Sample records for ace approach economic

  1. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Swinburn Boyd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  2. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report


    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  3. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices


    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  4. Spatial characteristics of professional tennis serves with implications for serving aces: A machine learning approach.

    Whiteside, David; Reid, Machar


    This study sought to determine the features of an ideal serve in men's professional tennis. A total of 25,680 first serves executed by 151 male tennis players during Australian Open competition were classified as either aces or returned into play. Spatiotemporal (impact location, speed, projection angles, landing location and relative player locations) and contextual (score) features of each serve were extracted from Hawk-Eye data and used to construct a classification tree model (with decision rules) that predicted serve outcome. k-means clustering was applied to the landing locations to quantify optimal landing locations for aces. The classification tree revealed that (1) serve directionality, relative to the returner; (2) the ball's landing proximity to the nearest service box line and (3) serve speed classified aces with an accuracy of 87.02%. Hitting aces appeared more contingent on accuracy than speed, with serves directed >5.88° from the returner and landing <15.27 cm from a service box line most indicative of an ace. k-means clustering revealed four distinct locations (≈0.73 m wide × 2.35 m deep) in the corners of the service box that corresponded to aces. These landing locations provide empirically derived target locations for players to adhere to during practice and competition.

  5. The Approach of Ecological Economics

    John M. Gowdy; Jon D Erickson


    This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics - including value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behavior. But we argue ...

  6. orova. Ace

    Assessment of the distribution of risk factors Tsehayneh K. et al 187 orova. Ace. AssESSMENT ... SkS of diabetes among diabetic patients attending Jimma Hospital diabetic lini. METHODS: A .... literacy status, 9ccupation. 獻 king was collected ...

  7. Evolutionary approaches of economic dynamics (In French)

    Yildizoglu, Murat


    This chapter presents the methods and contributions of evolutionary approach to economic dynamics. First, we expose why economic dynamics can indeed be considered as evolutionary. Second, we discuss sources of diversity and selection mechanisms that drive these dynamics, in the context of industrial dynamics. Third, we expose the main methods of this approach. Last, we give a partial survey of this approach’s contributions in economic systems covering a full spectrum, from organizational to m...

  8. Approaches to Consumer Economic Education.

    Diem, Richard A.


    Explains how students in high school social studies should benefit from participation in an economic education program. Presents objectives relating to the consumer in society, consumer rights and responsibilities, and consumer law. A directory of materials and resources concludes the article. (Author/DB)

  9. An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens

    Karl A Hassan


    Full Text Available The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in superbugs that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance are typically under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to their substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock treatments may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance, informing targeted functional analyses of these proteins. Using this approach we have characterised novel efflux pumps in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, we recently applied this strategy to characterise the AceI efflux pump from Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a new family of multidrug efflux proteins that is conserved across many proteobacterial lineages. Different efflux pumps in this family have been shown to confer resistance to biocides including chlorhexidine, dequalinium, benzalkonium, proflavine and/or acriflavine. The discovery of this novel family of multidrug efflux proteins raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Approaches towards airport economic performance measurement



    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess how economic benchmarking is being used by airports as a means of performance measurement and comparison of major international airports in the world. The study focuses on current benchmarking practices and methods by taking into account different factors according to which it is efficient to benchmark airports performance. As methods are considered mainly data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Apart from them other approaches are discussed by airports to provide economic benchmarking. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the airports and answer some undetermined questions involving economic benchmarking of the airports.

  11. Economic versus technical approaches to frequency management

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza


    economic and technical approaches to frequency management, with an examination of spectrum management challenges and the current regulatory framework as the starting point. The benefits and limitations of the free market approach are discussed, and an economic evaluation of the Danish spectrum is used...... to demonstrate how regulators could incorporate an econmic dimension into frequency allocation. The paper concludes that a free market approach is still not possible for some parts of the frequency management process; in short term, regulators must therefore continue to prioritize between applications.......While telecom markets have been liberalized, the institutional framework for spectrum management has largely remained unchanged. In particular, the process of allocation of the spectrum to different applications is still based on technical rather than economic criteria. This paper contrasts...

  12. Personnel economics: An economic approach to human resource management

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi


    The theoretical idea of personnel economics is to apply simple economic principles to the field of human resources management. Personnel economics as a research field has grown rapidly since the first text book on 'Personnel Economics' was published in 1998. The development is driven by new theoretical insights based on institutional and behavioural economics and new empirical methods and data sets. Those new theoretical insights are very fruitful to analyze reasons and consequences of variou...

  13. The economic approach to the time research

    A.V. Kendyuhov


    Full Text Available Article deals with category of time from economic point of view. Dependence of economic systems from economic time is analyzed. Based on analysis of economic time definition its features are improved.

  14. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.


    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  15. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.


    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  16. Preface ACE 2013

    Katayose, Haruhiro; Reidsma, Dennis; Katayose, Haruhiro; Nijholt, Antinus


    These are the proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE 2013), hosted by the Human Media Interaction research group of the Centre for Telematics and Information Technology at the University of Twente, The Netherlands. The ACE series of conferences,

  17. ACE inhibitors and proteinuria

    Gansevoort, RT; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE


    This review discusses the clinical consequences of urinary protein loss and the effects of inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on this clinical finding. Proteinuria appears to be an important risk factor for renal function deterioration and for cardiovascular mortality. ACE inhibit

  18. Marketing ACE in Victoria.


    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  19. Economic Gardening through Entrepreneurship Education: A Service-Learning Approach

    Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick


    This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…

  20. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  1. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Full Article What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  2. The ACE experiment

    Maximilien Brice


    The Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) as shown by Michael Holzscheiter (spokesperson), Niels Bassler (co-spokesperson) and Helge Knudsen. ACE is located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. An antiproton annihilates a proton in the nucleus of a cancer cell, producing a pair of gamma rays, destroying the entire cell and some surrounding cells. Many fewer antiprotons are required in this treatment than in the equivalent proton hadron therapy, so there is less risk of healthy tissue damage.

  3. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)


    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A


    Sinziana BALTATESCU


    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis gave room for the theoretical debates to reemerge. The economic reality challenged the mainstream neoclassical approach leaving the opportunity for the Austrian School, Post Keynesianism or Institutionalists to bring in front theories that seem to better explain the economic crisis and thus, leaving space for more efficient economic policies to result. In this context, the main assumptions of the mainstream theoretical approach are challenged and reevaluated, behavioral economics is one of the main challengers. Without developing in an integrated school of thought yet, behavioral economics brings new elements within the framework of economic thinking. How are the main theoretical approaches integrating these new elements and whether this process is going to narrow the theory or enrich it to be more comprehensive are questions to which this paper tries to answer, or, at least, to leave room for an answer.


    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC


    Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.


    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC


    Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this...

  7. Intellectual Property: The Law and Economics Approach

    Posner, Richard A


    With the rise of the law and economics movement, the focus of economic analysis of intellectual property has begun to shift to more concrete and manageable issues concerning the structure and texture of the complicated pattern of common law and statutory doctrines, legal institutions and business practices relating to intellectual property. Among the issues discussed in this paper are the length of protection for intellectual property, the rules that allow considerable copying of intellectual...

  8. Approaches to economic evaluations of stroke rehabilitation.

    Craig, Louise E; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie; Langhorne, Peter


    Many stroke rehabilitation services and interventions are complex in that they involve a number of components, interactions, and outcomes. Much of the onus of stroke care lies with rehabilitation services and because stroke rehabilitation is highly resource intensive, it is important for policy makers to consider the potential trade-offs between all relevant costs and benefits. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess the methods used to conduct economic evaluations of stroke rehabilitation. Studies that compared two or more alternative stroke rehabilitation interventions or services with the costs and outcomes being examined for each alternative were included. EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process, and National Health Service's Economic Evaluation Database were searched using search strategies. The methodological quality of the included studies was appraised using a checklist for the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. The economic evaluations in the majority of these studies were inadequate based on their ability to identify, measure, and value all resources and benefits pertinent to the complexity of stroke rehabilitation. This study highlights that complex interventions such as stroke rehabilitation have widespread effects, which may not be represented by the changes on a single outcome. This study recommends the adoption of a wider cost and benefit perspective in the economic evaluations of complex interventions. It supports a move away from conventional economic evaluation and decision making, based purely on cost-effectiveness, toward multicriteria decision analysis frameworks for complex interventions, where a broader range of criteria may be assessed by policy makers.

  9. Heterogeneous Computing in Economics: A Simplified Approach

    Dziubinski, Matt P.; Grassi, Stefano

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of the C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (2011) we document a ...

  10. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    Sofo, Francesco


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  11. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO


    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  12. Rousseau, Happiness, and the Economic Approach to Education

    Gilead, Tal


    Since the 1960s, the influence of economic thought on education has been steadily increasing. Taking Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational thought as a point of departure, Tal Gilead critically inquires into the philosophical foundations of what can be termed the economic approach to education. Gilead's focus in this essay is on happiness and the…

  13. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Walter, G. R.


    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…


    M.O. Izotov


    Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

  15. A peptidomic approach for the identification of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides in sardinelle protein hydrolysates fermented by Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6.

    Jemil, Ines; Mora, Leticia; Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef; Toldrá, Fidel


    Antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (SPHs) obtained by fermentation with Bacillus subtilis A26 (SPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (SPH-An6) were investigated. Both hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays. Further, they were found to exhibit ACE-inhibitory activity. Peptides from SPH-A26 and SPH-An6 were analyzed by nESI-LC-MS/MS and approximately 800 peptides were identified. Identified peptides derived mainly from myosin (43% and 31% in SPH-An6 and SPH-A26, respectively). Several peptides identified in both hydrolysates were found to share sequences with previously identified antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides based on Biopep database. Some of these peptides were selected for synthesis and their biological activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized peptides, NVPVYEGY and ITALAPSTM were found to be the most effective ACE-inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.23mM, respectively. On the other hand, NVPVYEGY, which exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, showed the highest reducing power and peroxyl radical scavenging activities, followed by SLEAQAEKY and GTEDELDKY. The results of this study suggest that fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates are a good source of natural antioxidant peptides and could have the potential to act as hypotensive nutraceutical ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Schumpeter Innovation Theory: Contemporary Approach to Economic Ideas

    Zhylinska O. J.


    Full Text Available The author expanded the meaning of J. Shumpeter innovative approaches in the designing of cognitive tools of researching the economic development problems from the standpoint of becoming the methodological principles of nonclassical and postnonclassical science.

  17. An Organizational Economics Approach to Organizational Change in Emerging Economies

    Meisam Karami


    Full Text Available Organizational change in Transitional economies is influenced by multiple political, historical and economic factors not present in established market economies. This study proposes an organizational economics approach to organizational change in emerging economies. Based on transaction cost economics and resource based view, the cost of change is proposed as a mediator of change and perceived commitment to transition is proposed as antecedents of cost of change for organizations in emerging economies. The proposed approach has practical implications for government and organizations concerned with long-term development in emerging economies. It may provide a useful lens in studying the impact of government policies on organizational change in transitional economies.

  18. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa


    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  19. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John


    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.




    Full Text Available According to the "Constitutional Economics", which formes the basic point of view of the application of the Public Choice Theory to the economic policy, it is essential to make an economic analysis of the behavior of the actors who take part in the political process in order to determine the constitutional level of the authorities of the state and the limits of the state. The view that dominated until the beginning of the 1970s in economics was that the state would be able to achieve desirable macroeconomic targets with active demand policies. However, developments that emerged in these years can not be explained by traditional economic theories have brought with it a doubt that they will lead to demandoriented economic policies. The Constitutional Economics Approach, which finds its roots from the Social Contract Theory and Public Choice Theory, argues that the behavior of the units taking part in the political and economic field, questioning the active role of the state, can be transformed into arbitrary applications by acting from the Maximand primacy is regarded as an alternative to active economic policies. In this study, the foundations, assumptions and proposals of the theory of the Constitutional Economics will be examined, then the concept of transition economy will be explained and the role of the state in transition economies will be questioned and the importance of creating a fiscal constitution in this countries will be emphasized

  1. Higher Economic Education System. A Postindustrial Approach

    Ion Gh. Rosca


    Full Text Available Human society steps, with or without its willing, towards knowledge era which rises new exigencies for education and research. Universities are influenced and, in the same time, influence the new society. They define new duties, visions and aims according to the European common space organizing. New arguments appear as national priority, changes within concepts approaches are produced, universities adapt to new structures, integrate within education’s global market, ensuring a high level ofthe research and training services.

  2. Implementation of Potential of the Transdisciplinary Approaches in Economic Studies

    Stepanova, Tatiana E.; Manokhina, Nadeghda V.; Konovalova, Maria E.; Kuzmina, Olga Y.; Andryukhina, Lyudmila M.


    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the increasing interest in using potential of transdisciplinary approaches, and mathematical methods, which include the game theory in analysis of public and economic processes. The aim of the article is studying a possibility of implementation of the transdisciplinary approaches in economic…


    Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological treatments include weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction, increased potassium intake and reduction in alcohol consumption. ACE-inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (responsible for vasoconstriction. Various structure activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of ACE-inhibitors, some are under clinical development. This comprehensive review gives various guidelines on classification of hypertension, hypertension therapy including ancient, pharmacological, non-pharmacological therapies, pharmacoeconomics, historical perspectives of ACE, renin, renin angiotensin system (circulating vs local RAS, mechanism of ACE inhibitors, and development of ACE inhibitors. Review also emphasizes on the recent advancements on ACE inhibitors including drugs in clinical trials, computational studies on ACE-inhibitors, peptidomimetics, dual, natural, multi-functional ACE inhibitors, and conformational requirements for ACE-inhibitors.

  4. Evolution of approaches to economic security problems in Europe

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Toganova, Natalia; Gutnik, Anna


    The report, written by the experts of the Center for European Studies of IMEMO RAN – Dr. Alexey Kuznetsov, Natalia Toganova and Anna Gutnik – analyzes the evolution of the approaches to the problems of economic security in Europe. The report is prepared for the Commission of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative (EASI). The authors analyze the reasons why some economic problems in Europe cause the attention as the security problems. The report presents a study on transformation of the appr...

  5. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production


    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  6. Identity and individual economic agents: a narrative approach

    Davis, J.B.


    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t

  7. Regulating the Relationship between State and Religion: An Economic Approach

    A.M.I.B. Vandenberghe (Ann-Sophie)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In defining its relationship towards religion, the Dutch government is committed to the values of freedom of religion and neutrality. This article uses the economic approach to freedom of religion and state neutrality as a tool for looking at the existing Dutch policy

  8. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A


    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this philoso

  9. Identity and individual economic agents: a narrative approach

    J.B. Davis


    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t

  10. Identity and individual economic agents: a narrative approach

    J.B. Davis


    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses t

  11. Methodological Approaches To Economic Evaluation Of Forest Resources

    Igor Lytsur


    The article formed the complex process of economic assessment of forest resources and given it's definition. A new approach to determining costs for locking the main types of forest. Allocated forestry (in Keywords: forest) and forest harvesting (in forest exploitation) rents.

  12. Trajectories of Work Disability and Economic Insecurity Approaching Retirement.

    Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E


    In this article, we examine the connection between trajectories of work disability and economic precarity in late midlife. We conceptualize work disability as a possible mechanism linking early and later life economic disadvantage. We model trajectories of work disability characterized by timing and stability for a cohort of Baby Boomers (22-32 in 1981) using 32 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and latent class analysis. Measures of childhood disadvantage are included as predictors of work disability trajectories, which are subsequently included in logistic regression models predicting four economic outcomes (poverty, asset poverty, home ownership, and pension ownership) at ages 54-64. Childhood disadvantage selected individuals into five distinct classes of work disability that differed in timing and stability. All of the disability trajectories were associated with an increased risk of economic insecurity in late midlife compared to the never work disabled. This study contributes to the aging literature through its incorporation of the early life origins of pathways of disability and their links to economic outcomes approaching retirement. Findings suggest work disability is anchored in early life disadvantage and is associated with economic insecurity later in life.


    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping


    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  14. The Economic Security of Bank: Theoretical Basis and Systemic Approach

    Gavlovska Nataliia I.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing approaches to interpreting the category of «economic security of bank». A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security of bank» has been proposed, which should be understood as condition of protecting the vital interests of bank, achieved by harmonizing relationships with the entities of external influence and optimizing the internal system processes, thus enabling efficient function as well as development by means of an adaptation mechanism. A number of approaches to understanding the substance of the above concept has been allocated and their main characteristics have been provided. The need to study the specifics of interaction of banking institutions with the external environment in the context of interaction between the State agents and market actors has been underlined. Features of formation of the term of «system» have been defined, three main groups of approaches to interpretation of the term have been provided. A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security system of bank» has been proposed. A concrete definition of principles for building an economic security system of bank has been provided.

  15. The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.

    Gibbs, Michael


    This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them.

  16. A (reactive) lattice-gas approach to economic cycles

    Ausloos, Marcel; Clippe, Paulette; Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Peķalski, Andrzej


    A microscopic approach to macroeconomic features is intended. A model for macroeconomic behavior under heterogeneous spatial economic conditions is reviewed. A birth-death lattice gas model taking into account the influence of an economic environment on the fitness and concentration evolution of economic entities is numerically and analytically examined. The reaction-diffusion model can also be mapped onto a high-order logistic map. The role of the selection pressure along various dynamics with entity diffusion on a square symmetry lattice has been studied by Monte-Carlo simulation. The model leads to a sort of phase transition for the fitness gap as a function of the selection pressure and to cycles. The control parameter is a (scalar) “business plan”. The business plan(s) allows for spin-offs or merging and enterprise survival evolution law(s), whence bifurcations, cycles and chaotic behavior.

  17. Transaction Costs and Economic Performance: An Institutional Approach

    Cosmin MARINESCU


    Full Text Available The institutional arrangements, such as the property private order, market, law and other social institutions, governance, cannot function without certain costs. Such costs are not generally or necessarily measurable, but their identification helps understanding how the economic activity is organised and, therefore, appropriately explaining its performances. The study illustrates the fundamental theoretical research on the issue of transaction costs, as reflected in the institutional analysis entitled “Transaction Costs Economics”. The inherent connection between the transaction costs and the entrepreneurial activity indicates the need to restate and extend the neoclassical approach. The argument calls up the institutional context of the property rights, which are in fact decisive for the manifestation of entrepreneurship. The restatement of the approach relates to knowing the fact that the property rights and the transaction costs influence the entrepreneurial activity and, therefore, the overall economic performances.

  18. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    Perez, Darrin


    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  19. DAF: differential ACE filtering image quality assessment by automatic color equalization

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Saint-Jean, C.; Rizzi, A.


    Ideally, a quality assessment system would perceive and measure image or video impairments just like a human being. But in reality, objective quality metrics do not necessarily correlate well with perceived quality [1]. Plus, some measures assume that there exists a reference in the form of an "original" to compare to, which prevents their usage in digital restoration field, where often there is no reference to compare to. That is why subjective evaluation is the most used and most efficient approach up to now. But subjective assessment is expensive, time consuming and does not respond, hence, to the economic requirements [2,3]. Thus, reliable automatic methods for visual quality assessment are needed in the field of digital film restoration. The ACE method, for Automatic Color Equalization [4,6], is an algorithm for digital images unsupervised enhancement. It is based on a new computational approach that tries to model the perceptual response of our vision system merging the Gray World and White Patch equalization mechanisms in a global and local way. Like our vision system ACE is able to adapt to widely varying lighting conditions, and to extract visual information from the environment efficaciously. Moreover ACE can be run in an unsupervised manner. Hence it is very useful as a digital film restoration tool since no a priori information is available. In this paper we deepen the investigation of using the ACE algorithm as a basis for a reference free image quality evaluation. This new metric called DAF for Differential ACE Filtering [7] is an objective quality measure that can be used in several image restoration and image quality assessment systems. In this paper, we compare on different image databases, the results obtained with DAF and with some subjective image quality assessments (Mean Opinion Score MOS as measure of perceived image quality). We study also the correlation between objective measure and MOS. In our experiments, we have used for the first image

  20. [Economic cost of treating pressure ulcers: a theoretical approach].

    Silva, Ana Júlia; Pereira, Sandra Martins; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rocha, Ana Paula; Varela, Jesuína; Gomes, Luís Miguel; Messias, Norberto; Carvalhal, Rosa; Luís, Rui; Mendes, Luís Filipe Pereira


    The present study consisted of a theoretical approach to the problem posed by the economic costs associated with pressure ulcers (PUs). The initial aim was to assess the target problem from a conceptual perspective and then to report the results of prevalence studies that formed the basis for investigations of the disease's economic impact. The purpose of the present article is to discuss the economic costs associated with PUs from both the global point of view (appraising their financial repercussion) and the individual point of view (addressing the intangible costs). Regarding the economic impact of the costs associated with PUs, the total cost of treatment per healthcare setting was estimated relative to the Autonomous Community of Azores. The total cost of all the PU categories was EUR 7,086,415 in the homecare setting, EUR 1,723,509 in the hospital setting, and EUR 1,002,562 in older people's homes. Therefore, the estimated total treatment cost of all the PU categories was approximately EUR 9,812,486 in Azores. However, the emotional impact of this disease imposes high costs on patients and their relatives as a function of the resultant suffering. Indeed, PUs impose high costs not only related to the treatment but also related to the intangible costs of the suffering caused to patients and their caregivers.

  1. The Economics of Gasification: A Market-Based Approach

    Luis M. Abadie


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.. Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and missions (note that carbon constraints are looming. Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided.

  2. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    Hörl, W H


    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  3. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  4. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  5. Advanced Center for Engineering (ACE)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE™)The ACE Team provides the ability to conduct fullscale interactive virtual CAD reviews using the CAVE.CapabilitiesTARDEC's...

  6. ACE spectrum of LDPC codes

    Vukobratović Dejan


    Full Text Available Construction of short-length LDPC codes with good, both waterfall and error-floor, behavior is still an attractive research problem. Recently proposed construction algorithms in this field are based on remarkably simple ideas, but yet, their effectiveness can still be questioned. In this paper we investigate a novel measure of goodness of a given LDPC code namely its ACE spectrum, based on a previously introduced ACE metrics associated with each cycle in LDPC code graph.

  7. Reducing marine mammal bycatch in global fisheries: An economics approach

    Lent, Rebecca; Squires, Dale


    The broader ecosystem impacts of fishing continue to present a challenge to scientists and resource managers around the world. Bycatch is of greatest concern for marine mammals, for which fishery bycatch and entanglement is the number one cause of direct mortality. Climate change will only add to the challenge, as marine species and fishing practices adapt to a changing environment, creating a dynamic pattern of overlap between fishing and species (both target and bycatch). Economists suggest policy instruments for reducing bycatch that move away from top-down, command-and-control measures (e.g. effort reduction, time/area closures, gear restrictions, bycatch quotas) towards an approach that creates incentives to reduce bycatch (e.g. transferable bycatch allowances, taxes, and other measures). The advantages of this flexible, incentive-oriented approach are even greater in a changing and increasingly variable environment, as regulatory measures would have to be adapted constantly to keep up with climate change. Unlike the regulatory process, individual operators in the fishery sector can make adjustments to their harvesting practices as soon as the incentives for such changes are apparent and inputs or operations can be modified. This paper explores policy measures that create economic incentives not only to reduce marine mammal bycatch, but also to increase compliance and induce technological advances by fishery operators. Economists also suggest exploration of direct economic incentives as have been used in other conservation programs, such as payments for economic services, in an approach that addresses marine mammal bycatch as part of a larger conservation strategy. Expanding the portfolio of mandatory and potentially, voluntary, measures to include novel approaches will provide a broader array of opportunities for successful stewardship of the marine environment.

  8. Economic evaluations and diagnostic testing: an illustrative case study approach.

    Sanghera, Sabina; Orlando, Rosanna; Roberts, Tracy


    The aim of this study was to present a clear process of synthesizing test accuracy data when conducting economic evaluations of diagnostic tests for health technology assessment (HTA) assessors and health economists. We appraised the methods advocated for using diagnostic test accuracy data in economic evaluations. We used a case study of fetal anemia in which data from a screening test are used in combination with a confirmatory test. We developed a step-by-step guide and consider two scenarios: when data on test accuracy from several studies are based on (i) the same test threshold for positivity and (ii) different test thresholds. We conclude that each approach has its strengths and limitations. We show that the optimal operating point of the test should be identified to determine the true cost-effectiveness of the test. We advocate that these issues require a multidisciplinary team of health economists, decision modelers and statisticians.

  9. Strategies to promote success on the NCLEX-RN: an evidence-based approach using the ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation.

    Bonis, Susan; Taft, Lois; Wendler, M Cecilia


    This article describes an evidence-based project undertaken to develop and implement educational strategies to improve NCLEX-RN scores in a baccalaureate nursing program. The ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation, a tool used to assist in understanding the process of knowledge discovery and transformation in evidence-based practice, guided this project. A review of the literature revealed a downward trend in successful completion of the NCLEX-RN along with anecdotal reports of educational strategies intended to improve success on the exam. The literature review failed to uncover evaluations of the effectiveness of reported strategies. Resultant recommendations included an integrated strategy consisting of assessment testing, independent study, and simulated NCLEX examinations. Evaluation of the strategies revealed improved success on the NCLEX-RN. Pass rates from rose from 87.76 percent in fall 2001 to 94.81 percent in fall 2004.

  10. Economism

    P. Simons


    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  11. Modern environmental and economic approach of mining industry

    Carsten Drebenstedt


    Full Text Available In the article, the need of transition to the rational subsoil use (the alternative mining approach is proved, which unlike general one supposes the increasing of extraction rate of valuable components in the deposit and multiple use of raw materials, the maximizing recycling, the decreasing of land occupation, the increasing of the development period of deposit at some income decrease up to the moderate level, which is enough to provide the attraction for investors. The multicriteriality is considered as the crucial principle of rational subsoil use at taking management decisions, i.e. the considering of ecological, economic and social targets, aimed at receiving moderate profit at proper social and environmental standards. The graphic representation of models of the general mining approach and the alternative one allows to emphasize the specified advantages of transition to rational subsoil resources development and reflect them in design equation. In the paper, three performance strategies providing the implementation of the alternative approach are offered: full-field development, application ecologically and economically effective systems and the development processes, consideration of reclamation and minimization of long term environmental effects of mining

  12. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente


    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  13. Islamic Economics and Happiness Economics a Case Study on the Role of Central Banks in Approaching Human Wellbeing

    Fouad H. Beseiso


    Full Text Available This study explores the role played by the Islamic Economics in approaching Happiness Economics with a case study on the role of central banks in achieving human wellbeing. The study concluded that while a revolution emerged in the economic sciences field which is more effective and efficient, if accurately followed, in approaching human wellbeing, Central banking and the financial sector remained within its traditional role and functions aiming at economic and monetary stability. Only Islamic Banking and Finance and within the Islamic Economics from conceptual and pragmatic basis could be considered a welcomed development which might be building a corner stone for enabling a new role for banking and finance sector for approaching happiness economics from national to global perspective. 

  14. Discounts and their Effects - Economic and Legal Approach

    Funta Rastislav


    Full Text Available The present article discusses the economic and legal effects of single-product loyalty discounts. It is clear that arguments concerning the “pro-competitive” effects of such discounts must be judged with skepticism. This applies in particular to the assumed effects of loyalty discounts resulting from double profit surcharges or falling average costs, as well as in the context of price discrimination. I argue that many of the alleged effects could also be achieved with discount forms where the risk of restrictive effects on competition should be lower. Also, the assumed anti-competitive effects of loyalty discounts must be better justified economically. This article suggests using a form-based approach for the assessment of discount schemes. However, this should not amount to a restrictive assessment of certain discount schemes. For the development of such a form-based approach, it is necessary to review the theories about pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects. Therefore, this article attempts to identify which positive effects are more likely to be achieved by means of which discount forms and under which circumstances.

  15. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    V.G. Vygovskyy


    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.


    Gheorghe Săvoiu; Constantin Manea


    The main aim of this paper is to attempt a theoretical delineation of a new econoscience now known as financial econometrics, which is as a result of a dual approach, one originally from economics to econometrics, followed by another one, articulate, from financial economics to financial econometrics, both purely theoretical, simultaneously stressing the importance of economic and financial modelling, historically detailing the emergence and development of this new econoscience, outlining its...

  17. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    Schelleman, H; Klungel, O H; van Duijn, C M; Witteman, J C M; Hofman, A; de Boer, A; Stricker, B H Ch

    AIMS: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. METHODS: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who started ACE

  18. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    Bernath, P. F.


    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also called SCISAT, is a Canadian-led small satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. ACE was launched into a low Earth circular orbit by NASA on August 12, 2003 and it continues to function nominally. The ACE instruments are a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 μm (750-4400 cm-1), a spectrophotometer known as Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) with wavelength coverage of 285-1020 nm and two filtered detector arrays to image the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 μm. ACE operates in solar occultation mode to provide altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, atmospheric extinction and the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for several dozen molecules and related isotopologues. This paper presents a mission overview and a summary of selected scientific results.

  19. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio


    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  20. A Transactions Cost Economics Approach to Defense Acquisition Management


    and economic organization. American Economic Review , 62, 777-795. Ashby, W. R. (1960). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall... American Economic Review , 77, 168-185. Kadish et al. (2005, December). Defense acquisition performance assessment for the Acting Deputy Secretary...k^s^i=mlpqdo^ar^qb=p`elli= = Krueger, A. (1974). The political economy of the rent-seeking society. American Economic Review , 64, 291-303. Levy, B

  1. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also




    Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Microscopy) - ACE-M2R

    Weitz, David; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Bailey, Kelly Ann; Eustace, John G.


    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T6

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John; Lynch, Matthew


    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T6) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  5. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T9

    Marr, David W. M.; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John G.


    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T9) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  6. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Nicolai J. Foss


    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  7. Photonomics: automation approaches yield economic aikido for photonics device manufacture

    Jordan, Scott


    In the glory days of photonics, with exponentiating demand for photonics devices came exponentiating competition, with new ventures commencing deliveries seemingly weekly. Suddenly the industry was faced with a commodity marketplace well before a commodity cost structure was in place. Economic issues like cost, scalability, yield-call it all "Photonomics" -now drive the industry. Automation and throughput-optimization are obvious answers, but until now, suitable modular tools had not been introduced. Available solutions were barely compatible with typical transverse alignment tolerances and could not automate angular alignments of collimated devices and arrays. And settling physics served as the insoluble bottleneck to throughput and resolution advancement in packaging, characterization and fabrication processes. The industry has addressed these needs in several ways, ranging from special configurations of catalog motion devices to integrated microrobots based on a novel mini-hexapod configuration. This intriguing approach allows tip/tilt alignments to be automated about any point in space, such as a beam waist, a focal point, the cleaved face of a fiber, or the optical axis of a waveguide- ideal for MEMS packaging automation and array alignment. Meanwhile, patented new low-cost settling-enhancement technology has been applied in applications ranging from air-bearing long-travel stages to subnanometer-resolution piezo positioners to advance resolution and process cycle-times in sensitive applications such as optical coupling characterization and fiber Bragg grating generation. Background, examples and metrics are discussed, providing an up-to-date industry overview of available solutions.

