markedly repressed exogenous promoter activity. By extensive bisulfite sequencing a strong increase in CpG methylation was detected in hTERT positive cells compared to cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT expression. Subsequent qMSP analysis of a larger set of cervical tissue specimens revealed methylation of both regions analyzed in 100% of cervical carcinomas and 38% of the high-grade precursor lesions, compared to 9% of low grade precursor lesions and 5% of normal controls. Conclusions Methylation of transcriptionally repressive sequences in the hTERT promoter and proximal exonic sequences is correlated to deregulated hTERT transcription in HPV-immortalized cells and cervical cancer cells. The detection of DNA

  10. The virulence regulator Sae of Staphylococcus aureus: promoter activities and response to phagocytosis-related signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Goerke, Christiane; Mainiero, Markus; Kraus, Dirk; Wolz, Christiane

    2008-05-01

    The two-component system SaeRS of Staphylococcus aureus is closely involved in the regulation of major virulence factors. However, little is known about the signals leading to saeRS activation. A total of four overlapping transcripts (T1 to T4) from three different transcription starting points are expressed in the sae operon. We used a beta-galactosidase reporter assay to characterize the putative promoter regions within the saeRS upstream region. The main transcript T2 is probably generated by endoribonucleolytic processing of the T1 transcript. Only two distinct promoter elements (P1 and P3) could be detected within the saeRS upstream region. The P3 promoter, upstream of saeRS, generates the T3 transcript, includes a cis-acting enhancer element and is repressed by saeRS. The most distal P1 promoter is strongly autoregulated, activated by agr, and repressed by sigma factor B. In strain Newman a mutation within the histidine kinase SaeS leads to a constitutively activated sae system. Evaluation of different external signals revealed that the P1 promoter in strain ISP479R and strain UAMS-1 is inhibited by low pH and high NaCl concentrations but activated by hydrogen peroxide. The most prominent induction of P1 was observed at subinhibitory concentrations of alpha-defensins in various S. aureus strains, with the exception of strain ISP479R and strain COL. P1 was not activated by the antimicrobial peptides LL37 and daptomycin. In summary, the results indicate that the sensor molecule SaeS is activated by alteration within the membrane allowing the pathogen to react to phagocytosis related effector molecules.

  11. Decrease of epidermal histidase activity by tumor-promoting phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, N H; Lau, S; Head, R

    1975-11-01

    The potent skin tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulates epidermal macromolecular synthesis as well as proliferation, but little is known of specific functional aberrations produced by TPA. This report presents results of a study on the effects of TPA on epidermal histidase (L-histidine ammonia lyase), an enzyme found in normal epidermis but not in dermis or in mouse squamous cell carcinomas. Histidase activity was assayed on postmitochondrial supernatants obtained from hairless mouse epidermis after removal by keratotome. Topical TPA treatment at doses active in tumor promotion (1.7 to 17.0 nmoles/application) produced dose-dependent decreases in epidermal histidase specific activity at 19 hr posttreatment. The onset of the decrease occurred at 12 hr with recovery to control level specific activity by 5 days, showing kinetics similar to those obtained for stimulation of DNA synthesis. This decrease in histidase could not be attributed to a general inhibition of soluble protein synthesis or to the appearance of an inhibitor of histidase activity. The strong promoter TPA produced a greater histidase decrease than did the moderate promoter and mitogen 12,13-didecanoyl phorbol at equimolar dose, while phorbol, a nonpromoter and nonmitogen, produced no effects on histidase. The relationship of this histidase depression to tumor promotion and not initiation is further indicated by the finding that (a) Tween 60, a structurally unrelated tumor promotor, also produced a decrease in histidase; and (b) the tumor initiator urethan and an initiating dose of 9,10-dimethybenz(a)anthracene showed no effects on histadase activity.

  12. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  13. Terazosin activates Pgk1 and Hsp90 to promote stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinping; Zhao, Chunyue; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Tao; Li, Yizhou; Cao, Cheng; Ding, Yuehe; Dong, Mengqiu; Finci, Lorenzo; Wang, Jia-Huai; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that can protect against organ damage are urgently needed, especially for diseases such as sepsis and brain stroke. We discovered that terazosin (TZ), a widely marketed α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, alleviated organ damage and improved survival in rodent models of stroke and sepsis. Through combined studies of enzymology and X-ray crystallography, we discovered that TZ binds a new target, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1), and activates its enzymatic activity, probably through 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline's ability to promote ATP release from Pgk1. Mechanistically, the ATP generated from Pgk1 may enhance the chaperone activity of Hsp90, an ATPase known to associate with Pgk1. Upon activation, Hsp90 promotes multistress resistance. Our studies demonstrate that TZ has a new protein target, Pgk1, and reveal its corresponding biological effect. As a clinical drug, TZ may be quickly translated into treatments for diseases including stroke and sepsis.

  14. Neurite outgrowth-promoting active constituents of the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ikeda, Ryuya; Gao, Hui Yuan; Muto, Norio; Otaki, Keisuke; Sano, Toshikazu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Nakane, Takahisa

    2008-01-01

    In the screening of biologically active constituents from woody plants, the methanol extract of leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa showed potent neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in neuronal PC12 cells. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract showed potent activity and was separated by means of various chromatographic methods to give the two new compounds 1 and 2, as well as 11 known lignan and sesquiterpene derivatives. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 9-O-acetyldihydrosesamin (1) and 9-O-(11-hydroxyeudesman-4-yl)dihydrosesamin (2), respectively, in NMR studies including 2D-NMR experiments. Of the 13 compounds, the known compound hinokinin (5) and the new compound 2 showed potent neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC 12 cells.

  15. Are coaches' health promotion activities beneficial for sport participants? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Aurélie; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    As major actors in sports activities, sports coaches can play a significant role in health education and contribute to the psychological well-being of young people. However, not all participants in sports activities experience sports positively, which reduces the potential benefits for health. The present study investigates if coaches' efforts to promote health increase young athletes' enjoyment, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life and decrease sport dropout. To control for the variability between teams and between clubs, multilevel modeling was applied. A sample of 342 young football players completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of coaches' Health Promotion (HP) activities, enjoyment of sports, dropout intentions, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life. HP general score was positively related to enjoyment and perceived health as well as negatively dropout intentions. Players perceiving their coaches as promoting fair and play (Respect for oneself and others) scored higher on their perceptions of enjoyment in sport, self-esteem and self-reported health, and lower on dropout intentions. Moreover, players recognizing their coaches as encouraging their healthy lifestyle also reported higher perceptions of sport enjoyment, whereas player's perceived coaches' activities on substance use were associated with lower participants' enjoyment. These results support the importance of developing HP in sports clubs. Especially, promoting respect of oneself and others seems to be the more beneficial to sport participants. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  17. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  18. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity and the influence of two single-nucleotide promoter polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Heeringa, Peter; Giesen, Joyce E H M; Theunissen, Ruud T; Jacobs, Heinz; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyses the formation of hypochlorous acid and is involved in many (patho)physiological processes. The present study was designed to determine the effect of two MPO promoter polymorphisms (463G/A and 129G/A) on enzyme activity. In 243 healthy controls, genotypes were determin

  19. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca;

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...

  20. What Do We Know about "How" to Promote Physical Activity to Adolescents? A Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    To date, adolescent physical activity (PA) intervention research has focused on the school setting and suggests a need to extend interventions beyond this setting to influence teenagers' overall level of PA. But, the relative effectiveness of PA promotion strategies that can be part of such multi-setting interventions remains unknown. We completed…

  1. Benchmarking promotion and deployment activities regarding intelligent vehicle safety systems in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, M. de; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010 flagshi

  2. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  3. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  4. Promoting Critical Racial Awareness in Teacher Education in Korea: Reflections on a Racial Discrimination Simulation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Though historically perceived as an ethnically homogenous country, rapid demographic changes in the Republic of Korea have resulted in increasing diversity. However, current multicultural education programs struggle to promote acceptance and appreciation of this diversity. This paper details one pedagogical activity, a racial discrimination…

  5. Learning How To PLAI: Ways To Promote Learning through Active Interaction with Infants Who Are Deafblind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deborah; Haney, Michele; Klein, M. Diane; Alsop, Linda

    This paper describes Project PLAI (Promoting Learning through Active Interaction), a 4-year research-to-practice project designed to develop and validate an early communication curriculum for infants who are deafblind and their caregivers. The curriculum provides a step-by-step approach to assist caregivers in recognizing their infants' early and…

  6. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Clinicians in Promoting Physical Activity to Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…

  8. Promoting Science Outdoor Activities for Elementary School Children: Contributions from a Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Faria, Claudia; Chagas, Isabel; Galvao, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the promotion of scientific literacy through practical research activities and to identify children's conceptions about scientists and how they do science. Elementary school children were engaged in two scientific experiments in a marine biology research laboratory. A total of 136 students answered a…

  9. Promoting Science Outdoor Activities for Elementary School Children: Contributions from a Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Faria, Claudia; Chagas, Isabel; Galvao, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the promotion of scientific literacy through practical research activities and to identify children's conceptions about scientists and how they do science. Elementary school children were engaged in two scientific experiments in a marine biology research laboratory. A total of 136 students answered a…

  10. p55PIK Transcriptionally Activated by MZF1 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p55PIK, regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression by interaction with tumor repressor retinoblastoma (Rb protein. A recent study showed that Rb protein can localize to the mitochondria in proliferative cells. Aberrant p55PIK expression may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. To reveal the mechanisms of p55PIK transcriptional regulation, the p55PIK promoter characteristics were analyzed. The data show that myeloid zinc finger 1, MZF1, is necessary for p55PIK gene transcription activation. ChIP (Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay shows that MZF1 binds to the cis-element “TGGGGA” in p55PIK promoter. In MZF1 overexpressed cells, the promoter activity, expression of p55PIK, and cell proliferation rate were observed to be significantly enhanced. Whereas in MZF1-silenced cells, the promoter activity and expression of p55PIK and cell proliferation level was statistically decreased. In CRC tissues, MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression were increased (P=0.046, P=0.047, resp.. A strong positive correlation (Rs=0.94 between MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression was observed. Taken together, we concluded that p55PIK is transcriptionally activated by MZF1, resulting in increased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  11. A new starting point for powerful lignin promotion : Eurolignin and linked activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abaecherli, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Jong, de E.; Guran, B.

