Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and
This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.
This chapter explores the potential advantages and disadvantages of Agent-based Computational Economics (ACE) for the study of economic systems. General points are concretely illustrated using an ACE model of a two-sector decentralized market economy. Six issues are highlighted: Constructive understanding of production, pricing, and trade processes; the essential primacy of survival; strategic rivalry and market power; behavioral uncertainty and learning; the role of conventions and organizat...
Karl A Hassan
Full Text Available The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in superbugs that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance are typically under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to their substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock treatments may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance, informing targeted functional analyses of these proteins. Using this approach we have characterised novel efflux pumps in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, we recently applied this strategy to characterise the AceI efflux pump from Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a new family of multidrug efflux proteins that is conserved across many proteobacterial lineages. Different efflux pumps in this family have been shown to confer resistance to biocides including chlorhexidine, dequalinium, benzalkonium, proflavine and/or acriflavine. The discovery of this novel family of multidrug efflux proteins raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.
Bergh, van den, H.
This provides a short overview of the main themes of ecological economics (EE). It isargued that EE provides a platform that fosters multidisciplinary environmental research bybringing together the core contributing disciplines economics and ecology. In addition, EE isregarded as a pluralistic approach to environmental research that can be set opposite to, and hasindeed developed as a response to, traditional environmental and resource economics. Acomparison of the two fields is presented to ...
Martins, Nuno O.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The relationship between sustainability economics and the capability approach has recently been explored. Here I shall discuss this relationship, and argue that a study of the ontology underlying the capability approach can help us to see more clearly the interconnections between sustainability economics and the capability approach. In particular, the interpretations of the capability approach as an ontological exercise, which have recent...
Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza
While telecom markets have been liberalized, the institutional framework for spectrum management has largely remained unchanged. In particular, the process of allocation of the spectrum to different applications is still based on technical rather than economic criteria. This paper contrasts...... economic and technical approaches to frequency management, with an examination of spectrum management challenges and the current regulatory framework as the starting point. The benefits and limitations of the free market approach are discussed, and an economic evaluation of the Danish spectrum is used to...
Yefimov Vladimir, M.
Full Text Available The paper attempts to justify an alternative to conventional methodology of economics, as well as make a corresponding revision of the history of this discipline. It explains why the discipline in its orthodox version, and for the most unorthodox directions, is cognitively sterile and socio-economico-politically very harmful. The article can be seen as a manifesto which calls for a radical change in the discipline. As a manifesto, it probably could be called "Economics: from repentance and resurrection", that is, I suggest to economists to repent of the harm that this discipline has brought and on the basis of this reflection to revive it in a different methodological framework that is able to make economics socially useful. The first part of the article published in this issue, consists of three sections. The first section justifies the claim that economics is stuck in metaphysical-abstract state with its abstract-a priori approach, and that its orthodox part is theology plays the role of a theology of the secular market religion. The second section summarizes the methodology, the use of which would make "economic science" truly scientific. The third section shows how this can be implemented.
This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…
Vleeming W; van Amsterdam JGC; de Wildt DJ; Stricker B; TOX
Dit rapport beschrijft de risico's die verbonden zijn aan het gebruik van angiotensine converting enzym (ACE) remmers. Hierbij staat de bijwerking angio-oedeem centraal. De benodigde literatuur is verzameld aan de hand van een zoekaktie middels MEDLINE. ACE-remmers zijn in gebruik ter behand
The theoretical idea of personnel economics is to apply simple economic principles to the field of human resources management. Personnel economics as a research field has grown rapidly since the first text book on 'Personnel Economics' was published in 1998. The development is driven by new theoretical insights based on institutional and behavioural economics and new empirical methods and data sets. Those new theoretical insights are very fruitful to analyze reasons and consequences of variou...
Full Text Available Article deals with category of time from economic point of view. Dependence of economic systems from economic time is analyzed. Based on analysis of economic time definition its features are improved.
Petar Hafner, Milos Krstic
Behavioral economics and economic sociology arise and develop on the point where economics and psychology, as well as economics and sociology, overlap. Behavioral economics studies economic factors and psychological appearance that have a direct impact on economic behavior. On the other hand, economic sociology studies the behavioral norms of the social groups and the organizations. The correlation between the research subjects of these scientific disciplines imposes a need for specifying an ...
Environmental economics postulates the assumption of homo economicus and presumes that externality occurs as a result of the rational economic activities of economic agents. This paper examines this assumption using an experimental economic approach in the context of regime shift, which has been receiving increasing attention. We observe that when externality does not exist, economic agents (subjects of experimemt) act economically rationally, but when externality exists, economic agents avoi...
Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.
Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area
The Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) as shown by Michael Holzscheiter (spokesperson), Niels Bassler (co-spokesperson) and Helge Knudsen. ACE is located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. An antiproton annihilates a proton in the nucleus of a cancer cell, producing a pair of gamma rays, destroying the entire cell and some surrounding cells. Many fewer antiprotons are required in this treatment than in the equivalent proton hadron therapy, so there is less risk of healthy tissue damage.
Turgut, Mehmet Burak
This paper studies the spatial economic activity in Turkey and estimates the correlation between wages and consumer demand across NUTS1 regions of Turkey. First, I estimate simple market potential function to test whether closeness to larger markets has impact on wages. Second, I estimate Krugman (1993) economic geography model to see the agglomeration forces in Turkey. The results suggest that wages are higher in the regions close to larger markets and low trade costs and high share of expen...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…
Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick
This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…
Clive L Spash; Mauricio G. Villena
A neglected aspect of ecological economics is the link to the social context. The socio-economic perspective extends standard economic analysis into concerns for distribution, ethics and the power of institutions which form and implement policy. We explore how an institutional perspective on ecological economics might operate and provide a distinct methodology. In order to understand the institutional approach and how it differs from the standard economic methodology a historical overview...
Full Text Available Object oriented development languages and event driven programming, distributed or centralized data processing with thick or rich clients are used at present in information systems (IS development. Using of existing methodologies and methods In IS designing does not always mean reaching of needed project solution quality. In some cases it is more effective to use combination of structured and object oriented tools or new methodology, which is built according the newest information technologies. One of such methodologies is Advanced Customer Oriented Development of Software (ACES, which is oriented on IS of economic organization development and application of the newest information technologies. ACES was established by the authors at Faculty of Economic Informatics of University of Economics in Bratislava.
Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John
Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.
Bergh, van den, E.; Gowdy, J.
Recent advances in evolutionary theory have important implications for environmental economics. A short overview is offered of evolutionarythinking in economics. Subsequently, major concepts and approaches inevolutionary biology and evolutionary economics are presented andcompared. Attention is devoted, among others, to Darwinian selection,punctuated equilibrium, sorting mechanisms, Lamarckian evolution,coevolution and self-organization. Basic features of evolution, such assustained change, i...
Posner, Richard A
With the rise of the law and economics movement, the focus of economic analysis of intellectual property has begun to shift to more concrete and manageable issues concerning the structure and texture of the complicated pattern of common law and statutory doctrines, legal institutions and business practices relating to intellectual property. Among the issues discussed in this paper are the length of protection for intellectual property, the rules that allow considerable copying of intellectual...
Development economists are increasingly concerned about the correct approach to economic analysis of projects. By looking for a compromise between theory (which identifies ideals) and practice (which deals within the bounds of time and resource constraints), Lovei focuses on potential guidelines for economic appraisals of water supply projects. He summarizes theory and the current World Bank guidelines on the economic analysis of water supply projects; reviews the method of economic analysis ...
Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.
Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this...
Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan
Full Text Available Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological treatments include weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction, increased potassium intake and reduction in alcohol consumption. ACE-inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (responsible for vasoconstriction. Various structure activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of ACE-inhibitors, some are under clinical development. This comprehensive review gives various guidelines on classification of hypertension, hypertension therapy including ancient, pharmacological, non-pharmacological therapies, pharmacoeconomics, historical perspectives of ACE, renin, renin angiotensin system (circulating vs local RAS, mechanism of ACE inhibitors, and development of ACE inhibitors. Review also emphasizes on the recent advancements on ACE inhibitors including drugs in clinical trials, computational studies on ACE-inhibitors, peptidomimetics, dual, natural, multi-functional ACE inhibitors, and conformational requirements for ACE-inhibitors.
Craig, Louise E; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie; Langhorne, Peter
Many stroke rehabilitation services and interventions are complex in that they involve a number of components, interactions, and outcomes. Much of the onus of stroke care lies with rehabilitation services and because stroke rehabilitation is highly resource intensive, it is important for policy makers to consider the potential trade-offs between all relevant costs and benefits. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess the methods used to conduct economic evaluations of stroke rehabilitation. Studies that compared two or more alternative stroke rehabilitation interventions or services with the costs and outcomes being examined for each alternative were included. EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process, and National Health Service's Economic Evaluation Database were searched using search strategies. The methodological quality of the included studies was appraised using a checklist for the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. The economic evaluations in the majority of these studies were inadequate based on their ability to identify, measure, and value all resources and benefits pertinent to the complexity of stroke rehabilitation. This study highlights that complex interventions such as stroke rehabilitation have widespread effects, which may not be represented by the changes on a single outcome. This study recommends the adoption of a wider cost and benefit perspective in the economic evaluations of complex interventions. It supports a move away from conventional economic evaluation and decision making, based purely on cost-effectiveness, toward multicriteria decision analysis frameworks for complex interventions, where a broader range of criteria may be assessed by policy makers.
Dziubinski, Matt P.; Grassi, Stefano
This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of the C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (2011) we document...
Nuno Carlos LEITÃO
Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.
As a result of this research, the methodical approaches to comprehensive economic assessment of water resources are worked out. In particular, it is offered to conduct the comprehensive economic assessment in three stages. In the first stage, the economic assessment of water resources as the basis of human life is carried out. The result of this assessment is the monetary value of social and environmental significance of water resource of water body for human and the environment. The main met...
Meisam Karami; Shaghayegh Malekifar; Muhammad Siddique; Saif-Ur-Rehman Khan
Organizational change in Transitional economies is influenced by multiple political, historical and economic factors not present in established market economies. This study proposes an organizational economics approach to organizational change in emerging economies. Based on transaction cost economics and resource based view, the cost of change is proposed as a mediator of change and perceived commitment to transition is proposed as antecedents of cost of change for organizations in emerging ...
Since the 1960s, the influence of economic thought on education has been steadily increasing. Taking Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational thought as a point of departure, Tal Gilead critically inquires into the philosophical foundations of what can be termed the economic approach to education. Gilead's focus in this essay is on happiness and the…
Ion Gh. Rosca
Full Text Available Human society steps, with or without its willing, towards knowledge era which rises new exigencies for education and research. Universities are influenced and, in the same time, influence the new society. They define new duties, visions and aims according to the European common space organizing. New arguments appear as national priority, changes within concepts approaches are produced, universities adapt to new structures, integrate within education’s global market, ensuring a high level ofthe research and training services.
Stepanova, Tatiana E.; Manokhina, Nadeghda V.; Konovalova, Maria E.; Kuzmina, Olga Y.; Andryukhina, Lyudmila M.
The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the increasing interest in using potential of transdisciplinary approaches, and mathematical methods, which include the game theory in analysis of public and economic processes. The aim of the article is studying a possibility of implementation of the transdisciplinary approaches in economic…
This book takes the non-economist by the hand in a step-by-step economic approach of environmental issues and how to handle them. Two chapters provide an introduction to the concepts of the economy, chapter six in decision theory. In the first chapter, the economist discovers a broader vision by testing the economic approach to insights from other disciplines. Chapter 4 explains how economic reasoning can contribute tot environmental protection in practice. The consideration of the costs and benefits of environmental protection indicates objectives that must be pursued for the community. The conflict between private and public interest forces policy makers to get and maintain the numerous polluters focused on environmental protection. Suitable instruments are discussed in chapter five, including criteria for choice and an in-depth study of the economic instruments levies and tradable emission permits. The EU Emission trading Scheme is used as reference. [mk
Smith, Richard Gavin; Berry, Philippa A M
The new ACE2 (Altimeter Corrected Elevations 2) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) which has recently been released aims to provide the most accurate GDEM to date. ACE2 was created by synergistically merging the SRTM and altimetry datasets. The comprehensive comparison carried out between the two datasets yielded a myriad of information, with the areas of disagreement providing as much valuable information as the areas of agreement. Analysis of the comparison dataset revealed that certain topographic features displayed consistent differences between the two datasets. The largest differences globally are present over the rainforests, particularly the two largest, around the Amazon and the Congo. The differences range between 10 m and 40 m; these differences can be attributed to the height of the rainforest canopy, as the SRTM returned height values from somewhere within the uppermost reaches of the vegetation whereas the altimeter was able to penetrate through and return true ground heights. The second major class of terrain feature to demonstrate coherent differences are desert regions; here, different deserts present different characteristics. The final area of interest is that of Wetlands; these are areas of special significance because even a slight misrepresentation of the heights can have wide ranging effects in modelling wetland areas. These examples illustrate the valuable additional information content gleaned from the synergistic global combination of the two datasets. PMID:21509388
Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace
Atkinson, Robert D.; Hackler, Darrene
In climate change, as in all policy issues, economic philosophy has a significant influence on how people view both the problems and the solutions. For the first time, ITIF surveys four dominant schools of economic thought and analyzes how adherents approach policy options for climate change and energy policy. With climate change and major energy legislation stalled, maybe it is time to put aside fixed philosophical notions and take a practical look on ways to address climate change in an eco...
This paper discusses the need for changing priorities in plant life management. Following a brief review of the major world-wide trends which are affecting plant life management, the fundamental nature of the plant life management process itself is considered. It is suggested that a consistent approach to the management of economic and safety risk can provide a mechanism for continuous improvement of the process. One such approach, Techno-Economic Ageing and Maintenance Management - TEAMM, is described. The tool required for this process are discussed and examples given of its application to ageing plant and evaluation of life extension. 2 figs
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...
Full Text Available Construction of short-length LDPC codes with good, both waterfall and error-floor, behavior is still an attractive research problem. Recently proposed construction algorithms in this field are based on remarkably simple ideas, but yet, their effectiveness can still be questioned. In this paper we investigate a novel measure of goodness of a given LDPC code namely its ACE spectrum, based on a previously introduced ACE metrics associated with each cycle in LDPC code graph.
This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t
This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t
Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A
Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this philoso
The article formed the complex process of economic assessment of forest resources and given it's definition. A new approach to determining costs for locking the main types of forest. Allocated forestry (in Keywords: forest) and forest harvesting (in forest exploitation) rents.
WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping
This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.
Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)
Heyman, G M
Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically define consumption patterns in terms of the influence of negative consequences. For example, the clinical account emphasizes the persistence of heavy drinking despite mounting alcohol-related aversive consequences, and in economic analyses, the term "inelastic demand" is used to refer to the persistence of consumption despite large increases in prices. In the experimental procedure described here, rats worked for alcohol and food. Presses on one lever earned a drink of 10 percent alcohol plus saccharin, and presses on a second lever earned isocaloric drinks of a starch solution. After behavior stabilized, the response requirements (which are analogous to prices) for one or both drinks were increased. The rats maintained baseline alcohol consumption levels despite large increases in the "price" of alcohol. In contrast, the same price increases markedly reduced starch intake. That is, food consumption was sensitive to price hikes, but alcohol consumption was not. The results demonstrate that a common economic framework can be used to describe human and animal behavior and, hence, the possibility of an animal model of human alcohol consumption. The article also points out that economic concepts provide a framework for understanding a wide range of human drinking patterns, including controlled social drinking and excessive alcoholic drinking. PMID:11199280
Schelleman, H; Klungel, O H; van Duijn, C M; Witteman, J C M; Hofman, A; de Boer, A; Stricker, B H Ch
AIMS: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. METHODS: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who started ACE i
Luis M. Abadie
Full Text Available This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.. Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and missions (note that carbon constraints are looming. Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided.
This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236
Full Text Available In the article, the need of transition to the rational subsoil use (the alternative mining approach is proved, which unlike general one supposes the increasing of extraction rate of valuable components in the deposit and multiple use of raw materials, the maximizing recycling, the decreasing of land occupation, the increasing of the development period of deposit at some income decrease up to the moderate level, which is enough to provide the attraction for investors. The multicriteriality is considered as the crucial principle of rational subsoil use at taking management decisions, i.e. the considering of ecological, economic and social targets, aimed at receiving moderate profit at proper social and environmental standards. The graphic representation of models of the general mining approach and the alternative one allows to emphasize the specified advantages of transition to rational subsoil resources development and reflect them in design equation. In the paper, three performance strategies providing the implementation of the alternative approach are offered: full-field development, application ecologically and economically effective systems and the development processes, consideration of reclamation and minimization of long term environmental effects of mining
Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente
The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.
This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)
Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan
Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological...
Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel
The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
Full Text Available A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model of angiotensin-converting enzyme- (ACE- inhibitory peptides was built with an artificial neural network (ANN approach based on structural or activity data of 58 dipeptides (including peptide activity, hydrophilic amino acids content, three-dimensional shape, size, and electrical parameters, the overall correlation coefficient of the predicted versus actual data points is =0.928, and the model was applied in ACE-inhibitory peptides preparation from defatted wheat germ protein (DWGP. According to the QSAR model, the C-terminal of the peptide was found to have principal importance on ACE-inhibitory activity, that is, if the C-terminal is hydrophobic amino acid, the peptide's ACE-inhibitory activity will be high, and proteins which contain abundant hydrophobic amino acids are suitable to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides. According to the model, DWGP is a good protein material to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides because it contains 42.84% of hydrophobic amino acids, and structural information analysis from the QSAR model showed that proteases of Alcalase and Neutrase were suitable candidates for ACE-inhibitory peptides preparation from DWGP. Considering higher DH and similar ACE-inhibitory activity of hydrolysate compared with Neutrase, Alcalase was finally selected through experimental study.
Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.
Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T
We develop a high-precision model for relativistic observables of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). We develop all relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of ACES in Earth orbit and to compute observable quantities. We analyze the accuracy of the required model as it applies to the proper-to-coordinate time transformations, light time equation, and spacecraft equations of motion. We consider various sources of nongravitational noise and their effects on ACES. We estimate the accuracy of orbit reconstruction that is needed to satisfy the ACES science objectives. Based on our analysis, we derive models for the relativistic observables of ACES, which also account for the contribution of atmospheric drag on the clock rate. We include the Earth's oblateness coefficient $J_2$ and the effects of major nongravitational forces on the orbit of the ISS. We demonstrate that the ACES reference frame is pseudo-inertial at th...
Lima Dênis Pires de
Full Text Available This report outlines the discovery, the design and development of new compounds, and, structure-activity relationships for this drug category. Updated approaches to planned syntheses of new worthy ACE-inhibitors are also exploited.
Wang, Bin; Liu, Juanjuan; Wang, Shudong; Cheng, Wei; Juan, Liu; Liu, Chengsi; Xiao, Qingnong; Kuo, Ying-Hwa
Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVar) is one of the most promising methods to provide optimal analysis for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Five national NWP centers in the world have successfully applied 4DVar methods in their global NWPs, thanks to the increment method and adjoint technique. However, the application of 4DVar is still limited by the computer resources available at many NWP centers and research institutes. It is essential, therefore, to further reduce the computational cost of 4DVar. Here, an economical approach to implement 4DVar is proposed, using the technique of dimensionreduced projection (DRP), which is called "DRP-4DVar." The proposed approach is based on dimension reduction using an ensemble of historical samples to define a subspace. It directly obtains an optimal solution in the reduced space by fitting observations with historical time series generated by the model to form consistent forecast states, and therefore does not require implementation of the adjoint of tangent linear approximation. To evaluate the performance of the DRP-4DVar on assimilating different types of mesoscale observations, some observing system simulation experiments are conducted using MM5 and a comparison is made between adjoint-based 4DVar and DRP-4DVar using a 6-hour assimilation window.
H. Schelleman (Hedi); O.H. Klungel (Olaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); A. de Boer (Anthonius); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)
textabstractAims: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. Methods: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who s
Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S
Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates.
For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also
Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Tang-Ching Kuan, Kun-Shan Cheng, Yan-Chiou Liao, Mu-Yuan Chen, Pei-Heng Lin, Yuan-Chang Hsu, Chen-Yi Huang, Wei-Hua Hsu, Sheng-Yao Yu, Chih-Sheng Lin
Full Text Available Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45 and exudative (n = 80 effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, pneumonia (n = 32, and adenocarcinoma (n = 28.Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.
Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.
Hamming, I.; van Goor, H.; Turner, A. J.; Rushworth, C. A.; Michaud, A. A.; Corvol, P.; Navis, G.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is thought to counterbalance ACE by breakdown of angiotensin (Ang) II and formation of Ang(1-7). Both enzymes are highly expressed in the kidney, but reports on their regulation differ. To enhance our understanding of the regulation of renal ACE and ACE2, we inv
Nicolai J. Foss
Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.
Mosab I. Tabash; Raj S. Dhankar
This paper explores empirically the relationship between the development of Islamic finance system and economic growth and its direction in Qatar. Using econometric analysis, annually time-series data of economic growth and Islamic banks’ financing from 1990 to 2008 were used. We use Islamic banks’ financing funds given by Islamic banks as a proxy for the development of Islamic finance system and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) as proxies for real econom...
Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos
This paper by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and statistical inference evaluates the citation performance of 229 economic journals. The paper categorizes the journals into four main categories (A to D) based on their efficiency levels. The results are then compared to the 27 “core economic journals” as introduced by Dimond (1989). The results reveal that after more than twenty years Diamonds’ list of “core economic journals” is still valid. Finally, for the first time the paper uses da...
Nicolas POSTEL; Sobel, Richard
Polanyi analyzes the historical deployment of a "formal" economic science starting from the triptych "market-rarety- instrumental rationality ". It reveals this triptych, and the knowledge which is devoted to it, as being a part of a question broader than should analyze a "substantial" economic science being interested in the triptych "need-nature-institution". If we can and must follow Polanyi in his criticism of economism suited to the first triptytic, we have more reserve to accept his sol...
Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Taylor, M. Scott
This paper sets out a simple spatial model of energy exploitation to ask how the location and productivity of energy resources may affect the distribution of economic activity around the globe. This is a very large research question, and we take one small step towards answering it by combining elements from resource and energy economics into one framework that links the spatial productivity of energy sources (both renewable and non-renewable) to the incentives for economic activity to concent...
Hui-Juan Chen; Zhen Liao; Xiao-Ming Hui; Guo-Qing Li; Fei Li; Zhao-Jun Han
Two acetylcholinesterase (ace) genes have been reported in many insect species. In pests such as Helicoverpa assulta and Plutella xylostellas, acel gene encodes the predominant synaptic enzyme that is the main target of organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides. It has been reported that pesticide selection has an impact on the ace gene evolution. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, also has two ace genes. We studied ace gene expression and enzyme activities in silkworm as this has not faced pesticide selection over the past decades. The expression levels of two ace genes, Bm-acel and Bin-ace2, were estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bm-ace2 was expressed more highly than Bm-acel in all tested samples of different developmental stages or tissues, suggesting ace2, rather than ace 1, is the major type of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) in Bombyx mori. This is inconsistent with the aforementioned lepidopterons agricultural pests, partly be due to the widespread use of pesticides that may induce high expression of the acel gene in these pests. Besides high expression in the head, Bm-acel also expresses highly in the silk glands and Bm-ace2 is abundant in the germline, implying both ace genes may have potential non-hydrolytic roles in development. Furthermore, we found that the m_RNA levels of two ace genes and their ratios (ace2/ace1) change day to day in the first and third instars. This challenges the conventional method of estimating enzymatic activity using crude extract as an enzyme solution, as it is a mixture of ACHE1 and ACHE2. An efficient and simple method for separating different ACHEs is necessary for reliable toxicological analyses.