  8. Economic growth rate management by soft computing approach

    Maksimović, Goran; Jović, Srđan; Jovanović, Radomir


    Economic growth rate management is very important process in order to improve the economic stability of any country. The main goal of the study was to manage the impact of agriculture, manufacturing, industry and services on the economic growth rate prediction. Soft computing methodology was used in order to select the inputs influence on the economic growth rate prediction. It is known that the economic growth may be developed on the basis of combination of different factors. Gross domestic product (GDP) was used as economic growth indicator. It was found services have the highest impact on the GDP growth rate. On the contrary, the manufacturing has the smallest impact on the GDP growth rate.

  9. ACE Phenotyping as a Guide Toward Personalized Therapy With ACE Inhibitors.

    Danilov, Sergei M; Tovsky, Stan I; Schwartz, David E; Dull, Randal O


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEI) are widely used in the management of cardiovascular diseases but with significant interindividual variability in the patient's response. To investigate whether interindividual variability in the response to ACE inhibitors is explained by the "ACE phenotype"-for example, variability in plasma ACE concentration, activity, and conformation and/or the degree of ACE inhibition in each individual. The ACE phenotype was determined in plasma of 14 patients with hypertension treated chronically for 4 weeks with 40 mg enalapril (E) or 20 mg E + 16 mg candesartan (EC) and in 20 patients with hypertension treated acutely with a single dose (20 mg) of E with or without pretreatment with hydrochlorothiazide. The ACE phenotyping included (1) plasma ACE concentration; (2) ACE activity (with 2 substrates: Hip-His-Leu and Z-Phe-His-Leu and calculation of their ratio); (3) detection of ACE inhibitors in patient's blood (indicator of patient compliance) and the degree of ACE inhibition (ie, adherence); and (4) ACE conformation. Enalapril reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in most patients; however, 20% of patients were considered nonresponders. Chronic treatment results in 40% increase in serum ACE concentrations, with the exception of 1 patient. There was a trend toward better response to ACEI among patients who had a higher plasma ACE concentration. Due to the fact that "20% of patients do not respond to ACEI by blood pressure drop," the initial blood ACE level could not be a predictor of blood pressure reduction in an individual patient. However, ACE phenotyping provides important information about conformational and kinetic changes in ACE of individual patients, and this could be a reason for resistance to ACE inhibitors in some nonresponders.

  10. A Continuing Approach, from Financial Economics to Financial Econometrics or the Econometric Thinking Applied to Financial Economics

    Gheorghe Săvoiu


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to attempt a theoretical delineation of a new econoscience now known as financial econometrics, which is as a result of a dual approach, one originally from economics to econometrics, followed by another one, articulate, from financial economics to financial econometrics, both purely theoretical, simultaneously stressing the importance of economic and financial modelling, historically detailing the emergence and development of this new econoscience, outlining its subject and objectives, and describing some of the most commonly used methods and models, while noting the presence of increasingly sharp competition of econophysics, sociophysics and economy quantum, in the universe of modelling the processes and phenomena in classical economics and financial economics.

  11. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel


    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  12. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio


    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1

  13. Emotions, perceptions and economic behavior. A critical-philosophical approach to the place of Psychology in Economics

    Vicente Caballero de la Torre


    Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior

  14. Economic modelling approaches to cost estimates for the control of carbon dioxide emissions

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.


    This article gives an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of a variety of economic modelling approaches commonly used for cost estimates for limiting carbon emissions, including the ad hoc approach, dynamic optimization approach, input-output approach, macroeconomic approach, computa

  15. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris


    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  16. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris


    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  17. Climate Change and Economic Development: A Pragmatic Approach (Invited Lecture)

    John Gowdy; Aneel Salman


    Two major problems promise to dominate economic and social policy during the twentyfirst century. These are global climate change and the growing gap between the rich and the poor. Economists are facing these issues at a time when many of the standard tools of economic analysis for example, competitive general equilibrium and the theoretical system that supports it have fallen into disfavour in analysing global issues involving uncertainty and irreversibility. This is both a challenge and an ...

  18. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ace): Latest Results

    Bernath, Peter F.


    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination orbit gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating in the 750-4400 cm^{-1} region, which provides the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored through the extinction of solar radiation using two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. After 14 years in orbit, the ACE-FTS is still operating well. A short introduction and overview of the ACE mission will be presented (see for more information). This talk will focus on recent ACE results and comparisons with chemical transport models.

  19. General relativistic observables for the ACES experiment

    Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T


    We develop a high-precision model for relativistic observables of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). We develop all relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of ACES in Earth orbit and to compute observable quantities. We analyze the accuracy of the required model as it applies to the proper-to-coordinate time transformations, light time equation, and spacecraft equations of motion. We consider various sources of nongravitational noise and their effects on ACES. We estimate the accuracy of orbit reconstruction that is needed to satisfy the ACES science objectives. Based on our analysis, we derive models for the relativistic observables of ACES, which also account for the contribution of atmospheric drag on the clock rate. We include the Earth's oblateness coefficient $J_2$ and the effects of major nongravitational forces on the orbit of the ISS. We demonstrate that the ACES reference frame is pseudo-inertial at th...

  20. Estimating economic losses from earthquakes using an empirical approach

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.


    We extended the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) empirical fatality estimation methodology proposed by Jaiswal et al. (2009) to rapidly estimate economic losses after significant earthquakes worldwide. The requisite model inputs are shaking intensity estimates made by the ShakeMap system, the spatial distribution of population available from the LandScan database, modern and historic country or sub-country population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, and economic loss data from Munich Re's historical earthquakes catalog. We developed a strategy to approximately scale GDP-based economic exposure for historical and recent earthquakes in order to estimate economic losses. The process consists of using a country-specific multiplicative factor to accommodate the disparity between economic exposure and the annual per capita GDP, and it has proven successful in hindcast-ing past losses. Although loss, population, shaking estimates, and economic data used in the calibration process are uncertain, approximate ranges of losses can be estimated for the primary purpose of gauging the overall scope of the disaster and coordinating response. The proposed methodology is both indirect and approximate and is thus best suited as a rapid loss estimation model for applications like the PAGER system.

  1. Correlation between polymorphism of ACE gene I/D and ACE2 gene A9570G and atrial fibrillation

    Ya-zhu WANG


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between the polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE gene I/D and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2 gene A9570G and atrial fibrillation.Methods In chronological order of hospitalization,305 patients were selected and divided into two groups: atrial fibrillation group(148 cases and control group(157cases without atrial fibrillation.The control group was matched with the atrial fibrillation group in terms of age,gender,and presence of left ventricular dysfunction,coronary heart disease,diabetes,and primary hypertension.The polymorphisms of the ACE gene I/D and ACE2 gene A9570G were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP and gene sequencing approach.Results There were no statistical differences between the atrial fibrillation group and the control group in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the ACE gene I/D(P=0.841;OR=0.948,95% CI 0.680-1.322,P=0.755.Moreover,there was no significant difference among the different genotypes of ACE gene I/D in the left and right atrial dimensions(P=0.887 and P=0.664,respectively.In the male subgroup,there was no statistical difference in the ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphism between the two groups(OR=1.631,95% CI 0.880-3.023,P=0.119.However,in the subgroup of males with atrial fibrillation,the left and right atrial dimensions of subjects with G genotype(40.1±6.4 and 40.1±5.7mm,respectively were larger than those with A genotype(37.0±4.4 and 36.5±4.4mm,respectively,indicating a statistical difference(P=0.028,P=0.010.In the female subgroup,there were no statistical differences between the atrial fibrillation group and the control group in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the ACE2 gene A9570G polymorphism(P=0.286;OR=1.415,95% CI 0.885-2.264,P=0.146.In the subgroup of females with atrial fibrillation,no significant difference was found in the left or right atrial dimension among the

  2. The Interaction of Obesity Related Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Economics: An Experimental Economics Approach with Mice

    Davis, George C.; Jacob, Jacy; Deborah J Good


    Food intake is greatly influenced by economic factors. Consequently, neuroeconomics has been identified as a new and important area for understanding the interaction between genotypes and phenotypes related to food intake. A foundational element of economics is choice between alternatives. Changing food choices are a central element in the explanation of the increasing obesity rates in human populations. The purpose of this research is to incorporate the key element of choice into the investi...

  3. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  4. Is the “Ecological and Economic Approach for the Restoration of Collapsed Gullies” in Southern China Really Economic?

    Chengchao Wang


    Full Text Available Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha−1 and 5477 RMB ha−1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is −3.60% and −8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  5. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    H. Schelleman (Hedi); O.H. Klungel (Olaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. de Boer (Anthonius); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)


    textabstractAims: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. Methods: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who

  6. POMB/ACE chemotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S


    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates.

  7. A new approach towards the enhancement of northeast Asian economic cooperation

    Chang-Jae Lee


    Full Text Available This study proposes the formation of the Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation Council (NAECC to discuss comprehensive economic cooperation and major economic issues between Korea, Japan and China. In order to meet the challenge of risign regionalism and to prevent another Asian economic crisis, it is imperative for the central governments of the region to involve themselves more actively in Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. Given the diversity of Northeast Asian countries, it seems to be more realistic to vegin with the central governments of the three major countries in terms of economic size. However, even amongst these three countries, the prospects for reaching a regional trade agreement such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, let alone a more advanced economic integration type like the EU, are quite dim in the foreseeable future. Thus, Korea, Japan and China must try to get as many benefits of economic integration as possible through a non-traditional approach.


    Iacobuta Andreea-Oana


    Full Text Available Ronald Coase article from 1937, The Nature of the Firm, meant a new way of thinking and conceiving of the world, especially of economic organisations. Coase argued that the firm and the market represent two alternative ways to organise the same transactio

  9. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Marta Gotz


    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  10. The economic impact of hunting: A regional approach

    Petrus van der Merwe


    Full Text Available The core of South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism.  Private game reserves and game farms which forms part of wildlife tourism constitute most of the wildlife products in South Africa.  On these private reserves and game farms, hunting is one of the major income generators for product owners.  The aim of this study is to analyse the economic impact of hunting on the regional economies of three of South Africa’s most important hunting provinces. The study used economic multipliers, input-output analysis, and related modelling processes through input-output (supply-use tables and social accounting matrices (SAM. The results differed significantly for the three provinces, with Limpopo receiving the biggest impact (R2.6 billion and the Free State having the highest multiplier (2.08. The geographical location of the game farms, the number of farms per province and the species available all influenced the magnitude of the economic impact of hunters over and above the traditional determinants of economic impact analysis. The implication of the research is that it will help product owners in the development of game farms or hunting products, contribute to policy formulation, especially for government decisions on what products to offer where, and how to create more jobs.

  11. A Christian Approach to Social and Economic Development ...

    ... economic etc. God. Himself, in biblical perspective, seems to expect this of any .... his happiness and joy towards them over their repentance and zeal in their new ..... topic in African Philosophy, this writer asked, have Africans made any deliberate .... SIM/ECWA History and Legacy in Nigeria 1893-1993 Vol. 1,. Nirobi: Int'l ...

  12. ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions

    Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Kuan, Tang-Ching; Cheng, Kun-Shan; Liao, Yan-Chiou; Chen, Mu-Yuan; Lin, Pei-Heng; Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Huang, Chen-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Hua; Yu, Sheng-Yao; Lin, Chih-Sheng


    Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates. Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28). Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions. Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy. PMID:23091417

  13. Differential regulation of renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 during ACE inhibition and dietary sodium restriction in healthy rats

    Hamming, I.; van Goor, H.; Turner, A. J.; Rushworth, C. A.; Michaud, A. A.; Corvol, P.; Navis, G.


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is thought to counterbalance ACE by breakdown of angiotensin (Ang) II and formation of Ang(1-7). Both enzymes are highly expressed in the kidney, but reports on their regulation differ. To enhance our understanding of the regulation of renal ACE and ACE2, we inv

  14. Energy and economic growth in the USA: a multivariate approach

    Stern, D.I. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies)


    This paper examines the casual relationship between Gross Domestic Product and energy use for the period 1947-90 in the United States of America. The relationship between energy use and economic growth has been examined by both biophysical and neoclassical economists. In particular, several studies have tested for the presence of a causal relationships (in the Granger sense) between energy use and economic growth. However, these tests do not allow a direct test of the relative explanatory powers of the neoclassical and biophysical models. A multivariate adaptation of the test-vector autoregression (VAR) does allow such a test. A VAR of GDP, energy use, capital stock and employment is estimated and Granger tests for causal relationships between the variables are carried out. Although there is no evidence that gross energy use Granger causes GDP, a measure of final energy use adjusted for changing fuel composition does Granger cause GDP. (author)




    Full Text Available The need for performance evaluation appears from the importance of the assessment of the available resources usage, the identification of the economic resources potential for future use and the capacity to generate cash flows. Practice has held a number of tools that provide information needed to assess the performance state, obviously, differentiated from one country to another corresponding to the particularities of each economic system and that are useful to a large number of people involved in the life of a trader. This article presents some performance characteristics and refers to the options of measuring the global performance by using the balanced scorecard, the Triple Bottom Line reporting and the GRI G3 guidelines.

  16. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Monica DOBRESCU


    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  17. Different Approaches in Addressing Internal and External Economic Imbalances



    This article analyzes the internal and external imbalances of China’s economy from a global perspective. The author believes that trade surplus and savings surplus are not the absolute metrics to define a country’s economic strength. China’s balance of payments has continued to maintain a big surplus, which shows China’s unique economic structure and growth model and exposes deep contradictions in income distribution, factor prices and resource allocation. While stimulating rapid growth, the imbalance of China’s economy, at the same time, has long delayed the upgrading of industrial structure, aggravating the threat of inflation and heightening concerns of an asset bubble. Although the external and internal imbalances are closely linked to each other, they are quite different in nature. This similar global economic imbalance has existed for a long time, and to a great extent, is inevitable and rational. However, internal imbalances caused by its own systems and policies, if lasted, would have severe and negative impacts not only on China’s economy, but on the global economy as a whole.

  18. Measuring economic growth in OPEC countries : A panel data approach

    Johnson Taiwo Olajide


    Full Text Available Most of the developing and under-developed countries have been facing a lot of challenges on the issue of economic growth, despite the fact that they are endowed with both natural and human resources. This study examines the determinants of real per Capita GDP growth in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC using a panel of twelve countries for the period of 1986 and 2010.The pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Fixed Effect (FE and Random Effect (RE models were employed to assess the relationship between CGDP and other economic variables used. The result showed that price level of consumptions (pc and investment share (ci are the important factors of CGDP that contribute to the economic growth of OPEC countries. The result also established that exchange rate (Xrat, price of GDP (p, purchasing power parity (ppp and ci have a positive influence on CGDP. The test statistic revealed that Random Effects Model (REM estimator is more efficient than OLS and that there is no significance difference between Fixed Effects Model (FEM and REM estimators.

  19. Examination of European Union economic cohesion: A cluster analysis approach

    Jiri Mazurek


    Full Text Available In the past years majority of EU members experienced the highest economic decline in their modern history, but impacts of the global financial crisis were not distributed homogeneously across the continent. The aim of the paper is to examine a cohesion of European Union (plus Norway and Iceland in terms of an economic development of its members from the 1st of January 2008 to the 31st of December 2012. For the study five economic indicators were selected: GDP growth, unemployment, inflation, labour productivity and government debt. Annual data from Eurostat databases were averaged over the whole period and then used as an input for a cluster analysis. It was found that EU countries were divided into six different clusters. The most populated cluster with 14 countries covered Central and West Europe and reflected relative homogeneity of this part of Europe. Countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Portugal and Spain shared their own cluster of the most affected countries by the recent crisis as well as the Baltics and the Balkans states in another cluster. On the other hand Slovakia and Poland, only two countries that escaped a recession, were classified in their own cluster of the most successful countries

  20. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Stéphane J. Baele


    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  1. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.


    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  2. Ace2, rather than ace1, is the major acetylcholinesterase in the silkworm, Bombyx moil

    Hui-Juan Chen; Zhen Liao; Xiao-Ming Hui; Guo-Qing Li; Fei Li; Zhao-Jun Han


    Two acetylcholinesterase (ace) genes have been reported in many insect species. In pests such as Helicoverpa assulta and Plutella xylostellas, acel gene encodes the predominant synaptic enzyme that is the main target of organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides. It has been reported that pesticide selection has an impact on the ace gene evolution. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, also has two ace genes. We studied ace gene expression and enzyme activities in silkworm as this has not faced pesticide selection over the past decades. The expression levels of two ace genes, Bm-acel and Bin-ace2, were estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bm-ace2 was expressed more highly than Bm-acel in all tested samples of different developmental stages or tissues, suggesting ace2, rather than ace 1, is the major type of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) in Bombyx mori. This is inconsistent with the aforementioned lepidopterons agricultural pests, partly be due to the widespread use of pesticides that may induce high expression of the acel gene in these pests. Besides high expression in the head, Bm-acel also expresses highly in the silk glands and Bm-ace2 is abundant in the germline, implying both ace genes may have potential non-hydrolytic roles in development. Furthermore, we found that the m_RNA levels of two ace genes and their ratios (ace2/ace1) change day to day in the first and third instars. This challenges the conventional method of estimating enzymatic activity using crude extract as an enzyme solution, as it is a mixture of ACHE1 and ACHE2. An efficient and simple method for separating different ACHEs is necessary for reliable toxicological analyses.

  3. Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    Eugenio-Martín, Juan Luis; Morales, Noelia Martín; Scarpa, Riccardo


    We consider the relationship between tourism and economic growth for Latin American countries since 1985 until 1998. The analysis proposed is based on a panel data approach and the Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panels. We obtain estimates of the relationship between economic growth and growth in tourists per capita conditional on main macroeconomic variables. We show that the tourism sector is adequate for the economic growth of medium or low-income countries, though not necessarily for...

  4. Role of the ACE2/Angiotensin 1-7 Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Heart Failure.

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Zhong, Jiu-Chang; Grant, Maria B; Oudit, Gavin Y


    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common cause of death and disability, and a major economic burden, in industrialized nations. Physiological, pharmacological, and clinical studies have demonstrated that activation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key mediator of HF progression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homolog of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase that converts angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) which, by virtue of its actions on the Mas receptor, opposes the molecular and cellular effects of angiotensin II. ACE2 is widely expressed in cardiomyocytes, cardiofibroblasts, and coronary endothelial cells. Recent preclinical translational studies confirmed a critical counter-regulatory role of ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis on the activated renin-angiotensin system that results in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Although loss of ACE2 enhances susceptibility to HF, increasing ACE2 level prevents and reverses the HF phenotype. ACE2 and Ang 1-7 have emerged as a key protective pathway against HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Recombinant human ACE2 has been tested in phase I and II clinical trials without adverse effects while lowering and increasing plasma angiotensin II and Ang 1-7 levels, respectively. This review discusses the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ACE2 and the role of the ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiology of HF. The pharmacological and therapeutic potential of enhancing ACE2/Ang 1-7 action as a novel therapy for HF is highlighted.

  5. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.


    Shukhrat Azimov


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the importance of systematic approach of the social-economical development in accordance with its generality, regionality, comparability, and logicality characteristics. There has been also given ideas about the importance of ‘nature-population-household-nature’ cycle in the stable ecological-social-economical development. 

  7. Economics.

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E


    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  8. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger


    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  9. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Bahri Sahin


    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  10. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda


    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  11. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Alternative Approaches to Causality Testing

    Rehdanz, Katrin (Christian-Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany)); Maddison, David J. (Univ. of Birmingham, Dept. of Economics, Birmingham (United Kingdom))


    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. More recently this technique has been extended to looking at the relationship between carbon emissions and GDP per capita. These analyses frequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper compares the standard fixed-dynamic-effects approach to a heterogenous panel approach testing for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP per capita and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity. Overall there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita

  12. Bounds test approach to cointegration and causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in India

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane


    This paper attempts to examine the dynamic relationship between economic growth, nuclear energy consumption, labor and capital for India for the period 1969-2006. Applying the bounds test approach to cointegration developed by we find that there was a short- and a long-run relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. Using four long-run estimators we also found that nuclear energy consumption has a positive and a statistically significant impact on India's economic growth. Further, applying the approach to Granger causality and the variance decomposition approach developed by, we found a positive and a significant uni-directional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth without feedback. This implies that economic growth in India is dependent on nuclear energy consumption where a decrease in nuclear energy consumption may lead to a decrease in real income. For a fast growing energy-dependent economy this may have far-reaching implications for economic growth. India's economic growth can be frustrated if energy conservation measures are undertaken without due regard to the negative impact they have on economic growth. (author)


    Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera


    Full Text Available Despite relatively cheap mobility and intensive globalization processes, the place attachment remains an important part the human existence (Lewicka, 2010:226, . Our aim is to understand the evolution of the place attachment. For this purpose we apply evolutionary game theory with the replicator dynamics and we follow the literature on the identity economics. A novelty which Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce is that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her identity in order to maximize her own utility. In other words, the choice of identity and activities is separated. Pavlinović (2012 develops a basic evolutionary game-theory model of spatial identity where agents can only act in line with their own identity. On the contrary, Akerlof i Kranton (2000 introduce the assumption that an individual may choose an activity opposite to her. Thus, we modify the model in Pavlinović (2012 and consider the choice of identity and action separately. We explore if this modification significantly affects the results.

  14. Financial fluctuations anchored to economic fundamentals: A mesoscopic network approach.

    Sharma, Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Balagopal; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakraborti, Anirban


    We demonstrate the existence of an empirical linkage between nominal financial networks and the underlying economic fundamentals, across countries. We construct the nominal return correlation networks from daily data to encapsulate sector-level dynamics and infer the relative importance of the sectors in the nominal network through measures of centrality and clustering algorithms. Eigenvector centrality robustly identifies the backbone of the minimum spanning tree defined on the return networks as well as the primary cluster in the multidimensional scaling map. We show that the sectors that are relatively large in size, defined with three metrics, viz., market capitalization, revenue and number of employees, constitute the core of the return networks, whereas the periphery is mostly populated by relatively smaller sectors. Therefore, sector-level nominal return dynamics are anchored to the real size effect, which ultimately shapes the optimal portfolios for risk management. Our results are reasonably robust across 27 countries of varying degrees of prosperity and across periods of market turbulence (2008-09) as well as periods of relative calmness (2012-13 and 2015-16).

  15. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Ogawa, N


    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  16. Hierarchical economic potential approach for techno-economic evaluation of bioethanol production from palm empty fruit bunches.

    Do, Truong Xuan; Lim, Young-Il; Jang, Sungsoo; Chung, Hwa-Jee


    A hierarchical four-level approach to determine economic potential (4-level EP) is proposed for preliminary techno-economic analysis of new processes. The 4-level EP includes input/output structure, process flow structure, heat integration (HI), and economic feasibility. Two case studies on a 30.2 t/d (or 12.7 million l/yr) bioethanol plant with and without jet fuel production from palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated by applying the 4-level EP. The plant flowsheet was established based on experiments in a 0.1t/d pilot plant, including sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment, and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). EP approached a more reliable value through the hierarchical 4-level EP. The heating energy was reduced considerably by HI. The product value was estimated at $0.8-$1.3/kg of equivalent bioethanol. It was suggested through sensitivity analysis that a large plant size, enhanced production yields, and capital cost reduction were necessary for the lignocellulosic bioethanol production to be profitable.

  17. Innovative development of universities: organizational and economic approach

    Belokrylova Olga, S.


    Full Text Available It is shown that the innovative activity of universities in Russia is always accompanied by the organizational changes carried out in the framework of the concept of stage-by-stage approach – a combination of natural and subjectively rational principle and based on intra-organizational integration of all subjects of University ethos for joint decisions in the field of organizational change. The authors analyze the mission transformation of universities determined by formation of information society which now is including not only development of the human capital, but also creation of knowledge as the competitive product possessing the essential production and social importance.

  18. Listing of Available ACE Data Tables

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document is divided into multiple sections. Section 2 lists some of the more frequently used ENDF/B reaction types that can be used with the FM input card. The remaining sections (described below) contain tables showing the available ACE data tables for various types of data. These ACE data libraries are distributed by the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) with MCNP6.

  19. A CDT-Based Heuristic Zone Design Approach for Economic Census Investigators

    Changixu Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper addresses a special zone design problem for economic census investigators that is motivated by a real-world application. This paper presented a heuristic multikernel growth approach via Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT. This approach not only solved the barriers problem but also dealt with the polygon data in zoning procedure. In addition, it uses a new heuristic method to speed up the zoning process greatly on the premise of the required quality of zoning. At last, two special instances for economic census were performed, highlighting the performance of this approach.

  20. Hypoglycemia, S-ACE and ACE genotypes in a Danish nationwide population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet; Bergholdt, Regine


    OBJECTIVE: High S-ACE levels have been shown to predispose to increased risk of hypoglycemia, however; some inconsistency relates to the risk of the ACE genotype. We investigated the association between S-ACE level at diagnosis and ACE genotype to long-term risk of severe hypoglycemia in more than...

  1. ACE polymorphism does not determine short-term renal response to ACE-inhibition in proteinuric patients

    vanderKleij, FGH; Navis, GJ; Gansevoort, RT; Scheffer, H; deZeeuw, D; deJong, PE


    Background. The renal response to ACE inhibition is known to vary between individuals. The ACE genotype is a determinant of the ACE concentrations in plasma and tissue, and therefore might affect the renal response to ACE inhibition in renal patients. Methods. To test this hypothesis we studied the

  2. Hypoglycemia, S-ACE and ACE genotypes in a Danish nationwide population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet; Bergholdt, Regine


    High S-ACE levels have been shown to predispose to increased risk of hypoglycemia, however; some inconsistency relates to the risk of the ACE genotype. We investigated the association between S-ACE level at diagnosis and ACE genotype to long-term risk of severe hypoglycemia in more than 1000...

  3. A Memetic Approach for Improving Minimum Cost of Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Jinho Kim


    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch problem is a popular optimization problem in electrical power system field, which has been so far tackled by various mathematical and metaheuristic approaches including Lagrangian relaxation, branch and bound method, genetic algorithm, tabu search, particle swarm optimization, harmony search, and Taguchi method. On top of these techniques, this study proposes a novel memetic algorithm scheme combining metaheuristic algorithm and gradient-based technique to find better solutions for an economic load dispatch problem with valve-point loading. Because metaheuristic algorithms have the strength in global search and gradient-based techniques have the strength in local search, the combination approach obtains better results than those of any single approach. A bench-mark example of 40 generating-unit economic load dispatch problem demonstrates that the memetic approach can further improve the existing best solutions from the literature.

  4. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    Schoeberl, Mark


    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  5. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A


    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.

  6. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Zhukov Andrii V.


    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  7. Traditional vs. Modern Approaches in Business English Teaching in the Economic Field


    This paper aims to examine different techniques and approaches used in teaching and learning business English in the economic field. Besides applying the already well-known methods used in second language acquisition, we also tried to incorporate computer-mediated communication into the communicative approach. At all times, the choice of the methods and approaches used in teaching business English has focused on our students' needs in their vocation or job. We worked with two groups of studen...

  8. John Dewey’s theory of democracy and its links with the heterodox approach to economics.

    Arturo Hermann


    Full Text Available John Dewey is one of the most significant figures in pragmatist philosophy, an approach which he systematically applied to the study of economic, social and cultural structure. In our work, we will focus on the main aspects of Dewey’s approach to the study of aspects that make up “human nature” and how do they interact with the characteristics of the cultural context. We will illustrate how the concepts elaborated by Dewey can contribute to the heterodox analysis of a host of economic and social issues. Dewey highlights the crucial role of public policies for facilitating the development of volunteer associations in all areas of the social structure. In the analysis of these aspects, Dewey’s key contribution lies in removing the concepts of democracy and participation from the limbo of abstraction in which they tended to be confined by previous approaches and connecting them to the evolution of economic and social forms.

  9. Associations of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression with hypertension in a Chinese population.

    Qingfang He

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994 polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored.The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases and 221 normotensives (controls were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR. We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension.The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97, and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92, DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73, respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18 was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls.ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH.

  10. Review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements

    Wekesa, BW


    Full Text Available a literature survey, this paper reviews physical and socio-economic characteristics and the factors attributed to proliferation of the informal settlements and intervention approaches. The main objective was to establish how such settlements could...-1 Habitat International Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 238-245 A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements B.W. Wekesaa, b, , , G.S. Steyna, 1, , F.A.O. (Fred) Otienoc, 2, , a...

  11. The Contribution of the Neo-Schumpeterian Approach to the Development of the Economic Theory: Emphasis on the Meso-Economic Level

    Radu HERMAN


    Full Text Available This article tries to show that there are alternative approaches to the economic theory, besides the well-known economic schools, Classicism, Neoclassicism and Keynesianism. The neoclassical principles allow a formalization – widely accepted by experts – that provide effective tools for measuring the effects of the economic activity. The economic science pays a special attention to the study of the economic agents’ behaviors, and to the economic results obtained by them through economic activity. Any human science uses principles and works with assumptions, and the neoclassical assumptions have generated efficient tools for quantifying the economic outcomes, and for accounting the economic growth. But these hypothesis, such as the assumption of economic agents’ rationality, allow a very limited understanding of the behaviors of economic agents within the markets. The recent invention of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance device, allowed the emrgence of a new scientific paradigm, the development of neurosciences. Researchers can observe at a high level of graphic detail various types of activities that occur in the human brain, and some economists have introduced in the study of the economic theory, for example, the assumption that the consumer is driven by emotions when purchasing quantities of goods and services. So, economists may look for additional theories to explain the behavior of the economic agents. An increasingly importance is given to the theoretical contributions built on the work of the economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter, who has an original economic approach based on his own principles. It is proposed to focus the attention on a mesoeconomic vision about the industry, to understand how resources are being allocated and reallocated between companies, and to study the economic processes of evolution, which are influenced by the emergence and dissemination of the innovations. It is supposed that the price is allocating the

  12. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Kosyrieva Olena V.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  13. The Effects of Unemployment on Economic Growth in Greece. An ARDL Bound Test Approach.

    Nikolaos Dritsakis


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between unemployment rate, economic growth and inflation rate in Greece, using annual data covering the period 1995-2015. The unit root tests results indicated that the variables have different integration order. Subsequently, the bounds testing (ARDL approach and ECM-ARDL model are applied in order to examine the long-run and the causal relationship between the variables. The empirical results of the study revealed, both in the short and long-run, that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between unemployment and economic growth with direction from unemployment to economic growth, as well as a unidirectional causality running from inflation to economic growth.

  14. Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.

    Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed


    We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

  15. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Muhamad Abduh


    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  16. Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach

    David S Cobden


    Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic

  17. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

    Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.


    This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...

  18. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    Goulah, Jason


    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  19. A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.

    Pestle, Ruth

    A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

  20. Methodological approaches to developing a plan of land and economic unit of the settlement

    Dorosh, O.


    This paper deals with problematic of legislation, the legal relations regulated by which are associated with the use of land in the settlements of Ukraine. Methodological approaches on the development of the plan on land-economic settlements unit have been suggested. It is proved that the land management documentation provides an effective planning of the territorial development of urban and rural settlements.

