WorldWideScience

Sample records for accurate world-wide geophysical

  1. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  2. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  3. A New Multiscale Technique for Time-Accurate Geophysics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale geophysics systems are frequently described by multiscale reactive flow models (e.g., wildfire and climate models, multiphase flows in porous rocks, etc.). Accurate and robust simulations of such systems by traditional time-stepping techniques face a formidable computational challenge. Explicit time integration suffers from global (CFL and accuracy) timestep restrictions due to inhomogeneous convective and diffusion processes, as well as closely coupled physical and chemical reactions. Application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to such systems may not be always sufficient since its success critically depends on a careful choice of domain refinement strategy. On the other hand, implicit and timestep-splitting integrations may result in a considerable loss of accuracy when fast transients in the solution become important. To address this issue, we developed an alternative explicit approach to time-accurate integration of such systems: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES enables asynchronous computation by automatically adjusting the CPU resources in accordance with local timescales. This is done by encapsulating flux- conservative updates of numerical variables in the form of events, whose execution and synchronization is explicitly controlled by imposing accuracy and causality constraints. As a result, at each time step DES self- adaptively updates only a fraction of the global system state, which eliminates unnecessary computation of inactive elements. DES can be naturally combined with various mesh generation techniques. The event-driven paradigm results in robust and fast simulation codes, which can be efficiently parallelized via a new preemptive event processing (PEP) technique. We discuss applications of this novel technology to time-dependent diffusion-advection-reaction and CFD models representative of various geophysics applications.

  4. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  5. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  6. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  7. Introduction to the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-12

    The World Wide Web used to be nicknamed the 'World Wide Wait'. Now, thanks to high speed broadband connections, browsing the web has become a much more enjoyable and productive activity. Computers need to know where web pages are stored on the Internet, in just the same way as we need to know where someone lives in order to post them a letter. This section explains how the World Wide Web works and how web pages can be viewed using a web browser.

  8. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  9. Management van World-Wide Web Servers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, F.P.H.; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    Het World Wide Web is een populaire Internet toepassing waarmee het mogelijk is documenten aan willekeurige Internet gebruikers aan te bieden. Omdat hiervoor nog geen voorzieningen zijn getroffen, was het tot voor kort niet goed mogelijk het World Wide Web op afstand te beheren. De Universiteit

  10. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  11. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  12. Emergency Medicine for medical students world wide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perinpam, Larshan; Thi Huynh, Anh-Nhi

    2015-01-01

    A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/......A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/...

  13. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  14. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  15. Utilization of the world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, P.; Mallard, G.; Ralchenko, U.; Schultz, D.

    1998-01-01

    Two aspects of utilization of the World Wide Web are examined: (i) the communication of technical data through web cites that provide repositories of atomic and molecular data accessible through searchable databases; and (ii) the communication about issues of mutual concern among data producers, data compilers and evaluators, and data users. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  17. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  18. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  19. Internet and The World Wide Web

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Internet and The World Wide Web. Neelima Shrikhande. General Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 64-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0064-0074 ...

  20. PENYEBARAN INFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN WWW (WORLD WIDE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Atman Satya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Media Informasi secara tradisional telah kita kenai dengan menggunakan koran, televisi, radio dan buku referensi. Media informasi tersebut untuk penyebarannya memerlukan penunjang agar informasi tersebut dapat disebarkan secara lutis. Selain penggunaan media tradisional tersebut penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan jaringan komputer Internet juga berkembang. Salah satu cara penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan aplikasi WWW (World Wide Web yang mempunyai kemampuan menggabungkan gambar, text dan suara secara interaktif. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas tentang kemampuan, penggunaan dan pengembangan server WWW.

  1. Data Mining for Efficient and Accurate Large Scale Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Z.; Vucetic, S.; Peng, K.; Han, B.

    2004-12-01

    Our effort is devoted to developing data mining technology for improving efficiency and accuracy of the geophysical parameter retrievals by learning a mapping from observation attributes to the corresponding parameters within the framework of classification and regression. We will describe a method for efficient learning of neural network-based classification and regression models from high-volume data streams. The proposed procedure automatically learns a series of neural networks of different complexities on smaller data stream chunks and then properly combines them into an ensemble predictor through averaging. Based on the idea of progressive sampling the proposed approach starts with a very simple network trained on a very small chunk and then gradually increases the model complexity and the chunk size until the learning performance no longer improves. Our empirical study on aerosol retrievals from data obtained with the MISR instrument mounted at Terra satellite suggests that the proposed method is successful in learning complex concepts from large data streams with near-optimal computational effort. We will also report on a method that complements deterministic retrievals by constructing accurate predictive algorithms and applying them on appropriately selected subsets of observed data. The method is based on developing more accurate predictors aimed to catch global and local properties synthesized in a region. The procedure starts by learning the global properties of data sampled over the entire space, and continues by constructing specialized models on selected localized regions. The global and local models are integrated through an automated procedure that determines the optimal trade-off between the two components with the objective of minimizing the overall mean square errors over a specific region. Our experimental results on MISR data showed that the combined model can increase the retrieval accuracy significantly. The preliminary results on various

  2. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  3. Promoting and supporting PBL interests world wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    of projects world wide focusing on institutional change toward a more student centred, project organised, and problem based approach to learning. The Centre is also establishing a UCPBL Global Network on Problem Based Learning in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL area.......-Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education, an increasing number of universities and engineering schools throughout the world are seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore a timely opportunity to merge the efforts into one organisational structure...... aiming to promote and support PBL interests worldwide. This paper presents the UCPBL profile and plan of action. This includes a wide range of activities such as promoting research and development within the various PBL models and their implementation; Education and training in PBL through offering...

  4. Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 13: Geophysics is a 10-chapter text that focuses with the theoretical solid-earth geophysics. This volume specifically covers the general topics of terrestrial magnetism and electricity, the Earth's gravity field, tidal deformations, dynamics of global spin, spin processing, and convective models for the deep interior. This volume surveys first the construction of mathematical models, such as the representation of the geomagnetic field by assuming arrangements of multipole sources in the core and the fast computer evaluation of two- and three-dimensiona

  5. Golden Jubilee Photos: World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the Internet was already a valuable tool to scientists, allowing them to exchange e-mails and to access powerful computers remotely. A more simple means of sharing information was needed, however, and CERN, with its long tradition of informatics and networking, was the ideal place to find it. Moreover, hundreds of scientists from all over the world were starting to work together on preparations for the experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee (see photo), a young scientist working at CERN, drafted a proposal for an information-management system combining the internet, personal computers and computer-aided document consultation, known as hypertext. In 1990 he was joined by Robert Cailliau and the weaving of the World Wide Web began in earnest, even though only two CERN computers were allocated to the task at the time. The Web subsequently underwent a steady expansion to include the world's main particle physics institutes. The Web was not the...

  6. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba Olena А.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars over recent years has been analyzed. Improvement of attitude of many countries to the considered cryptocurrency, in particular the USA, Germany, Spain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Scandinavian countries has been identified. The reasons of Ukraine’s interest in Bitcoin have been considered. Possibilities of creation of cryptocurrency on the territory of Ukraine have been analyzed, i.e. cost of electricity for mining, the legal status of mining firms, and the attitude of the National Bank of Ukraine to the digital currency. It has been concluded that the recognition of Bitcoin by the world countries in the future will allow it to be granted the status of world-wide currency.