Patel, Vaibhav B; Zhong, Jiu-Chang; Grant, Maria B; Oudit, Gavin Y
Heart failure (HF) remains the most common cause of death and disability, and a major economic burden, in industrialized nations. Physiological, pharmacological, and clinical studies have demonstrated that activation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key mediator of HF progression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homolog of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase that converts angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) which, by virtue of its actions on the Mas receptor, opposes the molecular and cellular effects of angiotensin II. ACE2 is widely expressed in cardiomyocytes, cardiofibroblasts, and coronary endothelial cells. Recent preclinical translational studies confirmed a critical counter-regulatory role of ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis on the activated renin-angiotensin system that results in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Although loss of ACE2 enhances susceptibility to HF, increasing ACE2 level prevents and reverses the HF phenotype. ACE2 and Ang 1-7 have emerged as a key protective pathway against HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Recombinant human ACE2 has been tested in phase I and II clinical trials without adverse effects while lowering and increasing plasma angiotensin II and Ang 1-7 levels, respectively. This review discusses the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ACE2 and the role of the ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiology of HF. The pharmacological and therapeutic potential of enhancing ACE2/Ang 1-7 action as a novel therapy for HF is highlighted.
Ronghai He; Haile Ma; Weirui Zhao; Wenjuan Qu; Jiewen Zhao; Lin Luo; Wenxue Zhu
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model of angiotensin-converting enzyme- (ACE-) inhibitory peptides was built with an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on structural or activity data of 58 dipeptides (including peptide activity, hydrophilic amino acids content, three-dimensional shape, size, and electrical parameters), the overall correlation coefficient of the predicted versus actual data points is = 0 . 9 2 8 , and the model was applied in ACE-inhibitory ...
Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques
In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169
Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.
This article gives an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of a variety of economic modelling approaches commonly used for cost estimates for limiting carbon emissions, including the ad hoc approach, dynamic optimization approach, input-output approach, macroeconomic approach, computa
Vicente Caballero de la Torre
Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior
Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris
This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.
Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio
This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1. Why do inefficient institutions emerge and persist over time? And, 2. What are the dynamic consequences of inefficient institutions? The first two chapters investigate these two central questions...
Raymond Franck; Francois Melese; John Dillard
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This study examines defense acquisition through the new lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE). TCE is an emergent field in economics that has multiple applications to defense acquisition practices. TCE''s original focus was to guide ''make-or-buy?'' decisions that define the boundaries of a firm. This study reviews insights afforded by TCE that impact government outsourcing (''buy'' decisions), paying special attention to defense pro...
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: This thesis has three main objectives. To provide a thorough review of the theoretical foundation of corruption in economics, introduce the methodologies and their main results and lastly design an economic corruption experiment addressing mechanics and importance of reciprocity for individuals in comparison to other moral costs of corruption. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION: Theoretical foundation reviewed in the thesis comprises of both theoretical and practical ...
John Gowdy; Aneel Salman
Two major problems promise to dominate economic and social policy during the twentyfirst century. These are global climate change and the growing gap between the rich and the poor. Economists are facing these issues at a time when many of the standard tools of economic analysis for example, competitive general equilibrium and the theoretical system that supports it have fallen into disfavour in analysing global issues involving uncertainty and irreversibility. This is both a challenge and an ...
Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.
We extended the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) empirical fatality estimation methodology proposed by Jaiswal et al. (2009) to rapidly estimate economic losses after significant earthquakes worldwide. The requisite model inputs are shaking intensity estimates made by the ShakeMap system, the spatial distribution of population available from the LandScan database, modern and historic country or sub-country population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, and economic loss data from Munich Re's historical earthquakes catalog. We developed a strategy to approximately scale GDP-based economic exposure for historical and recent earthquakes in order to estimate economic losses. The process consists of using a country-specific multiplicative factor to accommodate the disparity between economic exposure and the annual per capita GDP, and it has proven successful in hindcast-ing past losses. Although loss, population, shaking estimates, and economic data used in the calibration process are uncertain, approximate ranges of losses can be estimated for the primary purpose of gauging the overall scope of the disaster and coordinating response. The proposed methodology is both indirect and approximate and is thus best suited as a rapid loss estimation model for applications like the PAGER system.
Priddat, Birger P.
Only a few economists knew about hermeneutical economics. But my request is to confirm hermeneutical economics only for the reason to make it criticable. Without any doubt, hermeneutical economics is worth to be criticized; but it is an incomplete approach. The first part presents Ludwig M. Lachmann's version of hermeneutical economics. Lachmann is picked up from the scenario of hermeneutical economists (i.e. Ebeling, Berger, Lavoie, some authors of Kirzner 1986, etc.), because he is the most...
Devkota, Surendra R.
This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an
Davis, George C.; Jacob, Jacy; Good, Deborah J.
Food intake is greatly influenced by economic factors. Consequently, neuroeconomics has been identified as a new and important area for understanding the interaction between genotypes and phenotypes related to food intake. A foundational element of economics is choice between alternatives. Changing food choices are a central element in the explanation of the increasing obesity rates in human populations. The purpose of this research is to incorporate the key element of choice into the investi...
Heitor Reis, António; Dionísio, Andreia
This paper illustrates an application of Constructal Theory to spatial economics and Þnance. Constructal theory is about the generation of architecture in ßow systems in general. Simply stated, the constructal law proclaims a tendency to maximize ßow access in time, i.e., for a Þnite-size ßow system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the currents that ßow through it. Constructal optimization in spatial economics is po...
Zhu, JZ; Irving, MR; Xu, GY
This article presents a new nonlinear convex network flow programming model and algorithm for solving the on-line economic power dispatch with N and N−1 security. Based on the load flow equations, a new nonlinear convex network flow model for secure economic power dispatch is set up and then transformed into a quadratic programming model, in which the search direction in the space of the flow variables is to be solved. The concept of maximum basis in a network flow graph was introduced so tha...
Hayek’s contribution to the analysis of law has been widely criticized and disputed. This paper shares with a recent assessment by Beaulier, Boettke and Coyne the opinion that the significance of Hayek’s legal writings and their relevance to law and economics can only be completely understood by jointly analyzing his economic theory and his legal theory. Moreover it will be argued that both theories must be reconsidered in light of Hayek’s theory of mind. This theory, in fact, represents the ...
Full Text Available Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha−1 and 5477 RMB ha−1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is −3.60% and −8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.
Full Text Available Ronald Coase article from 1937, The Nature of the Firm, meant a new way of thinking and conceiving of the world, especially of economic organisations. Coase argued that the firm and the market represent two alternative ways to organise the same transactio
Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…
Responses from 64 of 80 extension agents specializing in community resources and economic development identified the "Journal of the Community Development Society" as the primary source of ideas and information. Frequently cited program topics were entrepreneurship, fiscal policy, budgeting, strategic planning, and leadership development. Among…
Harle, K.M.; Sanfey, A.G.
Although recent economic models of human decision making have recognised the role of emotion as an important biasing factor, the impact of incidental emotion on decisions has remained poorly explored. To address this question, we jointly explored the role of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs. neg
Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.
The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.
Oleg Sergeevich Sukharev
Full Text Available The subject matter of the article — the development of the doctrine of “coherent” Regional Development and research of the structural quality of the development of regional systems on the basis of theoretical analysis of institutional factors (parameters that determine the manufacturability of the regional economy. The purpose of the research — to show the possibilities of technological change and shift of economic growth in a particular regional system, with stringent limits for accelerated development, with an emphasis on industrial regions. To this end, formed a number of structural models and analyze the impact of technological factors on the growth parameters of the regional economy, the definition of conditions for the development of the industrial region. Methodology. The correlation and regression analysis are applied, which allows to establish a statistically significant relationship between the relevant parameters, the econometric models are used to demonstrate the possibility of estimating the growth parameters via the control parameters, including the technological factor. The structural aspect of regional economic growth is taken into account by the division of investment on the old and new technologies. Result and scope of the research. Increasing adaptability of the regional economy is possible at the expense of compounding results in the use of (old and the application of new technologies. This principle specifies the algorithm of formation of regional development priorities, provides a choice of strategy of technological development of the regional system. Investing resources only in the field of new technologies can dramatically enhance the disparity of regional economic system, the parameters of diversion of resources and the creation of a new resource will determine the pace of growth in the region. Conclusions. Dynamics of investment into old technology provides a major impact on the rate of economic growth in the
Stern, D.I. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies)
This paper examines the casual relationship between Gross Domestic Product and energy use for the period 1947-90 in the United States of America. The relationship between energy use and economic growth has been examined by both biophysical and neoclassical economists. In particular, several studies have tested for the presence of a causal relationships (in the Granger sense) between energy use and economic growth. However, these tests do not allow a direct test of the relative explanatory powers of the neoclassical and biophysical models. A multivariate adaptation of the test-vector autoregression (VAR) does allow such a test. A VAR of GDP, energy use, capital stock and employment is estimated and Granger tests for causal relationships between the variables are carried out. Although there is no evidence that gross energy use Granger causes GDP, a measure of final energy use adjusted for changing fuel composition does Granger cause GDP. (author)
CARUNTU ANDREEA LAURA
Full Text Available The need for performance evaluation appears from the importance of the assessment of the available resources usage, the identification of the economic resources potential for future use and the capacity to generate cash flows. Practice has held a number of tools that provide information needed to assess the performance state, obviously, differentiated from one country to another corresponding to the particularities of each economic system and that are useful to a large number of people involved in the life of a trader. This article presents some performance characteristics and refers to the options of measuring the global performance by using the balanced scorecard, the Triple Bottom Line reporting and the GRI G3 guidelines.
The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research
Kwan Soo Kim
This paper ï¬ rst develops the model, based on endogenous growth argument, in which environmental quality is included as input and thus makes possible the explanation of issues related to resource allocation and its impacts on the environment. Second, it analyzes the relationship between land market performance and underinvestment by incorporating information about soil quality into the analytical framework It extends existing literature on the economic modelling of soil conservation in sever...
This paper extends the notion of the rational agent in economics by acknowledging the role of the unconscious in the agent�s decision-making process. It argues that the unconscious can be modelled by a rational agent with his own objective function and set of information. The combination of both the conscious and unconscious agents is called the "dual agent". This dual agent presents rationally biased behaviors that may not disappear through aggregation, and could be potentially measured. It ...
Ríos, Sergio Daniel
Microalgae oil has been identified as a reliable resource for biodiesel production due to its high lipid productivity and potential cultivation in non-fertile locations. However, high scale production of microalgae based biodiesel depends on the optimization of the entire process to be economically feasible. The present work combine the optimization of microalgae downstream processes with computational tools for the modeling of different scenarios of the harvesting, oil extraction and transes...
A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into accoun...
Chiswick, Carmel Ullman
An economic theory of immigration and immigrant absorption for a religious minority is developed and applied to Jewish history. Human capital is classified according to whether it is allocative or productive, transferable or location-specific, general or Jewish. Crossclassifying these categories leads to various hypotheses about self-selection among Jewish immigrants and their influence on the Jewish community in their destination. Complementarity between general and Jewish human capital is a...
Wiśniewski, Marcin; Jaros, Sławomir; Bąska, Piotr; Cappello, Michael; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina
Hookworms are intestinal nematodes that infect up to 740 million people, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. Adult worms suck blood from damaged vessels in the gut mucosa, digesting hemoglobin using aspartic-, cysteine- and metalloproteases. Targeting aspartic hemoglobinases using drugs or vaccines is therefore a promising approach to ancylostomiasis control. Based on homology to metalloproteases from other hookworm species, we cloned the Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 7 cDNA (Ace-mep-7). The corresponding Ace-MEP-7 protein has a predicted molecular mass of 98.8 kDa. The homology to metallopeptidases from other hookworm species and its predicted transmembrane region support the hypothesis that Ace-MEP-7 may be involved in hemoglobin digestion in the hookworm gastrointestinal tract, especially that our analyses show expression of Ace-mep-7 in the adult stage of the parasite. Immunization of Syrian golden hamsters with Ace-mep-7 cDNA resulted in 50% (p < 0.01) intestinal worm burden reduction. Additionally 78% (p < 0.05) egg count reduction in both sexes was observed. These results suggest that immunization with Ace-mep-7 may contribute to reduction in egg count released into the environment during the A. ceylanicum infection. PMID:26795262
This article analyzes the internal and external imbalances of China’s economy from a global perspective. The author believes that trade surplus and savings surplus are not the absolute metrics to define a country’s economic strength. China’s balance of payments has continued to maintain a big surplus, which shows China’s unique economic structure and growth model and exposes deep contradictions in income distribution, factor prices and resource allocation. While stimulating rapid growth, the imbalance of China’s economy, at the same time, has long delayed the upgrading of industrial structure, aggravating the threat of inflation and heightening concerns of an asset bubble. Although the external and internal imbalances are closely linked to each other, they are quite different in nature. This similar global economic imbalance has existed for a long time, and to a great extent, is inevitable and rational. However, internal imbalances caused by its own systems and policies, if lasted, would have severe and negative impacts not only on China’s economy, but on the global economy as a whole.
Johnson Taiwo Olajide
Full Text Available Most of the developing and under-developed countries have been facing a lot of challenges on the issue of economic growth, despite the fact that they are endowed with both natural and human resources. This study examines the determinants of real per Capita GDP growth in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC using a panel of twelve countries for the period of 1986 and 2010.The pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Fixed Effect (FE and Random Effect (RE models were employed to assess the relationship between CGDP and other economic variables used. The result showed that price level of consumptions (pc and investment share (ci are the important factors of CGDP that contribute to the economic growth of OPEC countries. The result also established that exchange rate (Xrat, price of GDP (p, purchasing power parity (ppp and ci have a positive influence on CGDP. The test statistic revealed that Random Effects Model (REM estimator is more efficient than OLS and that there is no significance difference between Fixed Effects Model (FEM and REM estimators.
Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.
Full Text Available In the past years majority of EU members experienced the highest economic decline in their modern history, but impacts of the global financial crisis were not distributed homogeneously across the continent. The aim of the paper is to examine a cohesion of European Union (plus Norway and Iceland in terms of an economic development of its members from the 1st of January 2008 to the 31st of December 2012. For the study five economic indicators were selected: GDP growth, unemployment, inflation, labour productivity and government debt. Annual data from Eurostat databases were averaged over the whole period and then used as an input for a cluster analysis. It was found that EU countries were divided into six different clusters. The most populated cluster with 14 countries covered Central and West Europe and reflected relative homogeneity of this part of Europe. Countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Portugal and Spain shared their own cluster of the most affected countries by the recent crisis as well as the Baltics and the Balkans states in another cluster. On the other hand Slovakia and Poland, only two countries that escaped a recession, were classified in their own cluster of the most successful countries
Karaçay Çakmak Hatice
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the capability approach of Amartya Sen and mainstream economic theory in terms of their epistemological, methodological and philosophical/cultural aspects. The reason for undertaking this analysis is the belief that Sen's capability approach, contrary to some economists' claim, is uncongenial to mainstream economic views on epistemology and methodology (not on ontologically. However, while some social scientists regard that Sen, on the whole, is a mainstream economist, his own approach strongly criticizes both the theory and practice of mainstream economics.
B. Tom (Beril)
textabstractThe beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in hypertension and heart failure may relate, at least in part, to their capacity to interfere with bradykinin metabolism. In addition, recent studies have provided evidence for bradykinin-potentiating effects of ACE
Stéphane J. Baele
Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.
Dmitry V. Gorbachev
Full Text Available The article describes the systematic approach to developing a system of combined models of discrete processes. Mathematical basis for constructing a model of information Petri nets.
Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA
Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.
Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.
In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...
Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger
The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS
Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.
Kagliwal, Lalit D; Survase, Shrikant A; Singhal, Rekha S; Granström, Tom
A process for the fermentative production of propionic acid from whole wheat flour using starch and gluten as nutrients is presented. Hydrolysis of wheat flour starch using amylases was optimized. A batch fermentation of hydrolysate supplemented with various nitrogen sources using Propionibacterium acidipropionici NRRL B 3569 was performed. The maximum production of 48.61, 9.40, and 11.06 g of propionic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid, respectively, was found with wheat flour hydrolysate equivalent to 90 g/l glucose and supplemented with 15 g/l yeast extract. Further, replacement of yeast extract with wheat gluten hydrolysate showed utilization of gluten hydrolysate without compromising the yields and also improving the economics of the process. The process so developed could be useful for production of animal feed from whole wheat with in situ production of preservatives, and also suggest utilization of sprouted or germinated wheat for the production of organic acids. PMID:23357590
Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H
In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370
Reflecting on globalization and civil society's role post-September 11th, Juan Somavía argues that a new globalization can be shaped that will reduce poverty following the policy approach of 'decent work for all'. Development (2002) 45, 17–20. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110342
Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to sudden temporary decline in cerebral perfusion. Cough syncope is classically seen in middle aged obese men with obstructive pulmonary disease. In patients that use Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, a dry persistent cough can emerge due to the side effects of this medication. Seventy years old male patient that use ACE inhibitor for hypertension accepted to the clinic with the complaint of syncope. A bout of coughing has developed during electroencephalography recording and 10 seconds in duration of subcortical like epileptiform discharges were viewed. The ACE inhibitor the patient was receiving was replaced with calcium channel blocker and no complaint was observed during the follow up period. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 619-622
Oudit, Gavin Y; Crackower, Michael A; Backx, Peter H; Penninger, Josef M
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in cardiovascular and renal function and in disease conditions, and has been shown to be a far more complex system than initially thought. A recently discovered homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)--ACE2--appears to negatively regulate the RAS. ACE2 cleaves Ang I and Ang II into the inactive Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7, respectively. ACE2 is highly expressed in kidney and heart and is especially confined to the endothelium. With quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, ACE2 was defined as a QTL on the X chromosome in rat models of hypertension. In these animal models, kidney ACE2 messenger RNA and protein expression were markedly reduced, making ACE2 a candidate gene for this QTL. Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice failed to elicit hypertension, but resulted in severe impairment in myocardial contractility with increased angiotensin II levels. Genetic ablation of ACE in the ACE2 null mice rescued the cardiac phenotype. These genetic data show that ACE2 is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo. Basal renal morphology and function were not altered by the inactivation of ACE2. The novel role of ACE2 in hydrolyzing several other peptides-such as the apelin peptides, opioids, and kinin metabolites-raises the possibility that peptide systems other than angiotensin and its derivatives also may have an important role in regulating cardiovascular and renal function.
Marta Rey García; Luis Ignacio Álvarez González
Theoretical debate about the nature of charitable foundations has traditionally become polarized around two distinct conceptual approaches: the non-profit or third sector approach, versus the social economy approach. This research tries to find a common ground between these two approaches, and to highlight the specificities of the foundation as an organizational formula, supporting its current socio-economic relevance with latest quantitative data on the contemporary Spanish foundation sector...
Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera
Full Text Available Despite relatively cheap mobility and intensive globalization processes, the place attachment remains an important part the human existence (Lewicka, 2010:226, . Our aim is to understand the evolution of the place attachment. For this purpose we apply evolutionary game theory with the replicator dynamics and we follow the literature on the identity economics. A novelty which Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce is that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her identity in order to maximize her own utility. In other words, the choice of identity and activities is separated. Pavlinović (2012 develops a basic evolutionary game-theory model of spatial identity where agents can only act in line with their own identity. On the contrary, Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce the assumption that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her. Thus, we modify the model in Pavlinović (2012 and consider the choice of identity and action separately. We explore if this modification significantly affects the results.
Belokrylova Olga, S.
Full Text Available It is shown that the innovative activity of universities in Russia is always accompanied by the organizational changes carried out in the framework of the concept of stage-by-stage approach – a combination of natural and subjectively rational principle and based on intra-organizational integration of all subjects of University ethos for joint decisions in the field of organizational change. The authors analyze the mission transformation of universities determined by formation of information society which now is including not only development of the human capital, but also creation of knowledge as the competitive product possessing the essential production and social importance.
The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the
The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar
Scope and Method of Study. Switchgrass has been proposed as a dedicated energy crop. The first essay determines switchgrass yield response to nitrogen fertilizer for a single annual harvest in July and for a single annual harvest in October based on a field experiments conducted at Stillwater, OK. Data were fitted to several functional forms to characterize both the July harvest and the October harvest response functions. Extending the harvest window to take advantage of reduction in harvest machinery investment costs has important biological consequences. The second essay determines the cost to deliver a ton of switchgrass biomass to a 2,000 tons per day plant located in Oklahoma. The model accounts for differences in yield and nitrogen fertilizer requirements across harvest months. The data were incorporated into a multi-region, multi-period, monthly time-step, mixed integer mathematical programming model that was constructed to determine the optimal strategy. Desirable feedstock properties, biomass to biofuel conversion rate, and investment required in plant differs depending on which conversion technology is used. The third essay determines the breakeven ethanol price for a cellulosic biorefinery. A comprehensive mathematical programming model that encompasses the chain from land acquisition to ethanol production was constructed and solved. Findings and Conclusions. The July and October harvest plateau yield of 4.36 and 5.49 tons per acre were achieved with an estimated annual nitrogen fertilizer application of 80 and 63 pounds per acre, respectively. Farm gate production costs were estimated to be 60 per ton for the July harvest and 50 per ton for the October harvest. Based on the model results, the strategy of extending harvest over many months is economically preferable to a strategy of harvesting only in peak yield harvest months. Restricting harvest to a two-month harvest season would increase the cost to deliver feedstock by 23 percent. For a capital
Lasaitiene, Daina; Chen, Yun; Nannmark, Ulf; Wollmer, Per; Friberg, Peter
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is developmentally up-regulated and it is essential for kidney development in several species. Given the fact that the rat lung undergoes postnatal development, the mammalian lung possesses the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels and ACE activity increases during the first weeks postpartum, we tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition influences postnatal lung development. Rats were given the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg kg-1) from 0 to 9 da...
Full Text Available This paper addresses a special zone design problem for economic census investigators that is motivated by a real-world application. This paper presented a heuristic multikernel growth approach via Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT. This approach not only solved the barriers problem but also dealt with the polygon data in zoning procedure. In addition, it uses a new heuristic method to speed up the zoning process greatly on the premise of the required quality of zoning. At last, two special instances for economic census were performed, highlighting the performance of this approach.
Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A
The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term. PMID:27102854
Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A
The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.
B. Tom (Beril); R. de Vries (René); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)
textabstractACE inhibitors block B(2) receptor desensitization, thereby potentiating bradykinin beyond blocking its hydrolysis. Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) also acts as an ACE inhibitor and, in addition, may stimulate bradykinin release via angiotensin II type 2 receptors.
Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E
A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.
Zhukov Andrii V.
Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.
Full Text Available Problem Statement : Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with variability inthe skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations.Approach: The purpose of this study was to review the most important studies that have been exanimate thepossible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and femaleathletes involved in elderly populations. This research is needed because the possibility that the DD genotypemay be associated with a greater proportion of fast twitch fibers could explain the influence of the ACE D alleleupon strength/ power, particularly at high velocities, but this evidence remains equivocal in older people becausemore studies are necessary.Results: Thus, according to scientific evidence, changes in muscle strength with exercise training in olderindividuals may be dependent on ACE I/D genotype. Of note, the results provide a novel insight that thesegenetic variations may interact to determine muscle mass in older women specially. The determination of thispredisposition in this population, highlighting the interest of study, for the prophylactic attitude on the factorsand causes of aging (sarcopenia, osteoporosis, risk of falls, reduction of functional physical go through thisanalysis.Conclusions/Recommendations: In this work, the state of the art related to the influence of the ACE genotypeon skeletal muscle strength was presented and some important relations were reported
Eu.V. Mishenin; I.I. Koblianska
The aim of the article. The article highlights the lack of effectiveness of existing system of education management in Ukraine from its basic function performance – to satisfy the needs of social and economic system of human resources, according to the required quantity, quality, educational culture, right place and time with the lowest public costs. The results of the analysis. The article is focused on the forming of organizational and economic bases of the use of logistic approach in th...