  1. Efficiency at Faculties of Economics in the Czech Public Higher Education Institutions: Two Different Approaches

    Flégl, Martin; Vltavská, Kristýna


    The paper evaluates research and teaching efficiency at faculties of economics in the public higher education institutions in the Czech Republic. Evaluation is provided in two periods between the years 2006-2010 and 2007-2011. For this evaluation the Data Envelopment Analysis and Index approach are used. Data Envelopment Analysis measures research…

  2. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal using cointegration and causality approaches

    Shahbaz, Muhammad [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Tang, Chor Foon, E-mail: [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shahbaz Shabbir, Muhammad [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign (United States)


    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal using the cointegration and Granger causality frameworks. This study covers the sample period from 1971 to 2009. We examine the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship using the bounds testing approach to cointegration within the Unrestricted Error-Correction Model (UECM). Moreover, we examine the direction of causality between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal using the Granger causality test within the Vector Error-Correction Model (VECM). As a summary of the empirical findings, we find that electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal are cointegrated and there is bi-directional Granger causality between the three variables in the long-run. With the exception of the Granger causality between electricity consumption and economic growth, the rest of the variables are also bi-directional Granger causality in the short-run. Furthermore, we find that there is unidirectional Granger causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption, but no evidence of reversal causality. - Highlights: > We re-examine the relationship between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal. > The electricity consumption and economic growth is causing each other in the long-run. > In the short-run, economic growth Granger-cause electricity consumption, but no evidence of reversal causality. > Energy conservation policy will deteriorate the process of economic growth in the long-run. > Portugal should increase investment on R and D to design new energy savings technology.




    Full Text Available Today’s economic reality contains a certain degree of uncertainty that often prevail economic rationality, affecting economic growth. Recent European and political agendas put a robust emphasis on the importance of social dimension of growth and try to shift the focus from economic evidence to social outcomes. The debt is currently a sensitive issue for most European countries and ordinary individuals, thus creating significant imbalances regarding perceived economic wealth and wellbeing at national and individual level. But debt is also associated with fast money and short term prosperity that can engine business and support living, thus economic growth. The paper makes a repositioning evaluation of the social domain into European political agendas, towards a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the Europeans. It encompasses an evaluation of the relevance of European growth on its economic development and sustainability. Rebalancing finance and economic priorities with a strong commitment to social priorities is the main reorientation target of the political agenda. There’s a growing need for shifting the focus to qualitative facets of growth and European testimonials, for an ascending journey to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, representing a continuing approach of EU’s root ideals. Thus, the paper proposes an analysis of GDP evolution in relation to debt to GDP ratio indicator and social factors, as an alternative impact evaluation played by the social system and debt for a country’s performance, representing an alternative way for assessing economic growth in relation to wellbeing. The results show a significant dependence of growth to debt to GDP ratio and social indicators such as population at risk to poverty rate, unemployment rate, life expectancy and expected years of schooling

  4. The role of ACE2 in cardiovascular physiology.

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Crackower, Michael A; Backx, Peter H; Penninger, Josef M


    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in cardiovascular and renal function and in disease conditions, and has been shown to be a far more complex system than initially thought. A recently discovered homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)--ACE2--appears to negatively regulate the RAS. ACE2 cleaves Ang I and Ang II into the inactive Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7, respectively. ACE2 is highly expressed in kidney and heart and is especially confined to the endothelium. With quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, ACE2 was defined as a QTL on the X chromosome in rat models of hypertension. In these animal models, kidney ACE2 messenger RNA and protein expression were markedly reduced, making ACE2 a candidate gene for this QTL. Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice failed to elicit hypertension, but resulted in severe impairment in myocardial contractility with increased angiotensin II levels. Genetic ablation of ACE in the ACE2 null mice rescued the cardiac phenotype. These genetic data show that ACE2 is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo. Basal renal morphology and function were not altered by the inactivation of ACE2. The novel role of ACE2 in hydrolyzing several other peptides-such as the apelin peptides, opioids, and kinin metabolites-raises the possibility that peptide systems other than angiotensin and its derivatives also may have an important role in regulating cardiovascular and renal function.

  5. Formation of the Integrated Approach to the Assessment of the Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Valentina Vasilievna Kislitsyna


    Full Text Available The integrated approach to the assessment of the socio-economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation, which is characterized by systematic character and novelty, is presented in the article. This approach is based on the modern techniques used in this sphere. The main purpose of the comprehensive assessment of a region’s socio-economic development level is the elaboration of a possible solution for the strategic development issues taking into account spatial, geographical, natural, socioinstitutional and other features. The authors propose to estimate the socio-economic climate of the subjects of the Russian Federation by the average values of socio-economic indexes for the three-year period. For comparability of multitemporal indicators and regional distinctions, the indicators measured in monetary units are transformed in the form of their relation to the cost of the fixed set of consumer goods and services. In addition, we estimate the dynamics of comparable indicators in absolute and relative expression and introduce scales for the assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic situation and a level of quality (stability of dynamics. On the basis of this technique, the authors examine the socio-economic situation of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012–2014. As a result, we have revealed one of the problems of socio-economic development — the imbalance of the dynamics of the main socio-economic indexes. In the studied period, 7 regions have shown moderate or high growth of the integrated indicator (not less than 9 %, but in 4 of them, the growth was unbalanced of poor quality. Moreover, further 11 regions have shown a considerable and unbalanced decrease in the social-economic situation. This has been revealed on the basis of the integrated indicator. Thus, the offered approach can be applied for an assessment of the level of socio-economic development in Russian regions in medium-term prospect. It can be

  6. Betydningen af deletionspolymorfi i ACE-genet for progression af ACE-haemmerbehandlet diabetisk nyresygdom

    Tarnow, L; Parving, H H; Jacobsen, P


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene on progression of diabetic nephropathy. We performed an observational follow-up study of 35 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Pati...... 3.7) versus 2.6 (2.8) ml/min/year, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the deletion polymorphism in the ACE gene reduces the long term beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes....

  7. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.


    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  8. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach

    Ghosh, Sajal, E-mail: [Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)


    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth.

  9. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India. A multivariate cointegration approach

    Ghosh, Sajal [Assistant, Professor, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)


    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth. (author)




    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  11. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    Bernath, P.


    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  12. Allocating Risks in Public-Private Partnerships Using a Transaction Cost Economic Approach: A Case Study

    Xioa-Hua Jin


    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP projects are often characterisedby increased complexity and uncertainty due to their idiosyncrasyin the management and delivery processes such as long-termlifecycle, incomplete contracting, and the multitude of stakeholders.An appropriate risk allocation is particularly crucial to achievingproject success. This paper focuses on the risk allocation in PPPprojects and argues that the transaction cost economics (TCEtheory can integrate the economics part, which is currently missing,into the risk management research. A TCE-based approach isproposed as a logical framework for allocating risks between publicand private sectors in PPP projects. A case study of the SouthernCross Station redevelopment project in Australia is presented toillustrate the approach. The allocation of important risks is putunder scrutiny. Lessons learnt are discussed and alternativemanagement approaches drawing on TCE theory are proposed.

  13. New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR

    Carol Vlassoff


    Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

  14. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof


    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  15. Economic capacity estimation in fisheries: A non-parametric ray approach

    Pascoe, Sean; Tingley, Diana [Centre for the Economics and Management of Aquatic Resources (CEMARE), University of Portsmouth, Boathouse No. 6, College Road, HM Naval Base, Portsmouth PO1 3LJ (United Kingdom)


    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has generally been adopted as the most appropriate methodology for the estimation of fishing capacity, particularly in multi-species fisheries. More recently, economic DEA methods have been developed that incorporate the costs and benefits of increasing capacity utilisation. One such method was applied to estimate the capacity utilisation and output of the Scottish fleet. By comparing the results of the economic and traditional DEA approaches, it can be concluded that many fleet segments are operating at or close to full capacity, and that the vessels defining the frontier are operating consistent with profit maximising behaviour. (author)

  16. New approaches to the design and economics of EHV transmission plant

    Jones, Brian


    New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV Transmission Plant examines the limitations of EHV transmission plant. Analysis is also covered in the book to correct these limitations. The concept behind EHV is that allowable transfer of electricity is related to the square of the voltage. Factors such as the expense of supplying a certain volume of electricity over a given distance and creations of power stations are examined. The book provides economic studies of alternative design policies based on estimation of costs and benefits of the design parameters. The text also focuses on the pr

  17. A Framework for an Organic Approach for the Analysis of Institutional Transplants in the Economic Context

    Dyanko Minchev


    Full Text Available Institutional transplants is the name given to formal institutions which are transferred from one institutional setting to another. They are one of the possible channels for institutional change. The success of an institutional transplant depends on its interaction with its new environment. Previous research, based on the methodology of neoclassical economics (and to some extent - of the new institutional economics, is limited in its ability to predict the success of such transplants. We propose a framework for an organic approach for the analysis of institutional transplants in the economic context, which has a potential to overcome these limitations. This could enable policy-makers to take better decisions when undertaking institutional reforms.

  18. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu


    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Approaches to diagnosis social and economic potential of regions as the basis for effective management strategies

    N.V. Kuzminchuk


    Full Text Available The aim of article. The aim of article is development and justification of the directions of an effective strategy of regional development based on quantitative evaluation and analysis of the socio-economic potential of the region. The results of the analysis. In the article the methods of quantitative evaluation and analysis of the socio-economic potential of the region (in terms of regional resources, resulting in a set that is still no unified system of regional development and general methods of combining these indicators into one integrated quantitative index. All this creates problems when assessing and managing the development of the region. Based on the concept of socio-economic potential of the region, proposed the evaluation of regional resources to carry out the following blocks: human resources, property potential social potential. Summarizing the analysis of views of scientists on the possible assessment of the level of socio-economic potential of the region, we note that despite the constant improvement of definitions and study the factors that influence its components (human resources, property potential social potential scorecard is imperfect and methodical approach to determine the integral index of socio-economic potential – incomplete or representative. The value of the proposed approach is the ability to explore and comprehensively assess the current level of social and economic potential of the region at any given time. The proposed system of indicators to assess regional resources will solve the problem of lack of unity in the evaluation of selected indicators and provide an opportunity to determine the main direction of improvement of regional development based on the results. The main directions of effective strategy of regional development based on the results of quantitative assessment and analysis of the socio-economic potential of the region should increase national wealth by optimizing the use of resources in the

  20. Identification and characterisation of the angiotensin converting enzyme-3 (ACE3 gene: a novel mammalian homologue of ACE

    Phelan Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Although multiple ACE-like proteins exist in non-mammalian organisms, to date only one other ACE homologue, ACE2, has been identified in mammals. Results Here we report the identification and characterisation of the gene encoding a third homologue of ACE, termed ACE3, in several mammalian genomes. The ACE3 gene is located on the same chromosome downstream of the ACE gene. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modelling have been employed to characterise the predicted ACE3 protein. In mouse, rat, cow and dog, the predicted protein has mutations in some of the critical residues involved in catalysis, including the catalytic Glu in the HEXXH zinc binding motif which is Gln, and ESTs or reverse-transcription PCR indicate that the gene is expressed. In humans, the predicted ACE3 protein has an intact HEXXH motif, but there are other deletions and insertions in the gene and no ESTs have been identified. Conclusion In the genomes of several mammalian species there is a gene that encodes a novel, single domain ACE-like protein, ACE3. In mouse, rat, cow and dog ACE3, the catalytic Glu is replaced by Gln in the putative zinc binding motif, indicating that in these species ACE3 would lack catalytic activity as a zinc metalloprotease. In humans, no evidence was found that the ACE3 gene is expressed and the presence of deletions and insertions in the sequence indicate that ACE3 is a pseudogene.

  1. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Hyun-jun Cho


    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  2. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Latest Results

    Bernath, P.


    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO extends the wavelength coverage to the 400-1000 nm spectral region. The principal investigator for MAESTRO is T. McElroy of the Meteorological Service of Canada. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE is part of the Canadian Space Agency's small satellite program, and was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters ( in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics by K. Walker and K. Strong. A mission overview and status report will be presented. Science results for a few selected topics including the detection of organic molecules such as methanol and formaldehyde in the troposphere will be discussed.

  3. Comparing top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for economic evaluation within social welfare.

    Olsson, Tina M


    This study compares two approaches to the estimation of social welfare intervention costs: one "top-down" and the other "bottom-up" for a group of social welfare clients with severe problem behavior participating in a randomized trial. Intervention costs ranging over a two-year period were compared by intervention category (foster care placement, institutional placement, mentorship services, individual support services and structured support services), estimation method (price, micro costing, average cost) and treatment group (intervention, control). Analyses are based upon 2007 costs for 156 individuals receiving 404 interventions. Overall, both approaches were found to produce reliable estimates of intervention costs at the group level but not at the individual level. As choice of approach can greatly impact the estimate of mean difference, adjustment based on estimation approach should be incorporated into sensitivity analyses. Analysts must take care in assessing the purpose and perspective of the analysis when choosing a costing approach for use within economic evaluation.

  4. Health and economic impacts of air pollution in China: a comparison of the general equilibrium approach and human capital approach.

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hong-Wei; Masui, Toshihiko


    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities. The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26 per thousand (ranging from 0.44 per thousand to 1.84 per thousand) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38 per thousand (ranging from 0.16 per thousand to 0.51 per thousand). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  5. Health and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution in China: A Comparison of the General Equilibrium Approach and Human Capital Approach



    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities.The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26‰ (ranging from 0.44‰ to 1.84‰) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38‰ (ranging from 0.16‰ to 0.51‰). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  6. Skeletal muscle strength in older adults. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE genotype affects: an UPDATE



    Full Text Available Problem Statement : Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with variability inthe skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations.Approach: The purpose of this study was to review the most important studies that have been exanimate thepossible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and femaleathletes involved in elderly populations. This research is needed because the possibility that the DD genotypemay be associated with a greater proportion of fast twitch fibers could explain the influence of the ACE D alleleupon strength/ power, particularly at high velocities, but this evidence remains equivocal in older people becausemore studies are necessary.Results: Thus, according to scientific evidence, changes in muscle strength with exercise training in olderindividuals may be dependent on ACE I/D genotype. Of note, the results provide a novel insight that thesegenetic variations may interact to determine muscle mass in older women specially. The determination of thispredisposition in this population, highlighting the interest of study, for the prophylactic attitude on the factorsand causes of aging (sarcopenia, osteoporosis, risk of falls, reduction of functional physical go through thisanalysis.Conclusions/Recommendations: In this work, the state of the art related to the influence of the ACE genotypeon skeletal muscle strength was presented and some important relations were reported

  7. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Sorin Briciu


    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  8. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    of secondary marine products. The approach in this study is to hydrolyse skin and belly flap tissue from Salmon with the use of mammalian digestive proteases from pancreas and intestinal mucosa and test hydrolysates for antioxidative capacity, intestinal DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE...... amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...... and pancreatin + mucosa hydrolysates. No DH was obtained for tissues hydrolysed with only intestinal mucosa extract. Preliminary results showed antioxidant activity and intestinal DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity in 10 kDa fraction from both belly flap and skin hydrolysates but with a higher antioxidative...

  9. AceWiki: Collaborative Ontology Management in Controlled Natural Language

    Kuhn, Tobias


    AceWiki is a prototype that shows how a semantic wiki using controlled natural language - Attempto Controlled English (ACE) in our case - can make ontology management easy for everybody. Sentences in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic, OWL, or SWRL. AceWiki integrates the OWL reasoner Pellet and ensures that the ontology is always consistent. Previous results have shown that people with no background in logic are able to add formal knowledge to AceWiki without being instructed or trained in advance.

  10. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.

  11. A methodological approach for landslide economic damage estimation in rural contexts

    C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica


    Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural

  12. PAPR reduction in FBMC using an ACE-based linear programming optimization

    van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan


    This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as

  13. Seeds of Solutions(TM): An economical & efficient approach towards power engineering education

    Alvarez, Eli

    Power demands are set to increase over the next twenty years; however, research shows that there may be a shortage of power engineers due to an appreciable percentage of the current power engineer workforce retiring, insufficient enrollment in power engineering programs and a lack of emphasis in power engineering at the university level. This thesis provides supporting research for future power demands, workforce and faculty shortages. Using temporary research in modern learning / teaching styles, student / teacher perceptions, educational trends and regional course offerings, this thesis describes a learning approach towards power engineering education. Designed specifically for universities with little to no power engineering course offerings and universities that wish to augment their existing approach, the approach incorporates an emphasis in fundamentals and engineering design making it economical and easy to implement. This thesis also includes three (3) video laboratory examples incorporating all elements of the approach.

  14. A predictive modeling approach to increasing the economic effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Bayerstadler, Andreas; Benstetter, Franz; Heumann, Christian; Winter, Fabian


    Predictive Modeling (PM) techniques are gaining importance in the worldwide health insurance business. Modern PM methods are used for customer relationship management, risk evaluation or medical management. This article illustrates a PM approach that enables the economic potential of (cost-) effective disease management programs (DMPs) to be fully exploited by optimized candidate selection as an example of successful data-driven business management. The approach is based on a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) that is easy to apply for health insurance companies. By means of a small portfolio from an emerging country, we show that our GLM approach is stable compared to more sophisticated regression techniques in spite of the difficult data environment. Additionally, we demonstrate for this example of a setting that our model can compete with the expensive solutions offered by professional PM vendors and outperforms non-predictive standard approaches for DMP selection commonly used in the market.


    R. T. Baran


    Full Text Available The purpose of reforming the air transport in Ukraine is the implementation of market economic transformations in economic and financial methods of the management of civil aviation operational firms, which were still formed on the basis of Soviet plan-army management principles. The author suggests the mechanism of formation of financial supply paradigm for reformed air transport firm because these reformations are to be carried out when the elaborated optimal economic-legal, investment-innovation, and (what is the most important organizational-financial complex unified methodical principles of the interaction of air transport (АТ subjects are absent (which becomes clear in the course of re-structuring them. Vital problems of formation of investment-innovation re-structuring mechanism for functioning the air transport firms are described in this article. New results of subsequent scientific research concerning financial scheme development of enterprising and commercial activities of airlines in today’s economic stabilization and growth, formation of new paradigm of economic theory and reformation of managing practice are suggested to the participants of the Conference in the course of prolonging the author’s discussion; a possible approach to the solution of financing problems for their re-structuring by means of creating new aviationtransport consortia is also suggested. The aim of creating a new consortium is to improve the economic efficiency of activity of airlines, their competitiveness in internal markets of transport services as well as to reform the system of air transport subjects in Ukraine. This is one of the complex trends for solving the problems of creating national air carrier, the organization of optimal forms and methods of financial schemes formation for measures aimed at improving the competitiveness.

  16. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.




    Full Text Available During 1989, the moment of changes in Eastern Europe, in socialist countries political system were transformed, by renouncing communism, and adopting market based economy. The process had major implications on economic systems in countries such Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, that from that moment engaged in wide-ranging political, social, economic and institutional reforms. The year 1989 also marked the beginning of the transition from socialist economy to a market economy to centralized countries mentioned, a process with profound implications on the economic system and financial default. This important structural reforms necessary functioning new economic framework and assumed behavior modification specific old economy, focused on socialist property, presumably achieve in conditions of relative stability allowing rapidly and sustainable growth. This paper takes into discussion some models used by FMI and World Bank (WB that had implications on financial policy applied in transition country, referring to absorption theory, monetary approach to balance of payment and stabilization programs, as short terms models, respectively.

  18. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón


    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects.

  19. Modelling the impact of mining on socio-economic infrastructure development: a system dynamics approach

    Maluleke, George


    Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.


    Z. Halushka


    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.

  1. A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa

    Kim A. Kayunze


    Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc. and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

  2. Fuzzy logic approach to SWOT analysis for economics tasks and example of its computer realization

    Vladimir CHERNOV


    Full Text Available The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the evaluation and analysis of different project management tasks - investment, innovation, marketing, development, design and bring products to market and so on. However, in practical competitive market and economic conditions, there are various uncertainties, ambiguities, vagueness. Its making usage of SWOT analysis in the classical sense not enough reasonable and ineffective. In this case, the authors propose to use fuzzy logic approach and the theory of fuzzy sets for a more adequate representation and posttreatment assessments in the SWOT analysis. In particular, has been short showed the mathematical formulation of respective task and the main approaches to its solution. Also are given examples of suitable computer calculations in specialized software Fuzicalc for processing and operations with fuzzy input data. Finally, are presented considerations for interpretation of the results.

  3. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach for Green Supplier Selection from the Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Hsiu Mei Wang Chen


    Full Text Available Due to the challenge of rising public awareness of environmental issues and governmental regulations, green supply chain management (SCM has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Supplier selection is one of the key operational tasks necessary to construct a green SCM. To select the most suitable suppliers, many economic and environmental criteria must be considered in the decision process. Although numerous studies have used economic criteria such as cost, quality, and lead time in the supplier selection process, only some studies have taken into account the environmental issues. This study proposes a comprehensive fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach for green supplier selection and evaluation, using both economic and environmental criteria. In the proposed approach, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP is employed to determine the important weights of criteria under vague environment. In addition, a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to evaluate and rank the potential suppliers. Finally, a case study in Luminance Enhancement Film (LEF industry is presented to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Economic development: the need for an alternative approach. [Case of Libya

    Pinches, C.R.


    The economic growth of Libya is used to illustrate the need for a more relevant way of assessing development so that it includes an appreciation for the process of change. It is shown that many changes do not appear in the traditional economic statistics. A new approach is suggested that would enable a society to handle changes in ways that are in accord with its national goals and traditions. This would take into account future developments, international relations, the basic skill levels, and other factors rather than a limited measurement of the country's ability to absorb capital. Libya has chosen, as an alternative to increased consumption, policies for developing self-sufficiency, a limited foreign investment, and an emphasis on education as a basis for modernization. The goal is to evolve a national identity and ideology that will be unique to the Arab world. (DCK)

  5. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  6. A stochastic approach for integrating market and technical uncertainties in economic evaluations of petroleum development

    Changhyup Park; Joe M.Kang; Taewoong Ahn


    The paper presents a stochastic and economic analysis for petroleum development under uncertain market and technical environments. Mean-reversion with jumps for price forecasting is used to consider market uncertainty, while various scenarios for the reservoir properties and cost are employed to consider technical uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to obtain the feasible range of net present values and internal rates of return. The influence of stochastic parameters is examined through correlation coefficients. The stochastic approach yields more reliable evaluation and effectively investigates the characteristics of development. The integration of uncertainties and contractual terms results in an irregular tendency in the future cash flow and reveals that a larger reserve does not guarantee a greater profit. The reserve and the well rate affect the economic values whereas the parameters for price prediction don't. The research confirms the necessity of qualifying uncertainties for realistic decision-making at the initial stage of development.

  7. Identifying best-fitting inputs in health-economic model calibration: a Pareto frontier approach.

    Enns, Eva A; Cipriano, Lauren E; Simons, Cyrena T; Kong, Chung Yin


    To identify best-fitting input sets using model calibration, individual calibration target fits are often combined into a single goodness-of-fit (GOF) measure using a set of weights. Decisions in the calibration process, such as which weights to use, influence which sets of model inputs are identified as best-fitting, potentially leading to different health economic conclusions. We present an alternative approach to identifying best-fitting input sets based on the concept of Pareto-optimality. A set of model inputs is on the Pareto frontier if no other input set simultaneously fits all calibration targets as well or better. We demonstrate the Pareto frontier approach in the calibration of 2 models: a simple, illustrative Markov model and a previously published cost-effectiveness model of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). For each model, we compare the input sets on the Pareto frontier to an equal number of best-fitting input sets according to 2 possible weighted-sum GOF scoring systems, and we compare the health economic conclusions arising from these different definitions of best-fitting. For the simple model, outcomes evaluated over the best-fitting input sets according to the 2 weighted-sum GOF schemes were virtually nonoverlapping on the cost-effectiveness plane and resulted in very different incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($79,300 [95% CI 72,500-87,600] v. $139,700 [95% CI 79,900-182,800] per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). Input sets on the Pareto frontier spanned both regions ($79,000 [95% CI 64,900-156,200] per QALY gained). The TAVR model yielded similar results. Choices in generating a summary GOF score may result in different health economic conclusions. The Pareto frontier approach eliminates the need to make these choices by using an intuitive and transparent notion of optimality as the basis for identifying best-fitting input sets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François


    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.


    A Nikzamir


    Full Text Available "nDiabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease. It has recently been shown that an insertion (I/deletion (D polymorphism exists in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene that can affect the serum ACE level. There are three genotypes: DD, DI, and II, with the ACE level being highest in DD, intermediate in DI, and lowest in II. In the present investigation, 170 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 144 control subjects were studied. The ACE I/D polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR utilizing specific primers. ACE activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Distribution of ACE gene (I/D polymorphism and allele frequencies in patients with T2DM were significantly different from those in control (P < 0.001; D allele frequency was 51% in T2DM vs. 48% in controls. The level of ACE activity was significantly higher in the DD genotype (91.1 ± 23.18 than those in ID (60.6 ± 22.8 and in II genotypes (36.8 ± 6.9. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution between the two groups (P < 0.001. New normal ranges of serum ACE level were determined for each genotype. Moreover, we found test sensitivity to be 62.3%. Serum ACE activity was significantly associated with ACE (I/D gene polymorphism.

  10. AceWiki: A Natural and Expressive Semantic Wiki

    Kuhn, Tobias


    We present AceWiki, a prototype of a new kind of semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE) for representing its content. ACE is a subset of English with a restricted grammar and a formal semantics. The use of ACE has two important advantages over existing semantic wikis. First, we can improve the usability and achieve a shallow learning curve. Second, ACE is more expressive than the formal languages of existing semantic wikis. Our evaluation shows that people who are not familiar with the formal foundations of the Semantic Web are able to deal with AceWiki after a very short learning phase and without the help of an expert.

  11. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach

    Nahid Hatam


    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  12. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand


    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  13. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Milad Elyasi


    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.


    Mihaela DIACONU


    Full Text Available During the last few years the entire world experienced one of the most turmoil period in its history. Economic crisis is the most traumatic event leading to a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the household. Unemployment, inflation rate increasing, freezing or decreasing of the wages, the purchasing power decreasing, the decreasing of the investments value represent only of some economic shocks that hit most of the individuals, in the last few years. The individual well-being is determinate by many things like the level and secure income, labor market status, job stability and characteristics, health status, social relationships, family etc. In some ways and to a different extent all these were affected by the economic crisis, for many people, around the world. Empirical evidence presented in different international studies emphasized a causal relation between all these aspects. The purpose of the present study was to identify the economic and health consequences of the economic crisis adopting a psychological perspective. The results of the study emphasize that there is a causal relationship between psychological factors and almost all the dimensions of economic behavior and health status measured. Also, the empirical findings uphold that those who are more risk averse and have the highest perception over the risk exposure are taping the highest values regarding the main stressors measured and present more intense symptoms of stress exposure. The limits of the study come from the fact that health consequences were measured in certain period of time (the last six months, thus, this study do not offer a long term evaluation.

  15. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice.

    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D; Batlle, Daniel


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10(-9) M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease.

  16. Transparency in European banking system – a technical and economic approach

    Ștefănescu Cristina Alexandrina


    Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of possible relationships between two different approaches of “transparency” – the technical vs. the economic one. Thus, irrespective of prior literature, our paper goes beyond a “solo” analysis of either of two above-mentioned “facets”, by providing a combined study. So, we focused on both (1 XBRL’s role in enhancing the quality of disclosure, by assessing its benefices and consequences and (2 corporate governance mechanism’s power to improve efficiency and effectiveness of banking supervision by encouraging transparency. The results of the performed analysis generally reveal that there is a strong and positive relationship between the level of disclosure promoted by corporate governance codes enforced in European Union countries and the degree of implementation of both XBRL-based projects designed for banking environment (FINREP and COREP. Consequently, we can assert that there is a consensus between the economic and technical approach of transparency in European banking system

  17. A model comparison approach shows stronger support for economic models of fertility decline.

    Shenk, Mary K; Towner, Mary C; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul


    The demographic transition is an ongoing global phenomenon in which high fertility and mortality rates are replaced by low fertility and mortality. Despite intense interest in the causes of the transition, especially with respect to decreasing fertility rates, the underlying mechanisms motivating it are still subject to much debate. The literature is crowded with competing theories, including causal models that emphasize (i) mortality and extrinsic risk, (ii) the economic costs and benefits of investing in self and children, and (iii) the cultural transmission of low-fertility social norms. Distinguishing between models, however, requires more comprehensive, better-controlled studies than have been published to date. We use detailed demographic data from recent fieldwork to determine which models produce the most robust explanation of the rapid, recent demographic transition in rural Bangladesh. To rigorously compare models, we use an evidence-based statistical approach using model selection techniques derived from likelihood theory. This approach allows us to quantify the relative evidence the data give to alternative models, even when model predictions are not mutually exclusive. Results indicate that fertility, measured as either total fertility or surviving children, is best explained by models emphasizing economic factors and related motivations for parental investment. Our results also suggest important synergies between models, implicating multiple causal pathways in the rapidity and degree of recent demographic transitions.

  18. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C


    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach.


    A. S. Senin


    Full Text Available This article sets out the key aspects of the management of enterprise structures on the basis of logistizatsii, which allowed to establish a close relationship between the main processes (production, and provide processes (procurement, sales, ie introduce the implementation of these processes as a whole. The purpose / goal. The purpose of the work is to study the nature and characteristics of the organizational-economic mechanism of production and economic activity of enterprise structures on the basis of the logistical approach, identifying the problems and prospects of further development.Methodology. In this article we used a set of general scientific and special methods of investigation. General scientific research methods (analysis and synthesis revealed a dynamic and structural specifics of the development of the global logistics market, to determine the future direction of development. Special investigation techniques (forecasting and modeling have allowed to develop a set of recommendations aimed at increasing the level of innovation activity of logistic operators in line with global trends and immutable proposed changes in consumer demand in key market segments.Results. As part of the presentation of the present article the author has examined the nature, objectives and business structures control stages with the use of modern logistics approach.

  20. Dynamic ecological-economic modeling approach for management of shellfish aquaculture

    Nobre, AM


    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to conceptualize ecological and economic interactions in mariculture; to implement a dynamic ecological-economic model in order to: simulate the socio-economics of aquaculture production, simulate its effects...

  1. Metaproteogenomic analysis of a dominant green sulfur bacterium from Ace Lake, Antarctica.

    Ng, Charmaine; DeMaere, Matthew Z; Williams, Timothy J; Lauro, Federico M; Raftery, Mark; Gibson, John A E; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Lewis, Matt; Hoffman, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo


    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) (Chlorobiaceae) are primary producers that are important in global carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments. An almost complete genome sequence for a single, dominant GSB species ('C-Ace') was assembled from shotgun sequence data of an environmental sample taken from the O(2)-H(2)S interface of the water column of Ace Lake, Antarctica. Approximately 34 Mb of DNA sequence data were assembled into nine scaffolds totaling 1.79 Mb, representing approximately 19-fold coverage for the C-Ace composite genome. A high level ( approximately 31%) of metaproteomic coverage was achieved using matched biomass. The metaproteogenomic approach provided unique insight into the protein complement required for dominating the microbial community under cold, nutrient-limited, oxygen-limited and extremely varied annual light conditions. C-Ace shows physiological traits that promote its ability to compete very effectively with other GSB and gain dominance (for example, specific bacteriochlorophylls, mechanisms of cold adaptation) as well as a syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria that provides a mechanism for the exchange of sulfur compounds. As a result we are able to propose an explanation of the active biological processes promoted by cold-adapted GSB and the adaptive strategies they use to thrive under the severe physiochemical conditions prevailing in polar environments.

  2. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Y465D causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE via accelerated ACE shedding.