    2004-01-01

    The International Lignin Institute (ILI) was created in 1991 as a new platform for promotion of lignin utilisations. For a few years, the activity was based on informal information exchange, such as Newsletters, international conferences (Forums) and Workshops, as well as in the proceedings of these

  12. An ontology-based recommender system to promote physical activity for pre-frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassabi, Hossein; op den Akker, Harm; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2014-01-01

    The increasing ageing population and the prevalence of chronic diseases have introduced new challenges to healthcare systems motivating researchers to use telemonitoring solutions for providing care. In some solutions, a special focus has been given to promoting physical activity as it can decrease

  13. A Highly Active and Selective Manganese Oxide Promoted Cobalt-on-Silica Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, Johan P.; Frey, Anne M.; Yang, Jia; Holmen, Anders; van Schooneveld, Matti M.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Stephan, Odile; Bitter, Johannes H.; de Jong, Krijn P.

    2011-01-01

    A highly active and selective manganese oxide-promoted silica-supported cobalt catalyst for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is reported. Co/MnO/SiO2 catalysts were prepared via impregnation of a cobalt nitrate and manganese nitrate precursor, followed by drying and calcination in an NO/He flow. The cat

  14. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  15. Tailored interventions to promote Active Ageing using mobile technology: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Melenk, J.; El Menshawy, N.; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile technologies facilitate innovative and ubiquitous interventions to promote Active Ageing in daily life. To ensure adoption, such interventions must be designed in co-operation with older adults. This work presents the results of a feasibility study of a system that monitors

  16. Factors influencing primary health care professionals' physical activity promotion behaviors: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Vries, J.D. de; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Crone, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of interventions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in primary health care (PHC), the translation of these interventions to PHC practice does not always happen as desired. Purpose: To help understand why efficacious PHC-based

  17. Tailored interventions to promote Active Ageing using mobile technology: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Melenk, J.; El Menshawy, N.; Tabak, M.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile technologies facilitate innovative and ubiquitous interventions to promote Active Ageing in daily life. To ensure adoption, such interventions must be designed in co-operation with older adults. This work presents the results of a feasibility study of a system that monitors phys

  18. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...

  19. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  20. Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen Rik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1) school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2) a multi-compo...

  1. A randomised control trial of experiential learning to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Philip A; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E; Gilliland, Andrew E; Gormley, Gerard J

    2013-09-01

    The paucity of training in physical activity (PA) promotion in UK medical schools is a barrier to health professionals' promotion of PA to their patients. Doctors who are more physically active are more likely to counsel patients in this regard. We used a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effect of an intervention which engaged students in goal-setting, using pedometer step counts, on their PA behaviour and intentions to promote PA in future practice. We invited fourth-year medical students to participate in the study during their four-week placement in primary care. Following baseline pedometer measurement of daily step counts for one week, students were randomly allocated to intervention (individual step count goal-setting) or control groups. Using pedometers, both groups monitored their PA during the following week. Intentions to promote PA were assessed using a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour at baseline, four weeks and nine weeks. Focus groups explored the students' experiences of PA measurement, goalsetting for behaviour change and health promotion teaching. One-hundred and thirty-six students participated (70 intervention; 66 control). The mean change in daily step count was greater ( P =0.001) in the intervention group (1245, 95% CI 762 to 1727) than in the control group (-65, 95% CI -644 to 573). Scores for perceived behavioural control over PA counselling increased in both groups, with a trend for higher scores in the intervention group. Intervention group students described how experience of personal PA behaviour change gave insights into barriers patients may face and improved their confidence in PA counselling. Medical students' personal experience of goal setting in increasing PA appears to lead to a more positive perception of their ability to deliver effective PA promotion in future practice. Inclusion of this learning experience within the undergraduate curriculum may improve doctors' skills in health promotion.

  2. Active Families in the Great Outdoors: A Program to Promote Family Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jennifer I.; Bassett, David R.; Fouts, Hillary N.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Coe, Dawn P.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a 4-week program to increase the time families spent engaging in outdoor activity. Parents were provided strategies to increase family outdoor activity and locations to be active. Sixteen families completed the program. Duration and number of family outdoor activity bouts per week, type of activities, locations, and family…

  3. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp). To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp) is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence. PMID:19284581

  4. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Pia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp. To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence.

  5. Promoting Active Species Generation by Electrochemical Activation in Alkaline Media for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution in Neutral Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Cheng, Han; Liu, Linqi; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-01-11

    In this study, by using dicobalt phosphide nanoparticles as precatalysts, we demonstrated that electrochemical activation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media (comparing with directly electrochemical activation in neutral media) could significantly promote the OER catalysis in neutral media, specifically realizing a 2-fold enhanced activity and meanwhile showing a greatly decreased overpotential of about 100 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). Compared directly with electrochemical activation in neutral media, the electrochemical activation in harsh alkaline media could easily break the strong Co-Co bond and promote active species generation on the surface of metallic Co2P, thus accounting for the enhancement of neutral OER activity, which is also evidenced by HRTEM and the electrochemical double-layer capacitance measurement. The activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media enhanced neutral OER catalysis could also be observed on CoP nanoparticles and Ni2P nanoparticles, suggesting this is a generic strategy. Our work highlights that the activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media would pave new avenues for the design of advanced neutral OER electrocatalysts.

  6. HMGA2 promotes adipogenesis by activating C/EBPβ-mediated expression of PPARγ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yang; Shen, Wanjing; Ma, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Zheng, Jiachen [Diabetes Center, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Bu, Shizhong, E-mail: bushizhong@nbu.edu.cn [Diabetes Center, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Hino, Shinjiro [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi, E-mail: mnakao@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Adipogenesis is orchestrated by a highly ordered network of transcription factors including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family proteins. High mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), an architectural transcription factor, has been reported to play an essential role in preadipocyte proliferation, and its overexpression has been implicated in obesity in mice and humans. However, the direct role of HMGA2 in regulating the gene expression program during adipogenesis is not known. Here, we demonstrate that HMGA2 is required for C/EBPβ-mediated expression of PPARγ, and thus promotes adipogenic differentiation. We observed a transient but marked increase of Hmga2 transcript at an early phase of differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Importantly, Hmga2 knockdown greatly impaired adipocyte formation, while its overexpression promoted the formation of mature adipocytes. We found that HMGA2 colocalized with C/EBPβ in the nucleus and was required for the recruitment of C/EBPβ to its binding element at the Pparγ2 promoter. Accordingly, HMGA2 and C/EBPβ cooperatively enhanced the Pparγ2 promoter activity. Our results indicate that HMGA2 is an essential constituent of the adipogenic transcription factor network, and thus its function may be affected during the course of obesity. - Highlights: • Overexpression of HMGA2 has been implicated in obesity in mice and humans. • HMGA2 is required for adipocyte formation. • HMGA2 colocalizes with C/EBPβ and is required for C/EBPβ recruitment to Pparγ2 promoter. • HMGA2 and C/EBPβ cooperatively enhance the Pparγ2 promoter activity.

  7. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Ye; Wang, Wen; Ma, Xinliang; Liu, Huirong

    2016-01-16

    HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2), also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at -1205~-838 bp and -146~+93 bp, with the -838~-649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at -709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1)sites, one activator protein (AP) site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1) sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases.

  8. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microorganisms can utilize different sugars as energy and carbon sources and the genes involved in sugar metabolism often exhibit highly regulated expression. To study cis-acting elements controlling arabinose-responsive expression in archaea, the promoter of the Sulfolobus solfataricus a...

  9. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Arvind K.; Wong, Victor C.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a ‘molecular switch’ controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance.

  10. Drug discovery for Duchenne muscular dystrophy via utrophin promoter activation screening.

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    Catherine Moorwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a devastating muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in dystrophin, a muscle cytoskeletal protein. Utrophin is a homologue of dystrophin that can functionally compensate for its absence when expressed at increased levels in the myofibre, as shown by studies in dystrophin-deficient mice. Utrophin upregulation is therefore a promising therapeutic approach for DMD. The use of a small, drug-like molecule to achieve utrophin upregulation offers obvious advantages in terms of delivery and bioavailability. Furthermore, much of the time and expense involved in the development of a new drug can be eliminated by screening molecules that are already approved for clinical use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed and validated a cell-based, high-throughput screening assay for utrophin promoter activation, and used it to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library of marketed drugs and natural compounds. Initial screening produced 20 hit molecules, 14 of which exhibited dose-dependent activation of the utrophin promoter and were confirmed as hits. Independent validation demonstrated that one of these compounds, nabumetone, is able to upregulate endogenous utrophin mRNA and protein, in C2C12 muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a cell-based, high-throughput screening utrophin promoter assay. Using this assay, we identified and validated a utrophin promoter-activating drug, nabumetone, for which pharmacokinetics and safety in humans are already well described, and which represents a lead compound for utrophin upregulation as a therapy for DMD.

  11. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

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    Qi-shan Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling pathway using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway in vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These findings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  12. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-shan Ran; Yun-hu Yu; Xiao-hong Fu; Yuan-chao Wen

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling path-way using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endo-thelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathwayin vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These ifndings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  13. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress due to Complex I Dysfunction Promotes Fibroblast Activation and Melanoma Cell Invasiveness

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    Maria Letizia Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased ROS (cellular reactive oxygen species are characteristic of both fibrosis and tumour development. ROS induce the trans-differentiation to myofibroblasts, the activated form of fibroblasts able to promote cancer progression. Here, we report the role of ROS produced in response to dysfunctions of mitochondrial complex I, in fibroblast activation and in tumour progression. We studied human fibroblasts with mitochondrial dysfunctions of complex I, leading to hyperproduction of ROS. We demonstrated that ROS level produced by the mutated fibroblasts correlates with their activation. The increase of ROS in these cells provides a greater ability to remodel the extracellular matrix leading to an increased motility and invasiveness. Furthermore, we evidentiated that in hypoxic conditions these fibroblasts cause HIF-1α stabilization and promote a proinvasive phenotype of human melanoma cells through secretion of cytokines. These data suggest a possible role of deregulated mitochondrial ROS production in fibrosis evolution as well as in cancer progression and invasion.