  7. Review of stellarator research world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonet, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The world-wide effort in stellarators has evolved considerably during the past few years. Stellarator facilities are located in the Australia, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Dimensions of stellarators range from less than 20 centimeters in major radius to more than 2 meters, and magnetic field values between 0.2 Tesla to more than 3.0 Tesla. Stellarators are made in a variety of magnetic configurations with wide ranges of toroidal aspect ratios and methods of generating the stellarator magnetic surfaces. In particular, continuous helical coils, twisted modular coils, or twisted vacuum chambers all provide different means to generate nested toroidal magnetic surfaces without the need for currents flowing in the plasma. The goal of present day experiments is to accumulate a physics data base. This is being done by increasing electron and ion temperatures with non-ohmic heating, by transport and scaling studies considering neoclassical scaling, global scaling, effects of electric fields, the bootstrap current and magnetic islands. Higher betas are being attempted by designing suitable magnetic configurations, pellet injection and/or minimizing transport losses. Plasma-wall interactions and particle control are being examined by divertor, pumped-limiter and carbonization experiments

  8. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  9. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  10. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Information on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgowan, Regina; Greer, Leah C; D'Auria, Jennifer P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the type and quality of health information about infant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) that a parent may find on the World Wide Web. The data collection tool included evaluation of Web site quality and infant GER-specific content on the 30 sites that met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly found content categories in order of frequency were management strategies, when to call a primary care provider, definition, and clinical features. The most frequently mentioned strategies included feeding changes, infant positioning, and medications. Thirteen of the 30 Web sites included information on both GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mention of the use of medication to lessen infant symptoms was found on 15 of the 30 sites. Only 10 of the 30 sites included information about parent support and coping strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) should utilize well-child visits to address the normalcy of physiologic infant GER and clarify any misperceptions parents may have about diagnosis and the role of medication from information they may have found on the Internet. It is critical for PNPs to assist in the development of Web sites with accurate content, advise parents on how to identify safe and reliable information, and provide examples of high-quality Web sites about child health topics such as infant GER. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Information about liver transplantation on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, F; Sivaprakasam, R; Butler, A; Huguet, E; Pettigrew, G J; Michael, E D A; Praseedom, R K; Jamieson, N V; Bradley, J A; Gibbs, P

    2006-09-01

    was an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.89 and an associated 95% CI (0.83, 0.93) for the three observers on the 58 Web sites. The study highlights the need for a significant improvement in the information available on the World Wide Web about OLTx. It concludes that the educational material currently available on the World Wide Web about liver transplant is of poor quality and requires rigorous input from health care professionals. The authors suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to take the necessary steps to improve the standard of information available on their relevant Web sites and must take an active role in helping their patients find Web sites that provide the best and accurate information specifically applicable to the loco-regional circumstances.

  12. Distributing Congestion Management System Information Using the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Internet is a unique medium for the distribution of information, and it provides a tremendous opportunity to take advantage of peoples innate interest in transportation issues as they relate to their own lives. In particular, the World Wide Web (...

  13. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  14. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  15. Playing with the internet through world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Tae; Jang, Jin Seok

    1995-07-01

    This book describes how to use the internet with world wide web. It is divided into six chapters, which are Let's go to the internet ocean, the internet in information superhighway are, connecting the world with a telephone wire such as link with the internet cable and telephone modem, internet service providers, text mode connection, Domain and IP address, the principle and use of world wide web ; business, music, fashion, movie and photo, internet news and e-mail, making internet map with web language, and from installation to application of base program such as TCP/IP, SLIP/PPP 3270 Emulator, Finger and NCSA Mosaic.

  16. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  17. Sources of Militaria on the World Wide Web | Walker | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having an interest in military-type topics is one thing, finding information on the web to quench your thirst for knowledge is another. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a universal electronic library that contains millions of web pages. As well as being fun, it is an addictive tool on which to search for information. To prevent hours ...

  18. Touring the Campus Library from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pixey Anne; Xiao, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The philosophy, design, implementation and evaluation of a World Wide Web-accessible Virtual Library Tour of Texas A & M University's Evans Library is presented. Its design combined technical computer issues and library instruction expertise. The tour can be used to simulate a typical walking tour through the library or heading directly to a…

  19. The World Wide Web and the Television Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1996-01-01

    The hypermedia nature of the World Wide Web may represent a true paradigm shift in telecommunications, but barriers exist to the Web having similar impact on education. Some of today's college students compare the Web with "bad TV"--lengthy pauses, links that result in error messages, and animation and sound clips that are too brief.…

  20. Teaching Critical Evaluation Skills for World Wide Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Marsha; Alexander, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan used by an academic library to evaluate the quality of World Wide Web information. Discusses the traditional evaluation criteria of accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage as it applies to the unique characteristics of Web pages: their marketing orientation, variety of information, and instability. The…

  1. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The "Internet, Web, What's next?" conference on 26 June 1998 at CERN: Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web and Director of the W3C, explains how the Web came to be and gave his views on the future.

  2. Wikinews interviews World Wide Web co-inventor Robert Cailliau

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The name Robert Caillau may not ring a bell to the general pbulic, but his invention is the reason why you are reading this: Dr. Cailliau together with his colleague Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, making the internet accessible so it could grow from an academic tool to a mass communication medium." (9 pages)

  3. Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada. Biblioteca

    2015-01-01

    El presente Cat??logo contiene la exposici??n organizada por la Biblioteca de la ETSIIT de la Universidad de Granada durante los meses de noviembre-diciembre de 2015 y titulada: "Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web"

  4. A World Wide Web Region-Based Image Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the development of an intelligent image content-based search engine for the World Wide Web is presented. This system will offer a new form of media representation and access of content available in WWW. Information Web Crawlers continuously traverse the Internet and collect images...

  5. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  6. Service Learning and Building Community with the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…

  7. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  8. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  9. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  10. The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

  11. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  12. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  13. White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the previous decade, white supremacist organizations have tapped into the ever emerging possibilities offered by the World Wide Web. Drawing from prior sociological work that has examined this medium and its uses by white supremacist organizations, this article advances the understanding of recruitment, identity and action by providing a…

  14. Basic support for cooperative work on the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentley, R.; Appelt, W.; Busbach, U.; Hinrichs, E.; Kerr, D.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Trevor, J.; Woetzel, G.

    The emergence and widespread adoption of the World Wide Web offers a great deal of potential in supporting cross-platform cooperative work within widely dispersed working groups. The Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCW) project at GMD is attempting to realize this potential through development

  15. Process Support for Cooperative Work on the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Neumann, Olaf; Sachweh, Sabine

    The World Wide Web is becoming a dominating factor in information technology. Consequently, computer supported cooperative work on the Web has recently drawn a lot of attention. Process Support for Cooperative Work (PSCW) is a Web based system supporting both structured and unstructured forms of

  16. Surfing the World Wide Web to Education Hot-Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Odvard Egil

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief explanation of Web browsers and their use, as well as technical information for those considering access to the WWW (World Wide Web). Curriculum resources and addresses to useful Web sites are included. Sidebars show sample searches using Yahoo and Lycos search engines, and a list of recommended Web resources. (JKP)

  17. Interactivity, Information Processing, and Learning on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Mark; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of interactivity in the presentation of science news on the World Wide Web. Proposes and tests a model of interactive information processing that suggests that characteristics of users and Web sites influence interactivity, which influences knowledge acquisition. Describes use of a think-aloud method to study participants' mental…

  18. Collaborative Design of World Wide Web Pages: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Paige G; Musser, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of the collaborative design of an earth science World Wide Web page at Pennsylvania State University highlights the role of librarians. Discusses the original Web site and links, planning, the intended audience, and redesign and recommended changes; and considers the potential contributions of librarians. (LRW)

  19. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  20. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1994-01-01

    Former physicist, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web as an essential tool for high energy physics at CERN from 1989 to 1994. Together with a small team he conceived HTML, http, URLs, and put up the first server and the first 'what you see is what you get' browser and html editor. Tim is now Director of the Web Consortium W3C, the International Web standards body based at INRIA, MIT and Keio University.

  1. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  2. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nageswara Rao; KH Babu

    2001-01-01

    The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has re...

  3. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors: A Year 3 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Udomprasert, Patricia S; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Wong, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief overview of some key features of WorldWide Telescope and its Ambassadors Program, and we describe two goals for expanding the program in the coming year: scaling up training efforts; and developing “plug and play” Visualization Lab modules that teach key Earth and Space Science concepts to students while emphasizing important scientific processes and skills. We discuss several different ways that members of the astronomy education and outreach community can incorporate WWT-bas...