    Sergei M Danilov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE--between Arg1203 and Ser1204--was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase.

  3. Alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity as predictors of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    Ramirez, Jason J; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Baldwin, Scott A; Murphy, James G; Lindgren, Kristen P


    Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices. College student drinkers (N = 223, 59% female) completed implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations at 3 time points separated by 3-month intervals, and completed the Alcohol Purchase Task to assess demand at Time 3. Given no change in our alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity measures over time, random intercept-only models were used to predict 2 demand indices: Amplitude, which represents maximum hypothetical alcohol consumption and expenditures, and Persistence, which represents sensitivity to increasing prices. When modeled separately, implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations positively predicted demand indices. When implicit and explicit measures were included in the same model, both measures of drinking identity predicted Amplitude, but only explicit drinking identity predicted Persistence. In contrast, explicit measures of alcohol-approach inclinations, but not implicit measures, predicted both demand indices. Therefore, there was more support for explicit, versus implicit, measures as unique predictors of alcohol demand. Overall, drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations both exhibit positive associations with alcohol demand and represent potentially modifiable cognitive constructs that may underlie elevated demand in college student drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Multiple ace genes encoding acetylcholinesterases of Caenorhabditis elegans have distinct tissue expression.

    Combes, Didier; Fedon, Yann; Toutant, Jean-Pierre; Arpagaus, Martine


    ace-1 and ace-2 genes encoding acetylcholinesterase in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans present 35% identity in coding sequences but no homology in noncoding regions (introns, 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions). A 5'-region of ace-2 was defined by rescue of ace-1;ace-2 mutants. When green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by this regulatory region, the resulting pattern was distinct from that of ace-1. This latter gene is expressed in all body-wall and vulval muscle cells (Culetto et al., 1999), whereas ace-2 is expressed almost exclusively in neurons. ace-3 and ace-4 genes are located in close proximity on chromosome II (Combes et al., 2000). These two genes were first transcribed in vivo as a bicistronic messenger and thus constitute an ace-3;ace-4 operon. However, there was a very low level of monocistronic mRNA of ace-4 (the upstream gene) in vivo, and no ACE-4 enzymatic activity was ever detected. GFP expression driven by a 5' upstream region of the ace-3;ace-4 operon was detected in several muscle cells of the pharynx (pm3, pm4, pm5 and pm7) and in the two canal associated neurons (CAN cells). A dorsal row of body-wall muscle cells was intensively labelled in larval stages but no longer detected in adults. The distinct tissue-specific expression of ace-1, ace-2 and ace-3 (coexpressed only in pm5 cells) indicates that ace genes are not redundant.

  5. Mortality in patients with hypertension on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor treatment is influenced by the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism

    Bleumink, GS; Schut, Anna F.C.; Sturkenboom, MCJM; van Duijn, CM; Deckers, JW; Hofman, A; Kingma, J. Herre; Witteman, JCM; Stricker, BHC


    Background The response to angiotensin-l converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy is highly variable. Residual ACE activity during treatment, potentially modified by the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, may explain part of this variability. We studied the possible interaction between ACE-

  6. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data


    ... Manual. In addition, Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International... AGENCY Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data AGENCY... transferred to Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International Associates, in...


    Bernardus Bala de Rosari


    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  8. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter


    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  9. Trans Pacific Stategic Economic Partnership With Japan, South Korea and China Integrate: General Equilibrium Approach

    Todsadee Areerat


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.

  10. Sviluppo e implementazione di un modello farmacoeconomico per valutare la costo efficacia di un ACE-inibitore nella prevenzione del rischio cardiovascolare

    Sergio Iannazzo


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Since several pharmacological approaches are available for the reduction of incidence and severity of cardiovascular events and health resources in modern managed care systems are limited, the evaluation of the clinical and economical consequences of any treatment is very valuable for decison-makers and physicians. In this article we present a flexible pharmacoeconomic model that permits the calculation of the marginal costeffectiveness of cardiovascular prevention with ramipril, a drug of the class of ACE-inhibitors. The clinical data used for the modelization are derived from the HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, a landmark cardiovascular prevention study that showed how the benefits of ACE-inhibition with ramipril go beyond the effects on blood pressure, while Italian epidemiological, demographic and economical data make the results appliable to the Italian population. The model, structured as a decision tree comparing the alternatives “to treat” or “not to treat” with Markow chains at the terminal nodes, calculates the marginal cost-effectiveness of the preventive treatment in terms of cost/year of live saved. The model is characterized by high flexibility, as it allows health decision-makers to set epidemiological and economical data in order to reflect the local population at high risk for developing cardiovascular diseas. The model was tested on a high risk population, formed by all acute myocardial infarction survivors in Italy, and indicated that life-long treatment of this patients would yield significant clinical benefits, with a cost/ effectiveness of 3,932 euro/year of life saved. This value is well below the standards that are considered acceptable, and offsprings from the partial offset of pharmaceutical costs caused by the reduction in the expenses for diagnosis and treatment of the cardiovascular events

  11. Enhancing Sustainable Innovation by Design: an Approach to the Co-creation of Economic, Social and Environmental Value

    S. Rocchi


    textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business innova

  12. The Capability Approach: A Critical Review of Its Application in Health Economics.

    Karimi, Milad; Brazier, John; Basarir, Hasan

    The capability approach is an approach to assessing well-being developed by Amartya Sen. Interest in this approach has resulted in several attempts to develop questionnaires to measure and value capability at an individual level in health economics. This commentary critically reviews the ability of these questionnaires to measure and value capability. It is argued that the method used in the questionnaires to measure capability will result in a capability set that is an inaccurate description of the individual's true capability set. The measured capability set will either represent only one combination and ignore the value of choice in the capability set, or represent one combination that is not actually achievable by the individual. In addition, existing methods of valuing capability may be inadequate because they do not consider that capability is a set. It may be practically more feasible to measure and value capability approximately rather than directly. Suggestions are made on how to measure and value an approximation to capability, but further research is required to implement the suggestions.

  13. Analyzing Economic Effects with Energy Mix Changes: A Hybrid CGE Model Approach

    Taesik Yun


    Full Text Available We evaluate the micro and macro-economic effects with the hybrid mixed complementary approach we design to take account of these unique features of the Korean electricity industry. The features we consider are not only the electricity itself but also the Korean electricity market mechanism. Unlike typical commodities, the electricity has unique features. As well known, the electricity supply is not easy to meet an instant hike of rump sum demand of electricity in a smooth and timely manner, since the quantity of power generating is fixed at specific time with the limited capacities. On top of that, we add the Korean electricity market mechanism that the selling price through the Korea Power Exchange (KPX is unitary, although the marginal production cost of each generating technology. From the modeling point of view, we segment the Korean electricity industry into nine generating technologies such as six conventional and three renewable technologies. In addition, we construct the specifically defined 40-by-40 SAM table to include electricity generating sectors by different resources. With these assumptions, four scenarios for policy simulation are designed according to the supply share reduction of the nuclear power generation. The research result shows micro and macro-economic indices are negatively impacted especially in cases that the share of nuclear power is lower than that of basis case.

  14. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Lin Hung-Pin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  15. Integrating health economics modeling in the product development cycle of medical devices: a Bayesian approach.

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Steuten, Lotte M G; Buxton, Martin J; Girling, Alan J; Lilford, Richard J; Young, Terry


    Medical device companies are under growing pressure to provide health-economic evaluations of their products. Cost-effectiveness analyses are commonly undertaken as a one-off exercise at the late stage of development of new technologies; however, the benefits of an iterative use of economic evaluation during the development process of new products have been acknowledged in the literature. Furthermore, the use of Bayesian methods within health technology assessment has been shown to be of particular value in the dynamic framework of technology appraisal when new information becomes available in the life cycle of technologies. In this study, we set out a methodology to adapt these methods for their application to directly support investment decisions in a commercial setting from early stages of the development of new medical devices. Starting with relatively simple analysis from the very early development phase and proceeding to greater depth of analysis at later stages, a Bayesian approach facilitates the incorporation of all available evidence and would help companies to make better informed choices at each decision point.

  16. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Hung-Pin, Lin


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  17. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten


    as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...... and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify......Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...

  18. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;


    -economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...

  19. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

    Katalin Úri


    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.

  20. Investigation of ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 genes for association with nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Currie, D; McKnight, A J; Patterson, C C; Sadlier, D M; Maxwell, A P


    Polymorphisms in ACE and AGTR1 genes have been assessed in multiple studies for association with diabetic nephropathy; however, results are conflicting. The ACE2 gene has not been studied extensively for association with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated variants in ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 for association with nephropathy in a case-control group (1467 participants with Type1 diabetes, case subjects n=718; control subjects n=749) of white descent with grandparents born in the British Isles. All recruited individuals were carefully phenotyped and genotyping was performed using Sequenom, Taqman and gel electrophoresis methods. The χ(2) -test for contingency tables was used to compare genotype and allele frequencies in case and control groups. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in cases or controls. Two variants within the ACE gene (rs4293, P(allelic) =0.02, P(genotypic) =0.008; rs4309, P(allelic) =0.02, P(genotypic) =0.01) were significantly associated with nephropathy at the 5% level. No variant remained statistically significant following adjustment for multiple comparisons. No single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ACE2 or AGTR1 genes were significantly associated with nephropathy when analysed either by genotype or allele frequencies. Our independent case-control study provides no evidence that common variants in ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in a white population with Type1 diabetes. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  1. A bio-economic application to the Cape Rock Lobster resource using a delay difference modelling approach

    E Roos


    Full Text Available In many species, like the Cape Rock Lobster (Jasus lalandii, the life cycles of males and females differ. This may motivate the use of two-sex models in a stock-assessment analysis. It is also true for this resource, that juveniles do not reach sexual maturity immediately. Therefore a delay-difference model is appropriate. In this study we follow a bio-economic approach and use a two-sex delay-difference model to determine a maximum economic yield strategy. Thus we determine an economic optimum steady state solution at which to harvest this resource subject to the biological constraints of the species.




    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  3. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    A. Ghaffar


    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  4. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    Kusago, Takayoshi


    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  5. Peripheral artery disease: potential role of ACE-inhibitor therapy

    Giuseppe Coppola


    Full Text Available Giuseppe Coppola, Giuseppe Romano, Egle Corrado, Rosa Maria Grisanti, Salvatore NovoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephro-Urological Diseases, Chair of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct antiatherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, thay have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.Keywords: atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction, ACE-inhibitors

  6. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe


    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (pAGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  7. ACE Gene DD Genotype Association with Obesity in Pakistani Population

    Amara Javaid


    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin system (RAS has an established role in pathogenesis of metabolic etiologies. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is an important component of RAS that may influence metabolic outcomes in adipose tissue. The deletion “D allele”, of ACE gene I/D (insertion/deletion polymorphism has been shown to be associated with rise in the serum level of ACE. This study is designed to correlate the association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in adult population of Pakistan. Our study included 535 individuals; 147 normal with body mass index (BMI 19-24.9, 183 overweight (BMI 26-29.9 and 205 obese (BMI > 30. The individuals were genotyped for ACE gene I/D polymorphism. The ratio of ACE gene II and ID genotypes were not significantly different among normal, overweight and obese individuals. However, the DD genotype in normal, overweight and obese individuals was 12.9%, 18.0% and 28.8% respectively. DD genotype is significantly high (P = 0.002 in obese than in overweight and normal individuals. Thus the results of this study may suggest a possible association of the D allele in adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism by affecting the ACE plasma level.

  8. Economic Regulation of Regional Development: Target Orientation and Functional Content (Conceptual Approach

    Medvid Viktoriia Yu.


    Full Text Available The article studies theoretical features, target orientation and functional content of economic regulation of regional development. It identifies the content of the “economic regulation of regional development” notion with respect to the region as a territory, economic system and economic space. It establishes that economic regulation of regional development is a system impact on certain parameters, revision of which would ensure positive dynamics in revision of basic characteristics of regions such as properties, features and boundaries. It identifies the main goal and complex of tasks (complexity, target character, variability, resource provision, addressness and manageability of economic regulation of regional development. It shows directions of increase of efficiency of the system of economic regulation of regional development.

  9. ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates vascular repair-relevant functions of CD34+ cells.

    Singh, Neha; Joshi, Shrinidh; Guo, Lirong; Baker, Matthew B; Li, Yan; Castellano, Ronald K; Raizada, Mohan K; Jarajapu, Yagna P R


    imply that activation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is a promising approach for enhancing reparative outcomes of cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. ACE--Alliance for Clinical Enhancement: a collaborative model.

    Poirrier, G P; Granger, M; Todaro, M


    This paper introduces an innovative collaborative model developed by nursing educators and practitioners, the Alliance for Clinical Enhancement Program (ACE), that combines components of traditional internship and extender programs. The goals of ACE are opportunities for role socialization, role transition, and role modeling for nursing students; enhancing clinical competence and provision of financial assistance to the students; increased recruitment of RN graduates by the involved hospital; and decreased RN time spent on non-nursing tasks by hospital RNs. The total development, implementation, and analysis of ACE Program is discussed.

  11. An evaluation of alternative selection indexes for a non-linear profit trait approaching its economic optimum.

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Visser, B; Amer, P R


    This study used simulation to evaluate the performance of alternative selection index configurations in the context of a breeding programme where a trait with a non-linear economic value is approaching an economic optimum. The simulation used a simple population structure that approximately mimics selection in dual purpose sheep flocks in New Zealand (NZ). In the NZ dual purpose sheep population, number of lambs born is a genetic trait that is approaching an economic optimum, while genetically correlated growth traits have linear economic values and are not approaching any optimum. The predominant view among theoretical livestock geneticists is that the optimal approach to select for nonlinear profit traits is to use a linear selection index and to update it regularly. However, there are some nonlinear index approaches that have not been evaluated. This study assessed the efficiency of the following four alternative selection index approaches in terms of genetic progress relative to each other: (i) a linear index, (ii) a linear index updated regularly, (iii) a nonlinear (quadratic) index, and (iv) a NLF index (nonlinear index below the optimum and then flat). The NLF approach does not reward or penalize animals for additional genetic merit beyond the trait optimum. It was found to be at least comparable in efficiency to the approach of regularly updating the linear index with short (15 year) and long (30 year) time frames. The relative efficiency of this approach was slightly reduced when the current average value of the nonlinear trait was close to the optimum. Finally, practical issues of industry application of indexes are considered and some potential practical benefits of efficient deployment of a NLF index in highly heterogeneous industries (breeds, flocks and production environments) such as in the NZ dual purpose sheep population are discussed.

  12. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett


    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities

  13. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared without harmful organics: A biosafe and economical approach

    Shah, M.A.


    Growth of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles of varying size, ranging from 20-60 nms through a versatile and an economic route, is being reported. The approach is based on a simple reaction of titanium powder and De-Ionized (DI) water at ∼180 °C, without use of any harmful additives. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) reveals the well defined morphology of nanoparticles, whereas X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that the, as prepared, nanoparticles are in a mixed phase, with a dominance of a stable rutile phase. Since only water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, is used during the preparation of nanoparticles, we believe that the products so produced are biocompatible and bio-safe and can be readily used for medical applications. The biocompatibility tests are yet to be carried out and shall be reported in forthcoming publications. © 2011 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Arvie Johan


    Full Text Available Islamic law prohibits monopoly. The issue had arose since the advent of Islam, whereby it’s used as a strategy to maximize profit, has experienced rapid developments. This article assess the extent of Islamic law in prohibiting monopoly using law and economics approach. The result is that the exercise of caution shall apply in prohibiting monopoly. There are three steps needed in exercising the rule of caution: (1 defining monopoly as the absence of competition and lack of pricing options; (2 providing criteria of what causes monopoly in form of agreements between business competitors who can go against allocative efficiency effectively; and (3 direct the prohibition on monopoly towards agreement on explicit horizontal mergers and very large horizontal mergers which disregards quick mergers.   Hukum Islam melarang monopoli. Isunya adalah sejak kedatangan Islam strategi pelaku usaha untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan telah berkembang pesat. Tulisan ini menentukan jangkauan hukum Islam untuk melarang monopoli dengan pendekatan hukum dan ekonomi. Hasilnya kehati-hatian dalam melarang monopoli. Tulisan menguraikan tiga langkah yang dibutuhkan: (1 memaknai monopoli sebagai ketidakhadiran persaingan dan ketiadaan pilihan harga; (2 memberikan kriteria monopoli berupa kesepakatan antar pelaku usaha pesaing yang mampu melawan efisiensi alokasi secara efektif; dan (3 mengarahkan larangan monopoli pada perjanjian horisontal eksplisit dan penggabungan berukuran besar.

  15. The efficiency frontier approach to economic evaluation of health-care interventions.

    Caro, J Jaime; Nord, Erik; Siebert, Uwe; McGuire, Alistair; McGregor, Maurice; Henry, David; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Atella, Vincenzo; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter


    IQWiG commissioned an international panel of experts to develop methods for the assessment of the relation of benefits to costs in the German statutory health-care system. The panel recommended that IQWiG inform German decision makers of the net costs and value of additional benefits of an intervention in the context of relevant other interventions in that indication. To facilitate guidance regarding maximum reimbursement, this information is presented in an efficiency plot with costs on the horizontal axis and value of benefits on the vertical. The efficiency frontier links the interventions that are not dominated and provides guidance. A technology that places on the frontier or to the left is reasonably efficient, while one falling to the right requires further justification for reimbursement at that price. This information does not automatically give the maximum reimbursement, as other considerations may be relevant. Given that the estimates are for a specific indication, they do not address priority setting across the health-care system. This approach informs decision makers about efficiency of interventions, conforms to the mandate and is consistent with basic economic principles. Empirical testing of its feasibility and usefulness is required.


    Arvie Johan


    Full Text Available Islamic law prohibits monopoly. The issue had arose since the advent of Islam, whereby it’s used as a strategy to maximize profit, has experienced rapid developments. This article assess the extent of Islamic law in prohibiting monopoly using law and economics approach. The result is that the exercise of caution shall apply in prohibiting monopoly. There are three steps needed in exercising the rule of caution: (1 defining monopoly as the absence of competition and lack of pricing options; (2 providing criteria of what causes monopoly in form of agreements between business competitors who can go against allocative efficiency effectively; and (3 direct the prohibition on monopoly towards agreement on explicit horizontal mergers and very large horizontal mergers which disregards quick mergers. Hukum Islam melarang monopoli. Isunya adalah sejak kedatangan Islam strategi pelaku usaha untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan telah berkembang pesat. Tulisan ini menentukan jangkauan hukum Islam untuk melarang monopoli dengan pendekatan hukum dan ekonomi. Hasilnya kehati-hatian dalam melarang monopoli. Tulisan menguraikan tiga langkah yang dibutuhkan: (1 memaknai monopoli sebagai ketidakhadiran persaingan dan ketiadaan pilihan harga; (2 memberikan kriteria monopoli berupa kesepakatan antar pelaku usaha pesaing yang mampu melawan efisiensi alokasi secara efektif; dan (3 mengarahkan larangan monopoli pada perjanjian horisontal eksplisit dan penggabungan berukuran besar. 

  17. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker


    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  18. Economic burden of road traffic injuries: a micro-costing approach.

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Chaikledkaew, Usa


    This study aimed to determine the economic burden incurred from road traffic injuries in Thailand. It was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective, employing a micro-costing bottom-up approach. It covered direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost or productivity loss. Productivity loss covers the costs of work absence or death due to road traffic injuries suffered by persons of working age. We collected data on road traffic injuries and resource utilization which occurred in the fiscal year 2004. A simple random sampling was used to select 200 patients for analysis. The average cost of road traffic injuries per patient was USD 2,596 at 2004 prices. This can be divided into direct cost (USD 102, or 4%) and indirect cost (USD 2,494, or 96%). From these results, we can see that the indirect cost far outweighed the direct cost. To base decisions regarding road safety campaigns on savings of direct costs, particularly direct medical costs, is inadequate. Therefore, data on the complete cost of illness should be taken into account in the planning and creation of a road safety policy.

  19. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Wei-Tzer Huang


    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.


    Vasyl Chemerys


    Full Text Available  The article explores the existing approaches to regional economic zoning in Ukrainian scientifi c circles, which would aid in compilation of suitable and effi cient approach toward development of infrastructural support for agricultural markets on a regional level. As the infrastructure in Ukraine is underdeveloped, the regional economy in many cases suffers from its absence. Yet development of such infrastructure, due to insuffi cient volumes of available state and local funds, should be thoroughly substantiated and target the exact needs of particular regions, as they diff er greatly in the socio-economic conditions and therefore – the preconditions for various types of economic activities. In order to clarify and structure this issue the main factors of forming and developing of infrastructural support for agricultural markets on a regional level are defi ned, as well as classifi cation of regions according to the type of their infrastructural development for agricultural markets are substantiated.

  1. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.


    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  2. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)


    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and I

  3. Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey

    McClure, Kevin R.


    Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This paper…


    Katalin Martinas


    Full Text Available Axiomatic foundation of non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. The economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for the Neumannian economy. The emergence of the equilibrium market structure appears as an order out of chaos process.

  5. Regional economic effects of revitalization of industrial sites: an input-output approach

    WIJNEN, Wim; Manshanden, Walter; Muskens, Jos


    This subject of this paper is the regional economic effects of revitalisation of industrial sites. From an economic point of view an ageing industrial site is one with underused capacity that leads to a suboptimal level of investment. The assumption made in this paper is that due to markets failures space on industrial site is used inefficiently and that governments intervene to reduce underutilization of available space. Fieldwork and literature show that the economic effects of revitalizati...

  6. How to Approach the Next Steps of the Argentine Economy and the Economic Policy?

    Eduardo L. Curia


    In a context of uncertainty, economic policy-making benefits from the availability of “modeled constructions” contributing to the understanding of the economic phenomenon and the possibility of forecasting, even though by themselves they do not determine the decisions to be made by government authorities. The paper called Un modelo económico pequeño para la Argentina (A small economic model for Argentina) is a contribution in this sense. Naturally, such presentations are tributaries, in a cry...

  7. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov


    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  8. Compliance, Persistence, and Switching Patterns for ACE Inhibitors and ARBs

    Vegter, S.; Nguyen, N.H.; Visser, S.T.; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Postma, M.J.; Boersma, C.

    Objectives: To investigate compliance, persistence, and switching patterns for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Study Design: Drug-utilization analysis using a large prescription database. Methods: Prescription data for more than 50,000

  9. Angioedema Due to use of ACE-Inhibitor

    Hulya Eyigor


    Full Text Available       Angioedema; which may be hereditary or non-hereditary, is defined as a sudden, severe, often in awkward, temporary swelling of skin, subcutaneous and mucous membranes of the face, tongue, lip, larynx, and gastrointestinal areas. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitor drugs are widely used in essential hypertension and congestive heart diseases and effective and safe drugs. Angioedema is quite rare due to the use of ACE inhibitors, the rate changes from 0.1 to 0.7% reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of angioedema induced by ACE inhibitors are not completely understood, this situation has been tought to be associated with an increased activity of bradykinin related vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability and interstitial edema. In this study, a case of 65-year-old male patient presented angioedema induced by lisinopril was presented and a very rare side effect of ACE inhibitor drugs was reviewed with the relevant literature.

  10. Polarimetric Multiwavelength Focal Plane Arrays for ACE and CLARREO Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance polarimetric and nonpolarimetric sensing is crucial to upcoming NASA missions, including ACE and CLARREO and the multi-agency VIIRS NPP project. The...

  11. Preparing new principals in South Africa: the ACE: School ...

    Preparing new principals in South Africa: the ACE: School Leadership Programme1. ... are to be successful in providing good learning opportunities for students, ... including South Africa, a teaching qualification and teaching experience are ...

  12. Pathophysiologic and therapeutic importance of tissue ACE : A consensus report

    Dzau, VJ; Bernstein, K; Celermajer, D; Cohen, J; Dahlof, B; Deanfield, J; Diez, J; Drexler, H; Ferrari, R; van Gilst, W; Hansson, L; Hornig, B; Husain, A; Johnston, C; Lazar, H; Lonn, E; Luscher, T; Mancini, J; Mimran, A; Pepine, C; Rabelink, T; Remme, W; Ruilope, L; Ruzicka, M; Schunkert, H; Swedberg, K; Unger, T; Vaughan, D; Weber, M


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activation and the de novo production of angiotensin II contribute to cardiovascular disease through direct pathological tissue effects, including vascular remodeling and inflammation, as well as indirect action on nitric oxide bioavailability and its consequences

  13. Economic and ecological impacts of bioenergy crop production—a modeling approach applied in Southwestern Germany

    Hans-Georg Schwarz-v. Raumer


    Full Text Available This paper considers scenarios of cultivating energy crops in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg to identify potentials and limitations of a sustainable bioenergy production. Trade-offs are analyzed among income and production structure in agriculture, bioenergy crop production, greenhouse gas emissions, and the interests of soil, water and species habitat protection. An integrated modelling approach (IMA was implemented coupling ecological and economic models in a model chain. IMA combines the Economic Farm Emission Model (EFEM; key input: parameter sets on farm production activities, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC; key input: parameter sets on environmental cropping effects and GIS geo-processing models. EFEM is a supply model that maximizes total gross margins on farm level with simultaneous calculation of greenhouse gas emission from agriculture production. Calculations by EPIC result in estimates for soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching, Soil Organic Carbon and greenhouse gas emissions from soil. GIS routines provide land suitability analyses, scenario settings concerning nature conservation and habitat models for target species and help to enable spatial explicit results. The model chain is used to calculate scenarios representing different intensities of energy crop cultivation. To design scenarios which are detailed and in step to practice, comprehensive data research as well as fact and effect analyses were carried out. The scenarios indicate that, not in general but when considering specific farm types, energy crop share extremely increases if not restricted and leads to an increase in income. If so this leads to significant increase in soil erosion by water, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. It has to be expected that an extension of nature conservation leads to an intensification of the remaining grassland and of the arable land, which were not part of nature conservation measures

  14. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic approaches to vasovagal syncope in children and adolescents in China: a health economic analysis

    LI Ya-wen; CHEN Li; DU Jun-bao; YANG Yuan-yuan; JIN Hong-fang


    Background Syncope is a common clinical problem with multiple causes. Vasovagal syncope (WS) is by far the most frequent cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children and adolescents is based on a series of tests to exclude all other causes, which is complex and time and medical resource consuming. Attempts have been made to develop a new cost-effective diagnostic approach to avoid these problems. This study aimed to compare the economic effectiveness and diagnostic value of the traditional diagnostic approach to VVS of children with a new diagnostic approach.Methods One hundred and eighteen children diagnosed as VVS were divided into two groups according to the different diagnostic approaches. The diagnostic value of the two diagnostic approaches was then analyzed. Meanwhile, the costs of hospitalization, diagnostic testing and hospital stay were determined. Data were evaluated by the cost-minimization analysis.Results The diagnostic value of the new diagnostic approach was similar to that of the traditional diagnostic approach (56.57% vs. 53.91%, P=0.697). However, the cost of hospitalization per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1507.08±144.63) Yuan (RMB) which was less than that of the traditional diagnostic approach (2603.64±P08.19) Yuan.The costs of diagnostic tests per patient by the new diagnostic approach was (1256.04±109.14) Yuan and by the traditional approach (2175.22±153.32) Yuan.Conclusion Compared to the traditional diagnostic approach to diagnose VVS in children and adolescents, the new diagnostic approach is of a good economic value, and it should be popularized in clinical practice.

  15. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan


    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  16. Relationship between crimes and economic conditions in Pakistan: a time series approach

    Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait


    Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and

  17. Relationship between crimes and economic conditions in Pakistan: a time series approach

    Raja, Mohsin Gulzar; Ullah, Kafait


    Using the time series data from 1990-2011, this paper is an attempt to explore the relationship between economic conditions and criminal activities in Pakistan. Three variables are being used for economic conditions like increasing female employment in labor market, CPI which denotes inflation and i

  18. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan


    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  19. Economic Modelling for water Quantity and Quality Management: A Welfare Program Approach

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.


    This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such

  20. Evaluation of agriculture and industry effect on economic health by ANFIS approach

    Đokić, Aleksandar; Jović, Srđan


    Economic development could be influenced due to many factors. For example agriculture and industry sectors could have significant impact on the economic growth and health. Gross domestic product (GDP) is used as an indicator of the economic health. Since the economic health and growth analyzing is very challenging task with commonly redundant data, in this investigation the economic growth was analyzed by ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) methodology based on the agriculture and industry added value in GDP. The main goal was to analyze the influence of the industry and agriculture on the GDP, industry or agriculture. Results shown that the agriculture sector has higher influence than industry sector on the GDP health and growth.

  1. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond


    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.

  2. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor


    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  3. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson LS; Chu, Tanya TW; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy CY


    ...) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit...

  4. Organizational and economic bases of logistic approach usage in the management of national education system

    Eu.V. Mishenin


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlights the lack of effectiveness of existing system of education management in Ukraine from its basic function performance – to satisfy the needs of social and economic system of human resources, according to the required quantity, quality, educational culture, right place and time with the lowest public costs. The results of the analysis. The article is focused on the forming of organizational and economic bases of the use of logistic approach in the management of education system. Logistic approach is considered as an instrument to ensure the optimal parameters of education system functioning and development in accordance with the needs of society (employers, learners with minimal public costs. It is pointed out the need to create organizational and managerial mechanisms of active integrative interaction, both between educational institutions and employers, between educational institutions of various levels of educational system in order to improve the functioning of educational institutions and the education system as a whole. It is grounded the necessity of accentuation of social-labor flow as the main object of logistical management in education. It is proposed to consider national education system as a logistic chain. It includes all structural elements of the educational system, the parties of the education system control and employers, which are involved in formation and movement of social labor flow. It is stated that they must be considered as constituting single integrated logistic chain of forming the competitive human and intellectual capital. Its functioning requires the implementation of procedures of external and intra-evaluation of social labor flow parameters and their conformity to the needed. Among the evaluation tools the psychological-pedagogical diagnostics is highlighted. It is grounded the need to analyze total costs in order to optimize the social labor flow movement. They

  5. Keeping pace with ACE: are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists potential doping agents?

    Wang, Pei; Fedoruk, Matthew N; Rupert, Jim L


    In the decade since the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was first proposed to be a 'human gene for physical performance', there have been numerous studies examining the effects of ACE genotype on physical performance phenotypes such as aerobic capacity, muscle function, trainability, and athletic status. While the results are variable and sometimes inconsistent, and corroborating phenotypic data limited, carriers of the ACE 'insertion' allele (the presence of an alu repeat element in intron 16 of the gene) have been reported to have higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), greater response to training, and increased muscle efficiency when compared with individuals carrying the 'deletion' allele (absence of the alu repeat). Furthermore, the insertion allele has been reported to be over-represented in elite athletes from a variety of populations representing a number of endurance sports. The mechanism by which the ACE insertion genotype could potentiate physical performance is unknown. The presence of the ACE insertion allele has been associated with lower ACE activity (ACEplasma) in number of studies, suggesting that individuals with an innate tendency to have lower ACE levels respond better to training and are at an advantage in endurance sporting events. This could be due to lower levels of angiotensin II (the vasoconstrictor converted to active form by ACE), higher levels of bradykinin (a vasodilator degraded by ACE) or some combination of the two phenotypes. Observations that individuals carrying the ACE insertion allele (and presumably lower ACEplasma) have an enhanced response to training or are over-represented amongst elite athletes raises the intriguing question: would individuals with artificially lowered ACEplasma have similar training or performance potential? As there are a number of drugs (i.e. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists [angiotensin receptor blockers--ARBs]) that have the ability to either reduce ACEplasma

  6. The Social System Approach to Institutions: Examples from Western Economic History

    Solomon I. Cohen


    Full Text Available While there is a general acceptance of a broad definition of social institutions as accepted rules of conduct in agent interactions, there are overlapping views on how institutions come into being and develop. Different views see institutions as the result of evolution, contract, convention, game theory, political power, or legal necessity. Once created, institutions can live their own life and gain influence on the whole economy/society in respects beyond their intrinsic origins. The overlapping views give the impression of pursued piecemeal approaches in addressing the issues. Treating issues of institutional formation and development in the framework of social system theory and analysis can be shown to simplify the picture appreciably and bring more insight. This paper intends to do that. It will display and apply the social system perspective to understanding institutional formation and development. The paper falls in two sections. First, it develops an analytical framework that views the economy as a social system with interactive subsystems that initiate and maintain their own subsystem institutions. Some subsystems expand faster than others, gaining more influence. Interaction of agents across subsystems facilitates the dominance of the more influential subsystem and the spread of the subsystem’s allied institutions to the whole social system. Second, the paper illustrates the validity of the social system perspective via reviewing a timeline that highlights the changing and evolving dominance of the major subsystems and their attached institutions in the economic history of the western world, and in particular, the interactions between the firm subsystem and the state subsystem.