The self-employment rate includes entrepreneurs out of opportunity and entrepreneurs out of necessity. While the effect of opportunity entrepreneurs on economic development should be positive, there should be no or a negative effect of necessity entrepreneurship. We use a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach to analyze whether the effect of self-employment on economic development is heterogeneous across European NUTS-2 regions. We find that regions having a significant positive e...
Hoikkanen, Anssi; Bacigalupo, Margherita; Lusoli, Wainer; Maghiros, Ioannis; Nikolov, Stavri
This paper discusses the economics of electronic identity (eIdentity) from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Personal identity data are becoming increasingly important in online transactions, and they have never been monetised to the extent they are today. Consequently, there is a need for an improved understanding of the economic externalities resulting from the electronic use of identities in transactions. In this context, we distinguish four main theoretical approaches for under...
Niyato, D.; Lu, X.; Wang, P.; Kim, D I; Han, Z.
Internet of things (IoT) has been proposed to be a new paradigm of connecting devices and providing services to various applications, e.g., transportation, energy, smart city, and healthcare. In this paper, we focus on an important issue, i.e., economics of IoT, that can have a great impact to the success of IoT applications. In particular, we adopt and present the information economics approach with its applications in IoT. We first review existing economic models developed for IoT services....
AceWiki is a prototype that shows how a semantic wiki using controlled natural language - Attempto Controlled English (ACE) in our case - can make ontology management easy for everybody. Sentences in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic, OWL, or SWRL. AceWiki integrates the OWL reasoner Pellet and ensures that the ontology is always consistent. Previous results have shown that people with no background in logic are able to add formal knowledge to AceWiki without being instructed or trained in advance.
AceWiki is a prototype that shows how a semantic wiki using controlled natural language - Attempto Controlled English (ACE) in our case - can make ontology management easy for everybody. Sentences in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic, OWL, or SWRL. AceWiki integrates the OWL reasoner Pellet and ensures that the ontology is always consistent. Previous results have shown that people with no background in logic are able to add formal knowledge to AceWiki without being in...
Full Text Available John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.
Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch
of secondary marine products. The approach in this study is to hydrolyse skin and belly flap tissue from Salmon with the use of mammalian digestive proteases from pancreas and intestinal mucosa and test hydrolysates for antioxidative capacity, intestinal DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE...... amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...... and pancreatin + mucosa hydrolysates. No DH was obtained for tissues hydrolysed with only intestinal mucosa extract. Preliminary results showed antioxidant activity and intestinal DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity in 10 kDa fraction from both belly flap and skin hydrolysates but with a higher antioxidative...
Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)
Sustainable Development Commission
As part of the Trust's approach to good corporate citizenship, the Actions for Community Employment (ACE) project provides increased employment opportunities for local residents, generating a more representative workforce across the Trust's three teaching hospitals and contributing to sustainable regeneration in one of the most disadvantaged areas of Britain. Publisher PDF
van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan
This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as
Full Text Available This paper presents extensive validation analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. The ACE satellite instruments operate in the mid-infrared and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral regions using the solar occultation technique. In order to continue the long-standing record of solar occultation measurements from space, a detailed quality assessment is required to evaluate the ACE data and validate their use for scientific purposes. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the mean differences range generally between 0 and +10% with a slight but systematic positive bias (typically +5%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments by up to ~40% (typically +20%. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, agreement within ±10% (generally better than ±5% is found between 18 and 40 km for the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (45–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (by as much as −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS and indicate a large positive
Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed
We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.
Kosyrieva Olena V.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.
Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard
Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...
Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.
Matyushenko Olga I.
Full Text Available The article identifies urgency of the enterprise life cycle theory in the system of managing financial and economic activity of an enterprise, identifies problems and insufficiently developed theoretical issues, namely, identification of the main indicator of the state of an organisation on the life cycle curve, which thoroughly characterises its financial and economic activity. It develops and offers a methodical approach to identification of the financial and economic state of an enterprise. The article analyses, generalises and identifies main sub-systems of an enterprise within the proposed methods. On the basis of analysis of works of scientists the article identifies main indicators that characterise each subsystem of an enterprise and identifies the entropy method, having analysed the existing methods of calculation of an integral indicator, as the most justified approach to calculation of the enterprise life cycle integral indicator.
Full Text Available This article tries to show that there are alternative approaches to the economic theory, besides the well-known economic schools, Classicism, Neoclassicism and Keynesianism. The neoclassical principles allow a formalization – widely accepted by experts – that provide effective tools for measuring the effects of the economic activity. The economic science pays a special attention to the study of the economic agents’ behaviors, and to the economic results obtained by them through economic activity. Any human science uses principles and works with assumptions, and the neoclassical assumptions have generated efficient tools for quantifying the economic outcomes, and for accounting the economic growth. But these hypothesis, such as the assumption of economic agents’ rationality, allow a very limited understanding of the behaviors of economic agents within the markets. The recent invention of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance device, allowed the emrgence of a new scientific paradigm, the development of neurosciences. Researchers can observe at a high level of graphic detail various types of activities that occur in the human brain, and some economists have introduced in the study of the economic theory, for example, the assumption that the consumer is driven by emotions when purchasing quantities of goods and services. So, economists may look for additional theories to explain the behavior of the economic agents. An increasingly importance is given to the theoretical contributions built on the work of the economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter, who has an original economic approach based on his own principles. It is proposed to focus the attention on a mesoeconomic vision about the industry, to understand how resources are being allocated and reallocated between companies, and to study the economic processes of evolution, which are influenced by the emergence and dissemination of the innovations. It is supposed that the price is allocating the
Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.
This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...
Flégl, Martin; Vltavská, Kristýna
The paper evaluates research and teaching efficiency at faculties of economics in the public higher education institutions in the Czech Republic. Evaluation is provided in two periods between the years 2006-2010 and 2007-2011. For this evaluation the Data Envelopment Analysis and Index approach are used. Data Envelopment Analysis measures research…
Larson, Kyle B.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Perkins, Casey J.; Oster, Matthew R.; Warwick, William M.; Geerlofs, Simon H.
The study focuses on developing a spatially explicit approach to optimize siting of ocean renewable energy in the context of important technical and economic criteria. Hawaii was chosen for a case study and development of the approach due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) analyzing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) adapting and applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) develop a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning. The approach presented here represents an initial step toward one that simultaneously considers key factors (political, economic, and technical) that affect decision making with respect to energy policy and planning.
David S Cobden
Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health economic
Lybbert, Travis J.; Nikolas J. Zolas
International technological diffusion is a key determinant of cross-country differences in economic performance. While patents can be a useful proxy for innovation and technological change and diffusion, fully exploiting patent data for such economic analyses requires patents to be tied to measures of economic activity. In this paper, we describe and explore a new algorithmic approach to constructing concordances between the International Patent Classification (IPC) system that organizes pate...
Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.
Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.
Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner
Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.
Highlights: • Exploitation of medium to low temperature geothermal sources: ORC power plants. • Integrated energetic and economic approach for the analysis of geothermal power plants. • A brief overview of the cost items of geothermal power plants. • Analysis of specific cost of geothermal power plants based on the method proposed. • Analysis of sustainability of geothermal energy systems based on resource durability. - Abstract: The perspectives of future development of geothermal power plants, mainly of small size for the exploitation of medium–low temperature reservoirs, are discussed and analyzed in the present paper. Even if there is a general interest in new power plants and investments in this sector are recognized, the new installations are reduced; the apparent advantage of null cost of the energy source is negatively balanced by the high drilling and installation costs. A key element for the design of a geothermal plant for medium temperature geothermal source is the definition of the power of the plant (size): this is important in order to define not only the economic plan but also the durability of the reservoir. Considering that it is not possible that the development of geothermal industry could be driven only by an economic perspective, the authors propose a method for joining energetic and economic approaches. The result of the combined energetic and economic analysis is interesting particularly in case of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants in order to define a suitable and optimal size and to maximize the resource durability. The method is illustrated with reference to some particular case studies, showing that the sustainability of small size geothermal plants will be approached only if the research for more economic solutions will be combined with efforts in direction of efficiency increase
Full Text Available "nDiabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease. It has recently been shown that an insertion (I/deletion (D polymorphism exists in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene that can affect the serum ACE level. There are three genotypes: DD, DI, and II, with the ACE level being highest in DD, intermediate in DI, and lowest in II. In the present investigation, 170 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 144 control subjects were studied. The ACE I/D polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR utilizing specific primers. ACE activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Distribution of ACE gene (I/D polymorphism and allele frequencies in patients with T2DM were significantly different from those in control (P < 0.001; D allele frequency was 51% in T2DM vs. 48% in controls. The level of ACE activity was significantly higher in the DD genotype (91.1 ± 23.18 than those in ID (60.6 ± 22.8 and in II genotypes (36.8 ± 6.9. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution between the two groups (P < 0.001. New normal ranges of serum ACE level were determined for each genotype. Moreover, we found test sensitivity to be 62.3%. Serum ACE activity was significantly associated with ACE (I/D gene polymorphism.
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.
Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.
New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV Transmission Plant examines the limitations of EHV transmission plant. Analysis is also covered in the book to correct these limitations. The concept behind EHV is that allowable transfer of electricity is related to the square of the voltage. Factors such as the expense of supplying a certain volume of electricity over a given distance and creations of power stations are examined. The book provides economic studies of alternative design policies based on estimation of costs and benefits of the design parameters. The text also focuses on the pr
Lefever, Els; Hoste, Veronique
Breaking news on economic events such as stock splits or mergers and acquisitions has been shown to have a substantial impact on the financial markets. As it is important to be able to automatically identify events in news items accurately and in a timely manner, we present in this paper proof-of-concept experiments for a supervised machine learning approach to economic event detection in newswire text. For this purpose, we created a corpus of Dutch financial news articles in which 10 types o...
ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)
Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof
Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity
We present AceWiki, a prototype of a new kind of semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE) for representing its content. ACE is a subset of English with a restricted grammar and a formal semantics. The use of ACE has two important advantages over existing semantic wikis. First, we can improve the usability and achieve a shallow learning curve. Second, ACE is more expressive than the formal languages of existing semantic wikis. Our evaluation shows that people who are not familiar with the formal foundations of the Semantic Web are able to deal with AceWiki after a very short learning phase and without the help of an expert.
YUE WAN; HONG-WEI YANG; TOSHIHIKO MASUI
In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities.The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26‰ (ranging from 0.44‰ to 1.84‰) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38‰ (ranging from 0.16‰ to 0.51‰). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)]-Mas constitutes the vasoprotective axis and is demon-strated to antagonize the vascular pathophysiological effects of the classical renin -angiotensin system .We hypothesize that upregulation of ACE2-Ang (1-7) signaling protects endothelial function through reducing oxidative stress , thus resulting in beneficial outcome in di-abetes.Ex vivo treatment with Ang (1-7) augmented endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in renal arteries from diabetic patients . Both Ang (1-7) infusion via osmotic pump (500 ng・ kg -1・ min-1 ) for 2 weeks and exogenous ACE 2 overexpression mediated by ad-enoviral ACE2 via tail vein injection rescued the impaired EDR and flow-mediated dilatation ( FMD) in db/db mice.Diminazene acetu-rate treatment (15 mg・ kg-1・ d-1 ) activated ACE2, increased the circulating Ang (1-7) level, and augmented EDR and FMD in db/db mouse arteries.In addition, activation of the ACE2-Ang (1-7) axis reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction de-termined by dihydroethidium staining , CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence imaging , and chemiluminescence assay in db/db mouse aortas and also in high-glucose-treated endothelial cells .Pharmacological benefits of ACE 2-Ang ( 1-7 ) upregulation on endothelial function were confirmed in ACE2 knockout mice both ex vivo and in vitro.We elucidate that the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis serves as an important signal pathway in endothelial cell protection in diabetic mice , especially in diabetic human arteries .In summary, endogenous ACE2-Ang (1-7) activation or ACE2 overexpression preserves endothelial function in diabetic mice through increasing nitric oxide bioavail -ability and inhibiting oxidative stress , suggesting the therapeutic potential of ACE 2-Ang(1-7) axis activation against diabetic vasculop-athy.
Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS. Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.
Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu
Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts.
Taddei, Stefano; Bortolotto, L
Historically, the first described effect of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was an increased activity of bradykinin, one of the substrates of ACE. However, in the subsequent years, molecular models describing the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors in decreasing blood pressure and cardiovascular risk have focused mostly on the renin-angiotensin system. Nonetheless, over the last 20 years, the importance of bradykinin in regulating vasodilation, natriuresis, oxidative stress, fibrinolysis, inflammation, and apoptosis has become clearer. The affinity of ACE appears to be higher for bradykinin than for angiotensin I, thereby suggesting that ACE inhibitors may be more effective inhibitors of bradykinin degradation than of angiotensin II production. Data describing the effect of ACE inhibition on bradykinin signaling support the hypothesis that the most cardioprotective benefits attributed to ACE inhibition may be due to increased bradykinin signaling rather than to decreased angiotensin II signaling, especially when high dosages of ACE inhibitors are considered. In particular, modulation of bradykinin in the endothelium appears to be a major target of ACE inhibition. These new mechanistic concepts may lead to further development of strategies enhancing the bradykinin signaling. PMID:27260014
This report explains installation of ACE/ONED code, structure of input and output, how to prepare input and introduces some sample inputs. ACE/ONED developed by KAERI is a two-group one-dimensional diffusion theory code for nuclear design and reactor simulations. The usage of ACE/ONED encompasses core follow calculation, load-following calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation, control rod maneuvering, and so on. ACE/ONED programmed of FORTRAN 77 in most part can be run on almost all kinds of computer including personal computer. 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new
This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the
The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability
K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang
The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.
Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.
Full Text Available This paper presents an economics-based approach for studying the problem of resource allocation among software development phases. Our approach is structured along two parallel axes: theoretical and empirical. We developed a general economic model for analyzing the allocation problem as a constrained profit maximization problem. The model, based on a novel concept of software production function, considers the effects of different allocations of development resources on output measures of the resulting software product. An empirical environment for evaluating and refining the model is presented, and a first exploratory study for characterizing the model's components and developers' resource allocation decisions is described. The findings illustrate how the model can be applied and validate its underlying assumptions and usability. Future quantitative empirical studies can refine and substantiate various aspects of the proposed model and ultimately improve the productivity of software development processes.
João Carlos Lopes; Tanya Araujo
This paper contributes to further understanding the economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions, using a stochastic network approach. The empirical analysis is made at the territorial level of NUT 3 regions and covers the period 1995-2008. The performance of regions is based on GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Standards. The network analysis is based on a metric space built from the correlation coefficients between the log-difference of annual growth rates. The metric space and t...
Lopes, João Carlos; Araújo, Tânya
This paper contributes to further understanding the economic performance of Portuguese and Spanish regions, using a stochastic network approach. The empirical analysis is made at the territorial level of NUT 3 regions and covers the period 1995-2008. The performance of regions is based on GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Standards. The network analysis is based on a metric space built from the correlation coefficients between the log-difference of annual growth rates. The metric space an...
Claudy, Marius; O'Driscoll, Aidan
This paper argues that the moderate success of policies aiming to stimulate the uptake of Sustainable Energy Systems (SES) in the domestic sector is grounded in a poor understanding of the ‘consumer’. The predominant economic approach behind most policies assumes that improving the cost-benefit ratio of technologies via grants and subsidies and providing sufficient information will automatically incentivise householders’ to invest into SES. Yet, policymakers often neglect behavioural determin...
This paper examines the dynamic causal relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI), trade and economic growth in India by applying the bounds testing (ARDL) approach to cointegration for the period from 1970 to 2012. The bounds tests suggest that the variables of interest are bound together in the long-run when GDP per capita is the dependent variable. The empirical findings confirm that there is bi-directional Granger causality between FDI and trade, unidirectional Granger causalit...
Volkov V. A.; Orlov A. I.
In this article we propose a general theoretical model of estimation of the feasibility of an innovation-investment project. For specifying a general model to estimate the feasibility of a project we have highlighted the stages of development of projects in the aerospace industry. Organizational-economic approaches to estimation of the feasibility of projects to create rocket and space technology are presented in terms of algorithms. They take into account the specifics of the space industry,...
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can be accomplished at the level of the angiotensin-generating enzymes renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; using renin inhibitors or ACE inhibitors), the type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR; using angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] or MR blockers) and/or renin release (using beta-blockers). Several of these drugs are often combined-for example in heart failure-but such approaches may ultimately lead to RAAS annihilation with adverse consequences such as hypotension, renal dysfunction and hyperkalaemia. The biochemical consequences of each type of blockade are different. For instance, ACE inhibitors will lower angiotensin II, thus no longer allowing stimulation of both AT1 and type 2 angiotensin II (AT2) receptors, while ARBs raise angiotensin II, allowing selective stimulation of the unoccupied AT2 receptor. This might be of particular importance in women, in whom the protective AT2 receptor pathway is believed to be upregulated. Multiple clinical trials have compared the various types of RAAS blockers and/or their combination. This talk will summarize the current evidence with regard to similarities and differences between ACE inhibitors and ARBs, also considering their side-effect profile, dose and combination with other RAAS blockers. PMID:27643121
Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.
Craig W. Herbold
Full Text Available High throughput sequencing of phylogenetic and functional gene amplicons provides tremendous insight into the structure and functional potential of complex microbial communities. Here, we introduce a highly adaptable and economical PCR approach to barcoding and pooling libraries of numerous target genes. In this approach, we replace gene- and sequencing platform-specific fusion primers with general, interchangeable barcoding primers, enabling nearly limitless customized barcode-primer combinations. Compared to barcoding with long fusion primers, our multiple-target gene approach is more economical because it overall requires lower number of primers and is based on short primers with generally lower synthesis and purification costs. To highlight our approach, we pooled over 900 different small-subunit rRNA and functional gene amplicon libraries obtained from various environmental or host-associated microbial community samples into a single, paired-end Illumina MiSeq run. Although the amplicon regions ranged in size from approximately 290 to 720 bp, we found no significant systematic sequencing bias related to amplicon length or gene target. Our results indicate that this flexible multiplexing approach produces large, diverse and high quality sets of amplicon sequence data for modern studies in microbial ecology.
Sergei M Danilov
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE--between Arg1203 and Ser1204--was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase.
Power demands are set to increase over the next twenty years; however, research shows that there may be a shortage of power engineers due to an appreciable percentage of the current power engineer workforce retiring, insufficient enrollment in power engineering programs and a lack of emphasis in power engineering at the university level. This thesis provides supporting research for future power demands, workforce and faculty shortages. Using temporary research in modern learning / teaching styles, student / teacher perceptions, educational trends and regional course offerings, this thesis describes a learning approach towards power engineering education. Designed specifically for universities with little to no power engineering course offerings and universities that wish to augment their existing approach, the approach incorporates an emphasis in fundamentals and engineering design making it economical and easy to implement. This thesis also includes three (3) video laboratory examples incorporating all elements of the approach.
Bayerstadler, Andreas; Benstetter, Franz; Heumann, Christian; Winter, Fabian
Predictive Modeling (PM) techniques are gaining importance in the worldwide health insurance business. Modern PM methods are used for customer relationship management, risk evaluation or medical management. This article illustrates a PM approach that enables the economic potential of (cost-) effective disease management programs (DMPs) to be fully exploited by optimized candidate selection as an example of successful data-driven business management. The approach is based on a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) that is easy to apply for health insurance companies. By means of a small portfolio from an emerging country, we show that our GLM approach is stable compared to more sophisticated regression techniques in spite of the difficult data environment. Additionally, we demonstrate for this example of a setting that our model can compete with the expensive solutions offered by professional PM vendors and outperforms non-predictive standard approaches for DMP selection commonly used in the market. PMID:23780751
Bleumink, GS; Schut, Anna F.C.; Sturkenboom, MCJM; van Duijn, CM; Deckers, JW; Hofman, A; Kingma, J. Herre; Witteman, JCM; Stricker, BHC
Background The response to angiotensin-l converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy is highly variable. Residual ACE activity during treatment, potentially modified by the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, may explain part of this variability. We studied the possible interaction between ACE-
Jackson, B.; Cubela, R.B.; Sakaguchi, K.; Johnston, C.I.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was characterized by radioligand studies utilizing the potent ACE inhibitor 351A, a derivative of lisinopril. Ligand binding characteristics were similar for ACE derived from testis, lung, and kidney, despite known differences in structure between ACe from these sources. This observation suggests that the ACE active enzymatic site is similar in different tissues. The effect of the orally active ACE inhibitor perindopril was studied ex vivo in tissues of the rat after oral gavage. Radioligand bound to tissue ACE was reduced after perindopril treatment, in tissue homogenates of lung and kidney, but not testis. Autoradiographs of radioligand binding to tissue sections obtained ex vivo after oral perindopril showed inhibition of ACE in the aorta, lung, and kidney, but did not reveal any inhibition of ACE in the testis. ACE in small vessels of the testis was inhibited as in the aorta, while at the same time testicular ACE was unaffected. ACE in rat testis appears to have a similar enzymatic binding site to ACE from the lung and kidney. Perindopril inhibited ACE in the lung and kidney but did not affect ACE in the testis, suggesting the drug is limited in testicular penetration by the blood-testis barrier. This may explain the lack of any reports of adverse effects of ACE inhibitors on testicular function.
C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica
Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural
... High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You? What are ACE inhibitors? ACE inhibitors, ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...
R. T. Baran
Full Text Available The purpose of reforming the air transport in Ukraine is the implementation of market economic transformations in economic and financial methods of the management of civil aviation operational firms, which were still formed on the basis of Soviet plan-army management principles. The author suggests the mechanism of formation of financial supply paradigm for reformed air transport firm because these reformations are to be carried out when the elaborated optimal economic-legal, investment-innovation, and (what is the most important organizational-financial complex unified methodical principles of the interaction of air transport (АТ subjects are absent (which becomes clear in the course of re-structuring them. Vital problems of formation of investment-innovation re-structuring mechanism for functioning the air transport firms are described in this article. New results of subsequent scientific research concerning financial scheme development of enterprising and commercial activities of airlines in today’s economic stabilization and growth, formation of new paradigm of economic theory and reformation of managing practice are suggested to the participants of the Conference in the course of prolonging the author’s discussion; a possible approach to the solution of financing problems for their re-structuring by means of creating new aviationtransport consortia is also suggested. The aim of creating a new consortium is to improve the economic efficiency of activity of airlines, their competitiveness in internal markets of transport services as well as to reform the system of air transport subjects in Ukraine. This is one of the complex trends for solving the problems of creating national air carrier, the organization of optimal forms and methods of financial schemes formation for measures aimed at improving the competitiveness.
Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe
In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion. PMID:23145508
Cox, Clara B.
Diane Bell, professor of anthropology and director of women's studies at George Washington University and one of 37 American Council on Education (ACE) Fellows, will spend the current academic year in the provost's office at Virginia Tech, examining the globalization efforts of the university and its core curriculum as part of her ACE fellowship.
Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.