  4. Interoperation of World-Wide Production e-Science Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M; Soddemann, T; Field, L; Navarro, JP; Casey, J; Litmaath, M; Baud, J; Koblitz, B; Catlett, C; Skow, D; Wang, S; Saeki, Y; Sato, H; Matsuoka, S; Geddes, N

    Many production Grid and e-Science infrastructures have begun to offer services to end-users during the past several years with an increasing number of scientific applications that require access to a wide variety of resources and services in multiple Grids. Therefore, the Grid Interoperation Now—Community Group of the Open Grid Forum—organizes and manages interoperation efforts among those production Grid infrastructures to reach the goal of a world-wide Grid vision on a technical level in the near future. This contribution highlights fundamental approaches of the group and discusses open standards in the context of production e-Science infrastructures.

  5. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  6. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  7. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  8. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  9. An information filtering system prototype for world wide web; Prototipo di sistema di information filtering per world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoni, L. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1999-07-01

    In this report the architecture of an information filtering system for world wide web, developed by the Rome Third University (Italy) for ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), is described. This prototype allows for selecting documents in text/HTML format from the web according to the interests of users. A user modeling shell allows ro build a model of user's interests, obtained during the interaction. The experimental results support the choice of embedding methods for this kind of application. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene descritta l'architettura di un sistema adattivo di information filtering su world wide web, sviluppato dall'universita' di Roma III in collaborazione con l'ENEA. Il prototipo descritto e' in grado di selezionare documenti in formato testo/html, raccolti dal web, in accordo con le caratteristiche e gli interessi degli utenti. Una shell di modellazione utente consente di costruire un modello degli interessi dell'utente, ottenuto nel corso dell'interazione. I risultati sperimentali rafforzano la scelta di usare metodi di modellazione utente per questo genere di applicazioni.

  10. An information filtering system prototype for world wide web; Prototipo di sistema di information filtering per world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoni, L [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1999-07-01

    In this report the architecture of an information filtering system for world wide web, developed by the Rome Third University (Italy) for ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), is described. This prototype allows for selecting documents in text/HTML format from the web according to the interests of users. A user modeling shell allows ro build a model of user's interests, obtained during the interaction. The experimental results support the choice of embedding methods for this kind of application. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene descritta l'architettura di un sistema adattivo di information filtering su world wide web, sviluppato dall'universita' di Roma III in collaborazione con l'ENEA. Il prototipo descritto e' in grado di selezionare documenti in formato testo/html, raccolti dal web, in accordo con le caratteristiche e gli interessi degli utenti. Una shell di modellazione utente consente di costruire un modello degli interessi dell'utente, ottenuto nel corso dell'interazione. I risultati sperimentali rafforzano la scelta di usare metodi di modellazione utente per questo genere di applicazioni.

  11. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  12. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  13. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  14. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  15. Lithuanian on-line periodicals on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sarlauskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deals with Lithuanian full-text electronic periodicals distributed through the World Wide Web. An electronic periodical is usually defined as a regular publication on some particular topic distributed in digital form, chiefly through the Web, but also by electronic mail or digital disk. The author has surveyed 106 publications. Thirty-four are distributed only on the Web, and 72 have printed versions. The number of analysed publications is not very big, but four years of electronic publishing and the variety of periodicals enables us to establish the causes of this phenomenon, the main features of development, and some perspectives. Electronic periodicals were analysed according to their type, purpose, contents, publisher, regularity, language, starting date and place of publication, and other features.

  16. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  17. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  19. Business use of the World-Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cockburn

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were employed in this study of the use of the World Wide Web by business: first, a sample of 300 businesses with Web sites, across a wide range of industry types, was examined, by selecting (rather than sampling companies from the Yahoo! directory. The sites were investigated in relation to several areas - the purpose of the Web site, the use being made of electronic mail and the extent to which multi-media was being utilised. In addition, any other aspects of the site which were designed to make it more interesting to potential customers were also noted. Secondly, an electronic-mail questionnaire was sent to 222 of the 300 companies surveyed: that is, those that provided an e-mail address for contact. 14 were returned immediately due to unknown addresses or technical problems. Of the remaining 208, 102 replies were received, five of which were of no relevance, leaving 97 completed questionnaires to examine; a response rate of 47%, which is surprisingly good for a survey of this kind.

  20. WEBSLIDE: A "Virtual" Slide Projector Based on World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Maria; Ferrandino, Salvatore; Scarano, Vittorio

    1999-03-01

    We present here the design key concepts of WEBSLIDE, a software project whose objective is to provide a simple, cheap and efficient solution for showing slides during lessons in computer labs. In fact, WEBSLIDE allows the video monitors of several client machines (the "STUDENTS") to be synchronously updated by the actions of a particular client machine, called the "INSTRUCTOR." The system is based on the World Wide Web and the software components of WEBSLIDE mainly consists in a WWW server, browsers and small Cgi-Bill scripts. What makes WEBSLIDE particularly appealing for small educational institutions is that WEBSLIDE is built with "off the shelf" products: it does not involve using a specifically designed program but any Netscape browser, one of the most popular browsers available on the market, is sufficient. Another possible use is to use our system to implement "guided automatic tours" through several pages or Intranets internal news bulletins: the company Web server can broadcast to all employees relevant information on their browser.

  1. The world wide web: exploring a new advertising environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C R; Neath, I

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web currently boasts millions of users in the United States alone and is likely to continue to expand both as a marketplace and as an advertising environment. Three experiments explored advertising in the Web environment, in particular memory for ads as they appear in everyday use across the Web. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of advertising repetition on the retention of familiar and less familiar brand names, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that repetition of a banner ad within multiple web pages can improve recall of familiar brand names, and Experiment 2 demonstrated that repetition can improve recognition of less familiar brand names. Experiment 3 directly compared the retention of familiar and less familiar brand names that were promoted by static and dynamic ads and demonstrated that the use of dynamic advertising can increase brand name recall, though only for familiar brand names. This study also demonstrated that, in the Web environment, much as in other advertising environments, familiar brand names possess a mnemonic advantage not possessed by less familiar brand names. Finally, data regarding Web usage gathered from all experiments confirm reports that Web usage among males tends to exceed that among females.

  2. MIMAS, setting the world-wide standard for plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst Alain; Yvon Vanderborck

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of MIMAS MOX fuel irradiation started in 1985 with loading and irradiation in French 900 MWe PWR of EDF. A 20-year comprehensive R and D programme preceded it. This success was greatly facilitated by some early strategy advantages: 1) Development and licensing of a 'UO 2 -like' MOX fuel rod fully interchangeable with UO 2 rods; 2) Joint SCK/BN operation of the BR2 (MTR) and BR3 (PWR) reactors, pilot and industrial MOX fuel plants, PIE hot laboratories in the Mol/Dessel site. The period since 1985 saw the occurrence of some concurrent facts, that have incontestably led MIMAS to the world-wide leader position (99 % of actual MOX fuel is MIMAS): 1) BN-MIMAS has been selected by Cogema for its plants MELOX and Cadarache and has demonstrated to be a flexible, scalable, and industrial process. 2) MIMAS has been further selected by JNFL for its Japanese domestic MOX plant (Rokkasho-mura) and by US-DOE for its domestic MOX plant (Savannah-NC) for the disposition of 34-ton weapon-Pu. 3) Satisfactory fabrication and irradiation over 1840 metric tons of MIMAS MOX fuel. In order to face the worldwide on-going electricity market liberalisation, MIMAS makers and vendors must definitely improve the MOX performances to compete with continuously improving UO 2 fuel. The facing of this continuous challenge is also reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  3. Information on infantile colic on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shana D; D'Auria, Jennifer P; Haushalter, Jamie P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the type and quality of information on infantile colic that a parent might access on the World Wide Web. Two checklists were used to evaluate the quality indicators of 24 Web sites and the colic-specific content. Fifteen health information Web sites met more of the quality parameters than the nine commercial sites. Eight Web sites included information about colic and infant abuse, with six being health information sites. The colic-specific content on 24 Web sites reflected current issues and controversies; however, the completeness of the information in light of current evidence varied among the Web sites. Strategies to avoid complications of parental stress or infant abuse were not commonly found on the Web sites. Pediatric professionals must guide parents to reliable colic resources that also include emotional support and understanding of infant crying. A best evidence guideline for the United States would eliminate confusion and uncertainty about which colic therapies are safe and effective for parents and professionals. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  5. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  6. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswara Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has revolutionized the way people access information, and has opened up new possibilities in areas such as digital libraries, virtual libraries, scientific information retrieval and dissemination. Not only the world is becoming interconnected, but also the use of Internet and Web has changed the fundamental roles, paradigms, and organizational culture of libraries and librarians as well. The article describes the limitless scope of Internet and Web, the existence of the librarian in the changing environment, parallelism between information sci-ence and information technology, librarians and intelligent agents, working of intelligent agents, strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in-volved in the relationship between librarians and the Web. The role of librarian in Internet and Web environment especially as intermediary, facilita-tor, end-user trainer, Web site builder, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager and sifter of information resources is also described.