  14. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

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    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  15. T-cell activation promotes tumorigenesis in inflammation-associated cancer

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    Lairmore Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.

  16. Barriers, facilitators and attitudes influencing health promotion activities in general practice: an explorative pilot study

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    Geense Wytske W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of chronically ill patients increases every year. This is partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. However, the frequency and quality of (evidence-based health promotion activities conducted by Dutch general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are limited. The aim of this pilot study was to explore which lifestyle interventions Dutch GPs and PNs carry out in primary care, which barriers and facilitators can be identified and what main topics are with respect to attitudes towards health promoting activities. These topic areas will be identified for a future, larger scale study. Method This qualitative study consisted of 25 semi-structured interviews with sixteen GPs and nine PNs. ATLAS.ti was used to analyse the transcripts of the interviews. Results All GPs and PNs said they discuss lifestyle with their patients. Next to this, GPs and PNs counsel patients, and/or refer them to other disciplines. Only few said they refer patients to specific lifestyle programs or interventions in their own practice or in the neighbourhood. Several barriers and facilitators were identified. The main topics as barriers are: a lack of patients’ motivation to make lifestyle changes, insufficient reimbursement, a lack of proven effectiveness of interventions and a lack of overview of health promoting programs in their neighbourhood. The most cited facilitators are availability of a PN, collaboration with other disciplines and availability of interventions in their own practice. With respect to attitudes, six different types of GPs were identified reflecting the main topics that relate to attitudes, varying from ‘ignorer’ to ‘nurturer’. The topics relating to PNs attitudes towards health promotion activities, were almost unanimously positive. Conclusion GPs and PNs all say they discuss lifestyle issues with their patients, but the health promotion activities that are organized in their practice vary. Main topics that hinder

  17. The biological activity of Coccinia indica on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 promoter

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    Juntipa Purintrapiban

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant derivatives with purported hypoglycemic properties have been used in traditional medicine around the world. Coccinia indica (ivy gourd is used in traditional medicine to treat diabetics in many countries. C. indica is able to cause a reduction in blood glucose level and has shown hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. In this study, we generated the pGL3-glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 promoter to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the regulation of GLUT1 gene expression in response to a water extract of C. indica stem (CIextract. A fragment of 2.1 kb of rat GLUT1 promoter, located at -2,106 to +134, was linked to firefly luciferase. The regulating transcription was analyzed in transient expression assay after transfection and exposure of L6 myocytes with the GLUT1 promoter system and CI extract, respectively. Under normal condition (5 mM glucose, promoter activity induced by 0.15 mg CI extract was markedly increased by 5.71 fold from the basal value. CI extract was more effective than 2 mM metformin. Surprisingly, promoter activity in hyperglycemic condition (15 mM glucose induced by 0.50 mg CI was increased by 1.63 fold from the basal value. In addition, CI extract increased the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG uptake in L6myocytes in a dose-dependent manner in both conditions, 5 mM and 15 mM glucose. GLUT1 protein was determined by Western blot analysis and the level also increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Interestingly, the activity of the -273 to +134 of GLUT1 promoter was increased by 2.12 fold from the basal value. This site is the transcription initiation site containing GC box and TATA box. These observations suggest that the hypoglycemic action of C. indica may regulate through the activation of GLUT1 promoter resulting in an increase of the GLUT1 protein expression.

  18. Oncogenic and tumor-promoting Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes and their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, N R; Bingel, A S; Fong, H H; Saleh, A A; Christenson, G M; Saufferer, S M

    1976-08-01

    A survey and discussion are presented of plants classified as Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, extracts of which have been shown to be oncogenic or tumor-promoting in animals. The active oncogenic and tumor-promoting principles, where known, have been identified. They represent tannins; pyrrolizidine, indole, tropolone, quinoline, purine, and benzophenanthridine alkaloids; nitroso compounds; triterpene glycosides; lignans; isoflavans; allyl benzenoids; simple (nu-pyrenes; and carbocyclic hydroxy acids. A total of 28 compounds of known structure have been identified as oncogens and several phorbol esters as tumor-promoters. Plants known to contain any of the 28 oncogens (excluding shikimic acid and caffeine) have been tabulated; they represent at least 454 species, 110 genera, and 34 families of Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta.

  19. Promoter Discrimination at Class I MarA Regulon Promoters Mediated by Glutamic Acid 89 of the MarA Transcriptional Activator of Escherichia coli▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert G.; Rosner, Judah L.

    2011-01-01

    Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate >40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13. PMID:21097628

  20. Promoter discrimination at class I MarA regulon promoters mediated by glutamic acid 89 of the MarA transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert G; Rosner, Judah L

    2011-01-01

    Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate > 40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13.

  1. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

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    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  2. Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23741474

  3. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

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    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  4. Promoting social skills of mexican high school students through virtual activities in the Moodle platform

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    Laura Yolanda RODRÍGUEZ MATAMOROS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of promoting social skills of Mexican high school students based on the graduate profile of this level, virtual activities were implemented in the Moodle platform to 169 students of second year, adopting the proposed Goldstein social skills. In order to establish the impact of these activities to a pretest-postest a one group design was used. The results show that the activities had a positive and significant impact in beginning social skills, advanced social skills, skills for dealing with feeling, social alternatives skills of the participants according to the results obtained by skills scale social Goldstein.

  5. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

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    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  6. Community Capacity Building for Physical Activity Promotion among Older Adults-A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubert, Tobias; Forberger, Sarah; Gansefort, Dirk; Zeeb, Hajo; Brand, Tilman

    2017-09-13

    Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and leadership, is among the recommended core strategies. However, little guidance is provided on how to achieve a high degree of community capacity. This study aims to identify practical strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion among older adults (50 years or older) and to evaluate their success. A literature review was conducted using scientific databases (PsycInfo and Web of Sciences) and grey literature (national and international project databases), and 14 studies (16 articles) were identified. Five groups of capacity building strategies emerged from the literature: (1) building community coalitions and networks, (2) training of professionals, (3) training of laypersons, (4) strengthening competence and awareness in the target population, and (5) allocation of financial resources. All studies used more than one strategy. Coalition building and strengthening competence and awareness were most frequently used. Feasibility and acceptability of the capacity building strategies were demonstrated. However, intervention effects on PA behavior and other relevant outcomes were inconsistent. The one study that systematically compared different capacity building approaches did not find any evidence for beneficial effects of intensified capacity building. More rigorous research evaluating the efficacy of specific strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion is needed.

  7. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

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    Wei Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter assay system. The results showed that there is some negative-regulatory element from −620 to −433 bp, and there is some positive-regulatory element between −433 and −385 bp. The fragment (1.08 kb of UCP3 promoter was cotransfected with muscle-related transcription factor myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A. We found that UCP3 promoter could be upregulated by Myf5, Myf6 and MyoD and downregulated by MyoG and MEF2A.

  8. Modelling the results of health promotion activities in Switzerland: development of the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda; Broesskamp-Stone, Ursel; Ruckstuhl, Brigitte; Ackermann, Günter; Spoerri, Adrian; Cloetta, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention adopted by Health Promotion Switzerland (SMOC, Swiss Model for Outcome Classification) and the process of its development. The context and method of model development, and the aim and objectives of the model are outlined. Preliminary experience with application of the model in evaluation planning and situation analysis is reported. On the basis of an extensive literature search, the model is situated within the wider international context of similar efforts to meet the challenge of developing tools to assess systematically the activities of health promotion and prevention.

  9. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  10. The replication of a mouse adapted SARS-CoV in a mouse cell line stably expressing the murine SARS-CoV receptor mACE2 efficiently induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regla-Nava, Jose A; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Nieto-Torres, Jose L; Gallagher, Thomas M; Enjuanes, Luis; DeDiego, Marta L

    2013-11-01

    Infection of conventional mice with a mouse adapted (MA15) severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) reproduces many aspects of human SARS such as pathological changes in lung, viremia, neutrophilia, and lethality. However, established mouse cell lines highly susceptible to mouse-adapted SARS-CoV infection are not available. In this work, efficiently transfectable mouse cell lines stably expressing the murine SARS-CoV receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) have been generated. These cells yielded high SARS-CoV-MA15 titers and also served as excellent tools for plaque assays. In addition, in these cell lines, SARS-CoV-MA15 induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and IFN-β, mimicking what has been observed in experimental animal models infected with SARS-CoV and SARS patients. These cell lines are valuable tools to perform in vitro studies in a mouse cell system that reflects the species used for in vivo studies of SARS-CoV-MA15 pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging(®) is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  12. Diffusing a Research-based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Seniors Into Diverse Communities: CHAMPS III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Stewart, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing the physical activity levels of older adults through diffusion of successful research-based programs into community settings is challenging because of differences between research and real-world settings. This project diffused the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS II, an individual-level research-based physical activity promotion program, through three community organizations to reach lower-income and minority (primarily Hispanic or Latino and African American seniors. Methods Through an academic–community partnership, university staff worked with each organization to adapt the program to be appealing and effective, enable their staff and volunteers to provide the program, increase participants’ physical activity, and leave sustainable programs in place. Evaluation was based on methods recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The adapted programs, referred to as CHAMPS III, differed from the original program and among organizations. Group-based components and resource guides were included and new features were added; however, individualized components were not offered because of limited resources. A total of 321 people enrolled among three organizations; there was a trend toward increased physical activity at two organizations (an estimated increase of 481 kcal/week [P = .08] and 437 kcal/week [P = .06] expended in physical activity. Evaluation revealed challenges and unexpected community-level benefits. All organizations are continuing efforts to promote physical activity for older adults. Conclusion This project enabled community organizations to implement physical activity promotion programs. The overarching challenge was to retain original program features within each organization’s resources yet be sustainable. Although the programs differed from the original research program, they were a catalyst for numerous community-level changes. Our findings can

  13. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  14. Engagement of membrane immunoglobulin enhances Id3 promoter activity in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun LI; Kikumi HATA; Junichiro MIZUGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: We have recently shown that engagement of membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) induced upregulation of inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) mRNA, resulting in growth arrest at G1 phase in WEHI-231 cells. In the present study, we examined whether engagement of mIg will affect promoter activity of the Id3 gene in WEHI231 cells. Methods: DNA fragments corresponding to the 5′-flanking region of mId3 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA as the template. Three DNA fragments upstream of the transcription start site (+ 1) of the mId3 gene were subcloned into the luciferase reporter vector PGVB2. The recombinant constructs were transiently transfected into WEHI-231 cells by an electroporation method. After incubation for 24 h, WEHI-231 cells were stimulated with 10 mg/L anti-IgM or irradiated CD40L-expressing NIH3T3 cells or control NIH3T3 cells for further 24 h, followed by assay for luciferase activity. Results: The luciferase analysis demonstrated that basal promoter activity of the Id3 gene was found in the region between -200 and +54. The Id3 promoter activity was increased 2-fold following stimulation with anti-IgM, but not CD40L, compared with medium alone. Conclusion: The mIg-mediated upregulation of Id3 expression is controlled, at least in part, through transcriptional regulation, as assessed by luciferase assay.