Full Text Available During 1989, the moment of changes in Eastern Europe, in socialist countries political system were transformed, by renouncing communism, and adopting market based economy. The process had major implications on economic systems in countries such Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, that from that moment engaged in wide-ranging political, social, economic and institutional reforms. The year 1989 also marked the beginning of the transition from socialist economy to a market economy to centralized countries mentioned, a process with profound implications on the economic system and financial default. This important structural reforms necessary functioning new economic framework and assumed behavior modification specific old economy, focused on socialist property, presumably achieve in conditions of relative stability allowing rapidly and sustainable growth. This paper takes into discussion some models used by FMI and World Bank (WB that had implications on financial policy applied in transition country, referring to absorption theory, monetary approach to balance of payment and stabilization programs, as short terms models, respectively.
Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón
Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects.
Hsiu Mei Wang Chen
Full Text Available Due to the challenge of rising public awareness of environmental issues and governmental regulations, green supply chain management (SCM has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Supplier selection is one of the key operational tasks necessary to construct a green SCM. To select the most suitable suppliers, many economic and environmental criteria must be considered in the decision process. Although numerous studies have used economic criteria such as cost, quality, and lead time in the supplier selection process, only some studies have taken into account the environmental issues. This study proposes a comprehensive fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach for green supplier selection and evaluation, using both economic and environmental criteria. In the proposed approach, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP is employed to determine the important weights of criteria under vague environment. In addition, a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to evaluate and rank the potential suppliers. Finally, a case study in Luminance Enhancement Film (LEF industry is presented to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.
Full Text Available The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the evaluation and analysis of different project management tasks - investment, innovation, marketing, development, design and bring products to market and so on. However, in practical competitive market and economic conditions, there are various uncertainties, ambiguities, vagueness. Its making usage of SWOT analysis in the classical sense not enough reasonable and ineffective. In this case, the authors propose to use fuzzy logic approach and the theory of fuzzy sets for a more adequate representation and posttreatment assessments in the SWOT analysis. In particular, has been short showed the mathematical formulation of respective task and the main approaches to its solution. Also are given examples of suitable computer calculations in specialized software Fuzicalc for processing and operations with fuzzy input data. Finally, are presented considerations for interpretation of the results.
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) with water cooled reactors [either light water reactors (LWRs) or heavy water reactors (HWRs)] constitute the large majority of the currently operating plants. Water cooled reactors can make a significant contribution to meeting future energy needs, to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to energy security if they can compete economically with fossil alternatives, while continuing to achieve a very high level of safety. It is generally agreed that the largest commercial barrier to the addition of new nuclear power capacity is the high capital cost of nuclear plants relative to other electricity generating alternatives. If nuclear plants are to form part of the future generating mix in competitive electricity markets, capital cost reduction through simplified designs must be an important focus. Reductions in operating, maintenance and fuel costs should also be pursued. The Department of Nuclear Energy of the IAEA is examining the competitiveness of nuclear power and the means for improving its economics. The objective of this TECDOC is to emphasize the need, and to identify approaches, for new nuclear plants with water cooled reactors to achieve competitiveness while maintaining high levels of safety. The cost reduction methods discussed herein can be implemented into plant designs that are currently under development as well as into designs that may be developed in the longer term. Many of the approaches discussed also generally apply to other reactor types (e.g. gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors). To achieve the largest possible cost reductions, proven means for reducing costs must be fully implemented, and new approaches described in this document should be developed and implemented. These new approaches include development of advanced technologies, increased use of risk-informed methods for evaluating the safety benefit of design features, and international consensus regarding commonly acceptable safety requirements that
Badari, V S
Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries. PMID:12261074
Changhyup Park; Joe M.Kang; Taewoong Ahn
The paper presents a stochastic and economic analysis for petroleum development under uncertain market and technical environments. Mean-reversion with jumps for price forecasting is used to consider market uncertainty, while various scenarios for the reservoir properties and cost are employed to consider technical uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to obtain the feasible range of net present values and internal rates of return. The influence of stochastic parameters is examined through correlation coefficients. The stochastic approach yields more reliable evaluation and effectively investigates the characteristics of development. The integration of uncertainties and contractual terms results in an irregular tendency in the future cash flow and reveals that a larger reserve does not guarantee a greater profit. The reserve and the well rate affect the economic values whereas the parameters for price prediction don't. The research confirms the necessity of qualifying uncertainties for realistic decision-making at the initial stage of development.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Since several pharmacological approaches are available for the reduction of incidence and severity of cardiovascular events and health resources in modern managed care systems are limited, the evaluation of the clinical and economical consequences of any treatment is very valuable for decison-makers and physicians. In this article we present a flexible pharmacoeconomic model that permits the calculation of the marginal costeffectiveness of cardiovascular prevention with ramipril, a drug of the class of ACE-inhibitors. The clinical data used for the modelization are derived from the HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, a landmark cardiovascular prevention study that showed how the benefits of ACE-inhibition with ramipril go beyond the effects on blood pressure, while Italian epidemiological, demographic and economical data make the results appliable to the Italian population. The model, structured as a decision tree comparing the alternatives “to treat” or “not to treat” with Markow chains at the terminal nodes, calculates the marginal cost-effectiveness of the preventive treatment in terms of cost/year of live saved. The model is characterized by high flexibility, as it allows health decision-makers to set epidemiological and economical data in order to reflect the local population at high risk for developing cardiovascular diseas. The model was tested on a high risk population, formed by all acute myocardial infarction survivors in Italy, and indicated that life-long treatment of this patients would yield significant clinical benefits, with a cost/ effectiveness of 3,932 euro/year of life saved. This value is well below the standards that are considered acceptable, and offsprings from the partial offset of pharmaceutical costs caused by the reduction in the expenses for diagnosis and treatment of the cardiovascular events
Boot, Sander Paul
textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and International Lakes was adopted. Guiding Principle 4 of this convention states that ‘water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good’. The argument...
Orlov A. I.
For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Orlov A. I.
Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Rozilee Asid; Mori Kogid; Dullah Mulok; Jaratin Lily
The main objective of present study is to investigate the implications of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on foreign direct investment and economic growth in Malaysia. We used the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration for long run relationship between the variables. Although researches with regards to foreign direct investment and economic growth have been conducted extensively in the Malaysian economic context, the role of IPR protection however has yet to be discussed ...
Abdelaziz, A.Y.; Kamh, M.Z.; Mekhamer, S.F.; Badr, M.A.L. [Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat Street, Abdo Basha Square, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)
This paper introduces a solution of the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem using a hybrid approach of Hopfield neural network (HNN) and quadratic programming (QP). The hybrid algorithm is based on using enhanced HNN; to solve the static part of the problem; the QP algorithm for solving the dynamic part of the DED. This technique guarantees the global optimality of the solution due to its look-ahead capability. The new algorithm is applied and tested to an example from the literature and the solution is then compared with that obtained by some other techniques to prove the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)
Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Ganguly, Arghya; Torres, Jessica; Hanson, Paul R
A pot-economical total synthesis of antifungal Sch-725674, 1, is reported. The approach takes advantage of a number of one-pot, sequential transformations, including a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation protocol, a one-pot tosylation/acrylation sequence, and a one-pot, sequential Finkelstein reaction/Boord olefination/acetonide deprotection procedure to streamline the synthesis route by reducing isolation and purification procedures, thus saving time. Overall, an asymmetric route has been developed that is efficiently accomplished in seven pots from phosphate (S,S)-triene and with minimal purification. PMID:26760683
Juan Ricardo Perilla
A non-parametric approach based on DEA techniques is used to dis- entangle the relationship between innovation growth and per-capita GDP growth in a sample of 30 countries during 1996-2008. The decomposition of GDP-growth brings support to the notion of advantage of backward- ness. It leads to conclude that, in the context of innovation, both the process of catching-up and technological change play an important explanation of the dynamics of economic growth. This is in sharp contr...
Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz
The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...
Volkov V. A.
Full Text Available In this article we propose a general theoretical model of estimation of the feasibility of an innovation-investment project. For specifying a general model to estimate the feasibility of a project we have highlighted the stages of development of projects in the aerospace industry. Organizational-economic approaches to estimation of the feasibility of projects to create rocket and space technology are presented in terms of algorithms. They take into account the specifics of the space industry, by virtue of which such projects have both innovative and investment components
Full Text Available Giuseppe Coppola, Giuseppe Romano, Egle Corrado, Rosa Maria Grisanti, Salvatore NovoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephro-Urological Diseases, Chair of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct antiatherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, thay have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.Keywords: atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction, ACE-inhibitors
Gershman, H. W.
An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.
Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand
Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.
Гончаров, В. А.; Самойлов, М.В.
The report provides a comparison of different models of education for university students on the issues of labor protection. New approaches to teaching discipline of «Labor protection» at the University of Economics are considered.
Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.
Shearer, James; McCrone, Paul; Romeo, Renee
Costing approaches in the economic evaluation of mental health interventions are complicated by the broad societal impacts of mental health, and the multidisciplinary nature of mental health interventions. This paper aims to provide a practical guide to costing approaches across a wide range of care inputs and illness consequences relevant to the treatment of mental health. The resources needed to deliver mental health interventions are highly variable and depend on treatment settings (institutional, community), treatment providers (medical, non-medical) and formats (individual, group, electronic). Establishing the most appropriate perspective is crucial when assessing the costs associated with a particular mental health problem or when evaluating interventions to treat them. We identify five key cost categories (social care, informal care, production losses, crime and education) impacted by mental health and discuss contemporary issues in resource use measurement and valuation, including data sources and resource use instruments. PMID:26922076
HAMDAN, Bader S.S.
Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...
Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C
Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach. PMID:25025523
Ștefănescu Cristina Alexandrina
Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of possible relationships between two different approaches of “transparency” – the technical vs. the economic one. Thus, irrespective of prior literature, our paper goes beyond a “solo” analysis of either of two above-mentioned “facets”, by providing a combined study. So, we focused on both (1 XBRL’s role in enhancing the quality of disclosure, by assessing its benefices and consequences and (2 corporate governance mechanism’s power to improve efficiency and effectiveness of banking supervision by encouraging transparency. The results of the performed analysis generally reveal that there is a strong and positive relationship between the level of disclosure promoted by corporate governance codes enforced in European Union countries and the degree of implementation of both XBRL-based projects designed for banking environment (FINREP and COREP. Consequently, we can assert that there is a consensus between the economic and technical approach of transparency in European banking system
Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin
This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280
This paper presents a novel and efficient approach through a hybrid integer coded differential evolution - dynamic programming (ICDEDP) scheme to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. A dynamic programming (DP) based simplified recursive algorithm is developed for optimal scheduling of the generating units in the ED problem. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that an integer coded differential evolution (ICDE) is acting as a main optimizer to identify the optimal fuel options, and the DP is used to find the fitness of each agent in the population of the ICDE, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region. The hybrid ICDEDP decision vector consists of a sequence of integer numbers representing the fuel options of each unit to optimize quality of search and computation time. A gene swap operator is introduced in the proposed algorithm to improve its convergence characteristics. In order to show the efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed hybrid ICDEDP approach has been examined and tested with numerical results using the ten generation unit economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The test result shows that the proposed hybrid ICDEDP algorithm has high quality solution, superior convergence characteristics and shorter computation time
Full Text Available During the last few years the entire world experienced one of the most turmoil period in its history. Economic crisis is the most traumatic event leading to a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the household. Unemployment, inflation rate increasing, freezing or decreasing of the wages, the purchasing power decreasing, the decreasing of the investments value represent only of some economic shocks that hit most of the individuals, in the last few years. The individual well-being is determinate by many things like the level and secure income, labor market status, job stability and characteristics, health status, social relationships, family etc. In some ways and to a different extent all these were affected by the economic crisis, for many people, around the world. Empirical evidence presented in different international studies emphasized a causal relation between all these aspects. The purpose of the present study was to identify the economic and health consequences of the economic crisis adopting a psychological perspective. The results of the study emphasize that there is a causal relationship between psychological factors and almost all the dimensions of economic behavior and health status measured. Also, the empirical findings uphold that those who are more risk averse and have the highest perception over the risk exposure are taping the highest values regarding the main stressors measured and present more intense symptoms of stress exposure. The limits of the study come from the fact that health consequences were measured in certain period of time (the last six months, thus, this study do not offer a long term evaluation.
Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.
Floods are the most damaging of all natural disasters, adversely affecting millions of lives and causing financial losses worth billions of dollars every year across the globe. Flood inundation maps play a key role in the assessment and mitigation of potential flood hazards. However, there are several communities in the United States where flood risk maps are not available due to the lack of the resources needed to create such maps through the conventional modeling approach. The objective of this study is to develop and examine an economical alternative approach to floodplain mapping using widely available SSURGO soil data in the United States. By using the state of Indiana as a test case, floodplain maps are developed for the entire state by identifying the flood-prone soil map units based on their attributes recorded in the SSURGO database. For validation, the flood extents obtained from the soil data are compared with the extents predicted by other floodplain maps, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), flood extents observed during past floods, and other flood maps derived using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In general, SSURGO based floodplain maps are found to be largely in agreement with flood inundation maps created by FEMA. Comparison between the FEMA maps and the SSURGO derived floodplain maps show an overlap ranging from 65 to 90 percent. Similar results are also found when the SSURGO derived floodplain maps are compared with FEMA maps for recent flood events in other states including Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Although not in perfect conformance with reference flood maps, the SSURGO soil data approach offers an economical and faster alternative to floodplain mapping in areas where detailed flood modeling and mapping has not been conducted.
Melanie Marks; Scott Wentland; Abbey O'Connor
This article offers a practical way for economic educators to integrate marketing into economics principles courses by connecting economic principles and data to advertisements used during the "Great Recession." While most business students are required to take economic principles courses, few appreciate how economic theory applies to different disciplines. To help economic educators integrate material across disciplines, we provide specific connections to marketing for topics commonly taught...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance polarimetric and nonpolarimetric sensing is crucial to upcoming NASA missions, including ACE and CLARREO and the multi-agency VIIRS NPP project....
Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.
Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of
We describe the architecture of a novel ontology and rule editor ACE View. The goal of ACE View is to simplify viewing and editing expressive and syntactically complex OWL/SWRL knowledge bases by making most of the interaction with the knowledge base happen via Attempto Controlled English (ACE). This makes ACE View radically different from current OWL/SWRL editors which are based on formal logic syntaxes and general purpose graphical user interface widgets. ACE Vie...
武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH
This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...
Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter
The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented. PMID:26786025
Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.
Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter
The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.
textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business innova
Bernardus Bala de Rosari
Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.
This paper presents a case study of technical and economic optimization of the periodicity of predetermined preventive maintenance actions carried out on a repairable industrial system from an EDF electric power plant. This analysis is conducted with the MARS software tool (MARS for “maintenance assessment of repairable systems”), developed jointly by Grenoble University and EDF R and D. The innovative aspect of this work lies in the integrated approach that is used, combining two steps. A first estimation step retrospectively assesses maintenance effect on system reliability. A second simulation step predicts the behavior of the maintained system over the time period set as an objective by the operator. The different stages of the case study are described in detail with elaborated considerations about optimization of the periodicity of preventive maintenance
Juan Ricardo Perilla
Full Text Available A non-parametric approach based on DEA techniques is used to dis- entangle the relationship between innovation growth and per-capita GDP growth in a sample of 30 countries during 1996-2008. The decomposition of GDP-growth brings support to the notion of advantage of backward- ness. It leads to conclude that, in the context of innovation, both the process of catching-up and technological change play an important explanation of the dynamics of economic growth. This is in sharp contrast to alternative evidence that brings more support to the importance of capital deepening in explaining labour growth productivity.
periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance
Highlights: • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Aggregate wind generation and demand uncertainties in a stochastic model. • Stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve in a distribution system. • Demand response providers’ participation in energy and reserve scheduling. - Abstract: In this paper a stochastic multi-objective economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed to schedule energy and reserve in a smart distribution system with high penetration of wind generation. The proposed multi-objective framework, based on augmented ε-constraint method, is used to minimize the total operational costs and emissions and to generate Pareto-optimal solutions for the energy and reserve scheduling problem. Moreover, fuzzy decision making process is employed to extract one of the Pareto-optimal solutions as the best compromise non-dominated solution. The wind power and demand forecast errors are considered in this approach and the reserve can be furnished by the main grid as well as distributed generators and responsive loads. The consumers participate in both energy and reserve markets using various demand response programs. In order to facilitate small and medium loads participation in demand response programs, a Demand Response Provider (DRP) aggregates offers for load reduction. In order to solve the proposed optimization model, the Benders decomposition technique is used to convert the large scale mixed integer non-linear problem into mixed-integer linear programming and non-linear programming problems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on a 41-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a novel discovered mono-carboxypeptidase and the first homolog of ACE.It inhibits Ang Ⅱ signaling cascades mostly by cleaving Ang Ⅱ to generate Ang(1-7),which is mediated by the Mas receptor.The combined reduction in cell apoptosis and increment in islet blood flow caused by ACE2 could increase insulin secretion and preserve the islet function in diabetes.Besides,it is believed that ACE2 acts in a counter-regulatory manner to ACE in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications.The discovery of ACE2,its activator and antagonist may have considerable clinical value in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.%血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)2是近年来新发现的一种单羧肽酶,是已知的第一个ACE同系物.ACE2催化血管紧张素(Ang)Ⅱ生成Ang(1-7),后者与Mas受体结合,从而启动对AngⅡ信号级联反应的抑制作用.ACE2能够通过增加胰岛血流灌注、抑制细胞凋亡,促进胰岛素分泌,有效延缓糖尿病患者胰岛素功能衰退的发展.此外,在糖尿病微血管和大血管病变的病理生理过程中,ACE2发挥抗ACE效应,调控心脏、视网膜和肾脏的缩、扩血管的平衡.ACE2及其激活剂、拮抗剂,可能在糖尿病及其并发症的防治领域具有极其广阔的临床应用前景.
Liu, Chun Xi; Hu, Qin; Yan WANG; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhi Yong; Feng, Jin Bo; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xu Ping; Dong, Bo; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ming Xiang; Zhang, Yun
The reduced expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 in the kidneys of animal models and patients with diabetes suggests ACE2 involvement in diabetic nephrology. To explore the renoprotective effects of ACE2 overexpression, ACE inhibition (ACEI) or both on diabetic nephropathy and the potential mechanisms involved, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group that received an injection of sodium citrate buffer and a diabetic model group that received an injection of 60 ...
Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Covert, David S.; Coffman, Derek J; Johnson, James E.; Wiedensohler, Alfred
The goals of the IGAC Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) are to determine and understand the properties and controlling processes of the aerosol in a globally representative range of natural and anthropogenically perturbed environments. ACE-1 was conducted in the remote marine atmosphere south of Australia while ACE-2 was conducted in the anthropogenically modified atmosphere of the Eastern North Atlantic. In-situ shipboard measurements from the RV Discoverer(ACE-1) and the RV Profess...
Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K
The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate , adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass ). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening
Odović Jadranka V.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different calculation methods to determine lipophilicity, expressed as logP value, of seven ACE inhibitors (enalapril, quinapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, cilazapril, ramipril, and benazapril with significantly different structure. Experimentally determined n-octanol/water partition coefficients, logPO/W values, were obtained from relevant literature. The correlations between all collected logP values were studied and the best agreements between calculated logP and experimentally determined logPO/W values, were observed for KOWWINlogP or MilogP values (r = 0.999 or r = 0.974, respectively. The correlations between all collected logP values and chromatographically (reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography obtained hydrophobicity parameters, RM0 and C0, were established. The good correlations (r > 0.90 were obtained in the majority of relationships. The KOWWINlogP was established as the most suitable hydrophobicity parameter of investigated group of ACE inhibitors with r = 0.981 for correlation with RM0 and r = 0.977 for correlation with C0 parameters (water-methanol mobile phase. Using multiple linear regressions, it was established that application of two selected logP, calculated by different mathematical approaches, led to very good correlation due to the benefits of both calculation methods. The good relationships indicate that the computed logP, with careful selection of method calculation, can be useful in ACE inhibitors lipophilicity evaluation, as high-throughput screening technique.
Woesten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Lutter, Rene; Specht, Patricia A.; Moll, Gert N.; van Woensel, Job B.; van der Loos, Chris M.; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; Florquin, Sandrine; Bos, Albert P.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its effector peptide angiotensin (Ang) II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ARDS. A counter-regulatory enzyme of ACE, ie ACE2 that degrades Ang II to Ang-(1-7), offers a p
This paper deals with a risk-economic approach to nuclear power generation, a very timely yet rather neglected area in the economics profession. The economic and psychological consequences of Japan's recent catastrophe have been so grave and wide-spread, thus calling for careful reexamination of the economics of risk and uncertainty. It is Daniel Bernoulli, a mathematical genius of the 18th century, who first introduced the expected utility theory into decision making under risk. Although a great deal of applications has been done in many areas since then, it appears that the most recent nuclear meltdown of Japan is casting serious doubt upon the general validity of existing risk theories. It is high time for us to establish a new comprehensive approach by taking account of psychological, sociological, cultural, and historical factors. (author)
Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.
Ankara : The Department of Economics and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 26. Mahmutoğlu, Gülnihal Master's
Isaac R Elwyn
Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the M2 family of peptidases, related to mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, play important roles in regulating a number of physiological processes. As more invertebrate genomes are sequenced, there is increasing evidence of a variety of M2 peptidase genes, even within a single species. The function of these ACE-like proteins is largely unknown. Sequencing of the A. gambiae genome has revealed a number of ACE-like genes but probable errors in the Ensembl annotation have left the number of ACE-like genes, and their structure, unclear. Results TBLASTN and sequence analysis of cDNAs revealed that the A. gambiae genome contains nine genes (AnoACE genes which code for proteins with similarity to mammalian ACE. Eight of these genes code for putative single domain enzymes similar to other insect ACEs described so far. AnoACE9, however, has several features in common with mammalian somatic ACE such as a two domain structure and a hydrophobic C terminus. Four of the AnoACE genes (2, 3, 7 and 9 were shown to be expressed at a variety of developmental stages. Expression of AnoACE3, AnoACE7 and AnoACE9 is induced by a blood meal, with AnoACE7 showing the largest (approximately 10-fold induction. Conclusion Genes coding for two-domain ACEs have arisen several times during the course of evolution suggesting a common selective advantage to having an ACE with two active-sites in tandem in a single protein. AnoACE7 belongs to a sub-group of insect ACEs which are likely to be membrane-bound and which have an unusual, conserved gene structure.
Cracolici, Maria Francesca; Cuffaro, Miranda; Nijkamp, Peter
This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. It takes for granted that the analysis of a country's performance cannot be limited solely to either economic or social factors. The aim of the paper is to combine relevant economic and "non-economic" (mainly social) aspects of a country's performance…
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…
Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten
and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...
Martínez Alier, Joan
Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...
House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R
Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835
Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob
accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.
Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José
Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers. PMID:22849951
Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett
Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities
Full Text Available Islamic law prohibits monopoly. The issue had arose since the advent of Islam, whereby it’s used as a strategy to maximize profit, has experienced rapid developments. This article assess the extent of Islamic law in prohibiting monopoly using law and economics approach. The result is that the exercise of caution shall apply in prohibiting monopoly. There are three steps needed in exercising the rule of caution: (1 defining monopoly as the absence of competition and lack of pricing options; (2 providing criteria of what causes monopoly in form of agreements between business competitors who can go against allocative efficiency effectively; and (3 direct the prohibition on monopoly towards agreement on explicit horizontal mergers and very large horizontal mergers which disregards quick mergers. Hukum Islam melarang monopoli. Isunya adalah sejak kedatangan Islam strategi pelaku usaha untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan telah berkembang pesat. Tulisan ini menentukan jangkauan hukum Islam untuk melarang monopoli dengan pendekatan hukum dan ekonomi. Hasilnya kehati-hatian dalam melarang monopoli. Tulisan menguraikan tiga langkah yang dibutuhkan: (1 memaknai monopoli sebagai ketidakhadiran persaingan dan ketiadaan pilihan harga; (2 memberikan kriteria monopoli berupa kesepakatan antar pelaku usaha pesaing yang mampu melawan efisiensi alokasi secara efektif; dan (3 mengarahkan larangan monopoli pada perjanjian horisontal eksplisit dan penggabungan berukuran besar.
Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker
This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.
Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) plays an important role in power system operation, which is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem. It has nonsmooth and nonconvex characteristic when generation unit valve-point effects are taken into account. This paper proposes a modified differential evolution approach (MDE) to solve DED problem with valve-point effects. In the proposed MDE method, feasibility-based selection comparison techniques and heuristic search rules are devised to handle constraints effectively. In contrast to the penalty function method, the constraints-handling method does not require penalty factors or any extra parameters and can guide the population to the feasible region quickly. Especially, it can be satisfied equality constraints of DED problem precisely. Moreover, the effects of two crucial parameters on the performance of the MDE for DED problem are studied as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for application example and the test results are compared with those of other methods reported in literature. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of yielding higher quality solutions
Growth of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles of varying size, ranging from 20-60 nms through a versatile and an economic route, is being reported. The approach is based on a simple reaction of titanium powder and De-Ionized (DI) water at ∼180 °C, without use of any harmful additives. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) reveals the well defined morphology of nanoparticles, whereas X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that the, as prepared, nanoparticles are in a mixed phase, with a dominance of a stable rutile phase. Since only water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, is used during the preparation of nanoparticles, we believe that the products so produced are biocompatible and bio-safe and can be readily used for medical applications. The biocompatibility tests are yet to be carried out and shall be reported in forthcoming publications. © 2011 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Three-dimensional seismic surveys, designed to meet exploration requirements, were conducted in 465 OCS blocks in the Gulf of Mexico, primarily in the deep-water Flexure trend. The geology is very complex, with both salt-induced structures and structures similar to the Rocky Mountain Overthrust belt. To avoid the prohibitive costs in collecting 3-D seismic data at a spatial sample rate required to image the wide range of dips, interpolation methods, based on pattern recognition techniques, were used with a relatively sparsely sampled data collection grid. Within limits, the method is capable of interpolating both crossing and aliased seismic events. The economic impact of this approach is significant because it essentially reduces the cost of 3-D acquisition to the level normally associated with detailed 2-D surveying. However, the familiar benefits of 3-D migration are retained. Using interactive interpretation systems, the results are presented as a comprehensive series of time and event amplitude maps for structural and preliminary stratigraphic mapping. Regional amplitude maps illustrate a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and other geologic phenomena. In addition to conventional structural mapping, the 3-D data may be used to assist in understanding the salt growth history, especially its effect on sedimentation and hydrocarbon potential. It may provide a significant link between regional geology work and the detailed analysis required to develop drillable prospects.
M. P. Metrova
Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of ACE inhibitor perindopril on markers of endothelial dysfunction in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 82 patients with HT, complicated by ischemic stroke were involved in the study. 30 patients with uncomplicated HT were included into control group. Antihypertensive therapy with perindopril (52 patients or amlodipine (30 patients was conducted additionally to standard neurotropic therapy in hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke. Phase-contrast microscopy and enzyme immunoassay were used for screening of endothelial dysfunction markers (blebbing, desquamated endothelial cells, membrane-liberated parts, sPECAM-1.Results. Reduction in levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction was observed among patients treated with perindopril in comparison with patients who did not receive ACE inhibitor or patients of control group. Target levels of blood pressure were reached in 96% of patients treated with perindopril. Сonclusion. ACE inhibitors in therapy patients with HT reduce endothelial dysfunction additionally to antihypertensive effect.
Pang, Ervinna; Tien-Lin, Chang; Selvaraj, Madhan; Chang, Jason; Kwang, Jimmy
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major food-borne pathogen. From a transposon insertion mutant library created previously using S. Enteritidis 10/02, one of the mutants was identified to have a 50% lethal dose (LD(50) ) at least 100 times that of the parental strain in young chicks, with an attenuation in a poorly studied gene encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, namely the aceE gene. Evaluation of the in vitro virulence characteristics of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant revealed that it was less able to invade epithelial cells, less resistant to reactive oxygen intermediate, less able to survive within a chicken macrophage cell line and had a retarded growth rate compared with the parental strain. Young chicks vaccinated with 2 × 10(9) CFU of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant were protected from the subsequent challenge of the parental strain, with the mutant colonized in the liver and spleen in a shorter time than the group infected with the parental strain. In addition, compared with the parental strain, the ΔaceE∷kan mutant did not cause persistent eggshell contamination of vaccinated hens.
Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins
The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a pivotal physiological regulator of heart and kidney homeostasis, but also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart and kidney diseases. Recently, new components of the RAS have been discovered, including angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7), Mas receptor, Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine. These new components of RAS are formed by the hydrolysis of Ang I and Ang II and, in general, counteract the effects of Ang II. In experimental models of heart and renal diseases, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine produced vasodilation, inhibition of cell growth, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Recent pharmacological strategies have been proposed to potentiate the effects or to enhance the formation of Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9), including ACE2 activators, Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, cyclized form of Ang-(1-7) and nonpeptide synthetic Mas receptor agonists. Here, we review the role and effects of ACE2, ACE2 activators, Ang-(1-7) and synthetic Mas receptor agonists in the control of inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular and renal diseases and as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. We briefly comment on the therapeutic potential of the novel members of RAS, Ang-(1-9) and alamandine, and the interactions between classical RAS inhibitors and new players in heart and kidney diseases. PMID:26995300
Fakhri, Hasanov; Khudayar, Hasanli
The study examines whether inflation process can be explained within the framework of the Money Market Approach in the third stage of economic development of Azerbaijan economy covering 2004-2008. By employing dynamic modeling study concludes that the Money Market Approach has not been relevant for explaining Azerbaijani inflation. Because Azerbaijan, a resource rich small open economy in transition processes, has some stylized facts which are important to take into account in the analysis of...
Man-Keun Kim; Ertqian Zhu; Harris, Thomas R.; Jonathan E. Alevy
Assessment of regional economic impacts can be accomplished using either an input-output analysis or a social accounting matrix (SAM) analysis. While these approaches can generate important insights, they have significant limitations for some cases, e.g., the event of the need to reallocate limited resources such as land, labor, etc., because they do not include a complete set of decision makersâ€™ activities and managerial options. This study develops a flexible approach to link the firm lev...
Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter
The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.
LI Ya-wen; CHEN Li; DU Jun-bao; YANG Yuan-yuan; JIN Hong-fang
Background Syncope is a common clinical problem with multiple causes. Vasovagal syncope (WS) is by far the most frequent cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children and adolescents is based on a series of tests to exclude all other causes, which is complex and time and medical resource consuming. Attempts have been made to develop a new cost-effective diagnostic approach to avoid these problems. This study aimed to compare the economic effectiveness and diagnostic value of the traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children with a new diagnostic approach.Methods One hundred and eighteen children diagnosed as VVS were divided into two groups according to the different diagnostic approaches. The diagnostic value of the two diagnostic approaches was then analyzed. Meanwhile, the costs of hospitalization, diagnostic testing and hospital stay were determined. Data were evaluated by the cost-minimization analysis.Results The diagnostic value of the new diagnostic approach was similar to that of the traditional diagnostic approach (56.57% vs. 53.91%, P=0.697). However, the cost of hospitalization per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1507.08±144.63) Yuan (RMB) which was less than that of the traditional diagnostic approach (2603.64±P08.19) Yuan.The costs of diagnostic tests per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1256.04±109.14) Yuan and by the traditional approach (2175.22±153.32) Yuan.Conclusion Compared to the traditional diagnostic approach to diagnose VVS in children and adolescents, the new diagnostic approach is of a good economic value, and it should be popularized in clinical practice.
S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)
textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and I
Angiotensin II is an important octapeptide which is responsible for the increase in blood pressure in three major mechanisms. It acts as a hormone to attack the receptor on the blood vessels, which cause strong vasoconstriction. It is also the major stimulus for release another hormone, aldolsterone, which promote the excretion of potassium ion and retention of sodium and waster. Both of the above effects increase the blood pressure. On the other hand, ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bradykinin that is a potent vasodilator. Therefore, the inhibitor of ACE can act as an efficient anti-hypertensive agent through multiple routes. ……
CHANG ChingYao; YANG TengKuei
@@ Angiotensin II is an important octapeptide which is responsible for the increase in blood pressure in three major mechanisms. It acts as a hormone to attack the receptor on the blood vessels, which cause strong vasoconstriction. It is also the major stimulus for release another hormone, aldolsterone, which promote the excretion of potassium ion and retention of sodium and waster. Both of the above effects increase the blood pressure. On the other hand, ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bradykinin that is a potent vasodilator. Therefore, the inhibitor of ACE can act as an efficient anti-hypertensive agent through multiple routes.
Axiomatic foundation of non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. The economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials) owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity), and the rate of transport (trade) are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for the Neumannian economy. The emergence of the equilibrium market structure app...
Full Text Available Axiomatic foundation of non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. The economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for the Neumannian economy. The emergence of the equilibrium market structure appears as an order out of chaos process.
Habibullah, M.S.; Baharom, A.H.
Economists recognized that economic conditions have an impact on crime activities. In this study we employed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure to analyze the impact of economic conditions on various categories of criminal activities in Malaysia for the period 1973-2003. Real gross national product was used as proxy for economic conditions in Malaysia. Our results indicate that murder, armed robbery, rape, assault, daylight burglary and motorcycle theft exhibit...
Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi Ndubuto; Onyenweaku, Chris E.
The study delved into economic efficiency analysis of Fadama Telfairia farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the production systems; estimated the economic efficiency and their determinants. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 40 Fadama Telfairia farmers from each of the three agricultural zones of the State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio - economic characteristics and other relevant variables. ...
AKINCI, Merter; YÜCE AKINCI, Gönül; Yilmaz, Ömer
One of the most important developments in the last thirty years is the expansion of liberal economic thought and policies in terms of accelerating globalization movements. Libertarian movements the scope of which has been extended with regards to economics and especially neo-liberal movements became an irreplaceable element of social set-up and their economic liberation formed the main core of the developments of macroeconomics with the aim of increasing the welfare level. In this study, ther...
Roman Michailovich Kachalov
Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlights the lack of effectiveness of existing system of education management in Ukraine from its basic function performance – to satisfy the needs of social and economic system of human resources, according to the required quantity, quality, educational culture, right place and time with the lowest public costs. The results of the analysis. The article is focused on the forming of organizational and economic bases of the use of logistic approach in the management of education system. Logistic approach is considered as an instrument to ensure the optimal parameters of education system functioning and development in accordance with the needs of society (employers, learners with minimal public costs. It is pointed out the need to create organizational and managerial mechanisms of active integrative interaction, both between educational institutions and employers, between educational institutions of various levels of educational system in order to improve the functioning of educational institutions and the education system as a whole. It is grounded the necessity of accentuation of social-labor flow as the main object of logistical management in education. It is proposed to consider national education system as a logistic chain. It includes all structural elements of the educational system, the parties of the education system control and employers, which are involved in formation and movement of social labor flow. It is stated that they must be considered as constituting single integrated logistic chain of forming the competitive human and intellectual capital. Its functioning requires the implementation of procedures of external and intra-evaluation of social labor flow parameters and their conformity to the needed. Among the evaluation tools the psychological-pedagogical diagnostics is highlighted. It is grounded the need to analyze total costs in order to optimize the social labor flow movement. They
Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan
The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…
Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait
Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and i
Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.
Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing
Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.
This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such
Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.
Orientation on local low-grade coal and nuclear sources also for heat supply, with which the construction of large heating systems and heat transport on large distances is connected, these are specific features of energy economy in Czechoslovakia. The development programme is challenging in economic respect, it causes numerous ecological problems, as well as those connected with coverage of variable loads. In case of additional construction at a later date many problems appear requiring differentiated approach that depends on concrete conditions. In the paper there are described possibilities and conditions of heat accumulation in feed water, in gravity accumulators at very quick changes of output, the accumulation systems involving steam release facilities and heat accumulation in heat conducting systems. Also the manufacture of heat generating equipment has an important role to play. There are given the outlines of construction of hot water accumulators. Specific conditions of the Czechoslovak energy economy also include the problem of efficient combustion of low-grade coal with a high sulfur content. In this connection it is especially the fluidized bed combustion that is under consideration. This combustion process can be run by clinkering of ash particles or a klinkerless process can be used. The combustion process can be either single-stage or double-stage. All these combustion methods are used in boilers made in Czechoslovakia. In the paper two types of boilers are described: the boiler with cooled fluidized bed and the fluidized bed reactor installed in front of a powdered coal fired boiler. There is briefly outlined the experience obtained from the operation of these boilers
Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond
Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.
Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond
Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve. PMID:26832145
Trucksis, M; Conn, T L; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B
Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a recently identified toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Preliminary studies using crude toxin extracts in animal models indicate that Ace increases transcellular ion transport, which is proposed to contribute to diarrhea in cholera. The lack of purified toxin has hindered elucidation of the mechanism of action of Ace. In this study, ace was cloned and was expressed in and secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Secreted toxin constituted 50% of the...
Sidorenkov, Grigory; Navis, Gerjan
Introduction: ACE inhibitors are first-line therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main adverse effects of ACE inhibitors are hypotension, renal function impairment and hyperkalemia. Areas covered: This paper reviews evidence from clinical studies regarding adverse effects of ACE
Pinto, YM; van Geel, PP; Alkfaji, H; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH
In the present review, we discuss the role of clinical dosing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. Although the precise mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors is still unresolved, the clinical efficacy of ACE inhibitors in the treatment o
Acle-Cervera L, Morales-Angulo C, García-Zornoza R, Rubio Suárez A
Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema by inhibitors of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme(ACE is a very rare disorder. It usually affects the upper airway mucosa andproduce rapidly evolving acute exacerbations requiring urgent treatment.We repost the case of a patient being treated with ACE inhibitors and anreview of prevalence, pathophysiology and management of angioedemawith ACE inhibitors for treatment and the latest treatments.
... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of angiotensin... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test...
Koiter, J.; Navis, Ger Jan; De Jong, P.E.; van Gilst, W.H.; de Zeeuw, Dick
Many tissue ACE-assays suffer from underestimation of the ACE-activity at low sample dilutions. However, measurement of ACE-activity as the amount of hippuric acid produced by cleavage of the commonly used substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine might circumvent this problem. In this study, we investiga
Riziki M. Nyello
Full Text Available The Oil and Gas Sector in Africa is growing so fast due to the new discovery of Oil and Gas reserves and therefore attract the huge amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. Considering its role in the African economy, several approaches both local and foreign have been introduced; however the anticipated economic benefits have not yet been realized. The study therefore focused on assessing the effectiveness of the selected approaches that were designed to ensure the economic benefits of oil and gas resources reach to the African local population, particularly the poor ones. The study surveyed various literatures to draw its conclusion. It was realized that the selected approaches have failed to ensure that Oil and Gas resources produce the anticipated economic benefits to the local African population. Among others, it was recommended that the approaches should be improved in order to promote the linkage between Oil and Gas Extractive firms and Small and Medium Enterprises. Additionally, they should be enforceable by law in order to ensure legal commitment among African governments and Oil and Gas Extractive firms to the local population.
In 1985 some studies were published showing that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition not only reduced the elevated blood pressure in animals with chronic renal failure (experimentally induced by renal ablation or by induced diabetic nephropathy), but also prevented the development of glom
Vegter, S.; Nguyen, N.H.; Visser, S.T.; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Postma, M.J.; Boersma, C.
Objectives: To investigate compliance, persistence, and switching patterns for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Study Design: Drug-utilization analysis using a large prescription database. Methods: Prescription data for more than 50,000 inciden
Sheikhizadeh Anari, S.; Ridder, de D.
The quality of high-throughput next-generation sequencing data significantly influences the performance and memory consumption of assembly and mapping algorithms. The most ubiquitous platform, Illumina, mainly suffers from substitution errors. We have developed a tool, ACE, based on K-mer tries to c
Vertenstein, Mariana [Univ. Corporation For Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and testing infrastructure, and coordinating and integrating code changes from the various project participants.
Full Text Available The world is changing; a new dominant economic logic appears. What we can see now is that this change doesn’t seem to come from economic leaders, it comes from emergent economies like BRICS Group or the “4 Asian Tigers”. The European Union economic links with those groups are more and more obvious, so this thesis wants to be an analysis of how those dominant logical changes influence the European Union economy. In this way, we made an analysis of statistic dates and an econometric analysis using multiple regressions.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. Determination of global optimum solution for the practical economic dispatch problem having non smooth cost functions is difficult by using conventional mathematical approaches. Hence several evolutionary algorithm methods were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization technique is proposed to solve economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options. The EP-LMO is developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP is applied as a base level search to find the direction of the optimal global region. And Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization (LMO method is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution. To illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two bench mark problems are considered. First test problem considers multiple fuel options and next problem addresses both valve-point effects and multi-fuel options. To validate the obtained results, the proposed method is compared with the results of conventional numerical methods, Modified Hop-field Neural network, Evolutionary Programming approaches, Modified PSO, Improved PSO and Improved Genetic Algorithm with multiplier updating (IGA_MUmethod.
Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these
Full Text Available AP Coveney, GC O’Brien, GJ FultonDepartment of Vascular Surgery, Cork University Hospital and National University of Ireland, Cork, IrelandObjective: To examine the current medical management of arteriopathic patients attending a vascular surgical service at a university teaching hospital over a 6-month period. The prescribing of antiplatelets, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers was specifically examined. Vascular patients are often under the care of multiple specialties, and therefore the influence of different medical specialties on the patients’ medical management was also examined.Design: Between January and June 2009, data were recorded on sequential patients with arterial disease attending the vascular surgical service. Patients’ demographics, type of arterial disease, medical consultations within the previous 12 months, and current medications were recorded.Results: The study included 180 patients with a mean age of 69 years (39–88 years. All but 4% were taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant, predominantly aspirin. There were 86% taking a statin, 44% taking a beta-blocker, and 51% taking an ACE inhibitor. Suboptimal prescription of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers was evident regardless of the type of medical consultations in the previous year. No specialty group differed significantly from vascular surgeons in their prescribing pattern.Conclusions: While almost all arteriopaths receive some form of antiplatelet and statin in line with clinical evidence, ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers appear to be under-prescribed in this arteriopathic population. We conclude that opportunity exists for vascular surgeons to embrace recent guidelines and lead the way in both surgical and medical optimization of arteriopathic patients through improving links with primary care physicians or taking greater responsibility themselves for the medical as well as the surgical care
Dalla Volta, S
In acute myocardial infarction, the results of the trials with ACE-inhibitors have not been always good, in contrast with what has been observed in chronic heart failure. The comparison of these compounds with the placebo has demonstrated lack of reduction of mortality in the study CONSENSUS II, favorable results on the survival as first endpoint and on the secondary endpoints, as reinfarction, heart failure and stroke in the studies SOLVD, AIRE, GISSI 3, ISIS 4, and uncertain (interim report) results in the Chinese study. Nevertheless, the analysis of the recruitment of the patients with acute infarction and the way these patients have been treated seem to be the most important cause of the conflicting results. ACE-inhibitors have proved no efficacy in acute myocardial infarction without signs of left ventricular failure (CONSENSUS II), have worsened the clinical picture and the mortality in patients in shock or with severe heart failure in the acute phase. On the reverse, in presence of mild to moderate left ventricular dysfunction and failure, the use of ACE-inhibitors has been followed by reduction of mortality in the early (AIRE, GISSI 3, ISIS 4), medium term (GISSI 3) and long-term follow-up (up to 4 years in the AIRE study). In parallel with the reduction of the primary endpoint, also secondary endpoints have been favorably influenced by the different ACE-inhibitors. No differences have been observed among the different class of compounds. ACE-inhibitors seem, therefore, to have a clear indication in acute myocardial infarction with mild or moderate signs and symptoms of heart failure. PMID:7634258
This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.
Crockett, G. V.
Describes course format, materials development, and evaluation of an introductory economics course which stressed problem solving techniques and conceptual skills instead of rote memorization of factual content. For journal availability, see SO 506 029. (AV)
Full Text Available The European Union’s external energy policy architecture is very important for further energy security and economic development. European normative power on its neighbours represents the most efficient way of integrating neighbouring energy markets, with the EU’s emerging internal market and, in perspective, through economic interdependence and complementarities, there are chances of creating an European geo-energy space. EU’s tools for shaping the geo-energy space are becoming more effective in an extended European economic area that would allow it to act as the main actor in a multilateral interconnected system of energy producer and transit countries. The result of the paper is materialized in a new paradigm for EU’s external energy policy, which can provide future security of supply through market institutions and an active economic diplomacy in the resource energy countries.
Nelson, Robert E.; Johnson, Scott D.
Discusses the role of technical education and training in supporting economic growth in Kenya, including entrepreneurship education, teacher training, and stimulation of small enterprises through training and consultancy. The importance of creating an entrepreneurial culture through education is stressed. (SK)
Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;
on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...
Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait
Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and income inequality. We check their relationship with total reported crime with reference to Pakistan. The Augmented Dicky Fuller test is used for unit root process which suggested that all the variab...
Using panel data from US states over the period 1941-2002, I measure the impact of gubernatorial partisanship on a wide range of different policy settings and economic outcomes. Across 32 measures, there are surprisingly few differences in policy settings, social outcomes and economic outcomes under Democrat and Republican Governors. In terms of policies, Democratic Governors tend to prefer slightly higher minimum wages. Under Republican Governors, incarceration rates are higher, while welfar...
Sorin Briciu; Marinela Vrîncianu; Florin Mihai
One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI) that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc.) inside organizations. The ...
Thai economic conditions considerably depend on the performance of tourism sectors. More than half of the Thai industries are directly and indirectly interdependent with tourism sectors. Given these large economic dependences upon tourism, any internal or external changes that affect Thai tourism could have substantial economy-wide impacts on resource allocation, sectoral outputs, income distribution, macroeconomic variables and the environment. Using computable general equilibrium (CGE) mode...
Duan, Suling; Adam, Brian D.
A manager of a food processing facility faces the dilemma that postponing a treatment (such as fumigation) in order to save money, risks allowing insect population to increase to an amount that causes economic damage. This economic damage includes buyer discounts due to presence of insects or insect damage, cost of extra treatments needed, or rejection by a buyer. Conversely, fumigating too early may allow the remaining insect population to rebound sufficiently that another expensive fumigati...
Chernov, Vladimir; Oleksandr DOROKHOV; Liudmyla DOROKHOVA
The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the eva...
Kalan, Arezou; Oliveira, Eduardo
Sustainable architecture aims to design buildings and infra-structures, such as squares and bazaars, adapted to the social, economic, cultural and environmental contexts of certain place. The practice of sustainable architecture contributes to sustainable development, therefore for the development of future generations. The concept must integrate not only bioclimatic strategies, but also economic, social and cultural facets. Sustainable architecture research is either carried while the design...
Beguería, S.; Campos, P.
Hydro-economic models that allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure, economic and social aspects into a coherent, scientifically- informed framework constitute preferred tools for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. We present a case study of water regulation and provision services of forests in the Andalusia region of Spain. Our model computes the physical water flows and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of forest surface and underground water yield. Based on available hydrologic and economic data, we develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is integrated within a much larger project aiming at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income and capital of forests, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). We also force our simulation with future socio-economic scenarios to quantify the physical and economic efects of expected trends or simulated public and private policies on future water resources. Only a comprehensive integrated tool may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies, such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.
Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.
Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.
D. V. Nebieridze
Full Text Available New possibilities of ACE inhibitors application on the base of international trails review are presented. Traditional therapy areas of ACE inhibitors (hypertension, heart failure are well known. However recent studies have shown that ACE inhibitors improve prognosis in patients with clinically proved atherosclerosis. This ACE inhibitor ability is a result of their high vasoprotective effect. It provides new clinical possibilities for their use for slowing a progression of diseases associated with atherosclerosis. However this property can not be extended to all ACE inhibitors. Only ramipril and perindopril have a strong evidence base.
Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.
Full Text Available Problem statement: It is important for policy makers to find affect of monetary and fiscal policy on economic growth and to know how those impacts on growth to present a effective policies. Approach: We apply the bounds testing (ARDL approach and to cointegration which is more appropriate for estimation in small sample studies. The data span for the study is from 1960-2006, the empirical results found a cointegration relations between Growth, monetary policy and fiscal policy in Iran. Results: The results indicated the impact of Exchange rate and inflation on growth was negative, government expenditure was found to have significant positive impact on growth. Conclusion: According to results for a sustainable economic growth in Iran, policy makers must try to decrease inflation rate and exchange rate also to find an equilibrium point for government expenditure in futures.
Wisdom Akpalu; Edwin Muchapondwa; Precious Zikhali
Imbrasia Belina also known as the mopane worm, like other edible insects and caterpillars, is a vital source of protein to Southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which occupy agricultural land. With increasing commercialization of the worm, the management of the worm, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has degraded to a near open access. In this paper, a simple bio-economic modeling approach has been taken to show that, for some optimal ...
Truman P. Phillips
Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.
Amassoma J. Ditimi
Full Text Available The study examined the causal nexus between external debt, domestic debt and economic growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2009 using a Vector Autoregressive (VAR and a Vector Error Correction (VEC models. The variables used in the study were tested for stationarity using the Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philip Perron test. The result showed that the variables are stationary at first differencing. Co-integration test was also performed and the result revealed the absence of co-integration between domestic debt and economic growth while the result also revealed the presence of co-integration between external debt and economic growth. The co-integration results determined the appropriateness of methodological test for causality. The findings of the VAR model revealed that there is a bi-directional causality between domestic debt and economic growth while that of the VEC model revealed a unidirectional causality from economic growth to external debt in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should rely more on domestic debt in stimulating growth than on external debt.
Edesiri Godsday Okoro
Full Text Available The study examined oil price volatility and economic growth in Nigeria linking oil price volatility, crude oil prices, oil revenue and Gross Domestic Product. Using quarterly data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin and World Bank Indicators (various issues spanning 1980-2010, a non‐linear model of oil price volatility and economic growth was estimated using the VAR technique. The study revealed that oil price volatility has significantly influenced the level of economic growth in Nigeria although; the result additionally indicated a negative relationship between the oil price volatility and the level of economic growth. Furthermore, the result also showed that the Nigerian economy survived on crude oil, to such extent that the country‘s budget is tied to particular price of crude oil. This is not a good sign for a developing economy, more so that the country relies almost entirely on revenue of the oil sector as a source of foreign exchange earnings. This therefore portends some dangers for the economic survival of Nigeria. It was recommended amongst others that there should be a strong need for policy makers to focus on policy that will strengthen/stabilize the economy with specific focus on alternative sources of government revenue. Finally, there should be reduction in monetization of crude oil receipts (fiscal discipline, aggressive saving of proceeds from oil booms in future in order to withstand vicissitudes of oil price volatility in future.
[Objective] Our research is aimed to study a possible involvement of angiotension converting enzyine (ACE) gene types and hypertension upon the molecular mechanism of clinic ACVD [Method] Using a polymerize chain reaction (PCR), a DNA fragment of intone 16 of ACE gene was studied in 203 patients with ACVD (including 87 cases of CH and 116 cases of Al) and 51 control samples [Rrsult] (l) The frequency of the ACE allele polymorphism jsn't similcantly different between ACVD, CO and Al patients. (2)There is no significant difference in the ACE gene types and ACE gene allele frequency among CH、 Al and the controls. (3) There are no significant difference between history of hypertension and the incidence of CH and Al. However, patients with hypertension and ACE DD allele shoed more significant Al incidence than those with hypertension and ACE Ⅱ allele. [Conclusion] We didn' t find any correlation between the polymorphism of the ACE gene and ACVD. Neither the history of hypertension nor polymorphism of ACE gene was a risk factor of ACVD. We didn't find a correlation between Al and hypertension with ACE gene polymorphism. Our study suggests that ACE gene polymorphism combined with hypcnension is a possible molecular mechanism underlying Al.
Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey
Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame.
Putney, Z.; Been, J.
This paper discusses a commercial approach to the design and fabrication of an economical space power system. With the advent of the space shuttle, steps can be taken to back away from the presently used space qualified approach in order to reduce cost of space hardware by incorporating, where possible, commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods. Cost reductions are projected through the conceptual design of a 2 kW space power system built with the capability for having serviceability. The approach to system costing that has been used takes into account both the constraints of operation in space and commercial production engineering approaches. The cost of this power system reflects a variety of cost/benefit tradeoffs that would reduce system cost as a function of system reliability requirements, complexity, and the impact of rigid specifications. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication and reliability and quality assurance cost estimates are detailed.
Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A
In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme. PMID:23665691
Serguey Arseniyevich VLADIMIROV
Full Text Available The paper aimed at an academic substantiation of possibility of reaching the community-measured and utmost available efficiency in public expenditure and investments and tax collection/ revenue in a perfectly arranged well-balanced open-ended macro-economic framework. The model suggested looks similar (by its interpretation to the «econophysical» trend in the contemporary economics concept (Cf.: the Carnot cycle in thermodynamics, that means a specific amount received from the public spending jointly with investments to the national economy (in the event of a successful outcome i.e. «zero-loss» may lead to the maximum expected rate of economic growth, that enables justifying general directions of an appropriate macroeconomic policy (concerning both finance and budget allocations].
England, Richard W. [Department of Economics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824-3593 (United States)
Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)
Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark
The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described. PMID:25794891
Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark
The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described.
Sheila K Patel
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart and renal failure, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin (Ang I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II. An alternate arm of the RAS now exists in which ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of Ang II, and generation of the vasodilator Ang 1-7. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart, blood vessels and kidney. The catalytically active ectodomain of ACE2 undergoes shedding, resulting in ACE2 in the circulation. The ACE2 gene maps to a quantitative trait locus on the X chromosome in three strains of genetically hypertensive rats, suggesting that ACE2 may be a candidate gene for hypertension. It is hypothesised that disruption of tissue ACE/ACE2 balance results in changes in blood pressure, with increased ACE2 expression protecting against increased blood pressure, and ACE2 deficiency contributing to hypertension. Experimental hypertension studies have measured ACE2 in either the heart or kidney and/or plasma, and have reported that deletion or inhibition of ACE2 leads to hypertension, whilst enhancing ACE2 protects against the development of hypertension, hence increasing ACE2 may be a therapeutic option for the management of high blood pressure in man. There have been relatively few studies of ACE2, either at the gene or the circulating level in patients with hypertension. Plasma ACE2 activity is low in healthy subjects, but elevated in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or cardiovascular disease. Genetic studies have investigated ACE2 gene polymorphisms with either hypertension or blood pressure, and have produced largely inconsistent findings. This review discusses the evidence regarding ACE2 in experimental hypertension models and the association between circulating ACE2 activity and ACE2 polymorphisms with blood pressure and
Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)
Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed.
Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)
Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)
Fisman David N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.
Adeyemo Adebowale A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. There is evidence from different ethnic groups that circulating ACE levels are influenced by a quantitative trait locus (QTL at the ACE gene on chromosome 17. The finding of significant residual familial correlations in different ethnic groups, after accounting for this QTL, and the finding of support for linkage to a locus on chromosome 4 in Mexican-American families strongly suggest that there may well be QTLs for ACE unlinked to the ACE gene. Methods A genome-wide panel of microsatellite markers, and a panel of biallelic polymorphisms in the ACE gene were typed in Nigerian families. Single locus models with fixed parameters were used to test for linkage to circulating ACE with and without adjustment for the effects of the ACE gene polymorphisms. Results Strong evidence was found for D17S2193 (Zmax = 3.5; other nearby markers on chromosome 17 also showed modest support. After adjustment for the effects of the ACE gene locus, evidence of "suggestive linkage" to circulating ACE was found for D4S1629 (Zmax = 2.2; this marker is very close to a locus previously shown to be linked to circulating ACE levels in Mexican-American families. Conclusion In this report we have provided further support for the notion that there are QTLs for ACE unlinked to the ACE gene; our findings for chromosome 4, which appear to replicate the findings of a previous independent study, should be considered strong grounds for a more detailed examination of this region in the search for genes/variants which influence ACE levels. The poor yields, thus far, in defining the genetic determinants of hypertension risk suggest a need to look beyond simple relationships between genotypes and the ultimate phenotype. In addition to incorporating information on important environmental exposures, a better understanding of the factors which influence the building blocks of the
The paper deals with an analysis of socio economic processes. In the author's opinion to avoid the carrying out of administrative-territorial management reforms by trial and error method it is necessary to study and to be ascertained in the methodological basis of economy transformations under the conditions of regions integration
Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika
Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…
Geurs KT; LAE
This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct
Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric
The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…
Matesanz Gómez, David; Guillermo J. Ortega
We propose a country classification of economic growth currency crisis consequences based on the entropic analysis of the real exchange rate. We show that this ranking is highly correlated with the annual minimum rate of growth, a proxy used to quantify real currency crisis effects.
Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics. PMID:27551719
The world today is changing rapidly in many areas. On the macroeconomic level this is occurring in the form of climate change, resource depletion, disparity of wealth and possibilities of global nuclear waste. Several scholars express a need for a new paradigm of economics and management addressing
Coupal, Roger H.; Bastian, Christopher T.; May, Juliet A.; Taylor, David T.
Little research has been done on the economic benefits of snowmobiling. This study used a cluster analysis and the travel cost method to identify different snowmobiler segments and estimate their respective consumer surplus values. Consumer surplus estimates ranged from $12 to $49 per day for the different segments.
L. Kneppers; C. van Boxtel; B. van Hout-Wolters
In this study we investigated the effects of two forms of instruction: strengthening concepts and strengthening the ability to connect context with concepts. Although students may have acquired a reasonable amount of conceptual knowledge as a result of economics courses, two obstacles may prevent th
Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R
Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670
Deddy P. Koesrindartoto
Full Text Available Interbank lending is one mechanism that can make shock, which is accepted by one bank spread to other banks (contagion. There are several researchers that focused their research on analyzing the effect of interbank lending to systemic risk. However, there is a few research that analyzed the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior, especially on the bank interbank lending to the systemic risk. In this research, the author creates an agent-based simulation of the banking system to analyze the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior to systemic risk in economic downturn condition. The preliminary result from this research is for an economic downturn in a long time period, the banking system with a low net worth to the asset's ratio threshold will produce more default bank than the banking system with a high net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. However, for an economic downturn in small time period, banking system which all bank in their system has the higher net worth to assets ratio threshold will have the default bank first than the banking system which has the lower net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. Keywords: agent-based simulation, banker behavior, interbank lending, economic downturn
Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal
Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics. PMID:27551719
Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model
Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands. Ecosyst
Kobus, C.B.A.; De Jonge, B.; Knigge, J.; Slootweg, J.G.
The energy transition poses challenges for maintaining the energy balance between demand and supply in the future. One of the solutions is Demand Side Management (DSM) where mobilizing flexibility in demand is the main objective. This paper summarizes two research projects on the economical and soci
This theses deals with the effects of national economic policies in internationally integrated markets. In particular, we look at markets of sovereign debt and intellectual property rights. Further, we provide an explicit analysis of the redistributive and welfare effects of different types of politicians. Finally we study the effects of anticipated competition in models of rent seeking.
Arguing is an art and essential to the functioning of our political and legal system. Moderated debates between residents are a useful educational vehicle to teach residents health economics and health policy. Articulating the opposing arguments leads to greater mutual understanding, an appreciation of the limits of knowledge and improved advocacy. PMID:23545491
The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial or residential purposes. In such circumstances, the ocean habitat and its associated ecosystem are treated as if they are worthless. Measures of actual or potential economic values generated by fisheries in commercial markets can be used to assess a conservative (lower-bound) value of ocean habitat. With this information, one can begin to compare the values of coastal developments to the values of foregone ocean habitat in order to help understand whether development would be justified economically. In this paper, we focus on the economic value associated with the harvesting of commercial fish stocks as a relevant case for the Saudi Arabian portion of the Red Sea. We describe first the conceptual basis behind supply-side approaches to economic valuation. Next we review the literature on the use of these methods for valuing ocean habitat. We provide an example based on recent research assessing the bioeconomic status of the traditional fisheries of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the KSA Red Sea coral reefs, finding that annual per-unit values supporting the traditional fisheries only are on the order of 7000/km2. Finally, we develop some recommendations for refining future applications of these methods to the Red Sea environment and for further research. © 2013 .
Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants â€“ were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countriesâ€™ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an
Full Text Available Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO2 emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO2 emissions reductions on atmospheric CO2 appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO2 emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO2 emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO2 emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used. The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering.
Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.
Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO(2) emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF) is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO(2) emissions reductions on atmospheric CO(2) appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO(2) emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO(2) emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO(2) emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used.The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering. PMID:21695026
Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.
Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular for both signal processing and system simulation. A new language is ideally suited for parallel signal processing applications and system simulation since it allows the programmer to explicitly express the computations that can be performed concurrently. In addition, the new C based parallel language (ace C) for architecture-adaptive programming allows programmers to implement algorithms and system simulation applications on parallel architectures by providing them with the assurance that future parallel architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of ace C and present a signal processing application (FFT).
Suplee, Patricia D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen
As the demand for registered nurses continues to rise, so too has the creation of accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs for second-degree students. This article describes an 11-month Accelerated Career Entry (ACE) Nursing Program's innovative curriculum design, which has a heavy emphasis on technology, professional socialization, and the use of a standardized patient experience as a form of summative evaluation. In addition, challenges of this program are presented. Since 2002, the ACE Program has graduated over 500 students with an average first-time NCLEX pass rate of 95-100%. Although the number of graduates from accelerated programs does not solve the severe nursing shortage, the contributions of these intelligent, assertive, pioneering graduates are important for health care.
María Paz Ocaranza
Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.
Full Text Available Zhejiang Province, China is experiencing rapid urbanization, facing the challenge of coupling socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. This paper establishes a comprehensive index system to assess coordinating development of economic, construction land use (CLU, and ecology subsystems. A Granger test and a coupling coordination model were applied to explore the causal relationship and the coordinated development state among the three subsystems from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that: (1 changes in the integrated value of the economic subsystem were the Granger cause of changes in the ecology and CLU subsystems, and the changes in the integrated values of ecology and CLU was each other’s Granger cause; (2 the coupling coordination relationship of the integrated value for economic–CLU–ecology was constrained by the relationship between the economic and the CLU subsystems from 2000 to 2004, and that between the ecology and the economic subsystems was the impediment of the sustainable development of economic–CLU–ecology from 2004 to 2012. This research helps to identify approach to sustainable development through analyzing synergistic effects, interdependencies, and trade-offs among the integrated economic–CLU–ecology values, and to make significant contribution to urban planning policies in rapid urbanization region.
Osmundsen, Petter; Asche, Frank; Mohn, Klaus
To improve their basis for investment recommendations and decisions, stock market analysts and investors make extensive use of operational and financial indicators. For the international oil and gas industry, a predominant indicator is return on capital employed (RoACE). The rationale for using this indicator is an assumed correlation between rentability and valuation metrics. Based on panel data for 11 international oil and gas companies, we seek to establish econometric relations between ma...
Coveney, A P
To examine the current medical management of arteriopathic patients attending a vascular surgical service at a university teaching hospital over a 6-month period. The prescribing of antiplatelets, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers was specifically examined. Vascular patients are often under the care of multiple specialties, and therefore the influence of different medical specialties on the patients\\' medical management was also examined.
Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.
We study empirically how fame of WWI fighter-pilot aces, measured in numbers of web pages mentioning them, is related to their achievement or merit, measured in numbers of opponent aircraft destroyed. We find that on the average fame grows exponentially with achievement; to be precise, there is a strong correlation (~0.7) between achievement and the logarithm of fame. At the same time, the number of individuals achieving a particular level of merit decreases exponentially with the magnitude o...
Johannes Hers; Niek Nahuis
The Innovation systems (IS) approach and the system failures it identifies, play an important role in the design and legitimization of innovation policy. This paper analyses the usefulness of this concept. We conclude that the IS-approach can be useful to visualize the complexity of the innovation processes. However, for policy design this approach is less suited, because system failures aim at symptoms in stead of underlying incentive structures. In our view, policy design should be based on...
In this paper we describe an Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) for compositional verification of programs, which are written in an industrially sponsored safe subset of C programming language called MISRA C [Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software, 1998]. The theory is based on Hoare logic [Commun. ACM 12 (1969) 576] and the C programs are verified using static assertion checking technique. First the functional specifications of the program, captured in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function, are derived from the specifications. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (also called annotations or formal comments) in the program code. The assertions are then proved formally using ACE and theorem proving tool called Stanford Temporal Prover [The Stanford Temporal Prover User's Manual, 1998]. ACE has been developed by us and consists mainly of a translator c2spl, a GUI and some utility programs. The technique and tools developed are targeted towards verification of real-time embedded software
O`Hara, S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)
Standard economic valuation relies on input prices (costs) and product prices (revenues) to communicate the value of economic activity to the firm as well as society at large. This reliance of prices to communicate value discriminates against services, products and activities that are not easily priced or evaluated according to their exchange value. Even when methods are applied which seek to assign monetary value artificially, that is outside the common market mechanism of production and consumption activities, price based valuation remains seriously flawed. It assumes the commensurability of wants, the preference of present value and the ability to express uncertainty in risk assessment categories. This paper outlines the expanded rationality of discourse based valuation and argues the advantages discursive valuation offers in addressing large scale complex systems changes like global climate change.
Full Text Available The quick development of science and technique within the information society we live in automatically involves the necessity of paradigm shift in the making of the young generation. At a European level, there is an interest for the use of participative teaching strategies based on experiments, cooperation and the stimulation of creativity. We are, thus, in a situation that must lead to rethinking the teaching strategies in order to ensure a natural dynamics in the evolution of our education system. The current article wants to underline the need for using the constructive strategies when studying Economics, as well as the feedback of the participants in this new teaching, respectively learning process. The objective will be met with the help of an empirical study carried out in a High School of Economics.
Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic interactions between insurance and economic growth in eight African countries for the period of 1970–2013. Insurance demand is measured by insurance penetration which accounts for income differences across the sample countries. A Bayesian Time Varying Parameter Vector Auto regression (TVP-VAR model with stochastic volatility is used to analyze the short run and the long run among the variables of interest. Using insurance penetration as a measure of insurance to economic growth, we find positive relationship for Egypt, while short-run negative and long-run positive effects are found for Kenya, Mauritius, and South Africa. On the contrary, negative effects are found for Algeria, Nigeria, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Implementation of sound financial reforms and wide insurance coverage are proposed recommendations for insurance development in the selected African countries.
Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.
Simpson, Murray [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birch, Tom
For small islands like Tobago — that depend heavily on tourism driven by their natural 'beauty' — climate change poses a double-edged threat on supply and demand. Rising sea levels, increasing temperatures and more frequent and intense storms will damage the island's natural assets, such as coral reefs and beaches. This could have a heavy impact on tourism, which will also be affected by climate policy in 'source' countries. But what exactly will that impact be? How much will it cost? And what can be done about it? Traditional economic analysis is ill-equipped to answer these questions because it offers static and highly uncertain models and assessments of damage and loss, rather than flexible response options that consider system dynamics. We urgently need to use and expand new forms of economic analysis to better support the difficult decisions that Caribbean policymakers face as a result of climate change.
Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...
M. Aynul Hasan; Ashfaque H. Khan; S. Sajid Ali
The financial sector is central to economic development as it serves the role of intermediary by mobilising savings and subsequently allocating credit for productive activities. However, in many developing countries including Pakistan, administered interest rate, domestic credit controls, high reserve requirements, use of captive banking system to finance large budgetary requirements of the government and controls on international capital inflows have remained the main features of the monetar...
The advent of the Internet has enabled organisations to reconfigure their inter-organisational relationships. This study presents three frameworks to analyse the outcome that the use of Internet based electronic markets has on the nature of inter-organisational relationships: transaction cost economics, social exchange theory and an integrated framework that combines the first two. The integrated framework proposes that the nature of inter-organisational relationships depends on the interacti...
Wu, DC; Li, G.; Song, H.
This study considers the dynamics of the consumption behaviour of tourists from an economic perspective. The evolution of various demand elasticities is explored using a time-varying parameter almost ideal demand system model. The top four source markets for tourism in Hong Kong are examined, and three major tourist expenditure categories, including shopping, hotel accommodation and meals outside hotels, are investigated for each market. Elasticity analysis reveals different consumption trend...
Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.Ecosystems supply a wide range of goods and services to mankind. This includes, for example, timber supplied by forests, and animal feed supplied by rangeland systems. In addition, ecosystems supply a range of essential life support services, such as the regulation of climatic and biochemical processes, and they have a non-use value related to their importance for the con...
The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...
De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert
One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...
De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert
One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...
This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...
The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...
This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact.Chapter I gives a general introduction and sets out the objectives and scope of the study. The specific research objectives were: (1) to develop a model system based on farm economics to assess th...
Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van der Ham; Musterd, S.
Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of rising inequalities. This gap is filled by our book project Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, with empirical evidence from Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Mad...
Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis sho...
Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi
In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil donâ€šÄôt meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...
The governance of central banks has two dimensions: corporate governance and public governance. Public governance is an institutional framework whereby the general public governs a central bank by and through the legislative and executive bodies in a country. This paper argues that the literature of new institutional economics sheds new light on the public governance of central banks. First, Williamson’s theory of "governance as integrity" (probity) is applied to the internal management of ce...
The structure of the US electric power industry comprises a combination of traditional electric utilities and less traditional electricity producing companies. The electric utilities include investor owned, publicly owned, federal and cooperative firms. Approximately three quarters of the electricity generated by utilities is generated by investor owned companies. These utilities are, for the most part, franchised monopolies that have an obligation to provide electricity to all customers within a service area. Most provide for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, although the distinctions between these services are breaking down as the electricity industry becomes more deregulated. The shares are publicly traded and their areas of business operation are expanding into new ones, sometimes unrelated to the provision of electricity or even energy. Under deregulation and open market pricing of electricity, the business and financial success of operating nuclear plants must be considered to a much greater extent along with the successful achievement of safety and reliability objectives. In developing strategic and operational goals, nuclear plant managers are required to embrace clear and measurable business objectives and goals that not only assure the achievement of safety and reliability but, in addition, eliminate unnecessary costs and identify investment opportunities. These goals must balance operating and safety risk while optimizing plant revenues and earnings and ultimately ensure the profitability of electricity generating facilities. In doing so, it is essential that plant managers articulate goal achievement through the application of effective, measurable, economic performance indicators. Individual nuclear plants will sell their output competing on electricity price, ultimately to ensure the safe, reliable and economic dispatch of their generation either onto open spot markets or by competitive bidding for bilateral contracts. In
Kalogiros, Costas; Courcoubetis, Costas; Stamoulis, George D; Boniface, Michael; Meyer, Eric T.; Waldburger, Martin; Field, Daniel; Stiller, Burkhard
With the evolution of the Internet from a controlled research network to a worldwide social and economic platform, the initial assumptions regarding stakeholder cooperative behavior are no longer valid. Conflicts have emerged in situations where there are opposing interests. Previous work in the literature has termed these conflicts tussles. This article presents the research of the SESERV project, which develops a methodology to investigate such tussles and is carrying out a survey of tussle...