  7. ACE2,diabetes mellitns and its complications%ACE2与糖尿病及其并发症

    卜乐; 刘志民


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a novel discovered mono-carboxypeptidase and the first homolog of ACE.It inhibits Ang Ⅱ signaling cascades mostly by cleaving Ang Ⅱ to generate Ang(1-7),which is mediated by the Mas receptor.The combined reduction in cell apoptosis and increment in islet blood flow caused by ACE2 could increase insulin secretion and preserve the islet function in diabetes.Besides,it is believed that ACE2 acts in a counter-regulatory manner to ACE in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications.The discovery of ACE2,its activator and antagonist may have considerable clinical value in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.%血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)2是近年来新发现的一种单羧肽酶,是已知的第一个ACE同系物.ACE2催化血管紧张素(Ang)Ⅱ生成Ang(1-7),后者与Mas受体结合,从而启动对AngⅡ信号级联反应的抑制作用.ACE2能够通过增加胰岛血流灌注、抑制细胞凋亡,促进胰岛素分泌,有效延缓糖尿病患者胰岛素功能衰退的发展.此外,在糖尿病微血管和大血管病变的病理生理过程中,ACE2发挥抗ACE效应,调控心脏、视网膜和肾脏的缩、扩血管的平衡.ACE2及其激活剂、拮抗剂,可能在糖尿病及其并发症的防治领域具有极其广阔的临床应用前景.

  8. ACES: The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    Obland, M. D.; Prasad, N. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Dobler, J. T.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T.; Campbell, J.; Chen, S.; Cleckner, C. S.; DiJoseph, M.; Little, A.; Notari, A.; Refaat, T. F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Vanek, M. D.; Bender, J.; Braun, M.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Neal, M.; Rayner, P. J.; Rosiewicz, A.; Shure, M.; Welch, W.


    to the aft optics and detector package. The cloud/aerosol discrimination work features development by Langley and Exelis of new algorithms for the avoidance of bias errors in the return signal induced by the presence of thin clouds. Coupled with the advanced detector performance, this effort seeks to significantly mitigate thin cloud effects on the retrieval. The laser transmitter development includes fabrication of high-efficiency fiber seed lasers, modulators, and amplifiers for sensing of both CO2 and O2. The 1.26 micron Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) is meant to resonantly probe O2 using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) approach similar to that of the CO2 transmitter. Wavelengths near 1.26 microns are not readily available from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lasers, and thus laser technology is being advanced in this area to demonstrate the performance necessary for a space payload. ACES leverages the Exelis Multi-function Fiber Laser Lidar instrument, which has previously flown on numerous test flights, to demonstrate the ACES technologies.

  9. [Diagnostic process and management of schizophrenia in Spain: the ACEE project].

    Baca Baldomero, E; Leal Cercós, C; Varela, C; Riesgo, Y; Roca, M


    Although schizophrenia has a great impact on the health care, social and family levels, there is little epidemiological information on patients with schizophrenia, its diagnosis and treatment in Spain. The ACEE (Abordaje Clínico de la Esquizofrenia en España; Clinical Approach to Schizophrenia in Spain) study was designed with the primary objective of defining the management of schizophrenia in Spain from the perspective of current clinical practice. ACEE is a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter observational study with data collected in the setting of current clinical practice by means of a specifically designed questionnaire. A total of 1,937 patients have been studied (83% pertaining to the public sector and 17% to private one). Most subjects had paranoid schizophrenia in the stabilization phase, and did not work because of their illness. Most (96%) were receiving antipsychotic treatment and 55% also received some non-drug treatment. Negative symptoms were more frequent than positive symptoms (88% versus 63%). Significant differences were observed for type of patients and diagnostic procedures involved between the public and private health care sectors. The ACEE study shows that schizophrenic patients attending Spanish psychiatric centers are mainly single, non-working males who are living in their family setting. Treatment basically consists of antipsychotics combined with other drugs, and few complementary examinations are performed.

  10. Evaluation of ACE inhibitors lipophilicity using in silico and chromatographically obtained hydrophobicity parameters

    Odović Jadranka V.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different calculation methods to determine lipophilicity, expressed as logP value, of seven ACE inhibitors (enalapril, quinapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, cilazapril, ramipril, and benazapril with significantly different structure. Experimentally determined n-octanol/water partition coefficients, logPO/W values, were obtained from relevant literature. The correlations between all collected logP values were studied and the best agreements between calculated logP and experimentally determined logPO/W values, were observed for KOWWINlogP or MilogP values (r = 0.999 or r = 0.974, respectively. The correlations between all collected logP values and chromatographically (reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography obtained hydrophobicity parameters, RM0 and C0, were established. The good correlations (r > 0.90 were obtained in the majority of relationships. The KOWWINlogP was established as the most suitable hydrophobicity parameter of investigated group of ACE inhibitors with r = 0.981 for correlation with RM0 and r = 0.977 for correlation with C0 parameters (water-methanol mobile phase. Using multiple linear regressions, it was established that application of two selected logP, calculated by different mathematical approaches, led to very good correlation due to the benefits of both calculation methods. The good relationships indicate that the computed logP, with careful selection of method calculation, can be useful in ACE inhibitors lipophilicity evaluation, as high-throughput screening technique.

  11. Simulations of energy and angular distributions in plasma processing reactors using CFD-ACE +

    Bhoj, Ananth; Jain, Kunal; Megahed, Mustafa


    Several plasma processing reactors employ energetic ion bombardment at the substrate to enable surface reactions such as plasma etching, deposition or sputtering. The knowledge and control of the energy and angular distributions is an important requirement and can be used to suppress or enhance reaction rates. The CFD-ACE + platform is used for reactor scale modeling of generic inductively coupled and capacitively coupled rf plasma reactors. CFD-ACE + has a coupled solver approach that includes modules to address in a sequential and iterative manner, fluid flow, heat transfer, the Poisson equation for electric fields, charged species transport equations for species fluxes, surface charge on dielectrics and chemical kinetics in the gas and on all plasma-bounding surfaces. The Monte Carlo transport module of CFD-ACE + is based on the work of Kushner and co-workers and tracks pseudo-particles representing actual species based on source functions in the reactor. Model outputs for visualization include species densities and energy and angular distribution functions. Results discussed will include the effect of process variables such as pressure, power and frequency on the energy and angular distributions. R. J. Hoekstra and M.J. Kushner, Journal of Applied Physics, 79, 2275 (1996).

  12. Economic stress and lack of internal health locus of control: a life course approach.

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria


    To investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and lack of internal health locus of control (HLC), testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses. A cross-sectional public health (postal) survey was conducted in Skåne in 2008, based on a random sample with 28,198 participants in the age interval 18-80 years, with 55% participation. Logistic regressions analyzed associations between childhood and current economic stress, and lack of internal HLC. A 33.7% prevalence of men and 31.8% of women lack internal HLC, which was significantly associated with the covariates included. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported because combined childhood and adulthood economic stress exposures were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC in a graded manner. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since the association between economic stress in childhood and lack of internal HLC was partly significant in the final model, and the association with adult (current) economic stress was also significant. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since both childhood and current economic stress experience were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC. Economic conditions in childhood as well as adulthood are plausibly of relevance for HLC.

  13. Mortality in patients with hypertension on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor treatment is influenced by the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism

    Bleumink, GS; Schut, Anna F.C.; Sturkenboom, MCJM; van Duijn, CM; Deckers, JW; Hofman, A; Kingma, J. Herre; Witteman, JCM; Stricker, BHC

    Background The response to angiotensin-l converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy is highly variable. Residual ACE activity during treatment, potentially modified by the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, may explain part of this variability. We studied the possible interaction between

  14. Remittance and economic development: Evidence from Bangladesh using unrestricted error correction model and Engle-Granger cointegration approach

    Shimul Shafiun N


    Full Text Available Remittance is one of the popular issues in the development economics. This paper attempted at finding the relationship between remittance flow and economic development using time series data of 1976-2007. The two modern time series econometric approaches- bound testing Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models or Unrestricted Error Correction Model (UECM and Engel Granger two step procedure for co-integration test- were executed and this study found that remittance was not significantly affecting the GDP per capita both in the short and long run although the foreign direct investment was found significant in the short but not in the long run. The study suggested adopting appropriate steps so that these can be used as a contributor to the economic development.

  15. A Novel EP Approach for Power Economic Dispatch with Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuel Options

    P.S. Manoharan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. Determination of global optimum solution for the practical economic dispatch problem having non smooth cost functions is difficult by using conventional mathematical approaches. Hence several evolutionary algorithm methods were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization technique is proposed to solve economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options. The EP-LMO is developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP is applied as a base level search to find the direction of the optimal global region. And Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization (LMO method is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution. To illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two bench mark problems are considered. First test problem considers multiple fuel options and next problem addresses both valve-point effects and multi-fuel options. To validate the obtained results, the proposed method is compared with the results of conventional numerical methods, Modified Hop-field Neural network, Evolutionary Programming approaches, Modified PSO, Improved PSO and Improved Genetic Algorithm with multiplier updating (IGA_MUmethod.


    Alin Codoban


    Full Text Available The European Union’s external energy policy architecture is very important for further energy security and economic development. European normative power on its neighbours represents the most efficient way of integrating neighbouring energy markets, with the EU’s emerging internal market and, in perspective, through economic interdependence and complementarities, there are chances of creating an European geo-energy space. EU’s tools for shaping the geo-energy space are becoming more effective in an extended European economic area that would allow it to act as the main actor in a multilateral interconnected system of energy producer and transit countries. The result of the paper is materialized in a new paradigm for EU’s external energy policy, which can provide future security of supply through market institutions and an active economic diplomacy in the resource energy countries.

  17. Review of marketing approaches to increase of sales effectiveness in the context of behavioral economics

    Мakhnusha Svetlana Mikhailovna


    .... It sets out its postulates concerning the irrational behavior of people in terms of their economic decision-making, particularly in the context of marketing for the purpose of increasing sales efficiency...

  18. System approach to the study of social and economic effects of information and communication technologies

    Afanasyev V.B.


    This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.

  19. Estimating the economic impact of tourism industry through the MM approach

    SOCCI Claudio


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in Italy and has proven to be a valuable source of economic prosperity. The main issue emerging when measuring the impact of tourism is that tourism is usually considered as a specific industry while in most applied situations it shows traits of a complex and structured economic activity characterized by a blend of different industries. We will identify the relationship among the various industries making up the complex economic activity usually referred as the “tourism industry”. This is done through the application of the multisectoral analysis to the Italian case. The evaluation of tourism in terms of economic policy is performed through the definition of an index of interaction among industries.

  20. Economic Analysis on Business Cycles and Suicide Rate - An Approach from Corporate Behavior -

    Susumu Kuwahara


    Japan has seen a sharp rise in the suicide rate since 1998, which has since been a major social problem. In addition, the number of those suffering mental disorders has been increasing in recent years. The paper argues that there exists economic rationality for corporations to motivate or force workers to resign and to raise the stress level at the workplace, when the consensus on the labor standards is altered drastically in response to the changing economic environment. The author believes ...


    Sekerin V. D.; Dudin M. N.; Lyasnikov N. V.


    The purpose of this article consists in disclosure of key theoretical and practical questions of introduction of a concept "green logistics" for increase of activity efficiency of economic entities in agro-industrial sector and decrease in level of negative impact of this sector on a global ecosystem taking into account the happening global transformations in world economy. Within this article, various aspects characterizing world economic, ecological, technological trends that define the fut...

  2. Modelling the role of forests on water provision services: a hydro-economic valuation approach

    Beguería, S.; Campos, P.


    Hydro-economic models that allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure, economic and social aspects into a coherent, scientifically- informed framework constitute preferred tools for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. We present a case study of water regulation and provision services of forests in the Andalusia region of Spain. Our model computes the physical water flows and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of forest surface and underground water yield. Based on available hydrologic and economic data, we develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is integrated within a much larger project aiming at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income and capital of forests, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). We also force our simulation with future socio-economic scenarios to quantify the physical and economic efects of expected trends or simulated public and private policies on future water resources. Only a comprehensive integrated tool may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies, such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  3. Determining the Real Causes of Financial Crisis in Islamic Economic Perspective: ANP Approach

    . Ascarya


    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study is to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective.Methods - This study applies Analytic Network Process (ANP to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective to be able to formulate the real solutions to end financial crisis.Results - The ANP results show that the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective are Social Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Speculation (MISBEHAVIOR, Ineffective Fiscal System (UNSUSTAINABLE FISCAL SYSTEM, Hedonism (MISBEHAVIOR, Fractional Reserve Banking System (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Political Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Corruption (POOR GOVERNANCE, Interest Rate (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Fiat Money (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, and the Wrong Man in the Wrong Place (POOR GOVERNANCE. These main real causes should be removed gradually in order to systematically and gradually improve the stability of financial system so that financial crisis will not reappear again and again in the future.Conclusions - Financial crisis would not happen under Islamic economic system if all Allah’s laws in financial dealings were followed. Financial crisis in conventional economic system could be prevented or lessened by gradually adopting Islamic economic and finance laws and regulations, partly or fully, especially the main pillars of Islamic financial system, namely the prohibition of ribā (usury or interest, prohibition of maysir (gambling and game of chance or speculation and prohibition of gharar (excessive uncertainty, in their many forms.

  4. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Paolo Meoni


    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  5. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Hamid Balali


    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  6. The relationship between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: a three-way linkage approach.

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S


    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.

  7. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A


    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines.

  8. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene family of Anopheles gambiae

    Isaac R Elwyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the M2 family of peptidases, related to mammalian angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, play important roles in regulating a number of physiological processes. As more invertebrate genomes are sequenced, there is increasing evidence of a variety of M2 peptidase genes, even within a single species. The function of these ACE-like proteins is largely unknown. Sequencing of the A. gambiae genome has revealed a number of ACE-like genes but probable errors in the Ensembl annotation have left the number of ACE-like genes, and their structure, unclear. Results TBLASTN and sequence analysis of cDNAs revealed that the A. gambiae genome contains nine genes (AnoACE genes which code for proteins with similarity to mammalian ACE. Eight of these genes code for putative single domain enzymes similar to other insect ACEs described so far. AnoACE9, however, has several features in common with mammalian somatic ACE such as a two domain structure and a hydrophobic C terminus. Four of the AnoACE genes (2, 3, 7 and 9 were shown to be expressed at a variety of developmental stages. Expression of AnoACE3, AnoACE7 and AnoACE9 is induced by a blood meal, with AnoACE7 showing the largest (approximately 10-fold induction. Conclusion Genes coding for two-domain ACEs have arisen several times during the course of evolution suggesting a common selective advantage to having an ACE with two active-sites in tandem in a single protein. AnoACE7 belongs to a sub-group of insect ACEs which are likely to be membrane-bound and which have an unusual, conserved gene structure.

  9. The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences

    Truman P. Phillips


    Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

  10. Oil Price Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: a Vector Auto-Regression (VAR Approach

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro


    Full Text Available The study examined oil price volatility and economic growth in Nigeria linking oil price volatility, crude oil prices, oil revenue and Gross Domestic Product. Using quarterly data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin and World Bank Indicators (various issues spanning 1980-2010, a non‐linear model of oil price volatility and economic growth was estimated using the VAR technique. The study revealed that oil price volatility has significantly influenced the level of economic growth in Nigeria although; the result additionally indicated a negative relationship between the oil price volatility and the level of economic growth. Furthermore, the result also showed that the Nigerian economy survived on crude oil, to such extent that the country‘s budget is tied to particular price of crude oil. This is not a good sign for a developing economy, more so that the country relies almost entirely on revenue of the oil sector as a source of foreign exchange earnings. This therefore portends some dangers for the economic survival of Nigeria. It was recommended amongst others that there should be a strong need for policy makers to focus on policy that will strengthen/stabilize the economy with specific focus on alternative sources of government revenue. Finally, there should be reduction in monetization of crude oil receipts (fiscal discipline, aggressive saving of proceeds from oil booms in future in order to withstand vicissitudes of oil price volatility in future.

  11. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension.

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K; Giani, Jorge F; Nguyen, Mien T X; Riquier-Brison, Anne D; Seth, Dale M; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E; McDonough, Alicia A


    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A


    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme.


    Serguey Arseniyevich VLADIMIROV


    Full Text Available The paper aimed at an academic substantiation of possibility of reaching the community-measured and utmost available efficiency in public expenditure and investments and tax collection/ revenue in a perfectly arranged well-balanced open-ended macro-economic framework. The model suggested looks similar (by its interpretation to the «econophysical» trend in the contemporary economics concept (Cf.: the Carnot cycle in thermodynamics, that means a specific amount received from the public spending jointly with investments to the national economy (in the event of a successful outcome i.e. «zero-loss» may lead to the maximum expected rate of economic growth, that enables justifying general directions of an appropriate macroeconomic policy (concerning both finance and budget allocations]. 

  14. Financial Management of Economic Entity from the Perspective of Alternative Approach

    Victor Munteanu


    Full Text Available Throughout the study the financial management presented is divided into three directions, namely financial analysis, financial planning and financial strategy, focusing on increasing the quality of financial management conducted at the economic entity by identifying an easier possible use for a system of alternative decisions in order to increase the profitability. The study also aims to identify new meanings of financial accounting information system in performing the managerial act through alternative decisions, trying to highlight the need to create a management tool generator of variants possible to be adopted with an impact on their application in the economic entity as a whole. Based on qualitative research on the financial management act, it is revealed the importance of the financial management act manifested in the economic entity and also its quality improvement through simulations targeting the management through budget system.

  15. Economic expansion and increase in labout market formality: a poaching approach

    Carlos Henrique L. Corseuil


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between economic expansion and the degree of formalization for the Brazilian labour market in the recent period. We present a theoretical framework that attempts to explain this relationship through the dynamics of firms hiring strategies. The main predictions are: the share of formal employment rises as the unemployment rate falls, and that the formal-informal wage gap increases, at least at the beginning of the economic expansion. In the empirical part, we use longitudinal microdata from a Brazilian household survey to check whether these two predictions are confirmed. To a large extent our results corroborate both predictions.

  16. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    England, Richard W. [Department of Economics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824-3593 (United States)


    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  17. ACE-2 HILLCLOUD. An overview of the ACE-2 ground-based cloud experiment

    Bower, B.K.N.; Choularton, T.W.; Gallagher, M.W.


    The ACE-2 HILLCLOUD experiment was carried out on the island of Tenerife in June-July 1997 to investigate the interaction of the boundary layer aerosol with a hill cap cloud forming over a ridge to the north-east of the island. The cloud was used as a natural flow through reactor to investigate......, (nocturnally for seven of the eight runs) and were carried out in a wide range of airmass conditions from clean maritime to polluted continental. Polluted air was characterised by higher than average concentrations of ozone (> 50 ppbv), fine and accumulation mode aerosols (>3000 and >1500 cm-3, respectively...... and hydrochloric acids were present as a result of outgassing from aerosol, the HNO3 from nitrate rich aerosol transported into the region from upwind of Tenerife, and HCl from sea salt aerosol newly formed at the sea surface. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and ozone were abundant (i.e., were well in excess over...

  18. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; hide


    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  19. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey


    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame.

  20. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José


    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  1. Supply-side approaches to the economic valuation of coastal and marine habitat in the Red Sea

    Hoagland, P.


    The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial or residential purposes. In such circumstances, the ocean habitat and its associated ecosystem are treated as if they are worthless. Measures of actual or potential economic values generated by fisheries in commercial markets can be used to assess a conservative (lower-bound) value of ocean habitat. With this information, one can begin to compare the values of coastal developments to the values of foregone ocean habitat in order to help understand whether development would be justified economically. In this paper, we focus on the economic value associated with the harvesting of commercial fish stocks as a relevant case for the Saudi Arabian portion of the Red Sea. We describe first the conceptual basis behind supply-side approaches to economic valuation. Next we review the literature on the use of these methods for valuing ocean habitat. We provide an example based on recent research assessing the bioeconomic status of the traditional fisheries of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the KSA Red Sea coral reefs, finding that annual per-unit values supporting the traditional fisheries only are on the order of 7000/km2. Finally, we develop some recommendations for refining future applications of these methods to the Red Sea environment and for further research. © 2013 .

  2. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Fisman David N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  3. The world economic system and international migration in less developed countries: an ecological approach.

    Amankwaa, A A


    "This paper analysed net migration within the context of [the] world economic system and urban ecological framework using the structural equation model." The author "employs linear structural equation modelling to examine determinants of international migration, using data from the World Bank World Tables, World Development Reports and the World Bank." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  4. Sustainable Approaches for Materials Management in Remote, Economically Challenged Areas of the Pacific

    Remote, economically challenged areas in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI) and American Samoa in the US Pacific island territories face unique challenges with respect to solid waste management. These islands are remote and isolated, with some islands suppo...

  5. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric


    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  6. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.


    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  7. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    Geurs KT; LAE


    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  8. Components of the costs of controlling quality: a transaction cost economics approach.

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S


    This article identifies the components that contribute to a healthcare organization's costs in controlling quality. A central tenet of our argument is that at its core, quality is the result of a series of transactions among members of a diverse network. Transaction cost economics is applied internally to analyze intraorganizational transactions that contribute to quality control, and questions for future research are posed.

  9. Pyrolysis of forest residues: an approach to techno-economics for bio-fuel production

    The techno-economics for producing liquid fuels from Maine forest residues were determined from a combination of: (1) laboratory experiments at USDA-ARS’s Eastern Regional Research Center using hog fuel (a secondary woody residue produced from mill byproducts such as sawdust, bark and shavings) as a...

  10. Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach

    Heide, van der C.M.; Blaeij, de A.T.; Heijman, W.J.M.


    In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can

  11. Methodological approach for assessing the economic impact of forest fires using MODIS remote sensing images

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Castillo Soto


    Assessing areas affected by forest fires requires comprehensive studies covering a wide range of analyzes. From an economic standpoint, assessing the affected area in monetary terms is crucial. Determining the degree of loss in the value of natural resources, both those of a tangible and intangible nature, enables knowing the residual value remaining after a fire, i.e...

  12. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika


    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…

  13. Schumacher and Kautilyan economics from an integral view : A sustainable approach

    Nandram, S.S.


    The world today is changing rapidly in many areas. On the macroeconomic level this is occurring in the form of climate change, resource depletion, disparity of wealth and possibilities of global nuclear waste. Several scholars express a need for a new paradigm of economics and management addressing

  14. Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach

    Hein, L.G.


    Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.


  15. The road to transfer: concept and context approaches to the subject of economics in secondary school

    L. Kneppers; C. van Boxtel; B. van Hout-Wolters


    In this study we investigated the effects of two forms of instruction: strengthening concepts and strengthening the ability to connect context with concepts. Although students may have acquired a reasonable amount of conceptual knowledge as a result of economics courses, two obstacles may prevent th

  16. Interbank Lending Decisions in An Economic Downturn: An Agent-Based Approach

    Deddy P. Koesrindartoto


    Full Text Available Interbank lending is one mechanism that can make shock, which is accepted by one bank spread to other banks (contagion. There are several researchers that focused their research on analyzing the effect of interbank lending to systemic risk. However, there is a few research that analyzed the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior, especially on the bank interbank lending to the systemic risk. In this research, the author creates an agent-based  simulation of the banking system to analyze the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior to systemic risk in economic downturn condition. The preliminary result from this research is for an economic downturn in a long time period, the banking system with a low net worth to the asset's ratio threshold will produce more default bank than the banking system with a high net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. However, for an economic downturn in small time period, banking system which all bank in their system has the higher net worth to assets ratio threshold will have the default bank first than the banking system which has the lower net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. Keywords: agent-based simulation, banker behavior, interbank lending, economic downturn

  17. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    Geurs KT; LAE


    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  18. Examining the impacts of oil price changes on economic indicators: A panel approach

    Lim, Kah Boon; Sek, Siok Kun


    The impact of oil price on global economy is evident from many studies and research findings. In this study, we extend the research on examining the impact of oil price changes on economic indicators in terms of economic growth and inflation by comparing different groups of economies (high income versus low income countries and oil importing versus oil exporting countries). Our main objective is to reveal if such impact varies across country income level/ development and oil dependency. In addition, we also seek to compare the impacts of oil price relative to the other factors indicators (money supply, foreign direct investment, exchange rate, government expenditure, inflation and gross domestic product) on economy. For the purpose of this study, the co-integration regression (DOLS and FMOLS) techniques are applied to the panel dataset of four groups of economies which contain 10 countries in each panel dataset. The analysis results show that oil price is not the main determinant although it can have a significant impact on inflation and economic growth across all groups of economies. The three main determinants of economic growth are exchange rate, aggregate demand and government expenditure while the determinants of inflation are aggregate supply and exchange rate. Furthermore, our result also concludes that oil price has a positive impact in oil exporting economies but it shows a negative impact in oil importing economies due to the oil dependency factor.


    Cătălina IANĂŞI


    Full Text Available The human side of economic enterprise today is fashioned from proposition and beliefs such as these. Conventional organization structures, managerial policies, practices, and programs reflect these assumptions. In accomplishing its task—with these assumptions as guides—management has conceived of a range of possibilities between two extremes


    Cătălina IANĂŞI


    The human side of economic enterprise today is fashioned from proposition and beliefs such as these. Conventional organization structures, managerial policies, practices, and programs reflect these assumptions. In accomplishing its task—with these assumptions as guides—management has conceived of a range of possibilities between two extremes

  1. User centric design of smart grid: A social and economical approach

    Kobus, C.B.A.; De Jonge, B.; Knigge, J.; Slootweg, J.G.


    The energy transition poses challenges for maintaining the energy balance between demand and supply in the future. One of the solutions is Demand Side Management (DSM) where mobilizing flexibility in demand is the main objective. This paper summarizes two research projects on the economical and soci

  2. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal


    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics.

  3. Integrating health economics modeling in the product development cycle of medical devices: A Bayesian approach

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Buxton, Martin J.; Girling, Alan J.; Lilford, Richard J.; Young, Terry


    Objectives: Medical device companies are under growing pressure to provide health-economic evaluations of their products. Cost-effectiveness analyses are commonly undertaken as a one-off exercise at the late stage of development of new technologies; however, the benefits of an iterative use of

  4. Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach

    Hein, L.G.


    Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.

  5. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika


    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…


    M. P. Metrova


    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of ACE inhibitor perindopril on markers of endothelial dysfunction in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 82 patients with HT, complicated by ischemic stroke were involved in the study. 30 patients with uncomplicated HT were included into control group. Antihypertensive therapy with perindopril (52 patients or amlodipine (30 patients was conducted additionally to standard neurotropic therapy in hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke. Phase-contrast microscopy and enzyme immunoassay were used for screening of endothelial dysfunction markers (blebbing, desquamated endothelial cells, membrane-liberated parts, sPECAM-1.Results. Reduction in levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction was observed among patients treated with perindopril in comparison with patients who did not receive ACE inhibitor or patients of control group. Target levels of blood pressure were reached in 96% of patients treated with perindopril. Сonclusion. ACE inhibitors in therapy patients with HT reduce endothelial dysfunction additionally to antihypertensive effect.

  7. Deletion of the aceE gene (encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase) attenuates Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Pang, Ervinna; Tien-Lin, Chang; Selvaraj, Madhan; Chang, Jason; Kwang, Jimmy


    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major food-borne pathogen. From a transposon insertion mutant library created previously using S. Enteritidis 10/02, one of the mutants was identified to have a 50% lethal dose (LD(50) ) at least 100 times that of the parental strain in young chicks, with an attenuation in a poorly studied gene encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, namely the aceE gene. Evaluation of the in vitro virulence characteristics of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant revealed that it was less able to invade epithelial cells, less resistant to reactive oxygen intermediate, less able to survive within a chicken macrophage cell line and had a retarded growth rate compared with the parental strain. Young chicks vaccinated with 2 × 10(9) CFU of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant were protected from the subsequent challenge of the parental strain, with the mutant colonized in the liver and spleen in a shorter time than the group infected with the parental strain. In addition, compared with the parental strain, the ΔaceE∷kan mutant did not cause persistent eggshell contamination of vaccinated hens.


    Boldea Monica


    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  9. Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility

    Martin Werding


    Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.

  10. A Multidisciplinary, Science-Based Approach to the Economics of Climate Change

    Alan Carlin


    Full Text Available Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO2 emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO2 emissions reductions on atmospheric CO2 appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO2 emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO2 emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO2 emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used. The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering.

  11. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting


    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor


    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  13. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in ACE Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test


    ..._pubs/ . B. Portal Capability ACE Portal Account owners who have the ability to select ``portal'' as... for both ACS and ACE entry summaries. ACE Portal Reports will be enhanced to include improvements to...

  14. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter


    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  15. Variation in the Ace Gene in Elite Polish Football Players

    Cięszczyk Paweł


    Full Text Available Purpose. A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of the study was to determine the genotype and allele distribution of the allele and genotype of the ACE gene in Polish male football players. Methods. The total of 106 Polish male professional football players were recruited. They were divided into groups according to the position in the field: forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers. For controls, samples were prepared with 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of the ACE gene containing either the insertion (I or deletion (D fragment was performed. Results. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies among all football players did not differ significantly when compared with sedentary control individuals (p = 0.887, p = 0.999, respectively. Likewise, the analysis of forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers revealed no significant differences in either ACE genotype or allele frequencies. Conclusions. We did not provide evidence for difference of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between Polish football players and controls, as we did not obtain any statistically significantly higher frequency of either of the analysed alleles (I and D or genotypes (DD, ID, and II in the studied subgroups. It may be suspected that harbouring of I/D allelic variants of the ACE gene neither decreases nor increases the probability of being a professional football player in Poland.