  15. The flavonoid fisetin promotes osteoblasts differentiation through Runx2 transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids represent a group of polyphenolic compounds commonly found in daily nutrition with proven health benefits. Among this group, the flavonol fisetin has been previously shown to protect bone by repressing osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the role of fisetin in regulating osteoblasts physiology. In vivo mice treated with LPSs exhibited osteoporosis features associated with a dramatic repression of osteoblast marker expression. In this model, inhibition of osteocalcin and type I collagen alpha 1 transcription was partially countered by a daily consumption of fisetin. Interestingly, in vitro, fisetin promoted both osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization process. To decipher how fisetin may exert its positive effect on osteoblastogenesis, we analyzed its ability to control the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a key organizer in developing and maturing osteoblasts. While fisetin did not impact Runx2 mRNA and protein levels, it upregulated its transcriptional activity. Actually, fisetin stimulated the luciferase activity of a reporter plasmid driven by the osteocalcin gene promoter that contains Runx2 binding sites and promoted the mRNA expression of osteocalcin and type I collagen alpha 1 targets. Bone sparing properties of fisetin also rely on its positive influence on osteoblast differentiation and activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. TLR4 activation promotes podocyte injury and interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ma

    Full Text Available Toll like receptor (TLR 4 has been reported to promote inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. However the role of TLR4 in the complicated pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy is not understood. In this study, we report elevated expression of TLR4, its endogenous ligands and downstream cytokines, chemokines and fibrogenic genes in diabetic nephropathy in WT mice with streptozotocin (STZ diabetes. Subsequently, we demonstrated that TLR4-/- mice were protected against the development of diabetic nephropathy, exhibiting less albuminuria, inflammation, glomerular hypertrophy and hypercellularity, podocyte and tubular injury as compared to diabetic wild-type controls. Marked reductions in interstitial collagen deposition, myofibroblast activation (α-SMA and expression of fibrogenic genes (TGF-β and fibronectin were also evident in TLR4 deficient mice. Consistent with our in vivo results, high glucose directly promoted TLR4 activation in podocytes and tubular epithelial cells in vitro, resulting in NF-κB activation and consequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Our data indicate that TLR4 activation may promote inflammation, podocyte and tubular epithelial cell injury and interstitial fibrosis, suggesting TLR4 is a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  18. Dietary cholesterol promotes AOM-induced colorectal cancer through activating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianming; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huimin; Wang, Jianing; Liu, Xiuting; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yajing; Hu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol-enriched diet induces chronic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems including colorectal cancer. Inflammasomes are thought to mediate intestinal homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, in vitro and in vivo information regarding the inflammation-inducing and tumor-promoting effect of cholesterol is lacking. Here we show that the cholesterol promoted colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice through activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. High cholesterol diet (HCD) significantly increased inflammatory responses and tumor burden. Cholesterol crystals, detected in the colon of mice fed with HCD, also promoted NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, as indicated by elevated expression of cleaved caspase-1, formation of NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 complex assembly, and higher IL-1β secretion. Importantly, cholesterol was found to inhibit the activity of AMPKα in macrophages, leading to a significant production of mitochondrial ROS, which in turn activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, crystal uptake and cathepsin B accounted for cholesterol crystal-induced inactivation of AMPKα. Finally, HCD-induced increase in IL-1β secretion, macrophage infiltration and tumor burden was diminished by the deletion of NLRP3 in AOM-treated mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory and cancer-promoting effects of HCD are mediated by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study extended our knowledge on how dietary choices can influence processes involved in chronic inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer.

  19. An artificial HSE promoter for efficient and selective detection of heat shock pathway activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Viktoria; Ludwig, Alfred; Riegel, Elisabeth; Dunzinger, Sarah; Czerny, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Detection of cellular stress is of major importance for the survival of cells. During evolution, a network of stress pathways developed, with the heat shock (HS) response playing a major role. The key transcription factor mediating HS signalling activity in mammalian cells is the HS factor HSF1. When activated it binds to the heat shock elements (HSE) in the promoters of target genes like heat shock protein (HSP) genes. They are induced by HSF1 but in addition they integrate multiple signals from different stress pathways. Here, we developed an artificial promoter consisting only of HSEs and therefore selectively reacting to HSF-mediated pathway activation. The promoter is highly inducible but has an extreme low basal level. Direct comparison with the HSPA1A promoter activity indicates that heat-dependent expression can be fully recapitulated by isolated HSEs in human cells. Using this sensitive reporter, we measured the HS response for different temperatures and exposure times. In particular, long heat induction times of 1 or 2 h were compared with short heat durations down to 1 min, conditions typical for burn injuries. We found similar responses to both long and short heat durations but at completely different temperatures. Exposure times of 2 h result in pathway activation at 41 to 44 °C, whereas heat pulses of 1 min lead to a maximum HS response between 47 and 50 °C. The results suggest that the HS response is initiated by a combination of temperature and exposure time but not by a certain threshold temperature.

  20. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  1. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    204) although phosphorylation of b-Raf (Ser445) and c-Raf (Ser 338) remained unchanged. Furthermore, increased activation of the PAK1 activator Rac1 induced the formation of a triple complex of Rac1, PAK1 and Mek1, independent of the kinase activity of PAK1. These data suggest that PAK1 can stimulate...

  3. Active Gaming to Promote Physical Activity: Questions to Consider for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyler, Tim; Banks, Sarah; Wilson, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The physical activity potential and physiological and motivational benefits of active gaming have been a hot topic in the past few years. It is easy to see why active games are popular among certain populations, particularly those with prior or current video game experience. Video games are fun to play and challenging, give a player total control,…

  4. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Zoe R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a

  5. FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Fan; Chen, Weihao; Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Zhang, Dong; Linghu, Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.

  6. FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to DNA damage by activating cell cycle checkpoints to delay proliferation and facilitate DNA repair. Here, to uncover new checkpoint regulators, we perform RNA interference screening targeting genes involved in ubiquitylation processes. We show that the F-box protein cyclin F plays...... an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme...... that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein...

  8. Flavonoids promoting HaCaT migration: I. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moonjae; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Mijoo; Kim, Young Hwa; Lim, Yoongho

    2014-03-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in multicellular development and preservation. Because wound healing requires cell migration, compounds promoting cell migration can be used for wound repair therapy. Several plant-derived polyphenols are known to promote cell migration, which improves wound healing. Previous studies of flavonoids on cell lines have focused on their inhibitory effects and not on wound healing. In addition, studies of flavonoids on wound healing have been performed using mixtures. In this study, individual flavonoids were used for cellular migration measurements. Relationships between the cell migration effects of flavonoids and their structural properties have never been reported. Here, we investigated the migration of keratinocytes caused by 100 flavonoids and examined their relationships using hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships. The structural conditions responsible for efficient cell migration on keratinocyte cell lines determined from the current study will facilitate the design of flavonoids with improved activity.

  9. Role Modeling Attitudes, Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of Prospective Physical Education Specialists and Non-Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…

  10. Association between the polymorphism of A9570G in angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 gene and cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction%ACE2基因多态性与心肌梗死后心功能不全及心室重构的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文忠; 周永健; 周劲东; 李志樑; 徐春生

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of polymorphism of A9570G in angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 gene ( ACE2) gene on cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Methods 252 patients with old myccardial infarction were included in this study. They were classified according to their polymorphisms of ACE 2 gene analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Echocardiograms were used to determine left ventricular end diastolic diameters (LVEDd) , Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) , mitral flow pattern early diastolic and late diastolic peak flow ratio (E/A) and left ventricular ejection fraction ( LVEF). Results In male, LVEDd, LVMI, and LVEF had significant difference among ACE2 genotypes ( t = 2. 609,3.527and 2.063, P =0.010,0.001 and 0.041), and no significant differences in E/A( t =0.689,P =0.492). In female,LVEDd, LVMI, E/A and LVEF had no significant difference among ACE2 genotypes( F =0. 848, 0.077,0. 985 and 1.611, P = 0. 432,0. 926,0. 377 and 0. 205 ). Conclusion The polymorphism of A9570G in ACE2 gene may be associated with cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in male. ACE 2 gene polymorphism may be a genetic factor on cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.%目的 研究血管紧张素转换酶2基因A9570G多态性与心肌梗死后心功能不全及心室重构的关系.方法 收集252例陈旧性心肌梗死患者,采取外周血2ml提取DNA,多聚酶链扩增反应及限制性内切酶法检测ACE2基因A9570G基因型,按基因型进行分组,采用超声心动图比较不同基因型间患者LVEF,E/A,LVEDd及LVMI的差异.结果 在男性,G基因型组LVEF、LVEDd、LVMI与A基因型组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.609、3.527、2.063,P0.05);在女性,3种基因型间患者LVEF、E/A、LVEDd及LVMI差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 ACE2基因A9570G多态性与男性心肌梗死后

  11. The effectiveness of an intervention promoting physical activity in elemantary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraete, S

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important component of a healthfully lifestyle in children and adolescents. The main purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive PA promotion intervention in elementary school children. Furthermore, the effectiveness of some of the intervention components was evaluated. Sixteen elementary schools participated in the intervention study. They were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 8) and control condition (n = 8...

  12. Pleiotropic β-Agonist–Promoted Receptor Conformations and Signals Independent of Intrinsic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    β-Agonists used for treatment of obstructive lung disease have a variety of different structures but are typically classified by their intrinsic activities for stimulation of cAMP, and predictions are made concerning other downstream signals based on such a classification. We generated modified β2-adrenergic receptors with insertions of energy donor and acceptor moieties to monitor agonist-promoted conformational changes of the receptor using intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy tr...