  7. Finding Emotional-Laden Resources on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rasmussen Neal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some content in multimedia resources can depict or evoke certain emotions in users. The aim of Emotional Information Retrieval (EmIR and of our research is to identify knowledge about emotional-laden documents and to use these findings in a new kind of World Wide Web information service that allows users to search and browse by emotion. Our prototype, called Media EMOtion SEarch (MEMOSE, is largely based on the results of research regarding emotive music pieces, images and videos. In order to index both evoked and depicted emotions in these three media types and to make them searchable, we work with a controlled vocabulary, slide controls to adjust the emotions’ intensities, and broad folksonomies to identify and separate the correct resource-specific emotions. This separation of so-called power tags is based on a tag distribution which follows either an inverse power law (only one emotion was recognized or an inverse-logistical shape (two or three emotions were recognized. Both distributions are well known in information science. MEMOSE consists of a tool for tagging basic emotions with the help of slide controls, a processing device to separate power tags, a retrieval component consisting of a search interface (for any topic in combination with one or more emotions and a results screen. The latter shows two separately ranked lists of items for each media type (depicted and felt emotions, displaying thumbnails of resources, ranked by the mean values of intensity. In the evaluation of the MEMOSE prototype, study participants described our EmIR system as an enjoyable Web 2.0 service.

  8. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ..., Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations, Including On-Site Leased... Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Products Data Management Operations, Boise, Idaho and Fort... of Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations...

  9. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  10. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  11. World-Wide Benchmarking of ITER Nb$_{3}$Sn Strand Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, MC; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shikov, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Jewell, Matthew C; Boutboul, Thierry; Bessette, Denis; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Isono, Takaaki; Vorobieva, Alexandra; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Seo, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide procurement of Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi for the ITER superconducting magnet systems will involve eight to ten strand suppliers from six Domestic Agencies (DAs) on three continents. To ensure accurate and consistent measurement of the physical and superconducting properties of the composite strand, a strand test facility benchmarking effort was initiated in August 2008. The objectives of this effort are to assess and improve the superconducting strand test and sample preparation technologies at each DA and supplier, in preparation for the more than ten thousand samples that will be tested during ITER procurement. The present benchmarking includes tests for critical current (I-c), n-index, hysteresis loss (Q(hys)), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, twist direction, and metal plating thickness (Cr or Ni). Nineteen participants from six parties (China, EU, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) have participated in the benchmarking. This round, cond...

  12. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  13. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  14. Estimating the state of a geophysical system with sparse observations: time delay methods to achieve accurate initial states for prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather prediction, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of state variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality predictions. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.

  15. The online discourse on the Demjanjuk trial. New memory practices on the World Wide Web?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien SOMMER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I want to discuss the question if and how the World Wide Web changes social memory practices. Therefore I examine the relationship between the World Wide Web, social memory practices and public discourses. Towards discussing mediated memory processes I focus on the online discourse about the trial against the former concentration camp guard John Demjanjuk.

  16. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  17. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; hide

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  18. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-10-02

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  19. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  20. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  1. Advanced use of World-Wide Web in the online system of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Du, S.; Tennebo, F.

    1996-01-01

    The World-Wide Web technologies used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the On-line System. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation. (author)

  2. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners; Strahlenschutz und Umweltradioaktivitaet im Internet. Eine Reise in das World Wide Web fuer Anfaenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, S [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Referat ' ' Umweltradioaktivitaet, Strahlenschutz' ' (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [German] Mit dem rasanten Wachstum des Internet-Dienstes 'World Wide Web' ist auch das Angebot von Web-Seiten im Bereich Strahlenschutz stark gewachsen. Es wird eine Einfuehrung in die wichtigsten praktischen Grundlagen des WWW gegeben. Es wird der Aufbau der WWW-Adressen erklaert und das Navigieren mit Hyperlinks. Ausserdem werden einige Suchmaschinen vorgestellt. Der Beitrag stellt eine groessere Zahl an WWW-Adressen zu interessanten Seiten mit Strahlenschutzinformationen zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  3. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, S D; Bowie, D A; Hergenrather, K C

    2003-01-01

    To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies.

  4. Business use of the World Wide Web: a report on further investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Im Ng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of a previous study this paper reports on a series of studies into business use of the World Wide Web and, more generally the Internet. The use of the World Wide Web as a business tool has increased rapidly for the past three years, and the benefits of the World Wide Web to business and customers are discussed, together with the barriers that hold back future development of electronic commerce. As with the previous study we report on a desk survey of 300 randomly selected business Web sites and on the results of an electronic mail questionnaire sent to the sample companies. An extended version of this paper has been submitted to the International Journal of Information Management

  5. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  6. Meeting the challenge of finding resources for ophthalmic nurses on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffel, P G

    1998-12-01

    The World Wide Web ("the Web") is a macrocosm of resources that can be overwhelming. Often the sheer volume of material available causes one to give up in despair before finding information of any use. The Web is such a popular resource that it cannot be ignored. Two of the biggest challenges to finding good information on the Web are knowing where to start and judging whether the information gathered is pertinent and credible. This article addresses these two challenges and introduces the reader to a variety of ophthalmology and vision science resources on the World Wide Web.

  7. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  8. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  9. Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…

  10. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  11. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H.L. Liang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web’s full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  12. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  13. El creador de World Wide Web gana premio Millennium de tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Galan, J

    2004-01-01

    "El creador de la World Wide Web (WWW), el fisico britanico Tim Berners-Lee, gano hoy la primera edicion del Millennium Technology Prize, un galardon internacional creado por una fundacion finlandesa y dotado con un millon de euros" (1/2 page)

  14. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  15. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  16. Wood Utilization Research Dissemination on the World Wide Web: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Because many research products are informational rather than tangible, emerging information technologies, such as the multi-media format of the World Wide Web, provide an open and easily accessible mechanism for transferring research to user groups. We have found steady, increasing use of our Web site over the first 6-1/2 months of operation; almost one-third of the...

  17. World Wide Web of Your Wide Web? Juridische aspecten van zoekmachine-personalisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Het world wide web is een enorme bron van informatie. Iedere internetgebruiker maakt gebruik van zoekmachines om die informatie te kunnen vinden. Veel gebruikers weten echter niet dat zoekresultaten behorende bij een bepaalde zoekterm niet voor iedereen hetzelfde zijn. Dit personaliseren van

  18. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  19. Documenting historical data and accessing it on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Daniel P. Huebner; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    New computer technologies facilitate the storage, retrieval, and summarization of watershed-based data sets on the World Wide Web. These data sets are used by researchers when testing and validating predictive models, managers when planning and implementing watershed management practices, educators when learning about hydrologic processes, and decisionmakers when...

  20. A World Wide Web Human Dimensions Framework and Database for Wildlife and Forest Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a human dimensions framework(HDF) for application in wildlife and forest planning. The HDF is delivered via the world wide web and retrieves data on-line from the Social, Economic, Environmental, Leisure, and Attitudes (SEELA) database. The proposed HDF is guided by ten fundamental HD principles, and is applied to wildlife and forest planning using...

  1. Increasing efficiency of information dissemination and collection through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Malchus B. Baker; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    Researchers, managers, and educators have access to revolutionary technology for information transfer through the World Wide Web (Web). Using the Web to effectively gather and distribute information is addressed in this paper. Tools, tips, and strategies are discussed. Companion Web sites are provided to guide users in selecting the most appropriate tool for searching...