Farquharson, Robert J.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mullen, John D.
Soil fertility decline and soil management for crop production are important issues for grain growers in northern New South Wales and southern and central Queensland. In this paper a stochastic dynamic economic analysis of soil fertility management is presented to derive optimal fertility levels, and the management practices to achieve them. A sequential analysis of first deriving the optimal nitrogen stock and application, ceteris paribus, was followed by an assessment of tillage, stubble an...
Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.
Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.
The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…
Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.
Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki; Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis
The new science of econophysics has arisen out of the information age. As large-scale economic data are being increasingly generated by industries and enterprises worldwide, researchers from fields such as physics, mathematics, and information sciences are becoming involved. The vast number of transactions taking place, both in the financial markets and in the retail sector, is usually studied by economists and management and now by econophysicists. Using cutting-edge tools of computational analysis while searching for regularities and “laws” such as those found in the natural sciences, econophysicists have come up with intriguing results. The ultimate aim is to establish fundamental data collection and analysis techniques that embrace the expertise of a variety of academic disciplines. This book comprises selected papers from the international conference on novel analytical approaches to economic data held in Tokyo in March 2009. The papers include detailed reports on the market behavior during the finan...
Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R
Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute
The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions
Full Text Available Release Volatile organic compounds (VOCs as environmental and occupational pollutant cause macro perspective affect such as climate change, humans and economic consequences. Although fixed bed absorber is widely used as a controlling method because of its economically and availability, but these absorbers are facing some issue like high pressure drop, non-uniform distribution of fluid, channeling and blocking. Fixed and fluidized beds adsorbent was compared from three economic, environmental and engineering perspectives using Multi Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDA technique. An annular fluidized bed adsorber was designed and charged with 50-100 µm (100-140 ASTM mesh activated carbon (AC particles. Effects of factors like flow rate, particle size, inlet concentration and adsorption capacity of VOCs was investigated under steady state. In the flow rate less than 0.25(Lit.min-1, inlet gas slowly passes through the void spaces of the bed’s particles. By increasing the inlet flow from 0.3(Lit/min-1, bubbles start to form in the bed and the bed pressure drop decrease. The pressure drop of 6 (g of AC in minimum fluidization velocity was 20(KN.m-2. However, the pressure drop of 10 and 20(g of AC were 150 and 420(KN.m-2 respectively. “maximin” technique used for comparison of two beds indicated that minimum score of pack bed absorber are 0.37 while the minimum score of fluidized bed adsorber are 0.5. It indicated when the adsorbent particles are smaller, fluidized bed adsorber are more suitable to use. In addition, using MCDA technique indicated that annular fluidized bed adsorber could considered as an alternative of fixed beds adsorber.
Adebisi Temitope Edun
Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA
The report provides a quantitative analysis of the economic impacts of national public support to ICT R&D in the European Union, considering a number of policy scenarios covering different amounts of public spending, policy instruments and sources of financing. For this purpose we use a macroeconomic model with ICT and R&D-driven endogenous growth. The model accommodates a range of policy instruments that may be used to stimulate R&D activity (ICT or non-ICT) in the economy, and it captures m...
Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik
A model predictive control at the supervisory level is proposed for refrigeration systems using price and temperature predictions. The control objective is to minimize the overall energy cost within the prediction horizon. The method is mainly developed for demand-side management in the future...... to rearrange the problem to facilitate convex programming. A nonlinear continuous time model validated by real data is employed to simulate system operation. The results show a considerable economic saving as well as a trade-off between the saving level and design complexity....
The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to ...
Benacchio, Marco; Musso, Enrico
It is nowadays widely accepted that the positive economic impact of ports tends to move away from a local environment (the earlier 'port city') to a much wider and often international one, including the consignors/consignees. It is thus the purpose of this paper to take a fresh look at the current changes in a ports1 production junction, based on a territorial cost-benefit analysis, i.e. taking into account that: - The port industry is no longer a labour intensive one; - The port indust...
Phoebe Koundouri; Nikos Papandreou; Mavra Stithou; Osiel Davila
In order to make possible an economic estimation of industrial pollution, which is one of the main polluters in the Asopos River Basin (RB), another method that of Benefit Transfer (BT) was applied and is presented in this chapter. The fact that gathering primary site-specific data is costly and time-consuming has made BT a more and more popular alternative for the valuation of ecosystem goods and services and it offers a considerable potential in the light of the EU Water Framework Directive...
Todsadee Areerat; Hiroshi Kameyama; Shoichi Ito; Koh-en Yamauchi
Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriou...
This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented
I thought that the best way, for me, to honour G-R’s memories was not simply to show how relevant his contribution has been to the history of economic thought, rather than try to develop his work on bioeconomics, the field to which he dedicated the last 25 years of his life and which he explicitly considered the most important. Georgescu-Roegen’s bioeconomic theory represents first of all a radical criticism of neo-classical theory. It has pointed out the limitations, which are basically of a...
Full Text Available This paper intends to define an economic policy that does notcompromise the coordination between the 4 main sectors of an economy: the real sector, the public sector, the exterior sector and the monetary sector. The subject is Second Life (SL a totally virtual world that is starting to occupy a great economicplace especially with e-commerce. For doing so, some data are arbitrarily chosen as done and projections are made from them. Data are expressed in billion of Linden dollars.
Tsvetan Tsvetanov; Kathleen Segerson
The economic models that prescribe Pigovian taxation as the first-best means of reducing energy-related externalities and argue that taxes are superior to energy efficiency standards are typically based on the neoclassical model of rational consumer choice. Yet, observed consumer behavior with regards to energy use and the purchase of energy-using durable goods is generally thought to be far from efficient, giving rise to the concept of the “energy-efficiency gap.” In this paper, we present a...
B.C. Okoye; Onyenweaku, C.E; Asumugha, G.N
This study employed a translog stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and it’s determinants in small-holder cocoyam production in Anambra state, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoyam farmers in the state in 2005 from whom input-output data and their prices were obtained using the cost-route approach. The parameters of the stochastic frontier cost function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The re...
Bhat; Bergstrom; Teasley; Bowker; Cordell
/ This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such as motor boating and waterskiing, developed and primitive camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecoregion. While our ecoregional approach differs conceptually from previous work, our results appear consistent with the previous travel cost method valuation studies.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Ecoregion; Travel cost method; Truncated Poisson model PMID:9419285
Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte
how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania...... as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies...
Full Text Available University internationalization in the field of education as well as in the field of science and research is one of the main priorities of VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava. VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava has several double degree agreements with foreign universities, mostly from Western Europe – e.g. Great Britain, Finland, but also with foreign universities outside Europe. In 2009 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava signed a memorandum with Hubei University of Technology. This cooperation involves travelling of the Czech teachers to China and teaching several subjects at Hubei University of Technology as well as teaching 3rd year Chinese students at VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic. This paper brings own teaching experience of the European lecturer who gave the lectures at the Chinese university for the Chinese students studying in English. Ishikawa diagram was used to determine the main causes of Chinese students’ failure in Business Economics. This paper brings modified methods of teaching Business Economics to be more suitable for Chinese students as well as critical review of Chinese students’ learning styles and characteristics observed by the author of the paper.
Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim
Full Text Available Sustainable development is not possible when significant numbers of labour force are economically paralysed. Several policies were implemented to augment the disadvantaged populace to pave way for enable them to take the advantage of market opportunities. The major obstacles impeded government policies to recorded very little success arises from the failure to incorporate the targeted beneficiary in the design and implementation of such programme. Broader provision of financial support through credit and savings for acquisition of capital goods is crucial for effective economic management, the aim of which is to increase prosperity, equity and sustainability. The study proposed that rural dwellers should organise themselves into Credit Cooperative Societies, which could be used as Informal Financial Unit for Linkage Banking arrangement. The government (at all level can also use these associations to channel their agricultural credit. The Credit Cooperative Societies will be used as a conduit for extending banking services to their members. This arrangement has worked in other places like Ghana and it is hoped to also work in Nigeria.
Meijboom, Bert; de Haan, Job; Verheyen, Piet
In this paper, we provide the economic rationale for an important issue in the health care sector, namely the network formation, e.g., in The Netherlands. The presence of such cooperation structures is hard to explain using the basic concept of the economic organization (EO) theory, i.e., the dichotomy of hierarchy versus market. However, acknowledging the aspect of trust renders the clan concept to be a powerful tool in understanding the viability of intra- and inter-organizational cooperation in the health sector. The main reason for this is the manner in which the professionals involved perform, as well as the importance of the tacit knowledge of the actors employed in the various health institutions. First, we address the conversion from supply towards demand orientation and the resulting pressure on multi-professional cooperation between health care providers. Then, relevant EO concepts will be reviewed, while introducing theory on knowledge, learning, and trust. Moreover, we offer conclusions for the health care sector on a concept-by-concept basis. Finally, we propose the notion of interclan, a clan-inspired notion for inter-organizational cooperation, and analyse the observed network formation.
Lee, Julie; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Dahl, Morten
.4-1.2). The results were similar upon adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, total cholesterol, and ACE inhibitor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker use. These data suggest that lifelong genetically elevated ACE activity is not a major risk factor for asthma or COPD, or for ischemic heart......The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a potential candidate gene for risk of asthma, COPD, and COPD co-morbidity. In 9034 Danish adults, we determined whether individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the ACE D allele are at greater risk of asthma, COPD, or COPD co-morbidity compared...... with ACE II homozygous individuals. In the general population, serum ACE activity increased with the number of D alleles (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: II vs. ID, p
Altmaier, Elisabeth; Menni, Cristina; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Quell, Jan; Kobl, Michael; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Valdes, Ana M; Mangino, Massimo; Waldenberger, Melanie; Strauch, Konstantin; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are an important class of antihypertensives whose action on the human organism is still not fully understood. Although it is known that ACE especially cleaves COOH-terminal dipeptides from active polypeptides, the whole range of substrates and products is still unknown. When analyzing the action of ACE inhibitors, effects of genetic variation on metabolism need to be considered since genetic variance in the ACE gene locus was found to be associated with ACE-concentration in blood as well as with changes in the metabolic profiles of a general population. To investigate the interactions between genetic variance at the ACE-locus and the influence of ACE-therapy on the metabolic status we analyzed 517 metabolites in 1,361 participants from the KORA F4 study. We replicated our results in 1,964 individuals from TwinsUK. We observed differences in the concentration of five dipeptides and three ratios of di- and oligopeptides between ACE inhibitor users and non-users that were genotype dependent. Such changes in the concentration affected major homozygotes, and to a lesser extent heterozygotes, while minor homozygotes showed no or only small changes in the metabolite status. Two of these resulting dipeptides, namely aspartylphenylalanine and phenylalanylserine, showed significant associations with blood pressure which qualifies them-and perhaps also the other dipeptides-as readouts of ACE-activity. Since so far ACE activity measurement is substrate specific due to the usage of only one oligopeptide, taking several dipeptides as potential products of ACE into account may provide a broader picture of the ACE activity. PMID:27120469
Secoisolariciresionol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed and is phytoestrogen. SDG is a potent and long-acting hypotensive agent. Plant phytoestrogens have inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The hypotensive effects of SDG, a phytoestrogen, may be mediated through inhibition of ACE. The objective of this study was to investigate if SDG-induced hypotension is mediated through inhibition of ACE. The Sprague Dawley male rats were anesthetized and tr...
Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.
Isaac R Elwyn; Lee Alison J; Smith Judith A; Burnham Susan; Shirras Alan D
Abstract Background Members of the M2 family of peptidases, related to mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), play important roles in regulating a number of physiological processes. As more invertebrate genomes are sequenced, there is increasing evidence of a variety of M2 peptidase genes, even within a single species. The function of these ACE-like proteins is largely unknown. Sequencing of the A. gambiae genome has revealed a number of ACE-like genes but probable errors in the Ensem...
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Based on the chaotic systems theory, this paper proposed a novel chaotic PSO combined with an implicit filtering (IF) local search method to solve economic dispatch problems. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed PSO introduces chaos mapping using Henon map sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. The chaotic PSO approach is used to produce good potential solutions, and the IF is used to fine-tune of final solution of PSO. The hybrid methodology is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Full Text Available The Western world is presently afflicted by a huge economic crisis, started in 2007 in the United States, with the collapse of the subprime mortgage market, and exploded in 2008 with the breakdown of Lehman Brothers. Even if its most critical stage seems to be finished, capitalist countries find it difficult to recover. Globalization exported the effects of the crisis everywhere, but those that suffered the greatest damages are Europe and North America. The collapse of some financial companies is only the top of a huge iceberg. The crisis has roots in something deeper, in the principles and mechanisms of capitalism itself. The Western part of the world is still paying not for the mistakes of a few executives, but for a general lack of ethics in the whole system.
KE Jian-Hong; CAI Xiao-Ou; LIN Zhen-Quan
We introduce a simple asset migration model for the wealth redistribution in economical activities, in which a unit of asset migrates from one individual to another whenever they interact. By means of the mean-field rate equation, we have analysed the dynamic behaviour of the system. In the random migration case, the asset distribution of individuals takes the standard Gaussian form and consistently decreases to zero at the end. As for the system in which only the richer can gain assets from the poorer, it is found that the individual asset distribution is discontinuous at a critical point and only the individuals with asset absolute value less than a cutoff value have a uniform and non-zero distribution. Moreover, the result shows that for the system with migration bias the assets of the individuals may have a cutoff value at each given time, which is different from the system without migration bias.
Full Text Available Background During the last three decades, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR in Iran has fallen considerably; from 6.5 per woman in 1983 to 1.89 in 2010. This paper analyzes the extent to which economic determinants at the micro and macro levels are associated with the number of children in Iranian households. Methods Household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS is linked to provincial data from the 2010 Iran Multiple-Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS, the National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011, and the 1985–2010 Iran statistical year books. Fertility is measured as the number of children in each household. A random intercept multilevel Poisson regression function is specified based on a collective model of intra-household bargaining power to investigate potential determinants of the number of children in Iranian households. Results Ceteris paribus (other things being equal, probability of having more children drops significantly as either real per capita educational expenditure or real total expenditure of each household increase. Both the low- and the high-income households show probabilities of having more children compared to the middle-income households. Living in provinces with either higher average amount of value added of manufacturing establishments or lower average rate of house rent is associated to higher probability of having larger number of children. Higher levels of gender gap indices, resulting in household’s wife’s limited power over household decision-making, positively affect the probability of having more children. Conclusion Economic determinants at the micro and macro levels, distribution of intra-household bargaining power between spouses and demographic covariates determined fertility behavior of Iranian households.
The Indian power sector is currently in a state of transition, moving from a completely regulated market to a completely deregulated one. It is expected that this transition will take quite sometime to complete, as it will be necessary to bridge the substantial gap between electricity supply and demand in the country as a prerequisite to adopting a completely deregulated market. The contribution of nuclear power currently accounts for about 3% of the electricity supply in the country, which is expected to increase in the years to come. With the liberalization of the power sector, there is growing pressure on all generating companies to optimize the tariff for power. With the existing tariff mechanism applicable to nuclear power, the company engaged in generation of nuclear power in India is able to make good profits from its operation provided that the nuclear power plants operate at a high plant load factor. However, there are pressures to reduce the tariff for nuclear power. Currently, the strategy adopted to optimize the cost of nuclear power involves controlling the capital costs of new projects as well as improving the plant load factor of the nuclear power plants. Economic performance indicators other than the safety related performance indicators pertaining to the operation of the nuclear power station being monitored are shown. The performance indicators, namely, capacity factor, availability factor and net generation, are all indirect economic indicators of revenue generation. Cost of heavy water replenished is an element of cost of operation, which varies from plant to plant depending on the efficiency of management of heavy water. Monitoring heavy water loss and controlling it will help reduce the operational cost. The O and M cost and fuel cost are significant elements of operational cost and are monitored with a view to optimizing them and thereby reducing the overall costs. Net profit before tax will directly indicate the earnings of the station after
Neil MacLeod; Scott Waldron; WEN Shi-lin
The importance of livestock production activities to improving the livelihoods of smal holder farming households and the efifciency of their underlying farming systems is increasingly recognized. A rapid increase in livestock numbers, especial y beef cattle, and special purpose forages is being promoted for smal holder farms which have traditional y undertaken sub-sistence cropping activities or simple livestock rearing activities using low quality feedstuffs. Because limited plantings of specialized forages combined with a poor knowledge of animal nutrition are a chal enge to establishing sustainable livestock enterprises, much public policy and research is now being focused on the use of new forages and improved feeding practices. A number of economic studies have suggested that specialized forage growing and livestock feeding activities can make a positive contribution to smal holder welfare. The studies have typical y compared the total level of farm or household income with and without livestock activities. Little attention is given to how much the new forage or livestock activities actual y contribute to or draw resources from other farm activities to assess their real economic contribution to the enterprise, and the availability of simple tools to assist in making such assessments are limited. This paper describes a simple model ing approach that was developed for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)-supported project to explore the real as opposed to apparent economic impact of integrating improved forages and livestock within smal holder farming systems in the Red Soils region of south-central China. Application of the model is demonstrated using a simple case study of a smal holder enterprise that plans to introduce a new beef cattle rearing activity to its existing farm activity mix. The case study highlights the importance of explicitly valuing transfers of resources between different farm activities to gauge the real
Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Billet, Sandrine; Okwan-Duodu, Derick; Ong, Frank S.; Fuchs, Sebastien
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can cleave angiotensin I, bradykinin, neurotensin and many other peptide substrates in vitro. In part, this is due to the structure of ACE, a protein composed of two independent catalytic domains. Until very recently, little was known regarding the specific in vivo role of each ACE domain, and they were commonly regarded as equivalent. This is not true, as shown by mouse models with a genetic inactivation of either the ACE N- or C-domains. In vivo, most ang...
Lee, Ki Bok; Lee, Jeong Chan; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Chang Kyu; Ji, Sung Kyun; Song, Jae Woong; Kim, Yong Rae; Chang, Jong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)
This report explains installation of ACE/ONED code, structure of input and output, how to prepare input and introduces some sample inputs. ACE/ONED developed by KAERI is a two-group one-dimensional diffusion theory code for nuclear design and reactor simulations. The usage of ACE/ONED encompasses core follow calculation, load-following calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation, control rod maneuvering, and so on. ACE/ONED programmed of FORTRAN 77 in most part can be run on almost all kinds of computer including personal computer. 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new.
Full Text Available One Health concepts and ideas are some of the oldest in the health discipline, yet they have not become main stream. Recent discussions of the need for One Health approaches require some reflection on how to present a case for greater investments. The paper approaches this problem from the perspective of the control and management of resources for health in general. It poses the following questions, (1 where do we need extra resources for One Health, (2 where can we save resources through a One Health approach and (3 who has control of the resources that do exist for One Health? In answering these questions three broad areas are explored, (1 The management and resources allocated for diseases, (2 The isolation of parts of the society that require human and animal health services and (3 The use of resources and skills that are easily transferable between human and animal health.The paper concludes that One Health approaches are applicable in many scenarios. However, the costs of getting people from different disciplines to work together in order to achieve a true One Health approach can be large. To generate tangible benefits requires careful management of specialist skills, knowledge and equipment, which can only be achieved by a greater openness of the human and animal health disciplines. Without this openness, policy makers will continue to doubt the real value of One Health. In summary the future success of One Health is about people working in the research, education and provision of health systems around the world embracing and managing change more effectively.
Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne
This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.
Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E
In this study, we advance existing research on health as a life course process by conceptualizing and measuring both childhood disadvantage and health as dynamic processes in order to investigate the relationship between trajectories of early life socioeconomic conditions and trajectories of health in midlife. We utilize a trajectory-based analysis that takes a disaggregated, person-centered approach to understand dynamic trajectories of health as latent variables that reflect the timing, duration and change in health conditions experienced by respondents over a period of 10 years in midlife as a function of stability and change in exposure to economic hardship in early life. Results from repeated-measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics indicate that economic hardship in childhood has long-term, negative consequences for health both among individuals beginning life and remaining in poverty as well as those moving into poverty. In contrast, adults with more advantaged early life experiences, or who moved out of poverty during the period of observation, were at a lower risk of experiencing health trajectories characterized by the early onset or increasing risk of disease. We argue that a person-centered, disaggregated approach to the study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health across the life course holds potential for the study of health inequality and that a greater focus on trajectory-based analysis is needed.
Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla
Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting.
Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla
Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155
Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q
Constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater treatment have evolved substantially over the last decades and have been recognized as an effective means of "green technology" for wastewater treatment. This paper reviews the numerous modeling approaches ranging from simple first-order models to more complex dynamic models of treatment behaviour in CWs. The main objective of the modeling work is to better understand the process in CWs and optimize design criteria. A brief study in this review discusses the efforts taken to describe the process-based model for the efficient removal of pollutants in CWs. Obtaining better insights is essential to understand the hydraulic and biochemical processes in CWs. Currently, employed modeling approaches can be seen in two categories, i.e. "black-box models" and "process-based models". It is evident that future development in wetland technology will depend on improved scientific knowledge of internal treatment mechanisms.
Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel
Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their
Pikas, C. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; Paxton, L. J.
In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the issues that are arising and will arise from global climate disruption. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. These strategic simulations would be done under the auspices of the GAIA project (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu). While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between human choices and the environment. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment and capture the various actors (governments, agencies, resources, industries, religious/political groups, etc.) that compete to achieve their particular goals. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. In the simulation, humans play various roles and understand that not everyone shares the same definition of a successful or favorable outcome. Rigorous post-analysis is used to illuminate where decisions were made that enabled or prevented a particular outcome from occurring. In addition, the simulations allow us to investigate how effective "technology injects" can be in achieving a particular, desired end
Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the
Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.
This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.
Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.
Among the primary energy sources used worldwide - oil, coal, gas and uranium - Ukraine possesses sufficient reserves of only two of them: coal and uranium. The coal industry is based on coal reserves sufficient to cover Ukraine's needs for the next 200-300 years. As a consequence, coal is forecast as continuing to play a leading role in the future of Ukraine's energy sector. Notwithstanding this, more than 40% of the electricity generated in Ukraine is produced by nuclear power plants, but only 30% of the raw components (natural uranium concentrate) required for nuclear fuel manufacture is produced domestically. However, Ukraine has the capability to provide national nuclear power plants with domestic raw materials as its total uranium reserves place it in the top ten countries. The majority of its reserves have been delineated and this should aid their commercial extraction. Since 1991, electricity generation in Ukraine has been achieved against a background of political and economic reforms. Reduction of fixed capital and floating stock, consumers' inability to pay, excessive social orientation of price and tariff formation policy of the State are the factors that complicate the market reforms and make adaptation to market conditions more difficult. With the start of reforms in the national economy, the Ministry of Energy developed the principles for reforming the industry and the electricity market. The reforms should ensure the integrity of the unified energy system, competition between generating companies and privatization, and create conditions attractive to investment
A brief overview of the models and data analyses of income, wealth, consumption distributions by the physicists, are presented here. It has been found empirically that the distributions of income and wealth possess fairly robust features, like the bulk of both the income and wealth distributions seem to reasonably fit both the log-normal and Gamma distributions, while the tail of the distribution fits well to a power law (as first observed by sociologist Pareto). We also present our recent studies of the unit-level expenditure on consumption across multiple countries and multiple years, where it was found that there exist invariant features of consumption distribution: the bulk is log-normally distributed, followed by a power law tail at the limit. The mechanisms leading to such inequalities and invariant features for the distributions of socio-economic variables are not well-understood. We also present some simple models from physics and demonstrate how they can be used to explain some of these findings and ...