  13. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy...... the policy tool an active vehicle for an improvement of children ’ s lifestyle behaviour and thus a dynamic instrument....

  14. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  15. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy...... the policy tool an active vehicle for an improvement of children ’ s lifestyle behaviour and thus a dynamic instrument....

  16. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: Benefit and risk for promoting childhood physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Colley, Rachel C; Wherley, Valerie A; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend children accumulate 60 min of daily physical activity; however, highly publicized sudden-death events among young athletes raise questions regarding activity safety. An expert group convened (June 2012) to consider the safety of promoting increased physical activity for children, and recommended the publication of an evidence-based statement of current knowledge regarding the benefits and risks of physical activity for children. Recommendations for encouraging physical activity while maximizing the opportunity to identify children who have been prescribed a physical activity restriction include (1) professionals and (or) researchers that encourage children to change the type of physical activity or to increase the frequency, intensity, or duration of their activity should inquire whether a child has primary healthcare provider-prescribed activity limitations before the child's activity participation changes; (2) physical activity researchers should prioritize the development of evidence regarding the benefits and risks of childhood physical activity and inactivity, particularly data on the risks of sedentary lifestyles and physical activity-associated injury risks that accounts for the amount of activity performed, and the effectiveness of current risk-management strategies and screening approaches; (3) professionals and researchers should prioritize the dissemination of information regarding the benefits of physical activity and the risks of sedentary behaviour in children; and (4) parents and professionals should encourage all children to accumulate at least 60 min of physical activity daily. The recommendations are established as a minimum acceptable standard that is applicable to all physical activity opportunities organized for children, whether those opportunities occur in a community, school, or research setting.

  17. Anti-tumour promoter activity in Malaysian ginger rhizobia used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, S; Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1999-04-01

    Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells. The inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot technique. The indirect IFA detected the expression/inhibition of EBV-EA-D (diffused EA antigen), whereas the Western blot technique detected the expression/inhibition of both EBV-EA-D and EA-R (restricted EA antigen). Seven rhizomes were found to possess inhibitory activity towards EBV activation, induced by TPA; they are: Curcuma domestica, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, Z. officinale, Z. officinale (red variety), and Z. zerumbet. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts. The rhizome extracts that exhibited EBV activation inhibitory activity had no cytotoxicity effect in Raji cells. Therefore, the present study shows that several Zingiberaceae species used in Malaysian traditional medicine contain naturally occurring non-toxic compounds that inhibit the EBV activation, which, if further investigated, could contribute in the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour-promoting stage.

  18. KNL1 facilitates phosphorylation of outer kinetochore proteins by promoting Aurora B kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Gina V; DeLuca, Keith F; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2013-12-23

    Aurora B kinase phosphorylates kinetochore proteins during early mitosis, increasing kinetochore–microtubule (MT) turnover and preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore–MT attachments. Phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins during late mitosis is low, promoting attachment stabilization, which is required for anaphase onset. The kinetochore protein KNL1 recruits Aurora B–counteracting phosphatases and the Aurora B–targeting factor Bub1, yet the consequences of KNL1 depletion on Aurora B phospho-regulation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the KNL1 N terminus is essential for Aurora B activity at kinetochores. This region of KNL1 is also required for Bub1 kinase activity at kinetochores, suggesting that KNL1 promotes Aurora B activity through Bub1-mediated Aurora B targeting. However, ectopic targeting of Aurora B to kinetochores does not fully rescue Aurora B activity in KNL1-depleted cells, suggesting KNL1 influences Aurora B activity through an additional pathway. Our findings establish KNL1 as a requirement for Aurora B activity at kinetochores and for wild-type kinetochore–MT attachment dynamics.

  19. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  20. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jiang; Jianchun Wu; Chen He; Wending Yang; Honglin Li

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdkl activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chkl and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  1. A combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity: a multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Milena; Richert, Jana; Parschau, Linda; Ernsting, Anna; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals are motivated to improve their physical activity levels, but often fail to act upon their intention. Interventions fostering volitional strategies, such as action planning, coping planning, and self-efficacy beliefs, can help to translate intentions into behavior. This study examines the effectiveness and the mechanisms of a combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity among motivated individuals. Participants (N = 883) were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a waiting-list control condition. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the intervention resulted in significantly more physical activity, higher levels of action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy beliefs (p planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy mediate between the intervention and physical activity. The study shows that the intervention successfully fostered physical activity and unfolds the underlying self-regulatory mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness.

  2. Neuronal activity promotes oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Erin M; Purger, David; Mount, Christopher W; Goldstein, Andrea K; Lin, Grant L; Wood, Lauren S; Inema, Ingrid; Miller, Sarah E; Bieri, Gregor; Zuchero, J Bradley; Barres, Ben A; Woo, Pamelyn J; Vogel, Hannes; Monje, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving mice to demonstrate that neuronal activity elicits a mitogenic response of neural progenitor cells and OPCs, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and increases myelination within the deep layers of the premotor cortex and subcortical white matter. We further show that this neuronal activity-regulated oligodendrogenesis and myelination is associated with improved motor function of the corresponding limb. Oligodendrogenesis and myelination appear necessary for the observed functional improvement, as epigenetic blockade of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin changes prevents the activity-regulated behavioral improvement.

  3. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  4. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Massimi, Paola [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Banks, Lawrence, E-mail: banks@icgeb.org [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  5. Effect of environmental estrogens on IL-1beta promoter activity in a macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, M F; Bi, Y; Cox, L; Berk, D; Howlett, A C; Bellone, C J

    1998-10-01

    Environmental estrogens or estrogen disrupters have recently received a great deal of attention because of their potential health impact on reproductive tissues. Few, if any, studies have been made on the impact of these compounds on the immune system. We sought to determine the activities of various environmental estrogens on the modulation of the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene in a model monocytic cell line, hER + IL-1beta-CAT+. This cell line stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor, and an IL-1beta promoter construct fused to the CAT reporter gene allows us to monitor the effect of estrogenic compounds on IL-1beta promoter activity. 17beta-estradiol (E2) markedly enhanced lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced IL-1beta promoter-driven CAT activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mycotoxins alpha-zearalenol and zearalenone both exhibited full agonist activity, but at lower potencies, with EC50 values of 1.8 and 54 nM, respectively, compared with E2 at 0.5 nM. In addition, genistein was a very low-potency agonist, having an EC50 of 1.5 microM. Similar to the E2 response, the slope factors for alpha-zearalenol, zearalenone, and genistein were close to 3.0, suggesting positive cooperativity in the estrogenic response. The activity of the mycotoxins appeared to be mediated through the estrogen receptor, since both the antiestrogens H1285 and ICI 182,780 effectively inhibited their agonist activity in a dose-dependent manner. Representative environmental estrogenic compounds both from plant and industrial sources were also tested. Unlike the mycoestrogens, none of the compounds, with the exception of genistein, synergized with LPS to enhance IL-1beta promoter activity. When tested for antiestrogenic activity, the industrial compound 4-octylphenol was able to antagonize the response to E2; however, the response was three orders of magnitude less potent than H 1285. Naringenin, a plant flavonoid, showed little or no ability to antagonize the response to E2

  6. Sevoflurane preconditioning induced endogenous neurogenesis against ischemic brain injury by promoting microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Saiyin, Hexige; Xie, Jingmo; Ma, Lixiang; Xue, Lei; Wang, Wei; Liang, Weimin; Yu, Qiong

    2017-02-14

    Brain ischemia causes irreversible damage to functional neurons in cases of infarct. Promoting endogenous neurogenesis to replace necrotic neurons is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemia patients. The neuroprotective role of sevoflurane preconditioning implies that it might also enhance endogenous neurogenesis and functional restoration in the infarct region. By using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, we discovered that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by sevoflurane preconditioning. This enhancement process is characterized by the promotion of neuroblast proliferation within the subventricular zone (SVZ), migration and differentiation into neurons, and the presence of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes at the site of infarct. The newborn neurons in the sevoflurane preconditioning group showed miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), increased synaptophysin and PSD95 staining density, indicating normal neuronal function. Furthermore, long-term behavioral improvement was observed in the sevoflurane preconditioning group consistent with endogenous neurogenesis. Further histological analyses showed that sevoflurane preconditioning accelerated microglial activation, including migration, phagocytosis and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Intraperitoneal injection of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, suppressed microglial activation and reversed neurogenesis. Our data showed that sevoflurane preconditioning promoted microglial activities, created a favorable microenvironment for endogenous neurogenesis and accelerated functional reconstruction in the infarct region.

  7. ATPase activity tightly regulates RecA nucleofilaments to promote homologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bailin; Zhang, Dapeng; Li, Chengmin; Yuan, Zheng; Yu, Fangzhi; Zhong, Shangwei; Jiang, Guibin; Yang, Yun-Gui; Le, X Chris; Weinfeld, Michael; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR), catalyzed in an evolutionarily conserved manner by active RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments, maintains genomic integrity and promotes biological evolution and diversity. The structures of RecA/Rad51 nucleofilaments provide information critical for the entire HR process. By exploiting a unique capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence polarization assay, we have discovered an active form of RecA nucleofilament, stimulated by ATP hydrolysis, that contains mainly unbound nucleotide sites. This finding was confirmed by a nuclease protection assay and electron microscopy (EM) imaging. We further found that these RecA-unsaturated filaments promote strand exchange in vitro and HR in vivo. RecA mutants (P67D and P67E), which only form RecA-unsaturated nucleofilaments, were able to mediate HR in vitro and in vivo, but mutants favoring the formation of the saturated nucleofilaments failed to support HR. We thus present a new model for RecA-mediated HR in which RecA utilizes its intrinsic DNA binding-dependent ATPase activity to remodel the nucleofilaments to a less saturated form and thereby promote HR. PMID:28101376

  8. Identification of a small molecule activator of novel PKCs for promoting glucose-dependent insulin secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Han; Heling Pan; Jianhua Zhang; Li Tan; Dawei Ma; Junying Yuan; Jia-Rui Wu

    2011-01-01

    Using an image-based screen for small molecules that can affect Golgi morphology, we identify a small molecule,Sioc145, which can enlarge the Golgi compartments and promote protein secretion. More importantly, Siocl45 potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. We show that Sioc145 selectively activates novel protein kinase Cs (nPKCs; δ and ε) but not conventional PKCs;cPKCs; a, βI and βll) in INS-1E insulinoma cells. In contrast, PMA, a non-selective activator of cPKCs and nPKCs, promotes insulin secretion independent of glucose concentrations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sioc145 and PMA show differential abilities in depolarizing the cell membrane, and suggest that Sioc145 promotes insulin secretion in the amplifying pathway downstream of K ATp channels. In pancreatic islets, the treatment with Sioc145 enhances the second phase of insulin secretion. Increased insulin granules close to the plasma membrane are observed after Sioc145 treatment. Finally, the administration of Sioc145 to diabetic GK rats increases their serum insulin levels and improves glucose tolerance. Collectively, our studies identify Sioc145 as a novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic compound via selectively activating nPKCs.