  2. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2012-07-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again.

  3. Environmental Reporting for Global Higher Education Institutions using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Alabaster, T.; Richardson, S.; Harrison, R.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes the value of voluntary environmental reporting by higher education institutions as an aid to implementing environmental policies. Suggests that the World Wide Web can provide a fast, up-to-date, flexible, participatory, multidimensional medium for information exchange and management. Contains 29 references. (PVD)

  4. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  5. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  6. Integrating Temporal Media and Open Hypermedia on the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Schade, René

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web has since its beginning provided linking to and from text documents encoded in HTML. The Web has evolved and most Web browsers now support a rich set of media types either by default or by the use of specialised content handlers, known as plug-ins. The limitations of the Web...

  7. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  8. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  9. Tapping the Resources of the World Wide Web for Inquiry in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschitl, Mark; Irby, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Argues for the cautiously expanded use of the World Wide Web for inquiry across the middle school curriculum, noting how the Internet can be used in schools. Describes the Internet and appraises its distractions and academic utility, identifying features that support student inquiry in science, mathematics, social studies, and language arts. (JPB)

  10. Le world wide web: l'hypermedià sur internet | Houmel | Revue d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The telecommunication's networks technology linked to the electronic document has changed abroad the information specialists' methods of work. The Internet network did a lot in thèse big changes and especially after the World Wide Web intégration wich is a high hypermedia distributed information System. In Algeria lots ...

  11. Reading on the World Wide Web: Dealing with conflicting information from multiple sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Reading on the World Wide Web: Dealing with conflicting information from multiple sources. Poster session presented at the biannual conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter,

  12. The World-Wide Web: An Interface between Research and Teaching in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Aiton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of ‘global hypermedia’ and ‘universal document readership’ realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and arch ives th at have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images. digital videos. animation etc.. The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  13. The World-Wide Web past present and future, and its application to medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sendall, D M

    1997-01-01

    The World-Wide Web was first developed as a tool for collaboration in the high energy physics community. From there it spread rapidly to other fields, and grew to its present impressive size. As an easy way to access information, it has been a great success, and a huge number of medical applications have taken advantage of it. But there is another side to the Web, its potential as a tool for collaboration between people. Medical examples include telemedicine and teaching. New technical developments offer still greater potential in medical and other fields. This paper gives some background to the early development of the World-Wide Web, a brief overview of its present state with some examples relevant to medicine, and a look at the future.

  14. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  15. Network Formation and the Structure of the Commercial World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2008-01-01

    We model the commercial World Wide Web as a directed graph that emerges as the equilibrium of a game in which utility maximizing websites purchase (advertising) in-links from each other while also setting the price of these links. In equilibrium, higher content sites tend to purchase more advertising links (mirroring the Dorfman-Steiner rule) while selling less advertising links themselves. As such, there seems to be specialization across sites in revenue models: high content sites tend to ea...

  16. THE NEW “UNIVERSAL TRUTH” OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Tăbușcă

    2011-01-01

    We all see that the world wide web is permanently evolving and developing. New websites are created continuously and push the limits of the old HTML specs in all respects. HTML4 is the real standard for almost 10 years and developers are starting to look for new and improved technologies to help them provide greater functionality. In order to give the authors flexibility and interoperability and to enable much more interactive and innovative websites and applications, HTML5 introduces and enh...

  17. Do We Need to Impose More Regulation Upon the World Wide Web? -A Metasystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. van Gigch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day a new problem attributable to the World Wide Web's lack of formal structure and/or organization is made public. What arguably could be represented as one of its main strengths is rapidly turning out to be one of its most flagrant weaknesses. The intent of this article is to show the need to establish a more formal organization than presently exists over the World Wide Web. (This article will use the terms the Internet and Cyberspace interchangeably. It is proposed that this formal organization take the form of a metacontrol system--to be explained-- and rely, at least in part, for this control to self-regulate. The so-called metasystem system would be responsible for preventing some of the unanticipated situations that take place in cyberspace and that, due to the web's lack of maturity, have not been encountered heretofore. Some activities, such as the denial-of-service (DoS attacks, may well be illicit. Others, like the question of establishing a world-wide democratic board to administer the Internet's address system, are so new that there are no technical, legal or political precedents to ensure its design will succeed. What is needed is a formal, over-arching control system, i.e. a "metasystem," to arbitrate over controversies, decide on the legality of new policies and, in general, act as a metalevel controller over the activities of the virtual community called Cyberspace. The World Wide Web Consortium has emerged as a possible candidate for this role.This paper uses control theory to define both the problem and the proposed solution. Cyberspace lacks a metacontroller that can be used to resolve the many problems that arise when a new organizational configuration, such as the Internet, is created and when questions surface about the extent to which new activities interfere with individual or corporate freedoms.

  18. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [de

  19. Consécration pour les Inventeurs du World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Nearly seven years after it was invented at CERN, the World-Wide Web has woven its way into every corner of the Internet. On Saturday, 17 February, the inventors of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Robert Cailliau of CERN's Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) Division, will be honoured with one of computing's highest distinctions: the Association for Computing (ACM) Software System Award 1995.

  20. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  1. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  2. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  3. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  4. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  5. World Wide Web voted most wonderful wonder by web-wide world

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The results are in, and the winner is...the World Wide Web! An online survey conducted by the CNN news group ranks the World Wide Web-invented at CERN--as the most wonderful of the seven modern wonders of the world. (See Bulletin No. 49/2006.) There is currently no speculation about whether they would have had the same results had they distributed the survey by post. The World Wide Web won with a whopping 50 per cent of the votes (3,665 votes). The runner up was CERN again, with 16 per cent of voters (1130 votes) casting the ballot in favour of the CERN particle accelerator. Stepping into place behind CERN and CERN is 'None of the Above' with 8 per cent of the votes (611 votes), followed by the development of Dubai (7%), the bionic arm (7%), China's Three Gorges Damn (5%), The Channel Tunnel (4%), and France's Millau viaduct (3%). Thanks to everyone from CERN who voted. You can view the results on http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  6. Student participation in World Wide Web-based curriculum development of general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William John Forbes

    1998-12-01

    This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.

  7. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  8. The Land of Confusion? High School Students and Their Use of the World Wide Web for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines high school students' use of the World Wide Web to complete assignments. Findings showed the students used a good variety of resources, including libraries and the World Wide Web, to find information for assignments. However, students were weak at determining the quality of the information found on web sites. Students did poorly at…

  9. Developing as new search engine and browser for libraries to search and organize the World Wide Web library resources

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2000-01-01

    Internet Granthalaya urges world wide advocates and targets at the task of creating a new search engine and dedicated browseer. Internet Granthalaya may be the ultimate search engine exclusively dedicated for every library use to search and organize the world wide web libary resources

  10. Spectral properties of the Google matrix of the World Wide Web and other directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2010-05-01

    We study numerically the spectrum and eigenstate properties of the Google matrix of various examples of directed networks such as vocabulary networks of dictionaries and university World Wide Web networks. The spectra have gapless structure in the vicinity of the maximal eigenvalue for Google damping parameter α equal to unity. The vocabulary networks have relatively homogeneous spectral density, while university networks have pronounced spectral structures which change from one university to another, reflecting specific properties of the networks. We also determine specific properties of eigenstates of the Google matrix, including the PageRank. The fidelity of the PageRank is proposed as a characterization of its stability.

  11. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  12. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide: Database summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Results complied in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author). 4 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Statistical Analysis with Webstat, a Java applet for the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster West

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java programming language has added a new tool for delivering computing applications over the World Wide Web (WWW. WebStat is a new computing environment for basic statistical analysis which is delivered in the form of a Java applet. Anyone with WWW access and a Java capable browser can access this new analysis environment. Along with an overall introduction of the environment, the main features of this package are illustrated, and the prospect of using basic WebStat components for more advanced applications is discussed.