Lindgren, Urban; Elmquist, Helena
This study examines the dependency between physical and anthropogenic systems in arable farming. The dynamic simulation model, which has its methodological origins in the modeling traditions of environmental systems analysis and microsimulation, reproduces the mutual links between the physical flows (e.g. energy, materials, emissions, and products), the farmer as a decision-making agent, and structural conditions influencing the farm. In running the model, the intention is to answer the question: What are the impacts on profitability and the environment (i.e. greenhouse gas effects, eutrophication, acidification, and energy use) of variations in prices, subsidies, the farmer's environmental values, and the farmer's skill in making production allocation choices? The results of the model simulations indicate, for example, that in terms of economic performance, a farmer can choose between two relatively sustainable strategies--either to specialize in organic production (thereby benefiting from higher subsidies and output prices), or to focus on conventional cultivation and use of pesticides and fertilizers (thereby benefiting from large yields). Regarding environmental impacts, there was no clear-cut divide between organic and conventional farming due to difficulties in allocating the use of manure. This finding is essentially related to the choice of system boundary, which is thoroughly discussed in the paper. PMID:16092275
Full Text Available It has been argued that ecosystem services can be used as the foundation to provide economic opportunities to empower the disadvantaged. The Ecosystem Services Framework (ESF approach for poverty alleviation, which balances resource conservation and human resource use, has received much attention in the literature. However, few projects have successfully achieved both conservation and economic objectives. This is partly due to there being a hiatus between theory and practice, due to the absence of tools that help make the transition between conceptual frameworks and theory, to practical integration of ecosystem services into decision making. To address this hiatus, an existing conceptual framework for analyzing the robustness of social-ecological systems was translated into a practical toolkit to help understand the complexity of social-ecological systems (SES. The toolkit can be used by a diversity of stakeholders as a decision making aid for assessing ecosystem services supply and demand and associated enterprise opportunities. The toolkit is participatory and combines both a generic "top-down" scientific approach with a case-specific "bottom-up" approach. It promotes a shared understanding of the utilization of ecosystem services, which is the foundation of identifying resilient enterprises. The toolkit comprises four steps: (i ecosystem services supply and demand assessment; (ii roles identification; (iii enterprise opportunity identification; and (vi enterprise risk assessment, and was tested at two estuary study sites. Implementation of the toolkit requires the populating of preprogrammed Excel worksheets through the holding of workshops that are attended by stakeholders associated with the ecosystems. It was concluded that for an enterprise to be resilient, it must be resilient at an external SES level,which the toolkit addresses, and at an internal business functioning level, e.g., social dynamics among personnel, skills, and literacy
The paper provides an overview of major recent contributions in evolutionary economics. It starts of demonstrating that the pioneers of this approach such as Veblen, Schumpeter, Marshall and Hayek saw the economy as continuously changing and that this kind of "realism of perception" guides essentially also contemporary evolutionary economics. The economy is viewed as an evolving system of structured knowledge governing economic operations. Theoretically, a micro-meso-macro architecture is pro...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE has been repeatedly discussed as susceptibility factor for major depression (MD and the bi-directional relation between MD and cardiovascular disorders (CVD. In this context, functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene have been linked to depression, to antidepressant treatment response, to ACE serum concentrations, as well as to hypertension, myocardial infarction and CVD risk markers. The mostly investigated ACE Ins/Del polymorphism accounts for ~40%-50% of the ACE serum concentration variance, the remaining half is probably determined by other genetic, environmental or epigenetic factors, but these are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main aim of the present study was the analysis of the DNA methylation pattern in the regulatory region of the ACE gene in peripheral leukocytes of 81 MD patients and 81 healthy controls. RESULTS: We detected intensive DNA methylation within a recently described, functional important region of the ACE gene promoter including hypermethylation in depressed patients (p = 0.008 and a significant inverse correlation between the ACE serum concentration and ACE promoter methylation frequency in the total sample (p = 0.02. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between the concentrations of the inflammatory CVD risk markers ICAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin and the degree of ACE promoter methylation in MD patients could be demonstrated (p = 0.01 - 0.04. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that aberrations in ACE promoter DNA methylation may be an underlying cause of MD and probably a common pathogenic factor for the bi-directional relationship between MD and cardiovascular disorders.
Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and (for NO2 an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise and MAESTRO and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.
Andrew B Nesterovitch
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.
Cunha, Amanda L. [Felsberg e Associados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The recent discoveries hit in the pre-salt area, such as Tupi, Jupiter, Bem-te-vi and Carioca may place Brazil amongst the largest oil producers in the world. As a result, the Brazilian regulatory framework, which was originally envisaged in a scenario of higher exploration risk, has been under heavy public scrutiny. The Brazilian Government has already taken the first steps towards substantial changes in the country's contracting model for upstream activities. By means of Resolution No. 6/2007, the National Council for Energy Policy ('CNPE') not only determined the removal of 41 blocks with sub-salt geology from the ANP 9 Th Bid Round, but also stressed the need for a different regime for E and P activities in the country's continental shelf. At this moment, there is a great deal of controversy on the contracting model to be adopted, mainly whether the concession model should be maintained, but subject to higher levels of government take, or a production sharing model should apply. This paper goes through the evolution of international oil agreements, from early concessions to modern agreements. A special emphasis is placed on concession/license regimes as well as on production sharing agreements (PSAs). Besides drawing a comparative line between such models, this article assesses their economic impacts and whether the regulatory framework currently in force in Brazil is suitable for a scenario of lower risk, showing that any desired level of regulation may be achieved in the context of a PSA as easily as in a exclusive concession. (author)
In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.
The stability of Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions cannot be separated from their economic development.Hence, the necessary conditions for promoting the development and stability of Si-chuan ’ s ethnic regions include: fully applying the “Scientific Concept of Development”; enhan-cing the integrative and comprehensive utilization of resources;developing resource -saving and en-vironment -friendly industries; and constructing an industrial system based upon the advantages of local characteristics . 1. Integrating Advantaged Resources and Constructing Advantaged Industrial Systems ( 1 ) Enhancing Resource Development and Resource Integration Firstly, we should strengthen geological ex-ploration , and especially strengthen the investiga-tion and evaluation of those mineral resources which have a national shortage , but also have both a large potential market and big development po-tential in Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions . Secondly , we should strengthen resource ac-cumulation and its sustainable utilization;insist on“Development in Protection , and Protection in De-velopment”;strengthen the saving and sustainable utilization of resources , especially land , energy and water resources; and actively develop renew-able resources, including solar energy , biogas, bi-omass energy and wind power . with the development of tourism resources as well as agricultural and husbandry resources . ( 2 ) Advance Agriculture and Husbandry with Traditional Characteristics towards Ones with Modern Characteristics If we want to develop an agriculture and hus-bandry with modern characteristics , and realize the transformation of traditional farming and animal husbandry to ones with modern characteristics in the Sichuan ethnic regions , then, we should take the lead in building a national -level demonstra-tion base of modern agriculture and husbandry in the ethnic regions .Taking the construction of the“Four Big Systems” into consideration , we should perfect the support system for
Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng
The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension. PMID:25536445
Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng
The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension.
Daily, Mike I.; Allen, Frank W.
Competitive pressures in the oil and gas industry are requiring a much tighter integration of technical data into E and P business processes. The development of new systems to accommodate this business need must comprehend the significant numbers of large, complex data objects which the industry generates. The life cycle of the data objects is a four phase progression from data acquisition, to data processing, through data interpretation, and ending finally with data archival. In order to implement a cost effect system which provides an efficient conversion from data to information and allows effective use of this information, an organization must consider the technical data management requirements in all four phases. A set of technical issues which may differ in each phase must be addressed to insure an overall successful development strategy. The technical issues include standardized data formats and media for data acquisition, data management during processing, plus networks, applications software, and GUI's for interpretation of the processed data. Mass storage hardware and software is required to provide cost effective storage and retrieval during the latter three stages as well as long term archival. Mobil Oil Corporation's Exploration and Producing Technical Center (MEPTEC) has addressed the technical and cost issues of designing, building, and implementing an Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to support the petroleum E and P function, which is critical to the corporation's continued success. Mobile views ACE as a cost effective solution which can give Mobile a competitive edge as well as a viable technical solution.
Full Text Available Students experience difficulties in learning computer programming. Researchers have conducted several studies with different perspectives to help students learn programming. The ACE cycle constructed in the context of mathematics education was adapted to programming education and called PACE cycle. The aim of the study was to test effectiveness of the PACE cycle by using both quantitative and qualitative measures. The sample of the study included 62 mechanical engineering students. The students were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Experimental group was instructed by using PACE cycle whereas control group was instructed by using ‘traditional instruction’. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered before and after the treatment. It was found that there is no significant difference between achievement and attitude scores of experimental and control group students. Nevertheless, it is hard to announce PACE cycle as ineffective depending only on this result. Qualitative data showed that students, in the control group, did not percieve their instruction as traditional one. This might show us that the definition of ‘traditional instruction’ can change depending on the context. It might be the case that students’ perception and experience related to their instruction affected the results of the study.Key Words: ACE cycle, programming education, PACE cycle, mixed-method design
Baker, D; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Demoulin, P; Harra, L K; Lavraud, B; Davies, J A; Optiz, A; Luhmann, J G; Sauvaud, J A; Galvin, A B
Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on the 17th of October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of `open' and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with `open' magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an `anemone' structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of i...
Voluntarist approaches (VA) are a form of environmental regulation which has been recently developed and which allows companies to voluntarily commit themselves to improve their environmental efficiencies. This work integrates for the first time the role of market structures which prevail both on the polluting industries side and on the cleansing industries side in order to compare some VA with other environmental policy instruments. A VA inspired from a policy introduced in Denmark is compared first with a tax in the framework of an imperfect competition between polluting companies. The same form of VA is then compared to a tax, a pollution quota and a process standard when the cleansing is delegated to an imperfectly competitive industry. Finally, the study of a VA applied in France in the domain of domestic packing wastes allows to compare the theoretical point of view and the real situation. (J.S.)
Current chemical methods of synthesis have shown limited success in the fabrication of nanomaterials, which involves environmentally malignant chemicals. Environmental friendly synthesis requires alternative solvents, and it is expected that the use of soft options of green approaches may overcome these obstacles. Water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, has been used in the present work for the preparation of platinum nanoparticles. The average particle diameter is in the range of ∼13±5 nm and particles are largely agglomerated. The advantages of preparing nanoparticles with this method include ease, flexibility and cost effectiveness. The prospects of the process are bright, and the technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tak Kuen Siu
Full Text Available An optimal asset allocation problem for a quite general class of utility functions is discussed in a simple two-state Markovian regime-switching model, where the appreciation rate of a risky share changes over time according to the state of a hidden economy. As usual, standard filtering theory is used to transform a financial model with hidden information into one with complete information, where a martingale approach is applied to discuss the optimal asset allocation problem. Using a martingale representation coupled with stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms for the filtering equation, the integrand in the martingale representation is identified which gives rise to an optimal portfolio strategy under some differentiability conditions.
Full Text Available In this paper the concept of fuzzy Non-Linear Programming Technique is applied to solve an economic order quantity (EOQ model under restricted space. Since various types of uncertainties and imprecision are inherent in real inventory problems they are classically modeled using the approaches from the probability theory. However, there are uncertainties that cannot be appropriately treated by usual probabilistic models. The questions how to define inventory optimization tasks in such environment how to interpret optimal solutions arise. This paper allows the modification of the Single item EOQ model in presence of fuzzy decision making process where demand is related to the unit price and the setup cost varies with the quantity produced/Purchased. This paper considers the modification of objective function and storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters. The model is developed for the problem by employing different modeling approaches over an infinite planning horizon. It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered and the demand per unit compares both fuzzy non linear and other models. Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and ugh MATLAB (R2009a version software, the two and three dimensional diagrams are represented to the application. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values and to draw managerial insights of the decision problem.
Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara
The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs, but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures.
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most dangerous diseases in the worlds. In particularly in East Java province Indonesia, dengue has been identified as one of the major causes of death. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that induce the number of dengue incidences in this region. This study examines climate and socio-economic conditions, which are assumed to influence the number of dengue in the examined region. The semiparametric panel regression approach has been applied and the results are compared with the standard panel regression. In this case, the socio-economic condition is treated parametrically while climate effect is modeled nonparametrically. The analysis showed that the number of dengue incidences is significantly influenced by the income per-capita and the number of inhabitant below 15 years. Furthermore, the dengue incidence is optimum under rainfall of 1500 to 3670 mm, temperature of 22 to 27 degree and humidity of 82 to 87%. The elasticity allows us to identify the most responsive and most irresponsive district towards the changes of climate variable. The study shows that Surabaya is the most responsive district with respect to the change of climate variables.
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.
Hansen, K; Adsersen, A.; Brøgger Christensen, S.;
The aqueous extract of the leaves of Olea europea and Olea lancea both inhibited Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in vitro. A bioassay-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of a strong ACE-inhibitor namely the secoiridoid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)-4E...
van der Wouden, Els A; Henning, Robert H; Deelman, Leo E; Roks, Anton J M; Boomsma, Frans; de Zeeuw, Dick
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) reduce proteinuria and protect the kidney in proteinuric renal disease. During ACE-I therapy, circulating levels of angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)] are increased. As cardiac and renal protective effects of Ang (1-7) have been reported, we questioned whe
J.J. Brugts (Jasper)
textabstractTo optimally treat patients, and to develop ways to guide ACE-inhibitor treatment, it remains essential to identify those patients most likely to benefit from therapy. New research to elucidate such heterogeneity is necessary. If feasible, guided-therapy of ACE-inhibitors will have a lar
Westendorp, Bart; Hamming, Inge; Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Schoemaker, Regien G.
Diuretics, when added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) treatment, can augment the response to ACE inhibitors, but may have adverse effects on renal function, which negatively affect prognosis. While in heart failure rats combined therapy initially improved cardiac functio
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.
Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.
The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.
Wolanin, Natalie; Modarresi, Shahpar
The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC), and the Universities at Shady Grove (USG) to create a seamless pathway…
... Portal Accounts and Subsequent Revision Notices: 67 FR 21800 (May 1, 2002); 70 FR 5199 (February 1, 2005); 69 FR 5360 and 69 FR 5362 (February 4, 2004); 69 FR 54302 (September 8, 2004). ACE System of Records Notice: 71 FR 3109 (January 19, 2006). Terms/Conditions for Access to the ACE Portal and...
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A scarcity of human resources for health has been identified as one of the primary constraints to the scale-up of the provision of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART. In South Africa there is a particularly severe lack of pharmacists. The study aims to compare two task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of ART: Indirectly Supervised Pharmacist’s Assistants (ISPA and Nurse-based pharmaceutical care models against the standard of care which involves a pharmacist dispensing ART. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study design was used. Patient exit interviews, time and motion studies, expert interviews and staff costs were used to conduct a costing from the societal perspective. Six facilities were sampled in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and 230 patient interviews conducted. Results The ISPA model was found to be the least costly task-shifting pharmaceutical model. However, patients preferred receiving medication from the nurse. This related to a fear of stigma and being identified by virtue of receiving ART at the pharmacy. Conclusions While these models are not mutually exclusive, and a variety of pharmaceutical care models will be necessary for scale up, it is useful to consider the impact of implementing these models on the provider, patient access to treatment and difficulties in implementation.
Troitiño David Ramiro
Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.
The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site selection
血管紧张素转化酶(angiotensin-converting enzyme,ACE)为含锌的金属蛋白酶,是肾素-血管紧张素系统(renin-angiotensin system,RAS)重要的调节分子.血管紧张素转化酶2(angiotensin-converting enzyme 2,ACE2)是迄今发现的唯一的ACE同系物(homologue),它主要分布于睾丸、肾脏和心脏.ACE2可水解血管紧张素Ⅰ(angiotensin Ⅰ,Ang Ⅰ)和血管紧张素Ⅱ(angiotensin Ⅱ,Ang Ⅱ)羧基端的1个氨基酸残基,分别形成Ang1-9和有血管舒张作用的Ang1-7.ACE 2的生理病理作用还不甚明了,传统的ACE抑制剂不能抑制ACE2的活性.ACE2在心血管、肾脏系统的作用可能与ACE相反,与ACE共同调节心脏、肾脏等脏器的正常功能.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. Methods Our systematic review involved searching six electronic databases, then contacting the investigators (and pharmaceutical industry representatives responsible for the creation of these databases. Two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized, placebo-controlled trials and abstracted from each study details on characteristics and quality. Results Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Despite repeated efforts to contact authors, only four of the eleven studies provided sufficient data to quantify the effect modification by genotypes. We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. Pooling of the results was inappropriate, due to heterogeneity in ethnicity, clinical domains and outcomes. Conclusion Lack of sufficient genetic data from the reviewed studies precluded drawing any convincing conclusions. Better reporting of genetic data are needed to confirm our preliminary observations concerning better response to ACE inhibitors among Caucasian DD carriers as compared to II carriers.
Kamper, A L
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are well established in the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure. Experimental studies in rats have suggested that these agents may protect renal function in chronic nephropathy by a mechanism other than simply lowering the systemic blood...... pressure. In human studies of incipient diabetic nephropathy, worsening of microalbuminuria was prevented during 3 years of ACE inhibition. ACE inhibitors reduce arterial blood pressure in chronic nephropathy, and may cause a fall in glomerular filtration rate. In diabetic nephropathy, proteinuria...... studies have been published to date. In chronic renal failure, ACE inhibitors may worsen anaemia and hyperkalaemia. Renovascular hypertension can be treated with ACE inhibitors, but the treatment may lead to a compromised renal function. The dosage of these drugs should be reduced in renal failure...
Prabhat Kumar Rai
Full Text Available Climate change is expected to bring about major change in freshwater availability, the productive capacity of soils, and in patterns of human settlement. Likewise, climate change is intimately linked to human health either directly or indirectly. However, considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily involves an even higher degree of uncertainty. Societies have a long record of adapting to climate risks and, climate changes. Household asset portfolios and livelihood choices are shaped by the need to manage climatic risks, especially in rural areas and for lowincome households. Likewise, disaggregated analysis revealed that demographic and environmental variables have a very profound effect on the risk of civil conflict and hence peace. In nutshell, we can say that there may be multifaceted impact of climate change in its totality. Further, different views, issues and mitigation measures are discussed particularly in Indian scenario. In this direction, The "National Action Plan on Climate Change" was set by Indian Prime Minister which encompasses a broad and extensive range of measures, and focuses on eight missions, which will be pursued as key components of the strategy for sustainable development. These include missions on solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable habitat, conserving water, sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, creating a "Green India," sustainable agriculture and, finally, establishing a strategic knowledge platform for climate change. Finally, different steps/approaches pertaining to green, eco-friendly and sustainable technology has been discussed in order to mitigate the impact of global environmental damage originating from increased industrialization and hence appropriately address this global disaster which is being the
The editors of Kyklos have asked the question: Is there a European economics? This short essay tries to give an answer by first trying to provide a framework for a sensible answer in economics, and then following suit by illustrating how in the context of this frame-work, the answer can be given. In so doing, the essay touches on theories of regulation, the ORDO-approach, the sub-discipline of law and economics and the problem of European institutions as they are different from American ones ...
Motta-Santos, Daisy; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Oliveira, Marilene; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Poglitsch, Marko; Mosienko, Valentina; Kappes Becker, Lenice; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose; M Penninger, Joseph; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is related to physiological adaptations induced by exercise. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a major regulator of the RAS in tissues, as it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations induced by voluntary running. Physical performance, body composition and plasma angiotensin levels, as well as tissue morphology and gene expression of RAS components in the left ventricle (LV) and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), were evaluated in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) and wild-type (ACE2(+/y)) mice after 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running. ACE2(-/y) mice run less than ACE2(+/y) mice (19±4.7 vs. 26±12.6 revolutions per day × 100, Pmuscle mass (76.6±1.6%) after 6 weeks of voluntary running compared with the sedentary control group (fat mass: 18.3±2.1%; muscle mass: 72.7±2.2). However, no change in body composition was observed in ACE2(-/y) mice after exercise. Heart and skeletal muscle hypertrophy was observed only in trained ACE2(+/y) mice. Besides a small decrease in Ang I in ACE2(-/y) mice, plasma levels of angiotensin peptides remained unchanged by exercise or ACE2 deficiency. In the LV of trained animals, AT2 gene expression was higher in ACE2(+/y) compared with ACE2(-/y) mice. ACE2 deficiency leads to an increase in AT1 gene expression in skeletal muscle. ACE expression in soleus was increased in all exercised groups. ACE2 deficiency affects physical performance and impairs cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. PMID:27053009
Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.
Gulec, M; Caliskaner, Z; Kartal, O; Erel, F; Karaayvaz, M
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the most common medications responsible for angioedema. Angioedema is a potentially life threatening conditions especially in geriatric age patients that they have take a several medications include ACE inhibitors and non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. We present a case an ACE inhibitor induced angioedema that confused many clinical events. PMID:18047821
1 - Description: Efforts devoted to developing or improving thermal scattering data (S(alpha,beta)) for very cold and cryogenic temperatures have recently been carried out. Here several evaluations carried out at the Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), University of Stuttgart are made available. They are listed in the following Table. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium for the two modifications: ortho and para. para Hydrogen: MAT*: 2, Temperatures (K): 14, 16 and 20.38, ID ACE* files: pH.00t, pH.01t, pH.03t; ortho Hydrogen: MAT*: 3, Temperatures (K): 14, 16 and 20.38, ID ACE* files: oH.00t, oH.01t, oH.03t; para Deuterium: MAT*: 12, Temperatures (K): 19 and 23.65, ID ACE* files: pD.00t, pD.01t; ortho Deuterium: MAT*: 13, Temperatures (K): 19 and 23.65, ID ACE* files: oD.00t, oD.01t; H in polyethylene (CH2): H in CH2: MAT: 37, Temperatures (K): 87, 293.6 and 350, ID ACE files: poly.01t, poly.03t, poly.04t, poly.11t, poly.13t, poly.14t; Liquid argon: 18-Ar: MAT: 18, Temperature (K): 87, ID ACE file: argon.01t, argon.11t; Aluminium face centred cubic lattice: 13-Al-27: MAT: 61, Temperatures (K): 20, 77, 87, 100, 293.6, 400, ID ACE files: al.00t, al.01t, al.02t, al.03t, al.04t, al.05t, al.10t, al.11t, al.12t,al.13t, al.14t, al.15t (* MAT numbers for the ENDF files and ID's for ACE (MCNP continuous energy data libraries)). The datasets are provided in the standard ENDF-6 format and in the ACE format, used for continuous energy Monte Carlo applications. Cross section libraries can be produced also for deterministic approaches through the use of the NJOY computer code. It should be noted that for very cold temperatures special care must be taken in processing the data and occasionally patches need to be applied to the processing code. Processing of the S(alpha,beta) data to energy dependent differential and integral cross sections as well as data sets for neutron transport calculations has been carried out e.g. MCNP(X). This was done with the following
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.
The system approach developed by Christopher Freeman can arguably be fruitfully applied to explain and understand the systemic interdependencies of technology, economics, and social change, a framework deduced from Joseph Schumpeter. This thesis is therefore concerned with investigating Christopher Freeman’s research programme and assesses it in detail and in relation to Schumpeter’s notion of a “broad kind of economics”, namely Social Economics. It presents central books and journal articles...