  16. An Integrated Approach to Explore the Relationship Among Economic, Construction Land Use, and Ecology Subsystems in Zhejiang Province, China

    Chuyu Xia


    Full Text Available Zhejiang Province, China is experiencing rapid urbanization, facing the challenge of coupling socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. This paper establishes a comprehensive index system to assess coordinating development of economic, construction land use (CLU, and ecology subsystems. A Granger test and a coupling coordination model were applied to explore the causal relationship and the coordinated development state among the three subsystems from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that: (1 changes in the integrated value of the economic subsystem were the Granger cause of changes in the ecology and CLU subsystems, and the changes in the integrated values of ecology and CLU was each other’s Granger cause; (2 the coupling coordination relationship of the integrated value for economic–CLU–ecology was constrained by the relationship between the economic and the CLU subsystems from 2000 to 2004, and that between the ecology and the economic subsystems was the impediment of the sustainable development of economic–CLU–ecology from 2004 to 2012. This research helps to identify approach to sustainable development through analyzing synergistic effects, interdependencies, and trade-offs among the integrated economic–CLU–ecology values, and to make significant contribution to urban planning policies in rapid urbanization region.

  17. The Synthetic Strategy toward of ACE-Inhibitors


    @@ Angiotensin II is an important octapeptide which is responsible for the increase in blood pressure in three major mechanisms. It acts as a hormone to attack the receptor on the blood vessels, which cause strong vasoconstriction. It is also the major stimulus for release another hormone, aldolsterone, which promote the excretion of potassium ion and retention of sodium and waster. Both of the above effects increase the blood pressure. On the other hand, ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bradykinin that is a potent vasodilator. Therefore, the inhibitor of ACE can act as an efficient anti-hypertensive agent through multiple routes.

  18. The Synthetic Strategy toward of ACE-Inhibitors

    CHANG; ChingYao


    Angiotensin II is an important octapeptide which is responsible for the increase in blood pressure in three major mechanisms. It acts as a hormone to attack the receptor on the blood vessels, which cause strong vasoconstriction. It is also the major stimulus for release another hormone, aldolsterone, which promote the excretion of potassium ion and retention of sodium and waster. Both of the above effects increase the blood pressure. On the other hand, ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) catalyzes the hydrolysis of bradykinin that is a potent vasodilator. Therefore, the inhibitor of ACE can act as an efficient anti-hypertensive agent through multiple routes.  ……

  19. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François


    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  20. Economic evaluation of pharmacogenomics: a value-based approach to pragmatic decision making in the face of complexity.

    Snyder, Susan R; Mitropoulou, Christina; Patrinos, George P; Williams, Marc S


    Evidence of the value of pharmacogenomic testing is needed to inform policymakers and clinicians for decision making related to adoption and coverage, and to facilitate prioritization for research and development. Pharmacogenomics has an important role in creating a more efficient healthcare system, and this article addresses how economic evaluation can strategically target evidence gaps for public health priorities with examples from pharmacogenomic medicine. This article begins with a review of the need for and use of economic evaluations in value-based decision making for pharmacogenomic testing. Three important gaps are described with examples demonstrating how they can be addressed: (1) projected impact of hypothetical new technology, (2) pre-implementation assessment of a specific technology, and (3) post-implementation assessment from relevant analytical stakeholder perspectives. Additional needs, challenges and approaches specific to pharmacogenomic economic evaluation in the developing world are also identified. These pragmatic approaches can provide much needed evidence to support real-world value-based decision making for pharmacogenomic-based screening and treatment strategies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach

    Stenehjem, E.J.


    Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state legislation requiring subregional impact analyses for individual facilities. The model was designed in light of the requirements for accuracy, expandability, and exportability. The methodology forecasts absolute increments in local and regional growth on an annual or biennial basis and transforms these parameters into estimates of the affected area's ability to accommodate growth-induced demands, especially demands for public services. (HLW)

  2. Insurance penetration and economic growth in Africa: Dynamic effects analysis using Bayesian TVP-VAR approach

    D.O. Olayungbo


    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic interactions between insurance and economic growth in eight African countries for the period of 1970–2013. Insurance demand is measured by insurance penetration which accounts for income differences across the sample countries. A Bayesian Time Varying Parameter Vector Auto regression (TVP-VAR model with stochastic volatility is used to analyze the short run and the long run among the variables of interest. Using insurance penetration as a measure of insurance to economic growth, we find positive relationship for Egypt, while short-run negative and long-run positive effects are found for Kenya, Mauritius, and South Africa. On the contrary, negative effects are found for Algeria, Nigeria, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Implementation of sound financial reforms and wide insurance coverage are proposed recommendations for insurance development in the selected African countries.




    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.




    Full Text Available The effects of the economic crisis on European countries has led to serious cuts of the defense budgets and a perceived reduction in the EU’s ability to provide capabilities required by other allies, especially the US. Cooperation, in the form of pooling and sharing may not be an easy and “ready to use” solution to Europe’s defense issues generated by the budget austerity and economic downturn, but it may provide ways to lessen the defense cuts impact on the military capabilities. Nonetheless, the success of the initiative is strongly related to the degree of political and military commitment of the EU countries to put into practice the concept.

  5. Climate change economics on a small island: new approaches for Tobago

    Simpson, Murray [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birch, Tom


    For small islands like Tobago — that depend heavily on tourism driven by their natural 'beauty' — climate change poses a double-edged threat on supply and demand. Rising sea levels, increasing temperatures and more frequent and intense storms will damage the island's natural assets, such as coral reefs and beaches. This could have a heavy impact on tourism, which will also be affected by climate policy in 'source' countries. But what exactly will that impact be? How much will it cost? And what can be done about it? Traditional economic analysis is ill-equipped to answer these questions because it offers static and highly uncertain models and assessments of damage and loss, rather than flexible response options that consider system dynamics. We urgently need to use and expand new forms of economic analysis to better support the difficult decisions that Caribbean policymakers face as a result of climate change.

  6. Innovation by discourse - a new approach in the evaluation of sustainable economics success

    O`Hara, S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)


    Standard economic valuation relies on input prices (costs) and product prices (revenues) to communicate the value of economic activity to the firm as well as society at large. This reliance of prices to communicate value discriminates against services, products and activities that are not easily priced or evaluated according to their exchange value. Even when methods are applied which seek to assign monetary value artificially, that is outside the common market mechanism of production and consumption activities, price based valuation remains seriously flawed. It assumes the commensurability of wants, the preference of present value and the ability to express uncertainty in risk assessment categories. This paper outlines the expanded rationality of discourse based valuation and argues the advantages discursive valuation offers in addressing large scale complex systems changes like global climate change.


    Hazuki Ishida


    Full Text Available This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causality between fossil fuels and GDP. The results also show that there is no causal relationship between non-fossil energy and GDP. The results of cointegration analysis, Granger causality tests, and variance decomposition analysis imply that non-fossil energy may not necessarily be able to play the role of fossil fuels. Japan cannot seem to realize both continuous economic growth and the departure from dependence on fossil fuels. Hence, growth-oriented macroeconomic policies should be re-examined.


    Oana DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available The quick development of science and technique within the information society we live in automatically involves the necessity of paradigm shift in the making of the young generation. At a European level, there is an interest for the use of participative teaching strategies based on experiments, cooperation and the stimulation of creativity. We are, thus, in a situation that must lead to rethinking the teaching strategies in order to ensure a natural dynamics in the evolution of our education system. The current article wants to underline the need for using the constructive strategies when studying Economics, as well as the feedback of the participants in this new teaching, respectively learning process. The objective will be met with the help of an empirical study carried out in a High School of Economics.

  9. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    Nasini, Stefano


    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  10. Approaches to Refining Estimates of Global Burden and Economics of Dengue

    Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Guzmán, María G.; Halstead, Scott B.; Harris, Eva; Mudin, Rose Nani; Murray, Kristy O.; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Gubler, Duane J.


    Dengue presents a formidable and growing global economic and disease burden, with around half the world's population estimated to be at risk of infection. There is wide variation and substantial uncertainty in current estimates of dengue disease burden and, consequently, on economic burden estimates. Dengue disease varies across time, geography and persons affected. Variations in the transmission of four different viruses and interactions among vector density and host's immune status, age, pre-existing medical conditions, all contribute to the disease's complexity. This systematic review aims to identify and examine estimates of dengue disease burden and costs, discuss major sources of uncertainty, and suggest next steps to improve estimates. Economic analysis of dengue is mainly concerned with costs of illness, particularly in estimating total episodes of symptomatic dengue. However, national dengue disease reporting systems show a great diversity in design and implementation, hindering accurate global estimates of dengue episodes and country comparisons. A combination of immediate, short-, and long-term strategies could substantially improve estimates of disease and, consequently, of economic burden of dengue. Suggestions for immediate implementation include refining analysis of currently available data to adjust reported episodes and expanding data collection in empirical studies, such as documenting the number of ambulatory visits before and after hospitalization and including breakdowns by age. Short-term recommendations include merging multiple data sources, such as cohort and surveillance data to evaluate the accuracy of reporting rates (by health sector, treatment, severity, etc.), and using covariates to extrapolate dengue incidence to locations with no or limited reporting. Long-term efforts aim at strengthening capacity to document dengue transmission using serological methods to systematically analyze and relate to epidemiologic data. As promising tools

  11. Optimising the management of complex dynamic ecosystems. An ecological-economic modelling approach

    Hein, L.G.


    Keywords: ecological-economic modelling; ecosystem services; resource use; efficient; sustainability; wetlands, rangelands.Ecosystems supply a wide range of goods and services to mankind. This includes, for example, timber supplied by forests, and animal feed supplied by rangeland systems. In addition, ecosystems supply a range of essential life support services, such as the regulation of climatic and biochemical processes, and they have a non-use value related to their importance for the con...

  12. Approaches to refining estimates of global burden and economics of dengue.

    Shepard, Donald S; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Guzmán, María G; Halstead, Scott B; Harris, Eva; Mudin, Rose Nani; Murray, Kristy O; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Gubler, Duane J


    Dengue presents a formidable and growing global economic and disease burden, with around half the world's population estimated to be at risk of infection. There is wide variation and substantial uncertainty in current estimates of dengue disease burden and, consequently, on economic burden estimates. Dengue disease varies across time, geography and persons affected. Variations in the transmission of four different viruses and interactions among vector density and host's immune status, age, pre-existing medical conditions, all contribute to the disease's complexity. This systematic review aims to identify and examine estimates of dengue disease burden and costs, discuss major sources of uncertainty, and suggest next steps to improve estimates. Economic analysis of dengue is mainly concerned with costs of illness, particularly in estimating total episodes of symptomatic dengue. However, national dengue disease reporting systems show a great diversity in design and implementation, hindering accurate global estimates of dengue episodes and country comparisons. A combination of immediate, short-, and long-term strategies could substantially improve estimates of disease and, consequently, of economic burden of dengue. Suggestions for immediate implementation include refining analysis of currently available data to adjust reported episodes and expanding data collection in empirical studies, such as documenting the number of ambulatory visits before and after hospitalization and including breakdowns by age. Short-term recommendations include merging multiple data sources, such as cohort and surveillance data to evaluate the accuracy of reporting rates (by health sector, treatment, severity, etc.), and using covariates to extrapolate dengue incidence to locations with no or limited reporting. Long-term efforts aim at strengthening capacity to document dengue transmission using serological methods to systematically analyze and relate to epidemiologic data. As promising tools

  13. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    Dinda, Soumyananda


    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  14. The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Pardono, Emerson; Lima, Ricardo Moreno; Morais, Pâmella Karoline; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Campbell, Carmem Sílvia Grubert; Simões, Herbert Gustavo


    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene) has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated...

  15. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Jordi Vilaseca


    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  16. Impact of the Sugar Import Reduction on Iran Economic Value Added (Input- Output Approach

    Fateme Hayatgheibi


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding interactions and linkages between the sugar sector with other economic sectors, and the influence of sugar import reduction on the economic value added. To achieve the purpose, the Input-Output table of Iran for the year 2006, Leontief inverse matrix and hypothetical extraction method were used. Based on the results, sugar industry has the most forward linkages with “Manufacture of food products and beverages,…”, “husbandry, aviculture,…”, “cultivation, horticulture”, “bakery products” and “restaurants”. This sector has also strong backward linkages with “cultivation, horticulture”, “chemicals and chemical products”, “other services”, “transport and telecommunication” and “financial services, insurance and bank”. Furthermore, either one unit increase in the final demand of sugar or one unit decrease in the sugar import increases the output of whole economic, agricultural and fishing, industry and mining, and services sectors by 2.3060, 0.6019, 1.4331, and 0.2710 unit, respectively. The increasing coefficients of the value added for the above sectors are 0.4308, 0.3700, and 0.1992 unit, respectively.

  17. A hydrologic-economic modeling approach for analysis of urban water supply dynamics in Chennai, India

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence


    In this paper, we discuss a challenging water resources problem in a developing world city, Chennai, India. The goal is to reconstruct past system behavior and diagnose the causes of a major water crisis. In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water. We integrate different components of the urban water system: water flowing into the reservoir system; diversion and distribution by the public water utility; groundwater flow in the aquifer beneath the city; supply, demand, and prices in the informal tanker-truck-based water market; and consumer behavior. Both the economic and physical impacts of consumers' dependence on multiple sources of water are quantified. The model is calibrated over the period 2002-2006 using a range of hydrologic and socio-economic data. The model's results highlight the inadequacy of the reservoir system and the buffering role played by the urban aquifer and consumers' coping investments during multiyear droughts.

  18. Addressing tuberculosis patients' medical and socio-economic needs: a comprehensive programmatic approach.

    Contreras, Carmen C; Millones, Ana K; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Aguilar, Margot; Clendenes, Martin; Toranzo, Miguel; Llaro, Karim; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C; Yuen, Courtney M


    For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system. We calculated the prevalence of medical comorbidities and the need for socio-economic support at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis, as well as the proportion of patients successfully linked to care or support. Of 192 patients, 83 (43%) had at least one medical comorbidity other than tuberculosis. These included eight (4%) patients with HIV, 12 (6%) with diabetes and 62 (32%) deemed at risk for a mental health condition. Of patients who required follow-up for a comorbidity, 100% initiated antiretroviral therapy, 71% attended endocrinology consultations and 66% attended psychology consultations. Of 126 (65%) patients who completed the socio-economic evaluation, 58 (46%) reported already receiving food baskets from the municipality, and 79 (63%) were given additional support, most commonly food vouchers and assistance in accessing health care. Carabayllo tuberculosis patients face many challenges in addition to tuberculosis. A collaborative, comprehensive treatment support programme can achieve high rates of linkage to care for these needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected...... as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies...... how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania...

  20. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Jernej Prišenk


    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  1. Tokyo Tech–Hitotsubashi Interdisciplinary Conference : New Approaches to the Analysis of Large-Scale Business and Economic Data

    Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki; Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis


    The new science of econophysics has arisen out of the information age. As large-scale economic data are being increasingly generated by industries and enterprises worldwide, researchers from fields such as physics, mathematics, and information sciences are becoming involved. The vast number of transactions taking place, both in the financial markets and in the retail sector, is usually studied by economists and management and now by econophysicists. Using cutting-edge tools of computational analysis while searching for regularities and “laws” such as those found in the natural sciences, econophysicists have come up with intriguing results. The ultimate aim is to establish fundamental data collection and analysis techniques that embrace the expertise of a variety of academic disciplines. This book comprises selected papers from the international conference on novel analytical approaches to economic data held in Tokyo in March 2009. The papers include detailed reports on the market behavior during the finan...

  2. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song


    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern

  3. Angiotensin I - Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in relation to physical performance, cognition and survival

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Bathum, Lise


    Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age.......Studies of younger individuals have suggested an association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive performance. Using a longitudinal study of elderly twins we studied the association between ACE genotype and physical and cognitive functioning and survival in old age....

  4. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  5. No Time for Timidity: A "Buffett" Approach to Weathering the Economic Crisis and Coming out Ahead

    Hesel, Richard A.; Strauss, David W.; Edwards, Benjamin G.


    The counterintuitive approach of the world's greatest value investor, Warren Buffett, may be the best hope for colleges and universities during this recession. Buffett's time-tested philosophy of seeking value and investing for the long term remains a sound approach, even if his short-term returns have declined along with those of the rest of the…

  6. The economic value of CAD systems in structural design and construction: A modelling approach

    Chandansingh, R.A.


    A modelling approach is provided for the analysis of cost-effects of CAD systems. It aims to support strategic management of CAD systems in structural design and construction. The approach is based on the production digraph model of production processes, and the value-added model of information comm

  7. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12…

  8. Social and Economic Indicators of Rural Development from a Sociological Viewpoint. A Suggested Empirical Approach.

    Wilcox, Leslie D.; And Others

    An empirical approach to the development of a system of social indicators was suggested in this paper. The paper also suggested research developed around a more inductive approach to social indicator research with 3 methodological phases representing increasing levels of methodological sophistication. The first steps attempted to conceptualize…

  9. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R


    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  10. Safety of ACE inhibitor therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Sidorenkov, Grigory; Navis, Gerjan


    Introduction: ACE inhibitors are first-line therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main adverse effects of ACE inhibitors are hypotension, renal function impairment and hyperkalemia. Areas covered: This paper reviews evidence from clinical studies regarding adverse effects of ACE

  11. Dosing of ACE inhibitors in left ventricular dysfunction : Does current clinical dosing provide optimal benefit?

    Pinto, YM; van Geel, PP; Alkfaji, H; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH


    In the present review, we discuss the role of clinical dosing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. Although the precise mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors is still unresolved, the clinical efficacy of ACE inhibitors in the treatment o

  12. Determinants of increased angiotensin II levels in severe chronic heart failure patients despite ACE inhibition

    van de Wal, RMA; Plokker, HWM; Lok, DJA; Boomsma, F; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH; Voors, AA; Van Der Horst, F.A.L.


    Introduction: The beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors are generally ascribed to blockade of neurohormonal activation. However, especially in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients plasina angiotensin II and aldosterone levels can be elevated despite ACE inhibition, the so-called ACE escape. In the pr

  13. Safety of ACE inhibitor therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Sidorenkov, Grigory; Navis, Gerjan


    Introduction: ACE inhibitors are first-line therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main adverse effects of ACE inhibitors are hypotension, renal function impairment and hyperkalemia. Areas covered: This paper reviews evidence from clinical studies regarding adverse effects of ACE

  14. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

    Adebisi Temitope Edun


    Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  15. [Economic and social policies and the health of the Dominican child: a research approach].

    Mendoza, H


    In recent decades the United Nations has established that infant mortality, child mortality, and gross national product are a function of development by observing a clear line of correlation between these factors. Various schemes studying the crisis of the family and poverty have concentrated on the welfare of children measured by their morbidity and mortality and nutritional status. The economic crisis that started at the beginning of the 1970s and peaked during the 1980s in Latin America resulted in the drop of the gross national product, the level of employment, and trade. It led to increased foreign debt, high inflation, currency devaluation, and the transition from an agricultural to an industrial society with urban-service components. The economic crisis increased the percentage of the Dominican population affected by poverty from 30% to 50%. In the 1980s there was a progressive decrease of infant mortality to the average global level. In 1988 the National Center of Maternal-Child Health Investigations conducted a household study on the health and nutritional status of children born in Regions O, IV, and VI by analyzing the socioeconomic situation of the families during this economic crisis. The crisis resulted in: the decrease of income, the increase of black market employment, the decrease in the number of families with access to social programs, and the increase in the costs of education and living. Infant mortality increased from 73% to 80% among infants aged 9-12 months. There was a decrease in malnutrition among those aged less than 2 months of age; however, there was a noteworthy increase in the mortality of malnourished children as well as those with diarrhea and respiratory infections. There was also a slight improvement in living conditions with the decrease of the cost of food, hygiene, and sanitation.

  16. ACE: accurate correction of errors using K-mer tries

    Sheikhizadeh Anari, S.; Ridder, de D.


    The quality of high-throughput next-generation sequencing data significantly influences the performance and memory consumption of assembly and mapping algorithms. The most ubiquitous platform, Illumina, mainly suffers from substitution errors. We have developed a tool, ACE, based on K-mer tries to c

  17. Development of Antennas for Subsurface Radars within ACE

    Yarovoy, Alexander; Meincke, Peter; Dauvignac, Jean-Yves;


    The paper gives an overview of the joint activities of the ACE-2 partners in the area of antennas for surface penetrating radar. Main areas of joint research and development are discussed and main results of joint activities are presented. Special attention is given to experimental verification...

  18. [Familial hyperactivity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

    Kramers, C.; Adema, G.J.; Korte, M.; Deinum, J.


    An extremely high level of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was found in eight individuals, women aged 31, 60, 42 and 67 years, and men aged 50, 47, 23 and 50 years. They had consulted a specialist due to a wide range of non-specific complaints or abnormalities (fatigue, dyspnoea,

  19. Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD

    Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero


    High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Ef

  20. ACE DD genotype associated with the female Chronic Kidney ...

    Selvaraman Nagamani


    Nov 1, 2014 ... and superimposing environmental and genetic factors. The. CKD is a polyphonic ... Insertion (I) or deletion (D) of a 287 bp fragment in the 16th intron of ACE gene is ... of Institutional Ethics Committee. Blood samples (5 ml) ...

  1. Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC)

    Vertenstein, Mariana [Univ. Corporation For Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and testing infrastructure, and coordinating and integrating code changes from the various project participants.

  2. Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD

    Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero


    High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Ef

  3. An approach to the economics of two vegetable oil-based biofuels in Spain

    Dorado, M.P.; Cruz, F.; Palomar, J.M. [Department of Mechanics and Mining, University of Jaen, EUP of Linares, C/. Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain); Lopez, F.J. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Cordoba, ETSIAM, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14080 Cordoba (Spain)


    Biodiesel is a form of renewable energy that provides a less polluting fuel for diesel engines with minimal reduced engine performance as a result of a slight power loss and specific fuel consumption increase. To extend the use of biodiesel, the main concern is the economic viability of producing biodiesel. This study identified that the price of the feedstock was one of the most significant factors. Also, glycerol was found to be a valuable by-product that could reduce the final manufacturing costs of the process up to 6.5%, depending on the raw feedstock used. Biodiesel can only compete with diesel fuel prices. (author)

  4. Different approaches to the Czech and Chinese university students in Business Economics: A teaching experience

    Zuzana Wozniaková


    Full Text Available University internationalization in the field of education as well as in the field of science and research is one of the main priorities of VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava. VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava has several double degree agreements with foreign universities, mostly from Western Europe – e.g. Great Britain, Finland, but also with foreign universities outside Europe. In 2009 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava signed a memorandum with Hubei University of Technology. This cooperation involves travelling of the Czech teachers to China and teaching several subjects at Hubei University of Technology as well as teaching 3rd year Chinese students at VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic. This paper brings own teaching experience of the European lecturer who gave the lectures at the Chinese university for the Chinese students studying in English. Ishikawa diagram was used to determine the main causes of Chinese students’ failure in Business Economics. This paper brings modified methods of teaching Business Economics to be more suitable for Chinese students as well as critical review of Chinese students’ learning styles and characteristics observed by the author of the paper.


    Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Sustainable development is not possible when significant numbers of labour force are economically paralysed. Several policies were implemented to augment the disadvantaged populace to pave way for enable them to take the advantage of market opportunities. The major obstacles impeded government policies to recorded very little success arises from the failure to incorporate the targeted beneficiary in the design and implementation of such programme. Broader provision of financial support through credit and savings for acquisition of capital goods is crucial for effective economic management, the aim of which is to increase prosperity, equity and sustainability. The study proposed that rural dwellers should organise themselves into Credit Cooperative Societies, which could be used as Informal Financial Unit for Linkage Banking arrangement. The government (at all level can also use these associations to channel their agricultural credit. The Credit Cooperative Societies will be used as a conduit for extending banking services to their members. This arrangement has worked in other places like Ghana and it is hoped to also work in Nigeria.

  6. Sustainable Agriculture- Mandatory Approach for Regional and National Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Iulian Sorcaru


    Full Text Available Romania has a considerable agricultural potential, Tecuci Plain being one of the nationalagricultural regions with high potential, which can generate economic growth at regional and alsonational level.The study main objective is to analyze thedynamics of the main crops, livestock andcrop production in the region, for each administrative unit, between 1970-2011 trying to determinethe major trends and patterns, identifying the favorable and restriction factors and also thepossibilities of thedevelopment of primary economic activities by practicing a sustainableagriculture.The research usedthe data obtainedfrom the Bucharest National Instituteof Statistics,but also fromlocal institutions(Galati&VasluiCounty Department of StatisticsandGalati&VasluiDepartment for Agriculture andRural Development. We also used the cartographic method in orderto highlight the dynamics of the agricultural activities whichcan beanytimeanalyzed bythelocalauthoritiesdirectlyresponsible forthe evolution ofthe region′sagriculturein the last twodecades.The results reflected significantagriculturaldisparities betweenthe ruraladministrativeunitsfromthecentreof theregion(nearTecuci City and the ones from north and south,disparitieswhich webelieveareclosely related totheimplementationof sustainable agriculture.


    Florin Teodor Boldeanu


    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to contribute to metropolitan economic growth literature by carrying out an analysis for 271 areas located in the EU between 2000 and 2013. For this objective the study uses several panel data estimation techniques, namely the GMM, System GMM and the QML estimation. To check the robustness of the results, the time period is divided in two (post and ante economic crisis and by splitting the sample of metropolitan regions in two components, the Western more developed regions and the Central and South-Eastern (the formal communist states, except for Cyprus areas. The results indicate that the industrial, construction and wholesale and retail trade sectors are positively linked with metropolitan growth. The agricultural, fishery and forestry sector is negatively influencing growth. The manufacturing and ITC sectors and migration are not statistically significant. Furthermore population density and size is more important than population growth and European enlargement did not have a substantial positive impact on metropolitan growth for the Central and South-Eastern regions.

  8. Networks for integrated care provision: an economic approach based on opportunism and trust.

    Meijboom, Bert; de Haan, Job; Verheyen, Piet


    In this paper, we provide the economic rationale for an important issue in the health care sector, namely the network formation, e.g., in The Netherlands. The presence of such cooperation structures is hard to explain using the basic concept of the economic organization (EO) theory, i.e., the dichotomy of hierarchy versus market. However, acknowledging the aspect of trust renders the clan concept to be a powerful tool in understanding the viability of intra- and inter-organizational cooperation in the health sector. The main reason for this is the manner in which the professionals involved perform, as well as the importance of the tacit knowledge of the actors employed in the various health institutions. First, we address the conversion from supply towards demand orientation and the resulting pressure on multi-professional cooperation between health care providers. Then, relevant EO concepts will be reviewed, while introducing theory on knowledge, learning, and trust. Moreover, we offer conclusions for the health care sector on a concept-by-concept basis. Finally, we propose the notion of interclan, a clan-inspired notion for inter-organizational cooperation, and analyse the observed network formation.

  9. The Impact of Banks and Stock Market Development on Economic Growth in South Africa: an ARDL-bounds Testing Approach

    Sheilla Nyasha


    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of both bank- and market-based financial development on economic growth in South Africa during the period from 1980 to 2012. Unlike some previous studies, the current study employs means-removed average to construct both bank- and market-based financial development indices. The study uses the newly developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach to examine this linkage. The empirical results of this study show that there is a positive relationship between bank-based financial development and economic growth in South Africa. The results, however, fail to find any relationship between market-based financial development and economic growth in South Africa. The results apply irrespective of whether the regression analysis is conducted in the short run or in the long run. These results imply that it is bank-based financial development rather than market-based financial development that plays a pivotal role in propelling South Africa’s real sector.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  11. A comprehensive approach for assessing the economic contribution of forage and livestock improvement options to smallholder farming enterprises

    Neil MacLeod; Scott Waldron; WEN Shi-lin


    The importance of livestock production activities to improving the livelihoods of smal holder farming households and the efifciency of their underlying farming systems is increasingly recognized. A rapid increase in livestock numbers, especial y beef cattle, and special purpose forages is being promoted for smal holder farms which have traditional y undertaken sub-sistence cropping activities or simple livestock rearing activities using low quality feedstuffs. Because limited plantings of specialized forages combined with a poor knowledge of animal nutrition are a chal enge to establishing sustainable livestock enterprises, much public policy and research is now being focused on the use of new forages and improved feeding practices. A number of economic studies have suggested that specialized forage growing and livestock feeding activities can make a positive contribution to smal holder welfare. The studies have typical y compared the total level of farm or household income with and without livestock activities. Little attention is given to how much the new forage or livestock activities actual y contribute to or draw resources from other farm activities to assess their real economic contribution to the enterprise, and the availability of simple tools to assist in making such assessments are limited. This paper describes a simple model ing approach that was developed for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)-supported project to explore the real as opposed to apparent economic impact of integrating improved forages and livestock within smal holder farming systems in the Red Soils region of south-central China. Application of the model is demonstrated using a simple case study of a smal holder enterprise that plans to introduce a new beef cattle rearing activity to its existing farm activity mix. The case study highlights the importance of explicitly valuing transfers of resources between different farm activities to gauge the real

  12. ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade mediates ACE inhibitor, captopril, protective effects in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats.

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S


    The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. 8 weeks after the surgical procedures, captopril was administered orally (40mgkg(-1) d(-1)), while the specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered at infusion rate of 400ngkg(-1)min(-1) for 6 weeks. Bone metabolic markers were measured in serum and urine. Minerals concentrations were quantified in serum, urine and femoral bones by inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Trabecular and cortical morphometry was analyzed in the right distal femurs using micro-CT. Finally, the expressions of RAS peptides, enzymes and receptors along with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined femurs heads. OVX animals markedly showed altered bone metabolism and mineralization along with disturbed bone micro-structure. Captopril significantly restored the metabolic bone bio-markers and corrected Ca(2+) and P values in urine and bones of estrogen deficient rats. Moreover, the trabecular and cortical morphometric features were repaired by captopril in OVX groups. Captopril also improved the expressions of ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG, while abolished OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) and RANKL. Inhibition of Ang1-7 cascade by A-779 significantly eradicated captopril protective effects on bone metabolism, mineralization and micro-structure. A-779 also restored OVX effects on RANKL expression and ACE-1/AngII/AT1R

  13. Techno-Economic Approach to Solar Energy Systems Onboard Marine Vehicles

    Salem Ahmed A.


    Full Text Available The world is facing the challenge of continuously increasing energy consumption. At the same time, the energy resources are getting scarcer. Despite a sudden significant drop of fuel prices worldwide, research activities that focus on reducing the dependence on fossil fuels as a traditional source of energy still have the preference in the field of shipping industry. The use of clean and renewable energies, such as solar energy for instance, is proposed as a method to improve the ship efficiency. Ships can get the benefits from solar energy due to the fact that most of their upper decks are always exposed to the Sun, especially in sunny water regions. The present paper discusses the effectiveness and challenges of installing solar panels for auxiliary power production on board a ship. As a case study, the research evaluates both economic and environmental benefits resulting from implementing such concept aboard a research vessel.