  14. World-wide trend of long-lived radionuclides transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Il Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the concepts of partitioning and transmutation studies which are being conducted in several countries. This review was focused on the analysis of such areas as radiotoxicities of radwaste containing long-lived radionuclides, transmutation by reactors or accelerators, and separation of minor actinides. The world-wide trend of partitioning and transmutation studies was also investigated on the basis of each country's R and D activities in this area. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  16. International Markedsføring på World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Buch, Niels Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Denne artikel tager udgangspunkt i en gruppe af danske virksomheders anvendelse af World Wide Web til international markedsføring i en periode fra 1996 til 1998. Der identificeres tre interaktionstyper for virksomhedernes profil på Web, nemlig Brochuren, Håndbogen og Handelspladsen. Der reflekteres...... over de krav de enkelte interaktionstyper i forhold til automatisering, formalisering, integration og evaluering kunne kræve. Konklusionen bliver, at de tre interaktionstyper afspejler de udfordringer og muligheder, der er i anvendelsen af Web til markedsføring primært i et internationalt perspektiv......, men kan også bruges som input til nationale Web markedsføringsaktiviteter....

  17. Interactive fluka: a world wide web version for a simulation code in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelli, S.; Giordano, S.; Piemontese, G.; Squarcia, S.

    1998-01-01

    We considered the possibility of using the simulation code FLUKA, in the framework of TERA. We provided a window under World Wide Web in which an interactive version of the code is available. The user can find instructions for the installation, an on-line FLUKA manual and interactive windows for inserting all the data required by the configuration running file in a very simple way. The database choice allows a more versatile use for data verification and update, recall of old simulations and comparison with selected examples. A completely new tool for geometry drawing under Java has also been developed. (authors)

  18. Recent world-wide advances in irradiation of food and its identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Saito, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation (ionizing radiation) of various foods is growing in popularity internationally. For example, it is used as a substitute for the use of post-harvest pesticides. This trend has served to intensify research on the identification of irradiated foods. The first Research Co-ordinated Meeting on Analytical Detection Method for Irradiated Foods was held in Poland under the sponsorship of FAO/IAEA in 1990 in order to solve problems related to the international trade of irradiated foods and to ensure their correct labelling in the market. In this review, the world-wide advances in the irradiation of food and its identification are introduced and discussed. (author)

  19. World wide web and virtual reality in developing and using environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariso, G.

    2001-01-01

    The application of World wide web as an active component of environmental decision support system is still largely unexplored. Environmental problems are distributed in nature, both from the physical and from the social point of view; the Web is thus an ideal tool to share concepts and decisions among multiple interested parties. Also Virtual Reality (VR) that has not find, up to know, a large application in the development and teaching of environmental models. The paper shows some recent applications that highlight the potential of these tools [it

  20. E-Learning and Role of World Wide Web in E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jahankhani, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the aspects of the E-learning through the World Wide Web. E-revolution as new phenomenon influenced the society by its means and strategies. E-learning is one of the sub-products of E-revolution, towards making more convenient and effective learning. In time Internet become a source of information, people start to learn through the Internet instead of books. It gives the flexibility to remote access at any time. The working people and the students are inspired by th...

  1. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  3. Quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumarasamy, S; Osmani, Z; Sharpe, A; England, R J A

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The first 50 web-links generated by internet searches using the five most popular search engines and the key word 'thyroidectomy' were evaluated using the Lida website validation instrument (assessing accessibility, usability and reliability) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score. We evaluated 103 of a possible 250 websites. Mean scores (ranges) were: Lida accessibility, 48/63 (27-59); Lida usability, 36/54 (21-50); Lida reliability, 21/51 (4-38); and Flesch Reading Ease, 43.9 (2.6-77.6). The quality of internet health information regarding thyroidectomy is variable. High ranking and popularity are not good indicators of website quality. Overall, none of the websites assessed achieved high Lida scores. In order to prevent the dissemination of inaccurate or commercially motivated information, we recommend independent labelling of medical information available on the World Wide Web.

  4. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  5. Use of World Wide Web-based directories for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M M; Rohan, T E

    2000-11-01

    The recent availability of World Wide Web-based directories has opened up a new approach for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies. The completeness of two World Wide Web-based directories (Canada411 and InfoSpace Canada) for subject tracing was evaluated by using a randomized crossover design for 346 adults randomly selected from respondents in an ongoing cohort study. About half (56.4%) of the subjects were successfully located by using either Canada411 or InfoSpace. Of the 43.6% of the subjects who could not be located using either directory, the majority (73.5%) were female. Overall, there was no clear advantage of one directory over the other. Although Canada411 could find significantly more subjects than InfoSpace, the number of potential matches returned by Canada411 was also higher, which meant that a longer list of potential matches had to be examined before a true match could be found. One strategy to minimize the number of potential matches per true match is to first search by InfoSpace with the last name and first name, then by Canada411 with the last name and first name, and finally by InfoSpace with the last name and first initial. Internet-based searches represent a potentially useful approach to tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  6. Quality analysis of patient information about knee arthroscopy on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Ramasamy, Vijayaraj; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ilango, Balakrishnan

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the quality of patient information available on the World Wide Web on the topic of knee arthroscopy. For the purpose of quality analysis, we used a pool of 232 search results obtained from 7 different search engines. We used a modified assessment questionnaire to assess the quality of these Web sites. This questionnaire was developed based on similar studies evaluating Web site quality and includes items on illustrations, accessibility, availability, accountability, and content of the Web site. We also compared results obtained with different search engines and tried to establish the best possible search strategy to attain the most relevant, authentic, and adequate information with minimum time consumption. For this purpose, we first compared 100 search results from the single most commonly used search engine (AltaVista) with the pooled sample containing 20 search results from each of the 7 different search engines. The search engines used were metasearch (Copernic and Mamma), general search (Google, AltaVista, and Yahoo), and health topic-related search engines (MedHunt and Healthfinder). The phrase "knee arthroscopy" was used as the search terminology. Excluding the repetitions, there were 117 Web sites available for quality analysis. These sites were analyzed for accessibility, relevance, authenticity, adequacy, and accountability by use of a specially designed questionnaire. Our analysis showed that most of the sites providing patient information on knee arthroscopy contained outdated information, were inadequate, and were not accountable. Only 16 sites were found to be providing reasonably good patient information and hence can be recommended to patients. Understandably, most of these sites were from nonprofit organizations and educational institutions. Furthermore, our study revealed that using multiple search engines increases patients' chances of obtaining more relevant information rather than using a single search

  7. P-001: Koi herpes virus world wide: results of the global KHV questionnaire 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, Olga; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    , prevention, detection, and control of epizootic diseases within Europe to reduce the economic and social impact of future outbreaks of emerging/notifiable diseases, like Foot-and-mouth disease through increased excellence by collaboration. Within EPIZONE, Work package 6.1 covers emerging diseases of fish...... was sent to > 65 countries world wide. By the start of May 2009, 40 countries had responded, i.e. > 60%. The results of the KHV questionnaire will be presented as a poster, and hand-out. Questions of the questionnaire were about koi (1), cultured (2) and wild carp (3), all Cyprinus carpio: • Prevalence...... and confirmation? Did/do you participate in the KHV PCR ring test of CEFAS (UK); • Susceptible fish species: Was KHV isolated from other species than koi/carp? • Latent carriers: Do you have any experience with latency of KHV in koi/carp? • Measures (stamping out, temp change, therapy) and effects in 1, 2, and 3...

  8. Clear-sky classification procedures and models using a world-wide data-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, S.; Muneer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Clear-sky data need to be extracted from all-sky measured solar-irradiance dataset, often by using algorithms that rely on other measured meteorological parameters. Current procedures for clear-sky data extraction have been examined and compared with each other to determine their reliability and location dependency. New clear-sky determination algorithms are proposed that are based on a combination of clearness index, diffuse ratio, cloud cover and Linke's turbidity limits. Various researchers have proposed clear-sky irradiance models that rely on synoptic parameters; four of these models, MRM, PRM, YRM and REST2 have been compared for six world-wide-locations. Based on a previously-developed comprehensive accuracy scoring method, the models MRM, REST2 and YRM were found to be of satisfactory performance in decreasing order. The so-called Page radiation model (PRM) was found to underestimate solar radiation, even though local turbidity data were provided for its operation

  9. Growth and structure of the World Wide Web: Towards realistic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2002-08-01

    We simulate evolution of the World Wide Web from the dynamic rules incorporating growth, bias attachment, and rewiring. We show that the emergent double-hierarchical structure with distinct distributions of out- and in-links is comparable with the observed empirical data when the control parameter (average graph flexibility β) is kept in the range β=3-4. We then explore the Web graph by simulating (a) Web crawling to determine size and depth of connected components, and (b) a random walker that discovers the structure of connected subgraphs with dominant attractor and promoter nodes. A random walker that adapts its move strategy to mimic local node linking preferences is shown to have a short access time to "important" nodes on the Web graph.