  9. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R. solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30–84 and P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P. brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide. Growth-promoting rhizobacteria in polluted soils PMID:25219642

  10. CD147 promotes melanoma progression through hypoxia-induced MMP2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, W; Su, J; Wu, L; Yang, D; Long, T; Li, D; Kuang, Y; Li, J; Qi, M; Zhang, J; Chen, X

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia enhances MMP2 expression and the invasion and metastatic potential of melanoma cells. CD147 has been shown to induce MMP2 in multiple cancers. To investigate the role of CD147 in hypoxiainduced MMP2 activation, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in 206 normal and melanoma tissue samples, and analyzed the correlation between HIF1α and CD147. ChIP (chromosome Immunoprecipitation) in melanoma cell lines supports that HIF1α directly binds to CD147 promoter. Moreover, we made a series of deletion mutants of CD147 promoter, and identified a conserved HIF1α binding site. Point mutation in this site significantly decreased CD147 response to hypoxia. Importantly, knocking down CD147 attenuates MMP2 response to hypoxia in melanoma cell lines. MMP2 could not be efficiently activated by hypoxia in CD147 depletion cells. ELISA data showed that MMP2 secretion was reduced in CD147 depletion cells than control under hypoxia condition. To verify the data from cell culture model, we performed in vivo mouse xenograft experiment. IHC staining showed reduced MMP2 level in CD147 depleted xenografts compared to the control group, with the HIF1α level being comparable. Our study demonstrates a novel pathway mediated by CD147 to promote the MMP2 activation induced by hypoxia, and helps to understand the interplay between hypoxia and melanoma progression.

  11. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would...

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Wan [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un, E-mail: gbae@sookmyung.ac.kr [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  13. Interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Nanna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity is considered to yield substantial health benefits, the level of physical activity among European teenagers is not sufficient. Adolescence is characterized by a decline in physical activity level. Many studies investigated the effectiveness of interventions promoting physical activity among young people, but none dealt with the available evidence specific for Europe. This review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify European intervention studies published in the scientific literature since 1995. Four databases were searched, reference lists were scanned and the publication lists of the authors of the retrieved articles were checked. The ANGELO framework was used to categorise the included studies by setting and by intervention components. Results The literature search identified 20 relevant studies. Fifteen interventions were delivered through the school setting, of which three included a family component and another three a family and community component. One intervention was conducted within a community setting, three were delivered in primary care and one was delivered through the internet. Ten interventions included only an individual component, whereas the other ten used a multi-component approach. None of the interventions included only an environmental component. Main findings of the review were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvements in physical activity levels; (2 improvements in physical activity levels by school-based interventions were limited to school related physical activity with no conclusive transfer to leisure time physical activity; (3 including parents appeared to enhance school-based interventions; (4 the support of peers and the influence of direct environmental changes increased the physical activity level of

  14. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  15. Promoting Active Learning in Calculus and General Physics through Interactive and Media-Enhanced Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Tang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach of incorporating interactive and media-enhanced lectures to promote active learning in Calculus and General Physics courses. The pedagogical practice of using interactive techniques in lectures to require "heads-on" and "hands-on" learning, and involve students more as active participants than passive receivers is a part of academic curricular reform efforts undertaken currently by the mathematics, physics and chemistry departments at North Carolina A&T State University under the NSF funded project "Talent-21: Gateway for Advancing Science and Mathematics Talents."

  16. Promoting Active Learning in Calculus and General Physics through Interactive and Media-Enhanced Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Tang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach of incorporating interactive and media-enhanced lectures to promote active learning in Calculus and General Physics courses. The pedagogical practice of using interactive techniques in lectures to require "heads-on" and "hands-on" learning, and involve students more as active participants than passive receivers is a part of academic curricular reform efforts undertaken currently by the mathematics, physics and chemistry departments at North Carolina A&T State University under the NSF funded project "Talent-21: Gateway for Advancing Science and Mathematics Talents."

  17. Endogenous activation of adenosine A1 receptors promotes post-ischemic electrocortical burst suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, A; Ciocan, D; Constantinescu, A O

    2009-01-01

    . Several lines of evidence suggest that BS reflects an impairment of neocortical connectivity. Here we tested in vivo whether synaptic depression by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) activation contributes to BS patterns following GCI. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1, 5 or 10 min of GCI using a "four...... of post-ischemic BS patterns following brief ischemic episodes. It is likely that synaptic depression by post-ischemic A1R activation functionally disrupts the connectivity within the cortical networks to an extent that promotes BS patterns....

  18. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  19. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Maureen; De Corby, Kara; Robeson, Paula; Husson, Heather; Tirilis, Daiva

    2009-01-21

    The World Health Organization estimates that 1.9 million deaths worldwide are attributable to physical inactivity. Chronic diseases associated with physical inactivity include cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence of the effectiveness of school-based interventions in promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. The search strategy included searching several databases. In addition, reference lists of included articles and background papers were reviewed for potentially relevant studies, as well as references from relevant Cochrane reviews. Primary authors of included studies were contacted as needed for additional information. To be included, the intervention had to be relevant to public health practice, implemented, facilitated, or promoted by staff in local public health units, implemented in a school setting and aimed at increasing physical activity, report on outcomes for children and adolescents (aged 6 to 18 years), and use a prospective design with a control group. Standardized tools were used by two independent reviewers to rate each study's methodological quality and for data extraction. Where discrepancies existed discussion occurred until consensus was reached. The results were summarized narratively due to wide variations in the populations, interventions evaluated and outcomes measured. 13,841 titles were identified and screened and 482 articles were retrieved. Multiple publications on the same project were combined and counted as one project, resulting in 395 distinct project accounts (studies). Of the 395 studies 104 were deemed relevant and of those, four were assessed as having strong methodological quality, 22 were of moderate quality and 78 were considered weak. In total 26 studies were included in the review. There is good evidence that school-based physical activity interventions have a positive impact on four of the nine outcome measures

  20. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  1. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  2. The regulation of the SARK promoter activity by hormones and environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Carla A; Cohen, Yuval; Liu, Li; Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The Senescence Associated Receptor Protein Kinase (P(SARK)) promoter, fused to isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene has been shown to promote drought tolerance in crops. We dissected P(SARK) in order to understand the various elements associated with its activation and suppression. The activity of P(SARK) was higher in mature and early senescing leaves, and abiotic stress induced its activity in mature leaves. Bioinformatics analysis suggests the interactions of multiple cis-acting elements in the control of P(SARK) activity. In vitro gel shift assays and yeast one hybrid system revealed interactions of P(SARK) with transcription factors related to abscisic acid and cytokinin response. Deletion analysis of P(SARK), fused to GUS-reporter gene was used to identify specific regions regulating transcription under senescence or during drought stress. Effects of exogenous hormonal treatments were characterized in entire plants and in leaf disk assays, and regions responsive to various hormones were defined. Our results indicate a complex interaction of plant hormones and additional factors modulating P(SARK) activity under stress resulting in a transient induction of expression.

  3. Recommendations for Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents in Germany. A Consensus Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity, which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and sex-specific features and regional differences are not taken into account. Therefore, expert consensus recommendations for promoting physical activity of children and adolescents in Germany were developed with special respect to national data, but also with respect to aspects of specific target groups, e.g., children with a lower socio-economic status (SES or with migration background. They propose 90 min/day of physical activity, or at least 12,000 steps daily. Additionally, lifestyle factors, especially restriction of media consumption, were integrated. The recommendations provide orientation for parents and caregivers, for institutions such as schools and kindergartens as well as for communities and stakeholders.

  4. NR2D-containing NMDA receptors mediate tissue plasminogen activator-promoted neuronal excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A; Montagne, A; Cassé, F; Launay, S; Maubert, E; Ali, C; Vivien, D

    2010-05-01

    Although the molecular bases of its actions remain debated, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a paradoxical brain protease, as it favours some learning/memory processes, but increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Here, we show that, in cultured cortical neurons, tPA selectively promotes NR2D-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent activation. We show that tPA-mediated signalling and neurotoxicity through the NMDAR are blocked by co-application of an NR2D antagonist (phenanthrene derivative (2S(*), 3R(*))-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, PPDA) or knockdown of neuronal NR2D expression. In sharp contrast with cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons do not exhibit NR2D both in vitro and in vivo and are consequently resistant to tPA-promoted NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity. Moreover, we have shown that activation of synaptic NMDAR prevents further tPA-dependent NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity and sensitivity to PPDA. This study shows that the earlier described pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA is mediated by NR2D-containing NMDAR-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, a deleterious effect prevented by synaptic pre-activation.

  5. Physical Activity in Medellín: a Challenge for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Éuler Sepúlveda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: chronic diseases generate high economical and social costs to humankind. The lack of physical activity has been considered as a determinant factor in the epidemics of chronic diseases nowadays. It is mandatory to explore this kind of behavior in order to outline appropriate actions for prevention and health promotion. Method: a survey on 3.979 representative people of both sexes from Medellín, Colombia was carried out evaluating attitudes and practices related to physical activity and its associated factors. The analysis included the description of proportions with their respective tests of statistical significance and different crossings with sociodemographic variables. Results: only one out of five people (21.2% performs enough physical activity in order to protect its health. Physical activity is higher among men and is positively associated to social-economic levels and education status. The sedentary behavior is usually adopted in early stages of youth and is kept throughout lifespan. Physical activity, on the contrary, is usually associated to a better balance in body composition. Conclusion: the high prevalence of sedentary behaviors in the population is probably becoming a significant factor in the increase of chronic diseases. This condition should be included as a priority in the design of strategies for the intervention in public health; furthermore, the promotion of healthy lifestyles among people becomes a big challenge to health professionals who should face it with creativity and optimism.