  14. Commoditization and oppression: a systems approach to understanding the economic dynamics of modes of oppression.

    Manno, Jack P


    Commoditization is a generalized Darwinian selection pressure in economic evolution driven by profit- and efficiency-seeking in the investment of key resources. By winnowing noncommodity opportunities to satisfy human needs, commoditization distorts development in ways that intensify negative social outcomes experienced by oppressed groups and undermines the possibility for sustainable development. When market logic dominates the investment of financial capital, energy, raw materials, human attention, labor, and creativity, market goods with traits associated with commodities are fully developed while nonmarket goods lacking those traits are systematically underdeveloped. Analysis of the traits of commodities explains the unsustainable development or maldevelopment that disproportionately affects those who are dependent on or who highly value important nonmarket relationships. Oppression theory is addressed with specific examples. A generalized form of oppression is theorized that systematically stunts the imagination and creativity required to meet contemporary environmental crises.

  15. Spatial Approach to Diseases of Affluence Epidemiology and Regional Economic Development

    Olejnik Alicja


    Full Text Available Diseases of affluence (of the 21st c. by definition should have higher prevalence and/or mortality rates in richer and more developed countries than in poorer, underdeveloped states (where diseases of poverty are more common. Therefore, it has been indicated that it is civilizational progress that makes us sick. On the other hand, substantial financial resources, highly qualified medical personnel, and the cutting-edge technology of richer states, should allow for effective preventions, diagnostics, and treatment of diseases of poverty and of affluence. Therefore, a dilemma arises: is progress making us sick or curing us? To evaluate the influence of country socioeconomic and technological development on population health, a spatial analysis of the epidemiology of diseases of affluence and distribution of economic resources for European NUTS 2 has been performed. The main aim of this paper is to assess, how regional diversity in the prevalence of diseases of affluence is related to the regional development of regions.

  16. Searching for economic rationale behind gated communities: a public choice approach.

    Cséfalvay, Zoltán


    As millions of people world-wide now live in residential areas with restricted access to the public, the ascent of gated communities can no longer be attributed to incidental or deviant development. Hence this paper makes an attempt to discover the economic rationale behind the gated community phenomenon; it discusses the mainstream theses and outlines 10 theorems for an alternative proposition based on theories of public choice and fiscal federalism. The core theorem asserts that a centrally featured system of government diminishes the ability of local municipalities properly to reflect citizens' demands for local public goods and services, and that this constitutes a strong incentive for people to move into gated communities. In particular, gated and guarded residential developments represent an exit option when local municipalities fail to deploy vital governmental rules and instruments, such as fiscal equivalence and benefit taxation.

  17. Economic challenges of hybrid microgrid: An analysis and approaches for rural electrification

    Habibullah, Mohammad; Mahmud, Khizir; Koçar, Günnur; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul; Salehin, Sayedus


    This paper focuses on the integration of three renewable resources: biogas, wind energy and solar energy, utilizing solar PV panels, a biogas generator, and a wind turbine, respectively, to analyze the technical and economic challenges of a hybrid micro-gird. The integration of these sources has been analyzed and optimized based on realistic data for a real location. Different combinations of these sources have been analyzed to find out the optimized combination based on the efficiency and the minimum cost of electricity (COE). Wind and solar energy are considered as the primary sources of power generation during off-peak hours, and any excess power is used to charge a battery bank. During peak hours, biogas generators produce power to support the additional demand. A business strategy to implement the integrated optimized system in rural areas is discussed.

  18. Responsibility and Capitalism. A Phenomenological Way to Approach the Economic Crisis

    Floriana Ferro


    Full Text Available The Western world is presently afflicted by a huge economic crisis, started in 2007 in the United States, with the collapse of the subprime mortgage market, and exploded in 2008 with the breakdown of Lehman Brothers[1]. Even if its most critical stage seems to be finished, capitalist countries find it difficult to recover. Globalization exported the effects of the crisis everywhere, but those that suffered the greatest damages are Europe and North America. The collapse of some financial companies is only the top of a huge iceberg. The crisis has roots in something deeper, in the principles and mechanisms of capitalism itself. The Western part of the world is still paying not for the mistakes of a few executives, but for a general lack of ethics in the whole system.

  19. Population and Asset Distributions in Economically Competitive Activities:a Rate-Equation Approach

    KE Jian-Hong; CAI Xiao-Ou; LIN Zhen-Quan


    We introduce a simple asset migration model for the wealth redistribution in economical activities, in which a unit of asset migrates from one individual to another whenever they interact. By means of the mean-field rate equation, we have analysed the dynamic behaviour of the system. In the random migration case, the asset distribution of individuals takes the standard Gaussian form and consistently decreases to zero at the end. As for the system in which only the richer can gain assets from the poorer, it is found that the individual asset distribution is discontinuous at a critical point and only the individuals with asset absolute value less than a cutoff value have a uniform and non-zero distribution. Moreover, the result shows that for the system with migration bias the assets of the individuals may have a cutoff value at each given time, which is different from the system without migration bias.

  20. Techno-economics of carbon preserving butanol production using a combined fermentative and catalytic approach.

    Nilsson, Robert; Bauer, Fredric; Mesfun, Sennai; Hulteberg, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Wännström, Sune; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris Arvid


    This paper presents a novel process for n-butanol production which combines a fermentation consuming carbon dioxide (succinic acid fermentation) with subsequent catalytic reduction steps to add hydrogen to form butanol. Process simulations in Aspen Plus have been the basis for the techno-economic analyses performed. The overall economy for the novel process cannot be justified, as production of succinic acid by fermentation is too costly. Though, succinic acid price is expected to drop drastically in a near future. By fully integrating the succinic acid fermentation with the catalytic conversion the need for costly recovery operations could be reduced. The hybrid process would need 22% less raw material than the butanol fermentation at a succinic acid fermentation yield of 0.7g/g substrate. Additionally, a carbon dioxide fixation of up to 13ktonnes could be achieved at a plant with an annual butanol production of 10ktonnes.

  1. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok


    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds.

  2. Analysis of Economic Determinants of Fertility in Iran: A Multilevel Approach

    Maryam Moeeni


    Full Text Available Background During the last three decades, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR in Iran has fallen considerably; from 6.5 per woman in 1983 to 1.89 in 2010. This paper analyzes the extent to which economic determinants at the micro and macro levels are associated with the number of children in Iranian households. Methods Household data from the 2010 Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS is linked to provincial data from the 2010 Iran Multiple-Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS, the National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011, and the 1985–2010 Iran statistical year books. Fertility is measured as the number of children in each household. A random intercept multilevel Poisson regression function is specified based on a collective model of intra-household bargaining power to investigate potential determinants of the number of children in Iranian households. Results Ceteris paribus (other things being equal, probability of having more children drops significantly as either real per capita educational expenditure or real total expenditure of each household increase. Both the low- and the high-income households show probabilities of having more children compared to the middle-income households. Living in provinces with either higher average amount of value added of manufacturing establishments or lower average rate of house rent is associated to higher probability of having larger number of children. Higher levels of gender gap indices, resulting in household’s wife’s limited power over household decision-making, positively affect the probability of having more children. Conclusion Economic determinants at the micro and macro levels, distribution of intra-household bargaining power between spouses and demographic covariates determined fertility behavior of Iranian households.

  3. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    Budi Aji


    Full Text Available Background: Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design: Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results: Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions: Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from

  4. Socio-economical approach of wastes; Approche socio-economique des dechets

    Bertolini, G. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS, Lab. d' Analyse des Systemes de Sante (LASS), 69 (France)


    The definition of waste itself is problematic and source of dispute. Todays, the regulatory point of view does not correspond to the economical meaning. Municipal wastes are a growing up source. Among the different processes, the disposal is more and more rejected while the incineration is contested and the materials recovery encounters some limitations or constraints. The waste refers to a complex system of socio-cultural values. Its behaviour is accompanied by negative reactions, like 'Nimby' ('not in my backyard') or positive ones in particular through selective collections for valorization purposes. The improvement of processes leads to a sensible increase of costs (even if it generates employment) and leads to the search for new financing sources. The privatization debate is coupled with a debate on companies concentration with groups which have become multinational. The markets show oligopolistic characteristics, sometimes monopolistic. A better management requires the development of regulation instruments. The conditions of their efficiency are examined: 1 - waste: definition, economical bases and logics implemented; 2 - household wastes: evolution trends; processing; incineration: world situation and analysis; 'good choices'; 3 - materials recovery: materials valorization from household wastes; selective collection; European external trade of recovery products and materials; 4 - sociological aspects: Nimby; selective collection; employment; 5 - collection and processing costs: municipal wastes, industrial wastes; 6 - market and operators: big groups; household wastes; elimination and recovery; special or hazardous industrial wastes; 7 - financing and regulation: financing relative to household wastes; cleansing and pollution standards limitations; regulation instruments. (J.S.)

  5. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E


    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Genetic Predisposition to Diabetic Nephropathy: Evidence for a Role of ACE (I/D) Gene Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetic Population from Kutch Region.

    Parchwani, Deepak N; Palandurkar, Kamlesh M; Hema Chandan Kumar, D; Patel, Darshan J


    Genetic polymorphism as described with angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been proposed as a putative mediator of diabetic nephropathy. We substantiate the hypothesis that genetic variants of the ACE have significant impacts on diabetic nephropathy. To assess the possible association between the three ACE polymorphic variants and DN in an ethnically homogeneous type 2 diabetic population from Kutch region. A 287-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction using a case-control approach conducted with 309 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients of Kutch origin (159 Ahir and 150 Rabari, with >10 years duration of T2DM). Of the patients, 143 had nephropathy {AER >30 mg/day (Ahir, n:73 and Rabari, n:70)} and were considered as cases; all others {n:166 (86 Ahir and 80 Rabari)} were normoalbuminuric (AER diabetes.

  7. Modulation of the renal response to ACE inhibition by ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism during hyperglycemia in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients.

    Weekers, Laurent; Bouhanick, Béatrice; Hadjadj, Samy; Gallois, Yves; Roussel, Ronen; Pean, Franck; Ankotche, Amos; Chatellier, Gilles; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre J; Marre, Michel


    ACE inhibition protects kidney function, but ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects renal prognosis in type 1 diabetic patients. ACE genotype may influence the renal benefits of ACE inhibition. We studied the impact of ACE I/D polymorphism on the renal hemodynamic changes induced by ACE inhibition in type 1 diabetes. We studied renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], effective renal plasma flow [ERPF], filtration fraction [GFR/ERPF], mean arterial pressure [MAP], and total renal resistances [MAP/ERPF]) repeatedly during normoglycemia and then hyperglycemia in 12 normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes and the II genotype (associated with nephroprotection) versus 22 age- and sex-matched subjects with the ACE D allele after three randomly allocated 2- to 6-week periods on placebo, 1.25 mg/day ramipril, and 5 mg/day ramipril in a double-blind, cross-over study. During normoglycemia, the hemodynamic changes induced by ramipril were similar in both genotypes. During hyperglycemia, the changes induced by ramipril were accentuated in the II genotype group and attenuated dose dependently in the D allele group (treatment-genotype interaction P values for ERPF, 0.018; MAP, 0.018; and total renal resistances, 0.055). These results provide a basis to different renal responses to ACE inhibition according to ACE genotype in type 1 diabetes.

  8. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla


    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting.

  9. Mind shift, mode shift: a lifestyle approach to reducing car ownership and use based on behavioural economics and social marketing.

    Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne


    This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.

  10. Economic hardship in childhood and adult health trajectories: An alternative approach to investigating life-course processes.

    Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E


    In this study, we advance existing research on health as a life course process by conceptualizing and measuring both childhood disadvantage and health as dynamic processes in order to investigate the relationship between trajectories of early life socioeconomic conditions and trajectories of health in midlife. We utilize a trajectory-based analysis that takes a disaggregated, person-centered approach to understand dynamic trajectories of health as latent variables that reflect the timing, duration and change in health conditions experienced by respondents over a period of 10 years in midlife as a function of stability and change in exposure to economic hardship in early life. Results from repeated-measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics indicate that economic hardship in childhood has long-term, negative consequences for health both among individuals beginning life and remaining in poverty as well as those moving into poverty. In contrast, adults with more advantaged early life experiences, or who moved out of poverty during the period of observation, were at a lower risk of experiencing health trajectories characterized by the early onset or increasing risk of disease. We argue that a person-centered, disaggregated approach to the study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health across the life course holds potential for the study of health inequality and that a greater focus on trajectory-based analysis is needed.

  11. Global panic reaction--a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis.

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T; Maler, J M


    Drastic losses on the stock markets within short periods have been the subject of numerous investigations in view of the fact that they are often irrational. In a recently published model we reported about the world-wide phenomenon of Global panic reaction (GPR) [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U. Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses 2008;71(6):972-4], which illustrate typical psychiatric symptoms of panic disorder. We now complete this model by a therapeutic approach for the patient. Therefore the identification of a therapeutic regime "step by step" was necessary.

  12. Economic benefits or drivers of a 'One Health' approach: why should anyone invest?

    Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara; De Haan, Nicoline; Rushton, Ruth


    One Health concepts and ideas are some of the oldest in the health discipline, yet they have not become main stream. Recent discussions of the need for One Health approaches require some reflection on how to present a case for greater investments. The paper approaches this problem from the perspective of the control and management of resources for health in general. It poses the following questions, (1) where do we need extra resources for One Health, (2) where can we save resources through a One Health approach and (3) who has control of the resources that do exist for One Health? In answering these questions three broad areas are explored, (1) The management and resources allocated for diseases, (2) The isolation of parts of the society that require human and animal health services and (3) The use of resources and skills that are easily transferable between human and animal health.The paper concludes that One Health approaches are applicable in many scenarios. However, the costs of getting people from different disciplines to work together in order to achieve a true One Health approach can be large. To generate tangible benefits requires careful management of specialist skills, knowledge and equipment, which can only be achieved by a greater openness of the human and animal health disciplines. Without this openness, policy makers will continue to doubt the real value of One Health. In summary the future success of One Health is about people working in the research, education and provision of health systems around the world embracing and managing change more effectively.

  13. The molacular mechanism of ACE gene in acute cerebro-vascullar discasc

    Dr.QiuXiuLan; Jiaxing


    [Objective] Our research is aimed to study a possible involvement of angiotension converting enzyine (ACE) gene types and hypertension upon the molecular mechanism of clinic ACVD [Method] Using a polymerize chain reaction (PCR), a DNA fragment of intone 16 of ACE gene was studied in 203 patients with ACVD (including 87 cases of CH and 116 cases of Al) and 51 control samples [Rrsult] (l) The frequency of the ACE allele polymorphism jsn't similcantly different between ACVD, CO and Al patients. (2)There is no significant difference in the ACE gene types and ACE gene allele frequency among CH、 Al and the controls. (3) There are no significant difference between history of hypertension and the incidence of CH and Al. However, patients with hypertension and ACE DD allele shoed more significant Al incidence than those with hypertension and ACE Ⅱ allele. [Conclusion] We didn' t find any correlation between the polymorphism of the ACE gene and ACVD. Neither the history of hypertension nor polymorphism of ACE gene was a risk factor of ACVD. We didn't find a correlation between Al and hypertension with ACE gene polymorphism. Our study suggests that ACE gene polymorphism combined with hypcnension is a possible molecular mechanism underlying Al.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard


    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  15. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part I. European countries' conformity to ideal types during the economic downturn.

    Saltkjel, Therese; Ingelsrud, Mari Holm; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut


    This is the first part of a two-part paper that takes an explorative approach to assess crisis and austerity in European countries during the Great Recession. The ultimate aim of this two-part paper is to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu and assess whether it is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than the current economic crisis per se, that can led to deterioration in population health. In Part I of this paper we offer one way of operationalizing crisis severity and austerity. We examine countries as specific configurations of crisis and policy responses and classify European countries into "ideal types." Cases included were 29 countries participating in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) surveys. Based on fuzzy set methodology, we constructed two fuzzy sets, "austerity" and "severe crisis." Austerity was measured by changes in welfare generosity; severe crisis was measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth. In the initial phase of the Great Recession, most countries faced severe crisis combined with no austerity. From 2010-2011 onward, there was a divide between countries. Some countries consistently showed signs of austerity policies (with or without severe crisis); others consistently did not. The fuzzy set ideal-type analysis shows that the European countries position themselves, by and large, in configurations of crisis and austerity in meaningful ways that allow us to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu. This exploration is the undertaking of Part II of this paper.

  16. An Approach to Modeling Complex Socio-Economic Impacts and Responses to Climate Disruption

    Pikas, C. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; Paxton, L. J.


    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the issues that are arising and will arise from global climate disruption. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. These strategic simulations would be done under the auspices of the GAIA project ( While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between human choices and the environment. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment and capture the various actors (governments, agencies, resources, industries, religious/political groups, etc.) that compete to achieve their particular goals. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. In the simulation, humans play various roles and understand that not everyone shares the same definition of a successful or favorable outcome. Rigorous post-analysis is used to illuminate where decisions were made that enabled or prevented a particular outcome from occurring. In addition, the simulations allow us to investigate how effective "technology injects" can be in achieving a particular, desired end

  17. Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches

    Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel


    Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their

  18. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Sika Gbegbelegbe


    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  19. Developing an Evaluation Tool for Assessing Clinical Ethics Consultation Skills in Simulation Based Education: The ACES Project.

    Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark


    The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described.

  20. A review on numerous modeling approaches for effective, economical and ecological treatment wetlands.

    Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q


    Constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater treatment have evolved substantially over the last decades and have been recognized as an effective means of "green technology" for wastewater treatment. This paper reviews the numerous modeling approaches ranging from simple first-order models to more complex dynamic models of treatment behaviour in CWs. The main objective of the modeling work is to better understand the process in CWs and optimize design criteria. A brief study in this review discusses the efforts taken to describe the process-based model for the efficient removal of pollutants in CWs. Obtaining better insights is essential to understand the hydraulic and biochemical processes in CWs. Currently, employed modeling approaches can be seen in two categories, i.e. "black-box models" and "process-based models". It is evident that future development in wetland technology will depend on improved scientific knowledge of internal treatment mechanisms.

  1. Total synthesis of bryostatin 16 using atom-economical and chemoselective approaches.

    Trost, Barry M; Dong, Guangbin


    Of the concepts used to improve the efficiency of organic syntheses, two have been especially effective: atom economy (the use of routes in which most of the atoms present in the reactants also end up in the product) and chemoselectivity (the use of reactions that take place only at desired positions in a molecule). Synthesis of complex natural products is the most demanding arena in which to explore such principles. The bryostatin family of compounds are especially interesting targets, because they combine structural complexity with promising biological activity. Furthermore, synthetic routes to some bryostatins have already been reported, providing a benchmark against which new syntheses can be measured. Here we report a concise total synthesis of bryostatin 16 (1), a parent structure from which almost all other bryostatins could in principle be accessed. Application of atom-economical and chemoselective reactions currently under development provides ready access to polyhydropyran motifs in the molecule, which are common structural features of many other natural products. The most notable transformations are two transition-metal-catalysed reactions. The first is a palladium-catalysed reaction of two different alkynes to form a large ring. The product of this step is then converted into a dihydropyran (the 'C ring' of bryostatins) in the second key reaction, which is catalysed by a gold compound. Analogues of bryostatin that do not exist in nature could be readily made by following this route, which might allow the biological activity of bryostatins to be fine-tuned.

  2. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    Irene Samanta


    Full Text Available The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to adopt an innovation culture and redefine  their relationships with their partners from the e-marketing point of view in order to survive in the rapidly changing environment. The results of this research are used to assist the author in the future  to examine a larger sample of B2B firms in order to validate the intention of companies to move from the traditional environment and to establish e-relationships in an e-business context.

  3. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles


    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.

  4. An economic approach to fabricate photo sensor based on nanostructured ZnO thin films

    Huse, Nanasaheb; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal


    Nanostructural ZnO Thin Films have been synthesized by simple and economic Chemical Bath Deposition technique onto glass substrate with bath temperature at 60°C for 1 hour. Structural, Optical, Electrical and topographical properties of the prepared Thin Films were investigated by GIXRD, I-V Measurement System, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and AFM respectively. Calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the standard JCPDS card (36-1451) values, exhibits Hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure. I-V Measurement curve has shown ohmic nature in dark condition and responds to light illumination which reveals Photo sensor properties. After illumination of 60W light, decrease in resistance was observed from 110.9 KΩ to 104.4 KΩ. The change in current and calculated Photo sensitivity was found to be 3.51 µA and 6.3% respectively. Optical band gap was found to be 3.24 eV. AFM images revealed uniform deposition over entire glass substrate with 32.27 nm average roughness of the film.

  5. A supervisory control approach in economic MPC design for refrigeration systems

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik


    A model predictive control at the supervisory level is proposed for refrigeration systems using price and temperature predictions. The control objective is to minimize the overall energy cost within the prediction horizon. The method is mainly developed for demand-side management in the future sm...... to rearrange the problem to facilitate convex programming. A nonlinear continuous time model validated by real data is employed to simulate system operation. The results show a considerable economic saving as well as a trade-off between the saving level and design complexity.......A model predictive control at the supervisory level is proposed for refrigeration systems using price and temperature predictions. The control objective is to minimize the overall energy cost within the prediction horizon. The method is mainly developed for demand-side management in the future...... smart grid, but a simpler version can be applied in the current electricity market. Due to the system nonlinearity, the minimization is in general a complicated nonconvex optimization problem. A new supervisory control structure as well as an algorithmic pressure control scheme is put forward...

  6. Physicists' approach to studying socio-economic inequalities: Can humans be modelled as atoms?

    Sharma, Kiran


    A brief overview of the models and data analyses of income, wealth, consumption distributions by the physicists, are presented here. It has been found empirically that the distributions of income and wealth possess fairly robust features, like the bulk of both the income and wealth distributions seem to reasonably fit both the log-normal and Gamma distributions, while the tail of the distribution fits well to a power law (as first observed by sociologist Pareto). We also present our recent studies of the unit-level expenditure on consumption across multiple countries and multiple years, where it was found that there exist invariant features of consumption distribution: the bulk is log-normally distributed, followed by a power law tail at the limit. The mechanisms leading to such inequalities and invariant features for the distributions of socio-economic variables are not well-understood. We also present some simple models from physics and demonstrate how they can be used to explain some of these findings and ...

  7. Economic analysis of the organisation of a riding centre; application of the linear programming approach

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR


    Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.




    Starting with the years of its foundation, Ottoman Empire paid great attention to commerce. It encouraged trade as long as it was beneficial to its economy and took precautions for the healthy operation of commercial activities. It is possible to examine the commercial activities of Ottoman Empire under two categories as domestic and foreign trade. In this article, our primary aim was to reflect the Ottoman Empire’s approach to commercial activities. After presenting brief information about d...

  9. The Identification of Potential Resilient Estuary-based Enterprises to Encourage Economic Empowerment in South Africa: a Toolkit Approach

    Myles Mander


    Full Text Available It has been argued that ecosystem services can be used as the foundation to provide economic opportunities to empower the disadvantaged. The Ecosystem Services Framework (ESF approach for poverty alleviation, which balances resource conservation and human resource use, has received much attention in the literature. However, few projects have successfully achieved both conservation and economic objectives. This is partly due to there being a hiatus between theory and practice, due to the absence of tools that help make the transition between conceptual frameworks and theory, to practical integration of ecosystem services into decision making. To address this hiatus, an existing conceptual framework for analyzing the robustness of social-ecological systems was translated into a practical toolkit to help understand the complexity of social-ecological systems (SES. The toolkit can be used by a diversity of stakeholders as a decision making aid for assessing ecosystem services supply and demand and associated enterprise opportunities. The toolkit is participatory and combines both a generic "top-down" scientific approach with a case-specific "bottom-up" approach. It promotes a shared understanding of the utilization of ecosystem services, which is the foundation of identifying resilient enterprises. The toolkit comprises four steps: (i ecosystem services supply and demand assessment; (ii roles identification; (iii enterprise opportunity identification; and (vi enterprise risk assessment, and was tested at two estuary study sites. Implementation of the toolkit requires the populating of preprogrammed Excel worksheets through the holding of workshops that are attended by stakeholders associated with the ecosystems. It was concluded that for an enterprise to be resilient, it must be resilient at an external SES level,which the toolkit addresses, and at an internal business functioning level, e.g., social dynamics among personnel, skills, and literacy

  10. A genome-wide search replicates evidence of a quantitative trait locus for circulating angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE unlinked to the ACE gene

    Adeyemo Adebowale A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. There is evidence from different ethnic groups that circulating ACE levels are influenced by a quantitative trait locus (QTL at the ACE gene on chromosome 17. The finding of significant residual familial correlations in different ethnic groups, after accounting for this QTL, and the finding of support for linkage to a locus on chromosome 4 in Mexican-American families strongly suggest that there may well be QTLs for ACE unlinked to the ACE gene. Methods A genome-wide panel of microsatellite markers, and a panel of biallelic polymorphisms in the ACE gene were typed in Nigerian families. Single locus models with fixed parameters were used to test for linkage to circulating ACE with and without adjustment for the effects of the ACE gene polymorphisms. Results Strong evidence was found for D17S2193 (Zmax = 3.5; other nearby markers on chromosome 17 also showed modest support. After adjustment for the effects of the ACE gene locus, evidence of "suggestive linkage" to circulating ACE was found for D4S1629 (Zmax = 2.2; this marker is very close to a locus previously shown to be linked to circulating ACE levels in Mexican-American families. Conclusion In this report we have provided further support for the notion that there are QTLs for ACE unlinked to the ACE gene; our findings for chromosome 4, which appear to replicate the findings of a previous independent study, should be considered strong grounds for a more detailed examination of this region in the search for genes/variants which influence ACE levels. The poor yields, thus far, in defining the genetic determinants of hypertension risk suggest a need to look beyond simple relationships between genotypes and the ultimate phenotype. In addition to incorporating information on important environmental exposures, a better understanding of the factors which influence the building blocks of the

  11. Upstream petroleum licensing: a comparative approach on regulatory frameworks and economic impacts

    Cunha, Amanda L. [Felsberg e Associados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The recent discoveries hit in the pre-salt area, such as Tupi, Jupiter, Bem-te-vi and Carioca may place Brazil amongst the largest oil producers in the world. As a result, the Brazilian regulatory framework, which was originally envisaged in a scenario of higher exploration risk, has been under heavy public scrutiny. The Brazilian Government has already taken the first steps towards substantial changes in the country's contracting model for upstream activities. By means of Resolution No. 6/2007, the National Council for Energy Policy ('CNPE') not only determined the removal of 41 blocks with sub-salt geology from the ANP 9 Th Bid Round, but also stressed the need for a different regime for E and P activities in the country's continental shelf. At this moment, there is a great deal of controversy on the contracting model to be adopted, mainly whether the concession model should be maintained, but subject to higher levels of government take, or a production sharing model should apply. This paper goes through the evolution of international oil agreements, from early concessions to modern agreements. A special emphasis is placed on concession/license regimes as well as on production sharing agreements (PSAs). Besides drawing a comparative line between such models, this article assesses their economic impacts and whether the regulatory framework currently in force in Brazil is suitable for a scenario of lower risk, showing that any desired level of regulation may be achieved in the context of a PSA as easily as in a exclusive concession. (author)

  12. Approach for Realization of Economic Development and Social Stability in Ethnic Region of Sichuan

    WU Yousheng


    The stability of Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions cannot be separated from their economic development.Hence, the necessary conditions for promoting the development and stability of Si-chuan ’ s ethnic regions include: fully applying the “Scientific Concept of Development”; enhan-cing the integrative and comprehensive utilization of resources;developing resource -saving and en-vironment -friendly industries; and constructing an industrial system based upon the advantages of local characteristics . 1. Integrating Advantaged Resources and Constructing Advantaged Industrial Systems ( 1 ) Enhancing Resource Development and Resource Integration Firstly, we should strengthen geological ex-ploration , and especially strengthen the investiga-tion and evaluation of those mineral resources which have a national shortage , but also have both a large potential market and big development po-tential in Sichuan ’ s ethnic regions . Secondly , we should strengthen resource ac-cumulation and its sustainable utilization;insist on“Development in Protection , and Protection in De-velopment”;strengthen the saving and sustainable utilization of resources , especially land , energy and water resources; and actively develop renew-able resources, including solar energy , biogas, bi-omass energy and wind power . with the development of tourism resources as well as agricultural and husbandry resources . ( 2 ) Advance Agriculture and Husbandry with Traditional Characteristics towards Ones with Modern Characteristics If we want to develop an agriculture and hus-bandry with modern characteristics , and realize the transformation of traditional farming and animal husbandry to ones with modern characteristics in the Sichuan ethnic regions , then, we should take the lead in building a national -level demonstra-tion base of modern agriculture and husbandry in the ethnic regions .Taking the construction of the“Four Big Systems” into consideration , we should perfect the support system for

  13. Curriculum innovation in an accelerated BSN program: the ACE Model.

    Suplee, Patricia D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen


    As the demand for registered nurses continues to rise, so too has the creation of accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs for second-degree students. This article describes an 11-month Accelerated Career Entry (ACE) Nursing Program's innovative curriculum design, which has a heavy emphasis on technology, professional socialization, and the use of a standardized patient experience as a form of summative evaluation. In addition, challenges of this program are presented. Since 2002, the ACE Program has graduated over 500 students with an average first-time NCLEX pass rate of 95-100%. Although the number of graduates from accelerated programs does not solve the severe nursing shortage, the contributions of these intelligent, assertive, pioneering graduates are important for health care.

  14. Protective Role of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 Axis in Cardiovascular Remodeling

    María Paz Ocaranza


    Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.

  15. The behavioral economics of drug self-administration: A review and new analytical approach for within-session procedures

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Fender, Kimberly M.; Aston-Jones, Gary


    Rationale Behavioral-economic demand curve analysis offers several useful measures of drug self-administration. Although generation of demand curves previously required multiple days, recent within-session procedures allow curve construction from a single 110-min cocaine self-administration session, making behavioral-economic analyses available to a broad range of self-administration experiments. However, a mathematical approach of curve fitting has not been reported for the within-session threshold procedure. Objectives We review demand curve analysis in drug self-administration experiments and provide a quantitative method for fitting curves to single-session data that incorporates relative stability of brain drug concentration. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, and then tested with the threshold procedure in which the cocaine dose was sequentially decreased on a fixed ratio-1 schedule. Price points (responses/mg cocaine) outside of relatively stable brain cocaine concentrations were removed before curves were fit. Curve-fit accuracy was determined by the degree of correlation between graphical and calculated parameters for cocaine consumption at low price (Q0) and the price at which maximal responding occurred (Pmax). Results Removing price points that occurred at relatively unstable brain cocaine concentrations generated precise estimates of Q0 and resulted in Pmax values with significantly closer agreement with graphical Pmax than conventional methods. Conclusion The exponential demand equation can be fit to single-session data using the threshold procedure for cocaine self-administration. Removing data points that occur during relatively unstable brain cocaine concentrations resulted in more accurate estimates of demand curve slope than graphical methods, permitting a more comprehensive analysis of drug self-administration via a behavioral-economic framework. PMID:23086021

  16. ACE up the sleeve - are vascular patients medically optimized?

    Coveney, A P


    To examine the current medical management of arteriopathic patients attending a vascular surgical service at a university teaching hospital over a 6-month period. The prescribing of antiplatelets, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers was specifically examined. Vascular patients are often under the care of multiple specialties, and therefore the influence of different medical specialties on the patients\\' medical management was also examined.

  17. A new holistic approach to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards of socio-economic systems by means of Graph Theory

    Arosio, Marcello; Martina, Mario L. V.