  10. The World Wide Web: A Web Even a Fly Would Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, E.

    Ever since my introduction to the World Wide Web (WWW), it's been love at first byte. Searching on the WWW is similar to being able to go to a public library and allow yourself to be transported to any other book or library around the world by looking at a reference or index and clicking your heels together like Dorothy did in "The Wizard of Oz", only the clicking is done with a computer mouse. During this presentation, we will explore the WWW protocols which allow clients and servers to communicate on the Internet. We will demonstrate the ease with which users can navigate the virtual tidal wave of information available with a mere click of a button. In addition, the workshop will discuss the revolutionary aspects of this network information system and how it's impacting our libraries as a primary mechanism for rapid dissemination of knowledge.

  11. Introducing chinese treatment experience of Budd-Chiari syndrome to world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linsun

    2008-01-01

    During the latest 20 years, the crucial progress has been made in the field of treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS)in China with therapeutic methods transferring from surgical to interventional and achieving successful rate of 96%. Our unique contribution to the BCS interventional therapy should have made ourselves proud for being as a superior world position on account of large number of cases, abundant therapeutic contents and consummate skills. What a pity is that our achievement was not appreciated by international colleagues because of only a few papers published in SCI journals. So that, Chinese scholars ought to have doing more necessarily through diligently learning English, doing long term follow-up and performing more basic researches and actively joining international academic exchanges, let our good experiences of treatment for BCS be introduced to the world-wide. (authors)

  12. Distributed nuclear medicine applications using World Wide Web and Java technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, P.; Hoell, K.; Koriska, K.; Mirzaei, S.; Koehn, H.

    2000-01-01

    At present, medical applications applying World Wide Web (WWW) technology are mainly used to view static images and to retrieve some information. The Java platform is a relative new way of computing, especially designed for network computing and distributed applications which enables interactive connection between user and information via the WWW. The Java 2 Software Development Kit (SDK) including Java2D API, Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) technology, Object Serialization and the Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) extension was used to achieve a robust, platform independent and network centric solution. Medical image processing software based on this technology is presented and adequate performance capability of Java is demonstrated by an iterative reconstruction algorithm for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). (orig.)

  13. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  14. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  15. Educational use of World Wide Web pages on CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Thomas P; Smith, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly important for medical education. Internet served pages may also be used on a local hard disk or CD-ROM without a network or server. This allows authors to reuse existing content and provide access to users without a network connection. CD-ROM offers several advantages over network delivery of Web pages for several applications. However, creating Web pages for CD-ROM requires careful planning. Issues include file names, relative links, directory names, default pages, server created content, image maps, other file types and embedded programming. With care, it is possible to create server based pages that can be copied directly to CD-ROM. In addition, Web pages on CD-ROM may reference Internet served pages to provide the best features of both methods.

  16. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  17. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  18. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  19. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  20. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression

  1. World-wide anthropogenic climate changes: facts, uncertainties and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Various human activities are, without a doubt, leading to a steady increase world-wide in the emissions of trace gases which affect the climate into the atmosphere. As a result, the global climate is also forced to change. The evidence from climate models regarding this is uncertain, however, both with respect to the quantitative aspect and the regional aspect, especially concerning climatic elements apart from temperature. It is therefore important to examine the data of climate history for anthropogenic climate signals. It is difficult, though, to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic climate effects. Despite these uncertainties, however, which result in many questions remaining open, estimations of risk and the principle of responsibility lead to immediate, international climate protection measures being demanded. (orig.) [de

  2. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, R.E.; Martin, F.D.; Emery, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations

  3. Where to find nutritional science journals on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M

    1997-08-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is a burgeoning information resource that can be utilized for current awareness and assistance in manuscript preparation and submission. The ever changing and expanding nature of the WWW allows it to provide up to the minute information, but this inherent changeability often makes information access difficult. To assist nutrition scientists in locating useful information about nutritional science journals on the WWW, this article critically reviews and describes the WWW sites for seventeen highly ranked nutrition and dietetics journals. Included in each annotation are the site's title, web address or Universal Resource Locator (URL), journal ranking and site authorship. Also listed is whether or not the site makes available the guidelines for authors, tables of contents, abstracts, online ordering, as well as information about the editorial board. This critical survey illustrates that the information on the web, regardless of its authority, is not of equal quality.

  4. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  5. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  6. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  7. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  8. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Sea surface temperature data from a world wide distribution from 01 January 1971 to 31 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature data were collected in a world wide distribution from January 1, 1971 to December 31, 2000. Data were submitted by Japan Meteorological...

  10. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

  11. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  12. Cogema's world-wide experience in prospecting and surveying uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berville, M.; Faure, D.

    1985-01-01

    Having briefly outlined the history of uranium prospection in France, the authors describe COGEMA's prospection operations at home and abroad and analyse the methods applied according to different contexts (granitic and metamorphic rocks, ''sub-discordant'' deposits, sedimentary deposits, prospection in detail of a qualified zone); at the same time they show how technology has developed, particularly in the fields of geophysics and radiometry [fr

  13. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  14. Two virtual astro refresher courses on the world-wide-web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The Internet offers a novel venue for providing educational material to radiation oncologists. This exhibit demonstrates its utility for providing the complete content of two past ASTRO refresher courses. Materials and Methods: The audio recording, handout and slides from the 1995 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Brain Tumors; Standards of Care, Current Clinical Trials and New Directions' and the 1996 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Internet-based communications in Radiation Oncology' were digitized and placed on an Internet World-Wide-Web site. The Web address was posted on the refresher course handout and in the meeting book ('http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/brain95.html' and 'http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/astro96/'). The computer distributing this material is an Intel-based 486 DEC50 personal computer with a 50 Mhz processor running Windows NT 3.51 workstation. Software utilized to distribute the material is in the public domain and includes EWMAC's 'httpd', and Progressive Network's 'RealAudio Server' and 'Encoder'. The University's dedicated Internet connection is used to 'serve' this material. Results: The two approximately 100 minute lectures have been encoded into several 'RealAudio' files totaling 10 Megabytes in size. These files are accessible with moderate to excellent quality and speed utilizing as little as a 14.4k modem connection to the Internet. Use of 'streaming' technology provides a means for playing the audio files over the Internet after downloading only a small portion of the files. The time required to digitize the material has been approximately 40 hours, with most time related to digitizing slides from a Powerpoint presentation. Not all slides have been digitized as of this time. To date, approximately 400 accesses to this resource have been logged on the system. Seven electronic comment forms for the second course have all rated it as 'superior'. Pitfalls include the difficulty

  15. Compact Optical Discs and the World Wide Web: Two Mediums in Digitized Information Delivery Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:40-52

    Compact optical discs (CDs and the World Wide Web (the Web are two mechanisms that contemporary libraries extensively use for digitized information storage, dissemination, and retrieval. The Web features an unparalleled global accessibility free from many previously known temporal and spatial restrictions. Its real-time update capability is impossible for CDs. Web-based information delivery can reduce the cost in hardware and software ownership and management of a local library, and provide one-to-one zcustomization to better serve library's clients. The current limitations of the Web include inadequate speed in data transmission, particularly for multimedia applications, and its insufficient reliability, search capabilities, and security. In comparison, speed, quality, portability, and reliability are the current advantages of CDs over the Web. These features, together with the trend in the PC industry and market, suggest that CDs will exist and continue to develop. CD/Web hybrids can combine the best of both developing mechanisms and offer optimal results. Through a comparison of CDs and the Web, it is argued that the functionality and unique features of a technology determine its future.