  6. Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis promote adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Akio; Ohguchi, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Ito, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of red propolis (EERP) on adipogenesis and evaluate the molecular basis for their anti-obesity effects. We tested whether EERP alone could induce differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes and reverse inhibitory effects of TNF-α on their differentiation. Next, we performed a luciferase reporter gene assay to test whether EERP could enhance transcriptional activities of PPARγ and adiponectin promoter activities. EERP strongly induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, and enhanced the PPARγ transcriptional activity and adiponectin promoter activity. In addition, EERP attenuated the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin production in mature adipocytes. The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Wicher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR, we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH: PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage.

  8. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  9. Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutzen Rik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2 a multi-component approach (including environmental components generally resulted in larger effect sizes, thereby providing evidence for the assumption that a multi-component approach should produce synergistic results; and (3 if an intervention aimed to affect more health behaviours besides physical activity, then the intervention appeared to be less effective in favour of physical activity.

  10. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  11. Pyruvate kinase M2 activators promote tetramer formation and suppress tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Yu, Yimin; Israelsen, William J.; Jiang, Jian-Kang; Boxer, Matthew B.; Hong, Bum Soo; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Shen, Min; Jha, Abhishek; Yang, Hua; Mattaini, Katherine R.; Metallo, Christian M.; Fiske, Brian P.; Courtney, Kevin D.; Malstrom, Scott; Khan, Tahsin M.; Kung, Charles; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P.; Veith, Henrike; Southall, Noel; Walsh, Martin J.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Leister, William; Lunt, Sophia Y.; Johnson, Zachary R.; Yen, Katharine E.; Kunii, Kaiko; Davidson, Shawn M.; Christofk, Heather R.; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James; Harris, Marian H.; Asara, John M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Salituro, Francesco G.; Jin, Shengfang; Dang, Lenny; Auld, Douglas S.; Park, Hee-Won; Cantley, Lewis C.; Thomas, Craig J.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2012-08-26

    Cancer cells engage in a metabolic program to enhance biosynthesis and support cell proliferation. The regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) influence altered glucose metabolism in cancer. The interaction of PKM2 with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins inhibits enzyme activity and increases the availability of glycolytic metabolites to support cell proliferation. This suggests that high pyruvate kinase activity may suppress tumor growth. We show that expression of PKM1, the pyruvate kinase isoform with high constitutive activity, or exposure to published small-molecule PKM2 activators inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. Structural studies reveal that small-molecule activators bind PKM2 at the subunit interaction interface, a site that is distinct from that of the endogenous activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, unlike FBP, binding of activators to PKM2 promotes a constitutively active enzyme state that is resistant to inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This data supports the notion that small-molecule activation of PKM2 can interfere with anabolic metabolism.

  12. Roscovitine in combination with calcium ionophore induces oocyte activation through reduction of M-phase promoting factor activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Tomomi; Yano, Yuya; Umeno, Mayumi; Hinokio, Kenji; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Yamano, Shuji; Yasui, Toshiyuki

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine oocyte activation and change in M-phase promoting factor (MPF) activity induced by treatment with calcium ionophore and roscovitine in comparison with those induced by treatment with roscovitine alone and treatment with calcium ionophore and puromycin in mice. Freshly ovulated oocytes obtained from 6-8-week-old mice were divided into five groups (no activation treatment; 5 μM calcium ionophore A23187; 50 μM roscovitine; 5 μM calcium ionophore and 10 μg/ml puromycin; and 5 μM calcium ionophore and 50 μM roscovitine) and were incubated for 6 h. Oocyte activation, assessed by morphological changes, and changes in MPF activity in the five groups at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h of incubation were examined. Activated oocytes were defined as oocytes with at least one pronucleus. Oocytes treated with roscovitine alone were not activated during the 6-h incubation period. All of the oocytes in the calcium ionophore with puromycin group and in the calcium ionophore with roscovitine group were activated. The percentage activity of MPF in oocytes treated with roscovitine alone was decreased after 2 h and increased after 4 h of incubation. The percentage activity of MPF in oocytes treated with calcium ionophore and roscovitine was significantly decreased with suppression of MPF activity being maintained for 6 h, and this change was similar to that in oocytes treated with calcium ionophore and puromycin. Roscovitine with calcium ionophore is effective for induction of oocyte activation through suppression of MPF activity in mice.

  13. Activation of the vrg6 promoter of Bordetella pertussis by RisA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cróinín, Tadhg O; Grippe, Vanessa K; Merkel, Tod J

    2005-03-01

    The BvgAS two-component system positively regulates the expression of the virulence genes of Bordetella pertussis and negatively regulates a second set of genes whose function is unknown. The BvgAS-mediated regulation of the bvg-repressed genes is accomplished through the activation of expression of the negative regulator, BvgR. A second two-component regulatory system, RisAS, is required for expression of the bvg-repressed surface antigens VraA and VraB. We examined the roles of BvgR and RisA in the regulation of four bvg-repressed genes in B. pertussis. Our analyses demonstrated that all four genes are repressed by the product of the bvgR locus and are activated by the product of the risA locus. Deletion analysis of the vrg6 promoter identified the upstream and downstream boundaries of the promoter and, in contrast to previously published results, demonstrated that sequences downstream of the start of transcription are not required for the regulation of expression of vrg6. Gel mobility-shift experiments demonstrated sequence-specific binding of RisA to the vrg6 and vrg18 promoters, and led to the identification of two putative RisA binding sites. Finally, transcriptional analysis and Western blot analysis demonstrated that BvgR regulates neither the expression nor the stability of RisA.

  14. Epigenomic modifications predict active promoters and gene structure in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gissot

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a contiguous 1% of the T. gondii genome using custom oligonucleotide microarrays. We show that methylation and acetylation of histones H3 and H4 are landmarks of active promoters in T. gondii that allow us to deduce the position and directionality of gene promoters with >95% accuracy. These histone methylation and acetylation "activation" marks are strongly associated with gene expression. We also demonstrate that the pattern of histone H3 arginine methylation distinguishes certain promoters, illustrating the complexity of the histone modification machinery in Toxoplasma. By integrating epigenetic data, gene prediction analysis, and gene expression data from the tachyzoite stage, we illustrate feasibility of creating an epigenomic map of T. gondii tachyzoite gene expression. Further, we illustrate the utility of the epigenomic map to empirically and biologically annotate the genome and show that this approach enables identification of previously unknown genes. Thus, our epigenomics approach provides novel insights into regulation of gene expression in the Apicomplexa. In addition, with its compact genome, genetic tractability, and discrete life cycle stages, T. gondii provides an important new model to study the evolutionarily conserved components of the histone code.

  15. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Martin

    2016-01-01

    As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paraly-sis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST—which establishes connectional speci-ifcity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals—informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spi-nal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C4 contusion rat model.

  16. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST-which establishes connectional specificity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals-informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spinal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C 4 contusion rat model.

  17. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  18. Activities of E7 promoters in the human papillomavirus type 16 genome during cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Nielsen, Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    to deregulation of the cell cycle control. HPV-16 preferably infects the proliferating cells that will differentiate when they move upwards in the epithelium. The viral gene-expression is tightly coupled to the cellular differentiation program with early gene-expression being initiated in non- or low-differentiated...... cells and late gene-expression in more differentiated cells. We induced epithelial cells to differentiate by growth in medium with a high calcium concentration and measured the activity of different promoters thought to initiate E6 and/or E7 transcripts. The overall activity of the main promoter, P97......, situated in the long control region as well as the two promoters, P441 and P542, in the E6 ORF upstream of the E7 ORF, were decreased during differentiation. However, P441 and P542 were not down-regulated as much as P97. Therefore, we suggest that P441 and P542 regulate gene-expression in differentiated...

  19. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  20. A library of synthetic transcription activator-like effector-activated promoters for coordinated orthogonal gene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Schäfer, Petra; Weber, Ernst; Grützner, Ramona; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Tissier, Alain

    2015-05-01

    A library of synthetic promoters containing the binding site of a single designer transcription activator-like effector (dTALE) was constructed. The promoters contain a constant sequence, consisting of an 18-base long dTALE-binding site and a TATA box, flanked by degenerate sequences of 49 bases downstream and 19 bases upstream. Forty-three of these promoters were sequenced and tested in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana using a GUS reporter gene. The strength of expression of the promoters ranged from around 5% to almost 100% of the viral 35S promoter activity. We then demonstrated the utility of these promoters for metabolic engineering by transiently expressing three genes for the production of a plant diterpenoid in N. benthamiana. The simplicity of the promoter structure shows great promise for the development of genetic circuits, with wide potential applications in plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

  1. A negative element in the downstream region of the Rice tungro bacilliform virus promoter is orientation- and position-independent and is active with heterologous promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Arunima; Sharma, Shweta; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2010-10-01

    The promoter of an Indian isolate of the pararetrovirus Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV-WB) contains a negative element downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), between nucleotide residues +58 and +195 (Mathur and Dasgupta, 2007). To further characterize the element, we show, by using transient gus reporter gene assays in the cells of onion peel, rice calli and Arabidopsis leaves, that it down-regulates heterologous promoters CaMV35S and Maize ubiquitin. Quantitative measurements of transient GUS activity indicated more than 90% inhibition of reporter gene expression by the negative element. We also show, by reversing the orientation of the element downstream and by placing it in a position upstream to a constitutively expressing RTBV promoter, that the negative element is orientation- and position-independent, pointing towards its activity at the transcriptional and not post-transcriptional level.