    In the last years, the relations and interactions between multi-hazards, vulnerability, exposure and resilience spheres are assuming more and more attention and the scientific community recognized that they are very dynamic, complex and interconnected. The traditional approaches define risk as the potential economic, social and environmental consequences due to a hazardous phenomenon in a specific period. Although there have been major improvements in recent years, there are still some limitation in term of a holistic approach that is able to include the emergent value hidden in the relation and interaction between the different spheres. Furthermore, the emergent behaviour of a society makes the collective risk greater than the sum of the parts and this requires a holistic, systematic and integrated approach. For this reason, it is important to consider the connections between elements to assess properly the vulnerability of systems. In a system (e.g. road, hospital and ecological network, etc.), or in a System of System (e.g. socio-technical urban service), there are critical elements that, beyond the intrinsic vulnerability, can be characterize by greater or lower vulnerability because of their physical, geographical, cyber or logical connections. To understand the system response to a perturbation, and therefore its resilience, is necessary not only to represent but also to quantify the relative importance of the elements and their interconnections. To this aim, we propose an innovative approach in the field of natural risk assessment based on the properties of graph G=(N,L). A graph consists of two sets N (nodes) and L (links): the nodes represent the single exposed elements (physical, social, environmental, etc.) to a hazard, while the links (or connections) represent the interaction between the elements. This approach encourages the risk assessment to a new prospective: from reductionist to holistic. The final goal is to provide insight in understanding how

  18. Optimal Decision-Making in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Model under Restricted Space: A Non-Linear Programming Approach

    M. Pattnaik


    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of fuzzy Non-Linear Programming Technique is applied to solve an economic order quantity (EOQ model under restricted space. Since various types of uncertainties and imprecision are inherent in real inventory problems they are classically modeled using the approaches from the probability theory. However, there are uncertainties that cannot be appropriately treated by usual probabilistic models. The questions how to define inventory optimization tasks in such environment how to interpret optimal solutions arise. This paper allows the modification of the Single item EOQ model in presence of fuzzy decision making process where demand is related to the unit price and the setup cost varies with the quantity produced/Purchased. This paper considers the modification of objective function and storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters. The model is developed for the problem by employing different modeling approaches over an infinite planning horizon. It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered and the demand per unit compares both fuzzy non linear and other models. Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and ugh MATLAB (R2009a version software, the two and three dimensional diagrams are represented to the application. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values and to draw managerial insights of the decision problem.

  19. Alternative Forms of Resilience. A typology of approaches for the study of Citizen Collective Responses in Hard Economic Times

    Maria Kousis


    Full Text Available A variety of theoretical and conceptual perspectives have been applied to studying collective citizen initiatives arising in response to hard economic times, such as solidarity-based exchanges and networks, cooperative structures, barter clubs, credit unions, ethical banks, time banks, alternative social currency, citizens' self-help groups, neighbourhood assemblies and social enterprises. Since the global financial crisis of 2008, scholarly attention on novel, alternative, resilient structures has increased, especially in regions that have been most affected. A comprehensive literature review is therefore needed on these initiatives which usually aim to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, health and education at the community level, or build and envision autonomous communities. This paper has four aims. First, it proposes a new, all-encompassing conceptual framework, alternative forms of resilience, to embrace all issues and groups related to such initiatives, during the new millennium and its economic and political challenges, while taking into account the impact of the 2008 crisis. Secondly, it offers a comprehensive literature review on collective citizen initiatives studied through different theoretical, methodological and conceptual understandings. Thirdly, it provides a new typology of several approaches on novel, collective and solidarity-oriented critical resilience initiatives which take into account political issues, be they policy or social-movement related. Finally, it points to future research areas which would aim to systematically address the political and non-political features of citizen-collective responses.


    Mutiah Salamah


    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most dangerous diseases in the worlds. In particularly in East Java province Indonesia, dengue has been identified as one of the major causes of death. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that induce the number of dengue incidences in this region. This study examines climate and socio-economic conditions, which are assumed to influence the number of dengue in the examined region. The semiparametric panel regression approach has been applied and the results are compared with the standard panel regression. In this case, the socio-economic condition is treated parametrically while climate effect is modeled nonparametrically. The analysis showed that the number of dengue incidences is significantly influenced by the income per-capita and the number of inhabitant below 15 years. Furthermore, the dengue incidence is optimum under rainfall of 1500 to 3670 mm, temperature of 22 to 27 degree and humidity of 82 to 87%. The elasticity allows us to identify the most responsive and most irresponsive district towards the changes of climate variable. The study shows that Surabaya is the most responsive district with respect to the change of climate variables.

  1. A multi-objective optimization approach for the selection of working fluids of geothermal facilities: Economic, environmental and social aspects.

    Martínez-Gomez, Juan; Peña-Lamas, Javier; Martín, Mariano; Ponce-Ortega, José María


    The selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles has traditionally been addressed from systematic heuristic methods, which perform a characterization and prior selection considering mainly one objective, thus avoiding a selection considering simultaneously the objectives related to sustainability and safety. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the optimal selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles. The model is presented as a multi-objective approach, which simultaneously considers the economic, environmental and safety aspects. The economic objective function considers the profit obtained by selling the energy produced. Safety was evaluated in terms of individual risk for each of the components of the Organic Rankine Cycles and it was formulated as a function of the operating conditions and hazardous properties of each working fluid. The environmental function is based on carbon dioxide emissions, considering carbon dioxide mitigation, emission due to the use of cooling water as well emissions due material release. The methodology was applied to the case of geothermal facilities to select the optimal working fluid although it can be extended to waste heat recovery. The results show that the hydrocarbons represent better solutions, thus among a list of 24 working fluids, toluene is selected as the best fluid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    L. Ji


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  3. A Stochastic Flows Approach for Asset Allocation with Hidden Economic Environment

    Tak Kuen Siu


    Full Text Available An optimal asset allocation problem for a quite general class of utility functions is discussed in a simple two-state Markovian regime-switching model, where the appreciation rate of a risky share changes over time according to the state of a hidden economy. As usual, standard filtering theory is used to transform a financial model with hidden information into one with complete information, where a martingale approach is applied to discuss the optimal asset allocation problem. Using a martingale representation coupled with stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms for the filtering equation, the integrand in the martingale representation is identified which gives rise to an optimal portfolio strategy under some differentiability conditions.

  4. Growth of uniform nanoparticles of platinum by an economical approach at relatively low temperature

    Shah, M.A.


    Current chemical methods of synthesis have shown limited success in the fabrication of nanomaterials, which involves environmentally malignant chemicals. Environmental friendly synthesis requires alternative solvents, and it is expected that the use of soft options of green approaches may overcome these obstacles. Water, which is regarded as a benign solvent, has been used in the present work for the preparation of platinum nanoparticles. The average particle diameter is in the range of ∼13±5 nm and particles are largely agglomerated. The advantages of preparing nanoparticles with this method include ease, flexibility and cost effectiveness. The prospects of the process are bright, and the technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy.

    Rahimi, Zohreh


    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

  6. Predicting CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP Using Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE Algorithm

    Alomair O.


    Full Text Available Miscible gas injection is one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR approaches for increasing oil recovery. Due to the massive cost associated with this approach a high degree of accuracy is required for predicting the outcome of the process. Such accuracy includes, the preliminary screening parameters for gas miscible displacement; the “Minimum Miscibility Pressure” (MMP and the availability of the gas. All conventional and stat-of-art MMP measurement methods are either time consuming or decidedly cost demanding processes. Therefore, in order to address the immediate industry demands a nonparametric approach, Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE, is used in this study to estimate MMP. This algorithm Breiman and Friedman [Brieman L., Friedman J.H. (1985 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 391, 580-619]estimates the transformations of a set of predictors (here C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7+, CO2, H2S, N2, Mw5+, Mw7+ and T and a response (here MMP that produce the maximum linear effect between these transformed variables. One hundred thirteen MMP data points are considered both from the relevant published literature and the experimental work. Five MMP measurements for Kuwaiti Oil are included as part of the testing data. The proposed model is validated using detailed statistical analysis; a reasonably good value of correlation coefficient 0.956 is obtained as compare to the existing correlations. Similarly, standard deviation and average absolute error values are at the lowest as 139 psia (8.55 bar and 4.68% respectively. Hence, it reveals that the results are more reliable than the existing correlations for pure CO2 injection to enhance oil recovery. In addition to its accuracy, the ACE approach is more powerful, quick and can handle a huge data.

  7. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    Grinham, Russell (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom))


    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site

  8. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    Grinham, Russell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)


    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site

  9. Functional distribution of income and economic activity in Croatia: Post-Keynesian approach

    Boris Vujčić


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify the effects of changes in functional income distribution on selected macroeconomic variables in Croatia in period from 2000-2012. We use structural VAR approach with identification scheme based on a priori restrictions that are derived from theoretical framework of Post-Keynesian macroeconomic model. Our main hypothesis, which is confirmed in the empirical analysis, is that the accumulation of capital in Croatia was primarily determined by income from labor, i.e. that Croatia had wage-led accumulation. We also found that labor market dynamics was dominantly influenced by demand side shocks and that positive effects of the rise in exports, resulting from the gain in competitiveness (after reducing wage share in income outweigh negative effects of weaker demand on the capacity utilization. So in our opinion export share increase should become policy priority, as domestic demand is currently constrained by high private and public debt levels. To the extent that increase in exports might require decline in the relative share of labor, negative impact on the investments in non-tradable sector would need to be offset with higher investments in tradable sector of Croatian economy.

  10. Economic evaluation of task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of anti-retroviral therapy

    Foster Nicola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scarcity of human resources for health has been identified as one of the primary constraints to the scale-up of the provision of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART. In South Africa there is a particularly severe lack of pharmacists. The study aims to compare two task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of ART: Indirectly Supervised Pharmacist’s Assistants (ISPA and Nurse-based pharmaceutical care models against the standard of care which involves a pharmacist dispensing ART. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study design was used. Patient exit interviews, time and motion studies, expert interviews and staff costs were used to conduct a costing from the societal perspective. Six facilities were sampled in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and 230 patient interviews conducted. Results The ISPA model was found to be the least costly task-shifting pharmaceutical model. However, patients preferred receiving medication from the nurse. This related to a fear of stigma and being identified by virtue of receiving ART at the pharmacy. Conclusions While these models are not mutually exclusive, and a variety of pharmaceutical care models will be necessary for scale up, it is useful to consider the impact of implementing these models on the provider, patient access to treatment and difficulties in implementation.

  11. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Troitiño David Ramiro


    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  12. A data mining approach to derive flood-related economic vulnerability of companies

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno


    The assessment of vulnerability gained more and more attention in flood risk research during the recent years. However, there is still not much knowledge available about flood vulnerability of companies and its influencing factors. This study follows the natural sciences concept which defines vulnerability as the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from flooding of a given magnitude. Machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) are promising approaches, since they consider many influencing variables and as such allow for a detailed assessment of flood vulnerability. Only these variables which are meaningful for the differentiation of a certain target variable are used by the derived models. This allows for an identification of relevant damage influencing variables and hence for a more detailed picture of flood vulnerability of companies. This study aims to identify relevant damage influencing variables by means of the variable importance provided by Random Forests. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The analysis is done for the entire data set as well as for four groups of different company sectors and the corresponding data subsets. Relevant damage influencing variables separated by sector and assets are identified as, for example, the degree of contamination or precautionary measures undertaken before the flood event. The results provide insight into the damage processes and improve data-acquisition in future surveys by, for instance, asking specific questions for company sectors and assets.

  13. Exploring Environmental-Economic Benefits from Agri-Industrial Diversification in the Sugar Industry: An Integrated Land Use and Value Chain Approach

    Roebeling, Peter C.; Smith, D. Mark; van Grieken, Martijn


    The sugar industry in Queensland (Australia) is confronted with increasing economic pressure and environmental constraints. To explore whether agri-industrial diversification of the sugar industry provides a sustainable development pathway for the region, we develop a spatial environmental-economic approach that integrates a land use and value chain model with a hydrological model. Results indicate that agri-industrial diversification can lead to substantial increases in regional income, whil...

  14. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    S. Pauleit


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  15. A parameter-tuned genetic algorithm for statistically constrained economic design of multivariate CUSUM control charts: a Taguchi loss approach

    Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Javad Ershadi, Mohammad


    In this research, the main parameters of the multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart (the reference value k, the control limit H, the sample size n and the sampling interval h) are determined by minimising the Lorenzen-Vance cost function [Lorenzen, T.J., and Vance, L.C. (1986), 'The Economic Design of Control Charts: A Unified Approach', Technometrics, 28, 3-10], in which the external costs of employing the chart are added. In addition, the model is statistically constrained to achieve desired in-control and out-of-control average run lengths. The Taguchi loss approach is used to model the problem and a genetic algorithm, for which its main parameters are tuned using the response surface methodology (RSM), is proposed to solve it. At the end, sensitivity analyses on the main parameters of the cost function are presented and their practical conclusions are drawn. The results show that RSM significantly improves the performance of the proposed algorithm and the external costs of applying the chart, which are due to real-world constraints, do not increase the average total loss very much.

  16. ACE overexpression in myelomonocytic cells: effect on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Koronyo-Hamaoui, Maya; Shah, Kandarp; Koronyo, Yosef; Bernstein, Ellen; Giani, Jorge F; Janjulia, Tea; Black, Keith L; Shi, Peng D; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Fuchs, Sebastien; Shen, Xiao Z; Bernstein, Kenneth E


    While it is well known that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure control, ACE also has effects on renal function, hematopoiesis, reproduction, and aspects of the immune response. ACE 10/10 mice overexpress ACE in myelomonocytic cells. Macrophages from these mice have an increased polarization towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype that results in a very effective immune response to challenge by tumors or bacterial infection. In a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the ACE 10/10 phenotype provides significant protection against AD pathology, including reduced inflammation, reduced burden of the neurotoxic amyloid-β protein and preserved cognitive function. Taken together, these studies show that increased myelomonocytic ACE expression in mice alters the immune response to better defend against many different types of pathologic insult, including the cognitive decline observed in an animal model of AD.

  17. User`s guide for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Dobranich, P.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Horak, K.E.; Hagan, D.; Evanko, D.; Nelson, J.; Ryder, C.; Hedlund, D. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams (inspectors) and Inspected Parties (host). Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. This User`s Guide describes the use of the ACE-IT training software.

  18. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak


    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  19. The Pharmacogenetic Footprint of ACE Inhibition: A Population-Based Metabolomics Study.

    Elisabeth Altmaier

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors are an important class of antihypertensives whose action on the human organism is still not fully understood. Although it is known that ACE especially cleaves COOH-terminal dipeptides from active polypeptides, the whole range of substrates and products is still unknown. When analyzing the action of ACE inhibitors, effects of genetic variation on metabolism need to be considered since genetic variance in the ACE gene locus was found to be associated with ACE-concentration in blood as well as with changes in the metabolic profiles of a general population. To investigate the interactions between genetic variance at the ACE-locus and the influence of ACE-therapy on the metabolic status we analyzed 517 metabolites in 1,361 participants from the KORA F4 study. We replicated our results in 1,964 individuals from TwinsUK. We observed differences in the concentration of five dipeptides and three ratios of di- and oligopeptides between ACE inhibitor users and non-users that were genotype dependent. Such changes in the concentration affected major homozygotes, and to a lesser extent heterozygotes, while minor homozygotes showed no or only small changes in the metabolite status. Two of these resulting dipeptides, namely aspartylphenylalanine and phenylalanylserine, showed significant associations with blood pressure which qualifies them-and perhaps also the other dipeptides-as readouts of ACE-activity. Since so far ACE activity measurement is substrate specific due to the usage of only one oligopeptide, taking several dipeptides as potential products of ACE into account may provide a broader picture of the ACE activity.

  20. Pharmaco-economic evaluation of antibiotic therapy strategies in DRG-based healthcare systems - a new approach

    Wilke MH


    Full Text Available Abstract The cost of treatments especially in conditions where multiresistant bacteria are involved are a major issue in times where in most developed countries in the world payment systems based on diagnoses-related-groups (DRG are in place. There is great evidence that especially the length of stay in hospital (LOS, the time in the intensive care unit (ICU-days and the hours of mechanical ventilation (HMV are major cost drivers. While established methods of pharmacoeconomical analyses focus on the efficiency of drugs from healthcare system perspective, these data are often not sufficient for improving treatment strategies in a given hospital context. We developed a system that allows the analysis of patients with severe infections on the basis of routine data that is also used for reimbursement. These data contain a lot of information concerning the clinical conditions. By using the ICD-coding we developed an algorithm which allows the detection of patients with infections and gives information on the potential financial outcome of these patients. By using the analysis it is possible to identify subsets of infections and the patient records that had a potentially negative DRG-result, i.e. the costs are higher than the reimbursement. When identified the patient records undergo a peer review, where the clinical situation and the antibiotic therapy are reviewed by medical experts. In case simulations it is possible to find out if a different therapeutic approach, e.g. by different choices in initial (empirical antibiotic treatment would have caused other outcomes. Data driven analyses together with peer reviews of patient records are a useful tool to examine antibiotic treatment strategies and to establish changes that again can be reviewed on a regular basis. Doing this a continous improvement process can be established in hospitals which can lead to a better balance of clinical and economical outcomes in patients with severe infections

  1. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.


    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  2. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can inhibit hepatic insulin resistance.

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rong-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui


    Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can reduce the risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has recently been proposed to function as a negative regulator of the RAS. In previous studies, we first demonstrated that ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/)(y)) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However the precise roles of ACE2 on glucose metabolism are unknown. Here we show that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis increases glucose uptake and decreases glycogen synthesis in the liver accompanied by increased expression of glucose transporters, insulin receptor substrates and decreased expression of enzymes for glycogen synthesis. ACE2 knockout mice displayed elevated levels of oxidative stress and exposure to Ang-(1-7) reduced the stress in hepatic cells. As a consequence of anti-oxidative stress, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis led to improved hepatic insulin resistance through the Akt/PI3K/IRS-1/JNK insulin signaling pathway. This is the first time documented that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. As insulin resistance in the liver is considered to be the primary cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, this axis may serve as a new diabetes target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. User`s manual ACE/ONED (Version 1.0)

    Lee, Ki Bok; Lee, Jeong Chan; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Chang Kyu; Ji, Sung Kyun; Song, Jae Woong; Kim, Yong Rae; Chang, Jong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)


    This report explains installation of ACE/ONED code, structure of input and output, how to prepare input and introduces some sample inputs. ACE/ONED developed by KAERI is a two-group one-dimensional diffusion theory code for nuclear design and reactor simulations. The usage of ACE/ONED encompasses core follow calculation, load-following calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation, control rod maneuvering, and so on. ACE/ONED programmed of FORTRAN 77 in most part can be run on almost all kinds of computer including personal computer. 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. VO2 max is associated with ACE genotype in postmenopausal women.

    Hagberg, J M; Ferrell, R E; McCole, S D; Wilund, K R; Moore, G E


    Relationships have frequently been found between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype and various pathological and physiological cardiovascular outcomes and functions. Thus we sought to determine whether ACE genotype affected maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) and maximal exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women with different habitual physical activity levels. Age, body composition, and habitual physical activity levels did not differ among ACE genotype groups. However, ACE insertion/insertion (II) genotype carriers had a 6.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P VO2 max (P VO2 max than the DD genotype group, but the difference was not significant. ACE genotype accounted for 12% of the variation in VO2 max among women after accounting for the effect of habitual physical activity levels. The entire difference in VO2 max among ACE genotype groups was the result of differences in maximal arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2). ACE genotype accounted for 17% of the variation in maximal a-vDO2 in these women. Maximal cardiac output index did not differ whatsoever among ACE genotype groups. Thus it appears that ACE genotype accounts for a significant portion of the interindividual differences in VO2 max among these women. However, this difference is the result of genotype-dependent differences in maximal a-vDO2 and not of maximal stroke volume and maximal cardiac output.

  5. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael


    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  6. Effect of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine collagen and formation of ACE-inhibitory peptides

    Zhang, Yuhao; Olsen, Karsten; Grossi, Alberto Blak


    Bovine collagen was pre-treated (boiled or high pressure (HP)-treated) and then hydrolysed by 6 proteases. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of hydrolysates were measured. All enzymes used were able to partly degrade collagen and release...... ACEinhibitory peptides. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity was obtained with Alcalase. Pretreatment significantly influenced the DH and ACE-inhibition. For most enzymes, boiling for 5 min resulted in a significantly higher DH and ACE-inhibitory activity. With Alcalase and collagenase, hydrolysis and release...

  7. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain.

    Lambert, Daniel W; Clarke, Nicola E; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus. We have previously shown that ACE2 can be shed from the cell surface in response to phorbol esters by a process involving TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17). In this study, we demonstrate that inhibitors of calmodulin also stimulate shedding of the ACE2 ectodomain, a process at least partially mediated by a metalloproteinase. We also show that calmodulin associates with ACE2 and that this interaction is decreased by calmodulin inhibitors.

  8. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.


    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  9. [Competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria: evidence from the market for ACE inhibitors].

    Mahlich, J C; Stadler, I


    The market for pharmaceuticals in Austria is highly regulated and manufacturers cannot set prices freely after patent expiration of the pioneer drug. We wanted to examine the effect of price regulation on price competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria. We examined the Austrian market for ACE inhibitors and describe competitive dynamics by means of 6 indices. We compared our results with those of Grabowski and Vernon who studied the US market. According to our analysis the competition amongst the producers of generic drugs is not great and consequently, compared to the USA, over time the prices for generic products decrease less and their market share increases less. This is due to a market-oriented system in the USA which waives most regulatory provisions. Our conclusions are in line with the findings by Danzon und Chao (2000) who argue that in a price-regulated market competitive dynamics are less strongly developed. From a politico-economic view, the necessity of price regulations in the pharmaceutical market seems questionable, as price regulations generally also cause other negative effects, such as distorted economic incentives for research and development investments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Multilocus analysis in candidate genes ACE, AGT, and AGTR1 and predisposition to peripheral arterial disease: role of ACE D/-240T haplotype.

    Fatini, Cinzia; Sticchi, Elena; Sofi, Francesco; Said, Abdihakim Abdullahi; Pratesi, Giovanni; Pulli, Raffaele; Pratesi, Carlo; Abbate, Rosanna


    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. Apart from traditional cardiovascular risk factors, several novel biologic mediators and genetic predisposing factors appear relevant in determining the atherogenetic process leading to PAD. Genes encoding for renin angiotensin system (RAS) components have been proposed as candidate in atherosclerosis. This study investigated four polymorphisms in angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), genes of RAS, in both predicting PAD and modulating the severity of the disease. The ACE I/D and -240A>T, AGT M235T, and AGTR1 1166A>C polymorphisms were analyzed in 281 PAD patients and in 485 controls comparable for age and sex. The ACE D and -240T alleles both significantly influenced the predisposition to PAD. The ACE D, but not -240 T, allele remained associated with PAD after Bonferroni correction (P = .004) and adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = .03). The ACE D allele influenced PAD predisposition with a dose-dependent effect (odds ratio for ACE ID vs II genotype, 1.77; P = .006; ACE DD vs II genotype, 2.15; P = .001). The haplotype reconstruction analysis for the ACE gene showed that the D/-240T haplotype significantly and independently influenced the predisposition to PAD (P = .02). In 190 PAD patients with no additional atherosclerotic localizations (isolated PAD), a significant association between ACE D and -240T alleles and PAD was observed. Only the ACE D allele remained associated with isolated PAD after Bonferroni correction (P = .02) and after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = .02). The haplotype reconstruction analysis for the ACE gene showed that the D/-240T, but not the D/-240A haplotype significantly influenced the predisposition to PAD (P = .0003). No influence of the polymorphisms analyzed on the severity of the disease, according to Rutherford categories, was found. The present study

  11. What cost components are relevant for economic evaluations of palliative care, and what approaches are used to measure these costs? A systematic review.

    Gardiner, Clare; Ingleton, Christine; Ryan, Tony; Ward, Sue; Gott, Merryn


    It is important to understand the costs of palliative and end-of-life care in order to inform decisions regarding cost allocation. However, economic research in palliative care is very limited and little is known about the range and extent of the costs that are involved in palliative care provision. To undertake a systematic review of the health and social care literature to determine the range of financial costs related to a palliative care approach and explore approaches used to measure these costs. A systematic review of empirical literature with thematic synthesis. Study quality was evaluated using the Weight of Evidence Framework. The databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Medline were searched from 1995 to November 2015 for empirical studies which presented data on the financial costs associated with palliative care. A total of 38 papers met our inclusion criteria. Components of palliative care costs were incurred within four broad domains: hospital care, community or home-based care, hospice care and informal care. These costs could be considered from the economic viewpoint of three providers: state or government, insurers/third-party/not-for-profit organisations and patient and family and/or society. A wide variety of costing approaches were used to derive costs. The evidence base regarding the economics of palliative care is sparse, particularly relating to the full economic costs of palliative care. Our review provides a framework for considering these costs from a variety of economic viewpoints; however, further research is required to develop and refine methodologies.



    A regional multiple-objectiv e water-resource and economic optimization model wasdevelopednsingaqnantita-five method of systematic analysis. Input to the model includes indexes of economic structure and development, wa-ter-resource utilization, wastewater and pollutant discharge, and investment in wastewater treatment. The model, whichconsists of production-structure and industrial-structure optimization modules, was applied to the Guanzhong region in themiddle reaches of the Huanghe (Yellow) River basin in China. By evaluating several alternative production and industrializa-tion schemes, the modal indicate that water pollution will get worsen though wastewater treatment improves if the economycontinues to develop at the planned speed without structural adjustment. However, the results also show that not only econom-ic goals but also water-resource protection and pollution-control targets can be achieved under an alternative, recommend-ed production and industrial structure. This example illustrates that economic development and environmental protectioncan be improved coordinately by the regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model. It pro-vides an operable approach to the simultaneous sustained development of water resources and economic growth.

  13. How to prepare a systematic review of economic evaluations for informing evidence-based healthcare decisions: a five-step approach (part 1/3).

    van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Arts, Jacobus J C; Broos, Pieter H; Kleijnen, Jos; Evers, Silvia M A A; Majoie, Marian H J M


    Systematic reviews of economic evaluations are useful for synthesizing economic evidence about health interventions and for informing evidence-based decisions. Areas covered: As there is no detailed description of the methods for performing a systematic review of economic evidence, this paper aims to provide an overview of state-of-the-art methodology. This is laid out in a 5-step approach, as follows: step 1) initiating a systematic review; step 2) identifying (full) economic evaluations; step 3) data extraction, risk of bias and transferability assessment; step 4) reporting results; step 5) discussion and interpretation of findings. Expert commentary: The paper aims to help inexperienced reviewers and clinical practice guideline developers, but also to be a resource for experts in the field who want to check on current methodological developments.

  14. Association of the ACE, GSTM1, IL-6, NOS3, and CYP1A1 polymorphisms with susceptibility of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Chinese children.

    Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Li; Yang, Xiaomeng; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao


    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the clinical presentation of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) varies widely. Genetic variability affecting the host response may also influence the susceptibility to MPP. Several studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of some genes and the risks of CAP; however, the results were inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of 5 functional genes and the risks of MPP, including ACE (rs4340), GSTM1 (Ins/del), IL-6 (rs1800795), NOS3 (rs1799983), and CYP1A1 (rs2606345) in a total of 715 subjects (415 cases, 300 controls) by using tetra-primer allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. The gene-gene interactions were analyzed using the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and cumulative genetic risk score approaches. Our results showed that 3 SNPs of ACE rs4340, IL-6 rs1800795, and NOS3 rs1799983 were significantly associated with the risks of MPP, while no differences were observed in genotype frequencies of GSTM1 (Ins/del) and CYP1A1 rs2606345 between both groups. The combinations of ACE rs4340D/NOS3 rs1799983T/CYP1A1 rs2606345G and ACE rs4340D/NOS3 rs1799983T contribute to the genetic susceptibility of MPP in Chinese children.

  15. An Approach to Understanding Complex Socio-Economic Impacts and Responses to Climate Disruption in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; APl GAIA Team


    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the regional issues that are tied to global climate disruption. Under the auspices of the GAIA project (, we have investigated simulating the complex interplay between climate, politics, society, industry, and the environment in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and associated geographic areas of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. This Chesapeake Bay simulation draws on interrelated geophysical and climate models to support decision-making analysis about the Bay. In addition to physical models, however, human activity is also incorporated via input and output calculations. For example, policy implications are modeled in relation to business activities surrounding fishing, farming, industry and manufacturing, land development, and tourism. This approach fosters collaboration among subject matter experts to advance a more complete understanding of the regional impacts of climate change. Simulated interactive competition, in which teams of experts are assigned conflicting objectives in a controlled environment, allow for subject exploration which avoids trivial solutions that neglect the possible responses of affected parties. Results include improved planning, the anticipation of areas of conflict or high risk, and the increased likelihood of developing mutually acceptable solutions.

  16. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen


    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  17. Formal Rules Versus an Economic Approach in Dealing with Cartels: the Need for More Coherence in European Competition Law

    Radu Muşetescu


    Full Text Available Cartelizing is today among the most hunted business conduct in the world. Competition authorities from the countries where these statutes were adopted embrace the wisdom that such agreements between competitors are unquestionably anti-competitive. As opposed to other business practices, cartel agreements seem to offer an undeniable proof of intent that confers comfort for those who are investigating and prosecuting them. A cartel is today qualified as per se illegal. No further proof is needed but the formal agreement and the shared intentions. They are, at least until now, the only business practice that has lead, in certain jurisdictions, to jail terms and criminal record for individuals who were engaged in their negotiation and implementation. However, cartels are business practices that do not fundamentally aggress against any property right. From a public policy perspective, the harsh attitude towards cartels is lacking a theoretical coherence. Today, when competition policies all over the world and especially in the European Union are gradually transiting towards a more economic approach to evaluating the welfare effects of business practices, reassessing cartels is a critical imperative in the effort for a more coherent and reasonable public policy.

  18. DNA methylation analysis of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene in major depression.

    Peter Zill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE has been repeatedly discussed as susceptibility factor for major depression (MD and the bi-directional relation between MD and cardiovascular disorders (CVD. In this context, functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene have been linked to depression, to antidepressant treatment response, to ACE serum concentrations, as well as to hypertension, myocardial infarction and CVD risk markers. The mostly investigated ACE Ins/Del polymorphism accounts for ~40%-50% of the ACE serum concentration variance, the remaining half is probably determined by other genetic, environmental or epigenetic factors, but these are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main aim of the present study was the analysis of the DNA methylation pattern in the regulatory region of the ACE gene in peripheral leukocytes of 81 MD patients and 81 healthy controls. RESULTS: We detected intensive DNA methylation within a recently described, functional important region of the ACE gene promoter including hypermethylation in depressed patients (p = 0.008 and a significant inverse correlation between the ACE serum concentration and ACE promoter methylation frequency in the total sample (p = 0.02. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between the concentrations of the inflammatory CVD risk markers ICAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin and the degree of ACE promoter methylation in MD patients could be demonstrated (p = 0.01 - 0.04. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that aberrations in ACE promoter DNA methylation may be an underlying cause of MD and probably a common pathogenic factor for the bi-directional relationship between MD and cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    M. Schneider


    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and (for NO2 an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation. In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY, stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS, limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS, nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY, balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR. Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise and MAESTRO and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  20. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.