  2. Harnessing Technology and Citizen Science to Support Neighborhoods that Promote Active Living in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Salvo, Deborah; Winter, Sandra J; Cortes, David; Rivera, Juan; Rodriguez, Nicole M; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living. We pilot tested this approach in Cuernavaca, Mexico with adults and adolescents. This community-engaged and participatory approach is driven by residents, who utilize a GPS-enabled electronic tablet-based application with simple audio-based instructions to take photographs and record audio narratives of facets of their neighborhood that promote or hinder active living. After collecting these data, the citizen scientists come together in a community meeting and use their data to prioritize realistic, multi-level changes for promoting active living in their neighborhoods. A survey assessed participants' acceptability of the approach. Participating citizen scientists included 32 adults and 9 adolescents. The citizen scientists rated the acceptability of five of the nine acceptability survey items with an average of 4.0 or higher out of 5.0, indicating they thought it was "fun," were comfortable carrying the tablet, were likely to use it again, and would recommend it to friends and family. Items with average scores of less than 4 were all related to safety concerns. The most common barriers reported by citizen scientists using the tablet were poor sidewalk quality, presence of trash, negative characteristics of the streets, unpleasant aesthetics (e.g., graffiti), and presence of parks and recreational facilities. The Our Voice

  3. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward.

  4. FOXR2 Interacts with MYC to Promote Its Transcriptional Activities and Tumorigenesis

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    Xu Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By combining the results of a large-scale proteomic analysis of the human transcription factor interaction network with knowledge databases, we identified FOXR2 as one of the top-ranked candidate proto-oncogenes. Here, we show that FOXR2 forms a stable complex with MYC and MAX and subsequently regulates cell proliferation by promoting MYC’s transcriptional activities. We demonstrate that FOXR2 is highly expressed in several breast, lung, and liver cancer cell lines and related patient tumor samples, while reduction of FOXR2 expression in a xenograft model inhibits tumor growth. These results indicate that FOXR2 acts with MYC to promote cancer cell proliferation, which is a potential tumor-specific target for therapeutic intervention against MYC-driven cancers.

  5. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

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    John Kinsman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design: The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1 poverty, 2 body image ideals, 3 gender, 4 parents and home life, 5 demographic factors, 6 perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7 human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions: Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for

  6. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  7. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

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    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  8. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  9. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy lifestyle in kindergartens. A policy can be defined as a set of adopted principles that guide the work of an organization and aim to achieve a well defined goal, but only policies that rely on the active participation and involvement of concerned actors will be efficient. A number of studies suggest that local level policy on nutrition and on physical activity seems to have the potential to work as a good frame for the organizational efforts that the kindergarten undertakes in order to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in kindergarten. However, kindergartens need to make the policy tool an active vehicle for an improvement of children's lifestyle behaviour and thus a dynamic instrument.

  10. Terazosin activated Pgk1 and Hsp90 to promote stress resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinping; Zhao, Chunyue; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Tao; Li, Yizhou; Cao, Cheng; Ding, Yuehe; Dong, Mengqiu; Finci, Lorenzo; Wang, Jia-huai; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that can protect against organ damage are urgently needed, especially for diseases such as sepsis and brain stroke. We have discovered that terazosin (TZ), a widely marketed alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, alleviated organ damage and improved survival in rodent models of stroke and sepsis. Through combined studies of enzymology and X-ray crystallography, we have discovered that TZ binds to a novel target, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) and activates its enzymatic activity, probably through 1,3-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline's ability to promote ATP release from Pgk1. Mechanistically, the ATP generated from Pgk1 may enhance the chaperone activity of Hsp90, an ATPase known to associate with Pgk1. Upon activation, Hsp90 promotes multi-stress resistance. Our studies have demonstrated that TZ has a novel protein target, Pgk1, and has revealed its corresponding biological effect. As a clinical drug, TZ may be quickly translated into treatment of devastating diseases including stroke and sepsis. PMID:25383758

  11. The Phenolics from the Roots of Livistona chinensis Show Antioxidative and Obsteoblast Differentiation Promoting Activity

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    Xiaobin Zeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting activity of the phenolics isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of Livistona chinensis. Two new phenolics, (2R,3R-3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavane (1, and phenanthrene-2,4,9-triol (2, together with six known phenolics 3–8, were isolated and identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting abilities of the compounds 1–3, 7–8 were tested, the phenolics 1–3, 7 showed effects on proliferation of osteoblastic cells and antioxidative activity of 3.125–50 µg/mL. In addition, the phenolics 1–3 observably increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin content and hydroxyproline content in osteoblastic cells. Phenolic 1 at 12.5 µg/mL concentration significantly increased the area of nodules by about 9.35-fold. The antioxidative activity results indicated that the anti-osteoporosis effects of these phenolics may be linked to a reduction of oxidative stress. The observed effects of these phenolics on bone formation by rat osteoblastic cells suggest that these phenolics may have beneficial effects on bone health.

  12. GPS2/KDM4A Pioneering Activity Regulates Promoter-Specific Recruitment of PPARγ

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    M. Dafne Cardamone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely and selective recruitment of transcription factors to their appropriate DNA-binding sites represents a critical step in regulating gene activation; however, the regulatory strategies underlying each factor’s effective recruitment to specific promoter and/or enhancer regions are not fully understood. Here, we identify an unexpected regulatory mechanism by which promoter-specific binding, and therefore function, of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ (PPARγ in adipocytes requires G protein suppressor 2 (GPS2 to prime the local chromatin environment via inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 and stabilization of the H3K9 histone demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2. Integration of genome-wide profiling data indicates that the pioneering activity of GPS2/KDM4A is required for PPARγ-mediated regulation of a specific transcriptional program, including the lipolytic enzymes adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Hence, our findings reveal that GPS2 exerts a biologically important function in adipose tissue lipid mobilization by directly regulating ubiquitin signaling and indirectly modulating chromatin remodeling to prime selected genes for activation.

  13. Practice patterns, counseling and promotion of physical activity by sports medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojednic, Rachele M; Polak, Rani; Arnstein, Fred; Kennedy, Mary A; Bantham, Amy; Phillips, Edward M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined sports medicine physicians with an established interest in physical activity to investigate attitudes surrounding exercise, physical activity and patient-counseling behavior. The degree to which physicians' personal knowledge of physical activity and related resources, involvement with common activities, and perceived barriers were assessed. An internet survey was designed in four domains: (1) counseling behavior, (2) tools and resources, (3) appropriateness of common physical activities for patients and (4) barriers. The survey was sent to 3570 members of two electronic mailing lists - Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, Boston, MA and The American College of Sports Medicine. Surveys were emailed during 2011-2012 and analyzed in 2013-2014. Each survey contained 39 questions. The response rate of the surveys was 16%. Of 412 physicians, 74% regularly recommended physical activity, 66% talked about exercise with patients, and 49% included as a vital sign. Only 26% of physicians provided a written exercise prescription. ACSM's Exercise is Medicine(®) (37%) was the most popular resource. Walking, followed by aerobic activity, strength training and cycling were the most recommended forms of activity and were associated with physicians' personal experiences. The most potent inhibitor was time. Physicians with an interest in exercise and physical activity recognize the importance of recommending and counseling patients on exercise and physical activity. Physician counseling was associated with personal familiarity with physical activity. Increasing knowledge and experience with exercise, physical activity and counseling behavior is an important component to encourage physical activity assessment and promotion by sports medicine physicians. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RFPL3 and CBP synergistically upregulate hTERT activity and promote lung cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Chen, Wangbing; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Wendan; Cai, Xin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Tingting; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo; Wu, Taihua

    2015-09-29

    hTERT is the key component of telomerase and its overactivation contributes to maintaining telomere length and cell immortalization. Previously, we identified RFPL3 as a new transcription activator of hTERT in lung cancers. However, the exact mechanism of RFPL3 in mediating hTERT activation and its associated signal regulatory network remain unclear. In this study, we found that RFPL3 colocalized and interacted directly with CBP in the nucleus of lung cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed the simultaneous overexpression of both RFPL3 and CBP predicted relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, we confirmed their synergistic stimulation on hTERT expression and tumor cell growth. The binding of RFPL3 to hTERT promoter was reduced markedly when CBP was knocked down by its specific siRNA or suppressed by its inhibitor in lung cancer cells with stable overexpression of RFPL3. When one of the two proteins RFPL3 and CBP was upregulated or downregulated, whereas the another remains unchanged, hTERT expression and telomerase activity were activated or repressed accordingly. In the meantime, the growth of lung cancer cells was also promoted or attenuated accordingly. Furthermore, we also found that RFPL3 coordinated with CBP to upregulate hTERT through the CBP-induced acetylation of RFPL3 protein and their co-anchoring at hTERT promoter region. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of hTERT regulation in lung cancer cells and suggest the RFPL3/CBP/hTERT signaling pathway may be a new targets for lung cancer treatment.

  15. Real-World Usage of Educational Media Does Not Promote Parent-Child Cognitive Stimulation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jason H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Canfield, Caitlin; Seery, Anne; Dreyer, Benard P; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-04-25

    To determine whether educational media as actually used by low-income families promote parent-child cognitive stimulation activities. We performed secondary analysis of the control group of a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Educational media exposure (via a 24-hour recall diary) and parent-child activities that may promote cognitive stimulation in the home (using StimQ) were assessed at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months. Data from 149 mother-child dyads, 93.3% Latino, were analyzed. Mean (standard deviation) educational media exposure at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months was, respectively, 25 (40), 42 (58), 39 (49), and 39 (50) minutes per day. In multilevel model analyses, prior educational media exposure had small positive relationship with subsequent total StimQ scores (β = 0.11, P = .03) but was nonsignificant (β = 0.08, P = .09) after adjusting for confounders (child: age, gender, birth order, noneducational media exposure, language; mother: age, ethnicity, marital status, country of origin, language, depressive symptoms). Educational media did predict small increases in verbal interactions and toy provision (adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.13, P = .02; β = 0.11; P = .03). In contrast, more consistent relationships were seen for models of the relationship between prior StimQ (total, verbal interactions and teaching; adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.20, P = .002; β = 0.15, P = .006; β = 0.20, P = .001) and predicted subsequent educational media. Educational media as used by this sample of low-income families does not promote cognitive stimulation activities important for early child development or activities such as reading and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. mTOR activation promotes plasma cell differentiation and bypasses XBP-1 for immunoglobulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamron, Sandrine; Pattanayak, Shakti P; Berger, Michael; Tirosh, Boaz

    2015-01-01