  16. Securing the anonymity of content providers in the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Thomas; Rieke, Andreas

    1999-04-01

    Nowadays the World Wide Web (WWW) is an established service used by people all over the world. Most of them do not recognize the fact that they reveal plenty of information about themselves or their affiliation and computer equipment to the providers of web pages they connect to. As a result, a lot of services offer users to access web pages unrecognized or without risk of being backtracked, respectively. This kind of anonymity is called user or client anonymity. But on the other hand, an equivalent protection for content providers does not exist, although this feature is desirable for many situations in which the identity of a publisher or content provider shall be hidden. We call this property server anonymity. We will introduce the first system with the primary target to offer anonymity for providers of information in the WWW. Beside this property, it provides also client anonymity. Based on David Chaum's idea of mixes and in relation to the context of the WWW, we explain the term 'server anonymity' motivating the system JANUS which offers both client and server anonymity.

  17. Glue ear: how good is the information on the World Wide Web?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, L; Tornari, C; Patel, P M; Lakhani, R

    2016-02-01

    This paper objectively evaluates current information available to the general public related to glue ear on the World Wide Web. The term 'glue ear' was typed into the 3 most frequently used internet search engines - Google, Bing and Yahoo - and the first 20 links were analysed. The first 400 words of each page were used to calculate the Flesch-Kincaid readability score. Each website was subsequently graded using the Discern instrument, which gauges quality and content of literature. The websites Webmd.boots.com, Bupa.co.uk and Patient.co.uk received the highest overall scores. These reflected top scores in either readability or Discern instrument assessment, but not both. Readability and Discern scores increased with the presence of a marketing or advertising incentive. The Patient.co.uk website had the highest Discern score and third highest readability score. There is huge variation in the quality of information available to patients on the internet. Some websites may be accessible to a wide range of reading ages but have poor quality content, and vice versa. Clinicians should be aware of indicators of quality, and use validated instruments to assess and recommend literature.

  18. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  19. World-wide French experience in research reactor fuel cycle transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packagings for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of the nuclear fuel material for power reactors is made on a regular and industrial basis. The transportation of material for the research reactor fuel cycle is quite different due to the small quantities involved, the categorisation of material and the numerous places of delivery world-wide. Adapted solutions exist, which require a reactive organisation dealing with all the transportation issues for LEU and HEU products as metal, oxide, fresh fuel elements, spent fuel elements including supply of necessary transport packaging and equipment. This presentation will: - explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimise the corresponding services, - demonstrate the capability to achieve, through reliable partnership, transport operations involving new routes, specific equipment and new political constraints while respecting sophisticated safety and security regulations. (author)

  20. WebPresent: a World Wide Web-based telepresentation tool for physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Banerjea, Anindo; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design architecture and the implementation status of WebPresent - a world wide web based tele-presentation tool. This tool allows a physician to use a conference server workstation and make a presentation of patient cases to a geographically distributed audience. The audience consists of other physicians collaborating on patients' health care management and physicians participating in continuing medical education. These physicians are at several locations with networks of different bandwidth and capabilities connecting them. Audiences also receive the patient case information on different computers ranging form high-end display workstations to laptops with low-resolution displays. WebPresent is a scalable networked multimedia tool which supports the presentation of hypertext, images, audio, video, and a white-board to remote physicians with hospital Intranet access. WebPresent allows the audience to receive customized information. The data received can differ in resolution and bandwidth, depending on the availability of resources such as display resolution and network bandwidth.

  1. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  2. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D M; Kingsley, P; Johnson-West, J

    2001-07-01

    Literacy is a national and international problem. Studies have shown the readability of adult and pediatric patient education materials to be too high for average adults. Materials should be written at the 8th-grade level or lower. To determine the general readability of pediatric patient education materials designed for adults on the World Wide Web (WWW). GeneralPediatrics.com (http://www.generalpediatrics.com) is a digital library serving the medical information needs of pediatric health care providers, patients, and families. Documents from 100 different authoritative Web sites designed for laypersons were evaluated using a built-in computer software readability formula (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid reading levels) and hand calculation methods (Fry Formula and SMOG methods). Analysis of variance and paired t tests determined significance. Eighty-nine documents constituted the final sample; they covered a wide spectrum of pediatric topics. The overall Flesch Reading Ease score was 57.0. The overall mean Fry Formula was 12.0 (12th grade, 0 months of schooling) and SMOG was 12.2. The overall Flesch-Kincaid grade level was significantly lower (Peducation materials on the WWW are not written at an appropriate reading level for the average adult. We propose that a practical reading level and how it was determined be included on all patient education materials on the WWW for general guidance in material selection. We discuss suggestions for improved readability of patient education materials.

  3. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  4. Migrating the facility profile information management system into the world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kero, R.E.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy - Office of Special Projects and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), along with the Department of Energy - office of Scientific and Technical Information have previously designed and implemented the Environment, Safety and Health Facility Profile Information Management System (FPIMS) to facilitate greater efficiency in searching, analyzing and disseminating information found within environment, safety and health oversight documents. This information retrieval based system serves as a central repository for full-text electronic oversight documents, as well as a management planning and decision making tool that can assist in trend and root cause analyses. Continuous improvement of environment, safety and health programs are currently aided through this personal computer-based system by providing a means for the open communication of lessons learned across the department. Overall benefits have included reductions in costs and improvements in past information management capabilities. Access to the FPIMS has been possible historically through a headquarters-based local area network equipped with modems. Continued demand for greater accessibility of the system by remote DOE field offices and sites, in conjunction with the Secretary of Energy` s call for greater public accessibility to Department of Energy (DOE) information resources, has been the impetus to expand access through the use of Internet technologies. Therefore, the following paper will discuss reasons for migrating the FPIMS system into the World Wide Web (Web), various lessons learned from the FPIMS migration effort, as well as future plans for enhancing the Web-based FPIMS.

  5. World wide web for database of Japanese translation on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. The INES is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA. Nuclear events reported are rated by the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been promptly translating the INES reports into Japanese and developing a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation, aiming at more efficient utilization of the INES information inside Japan. The present paper briefly introduces the definitions of INES rating levels and the scope of the Scale, and describes the outlines of the database (the information stored in the database, its functions and how to use it). As well, technical use of the INES reports and the availability/ effectiveness of the database are discussed. (author)

  6. Validity and client use of information from the World Wide Web regarding veterinary anesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Watson, Victoria; Snyder, Lindsey B C; Love, Emma J

    2008-12-15

    To determine the validity of the information on the World Wide Web concerning veterinary anesthesia in dogs and to determine the methods dog owners use to obtain that information. Web-based search and client survey. 73 Web sites and 92 clients. Web sites were scored on a 5-point scale for completeness and accuracy of information about veterinary anesthesia by 3 board-certified anesthesiologists. A search for anesthetic information regarding 49 specific breeds of dogs was also performed. A survey was distributed to the clients who visited the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital during a 4-month period to solicit data about sources used by clients to obtain veterinary medical information and the manner in which information obtained from Web sites was used. The general search identified 73 Web sites that included information on veterinary anesthesia; these sites received a mean score of 3.4 for accuracy and 2.5 for completeness. Of 178 Web sites identified through the breed-specific search, 57 (32%) indicated that a particular breed was sensitive to anesthesia. Of 83 usable, completed surveys, 72 (87%) indicated the client used the Web for veterinary medical information. Fifteen clients (18%) indicated they believed their animal was sensitive to anesthesia because of its breed. Information available on the internet regarding anesthesia in dogs is generally not complete and may be misleading with respect to risks to specific breeds. Consequently, veterinarians should appropriately educate clients regarding anesthetic risk to their particular dog.

  7. Expert knowledge in palliative care on the World Wide Web: palliativedrugs.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In my last Internet-related article, I speculated that social networking would be the coming wave in the effort to share knowledge among experts in various disciplines. At the time I did not know that a palliative care site on the World Wide Web (WWW), palliativedrugs.com, already provided the infrastructure for sharing expert knowledge in the field. The Web site is an excellent traditional formulary but it is primarily devoted to "unlicensed" ("off-label") use of medications in palliative care, something we in the specialty often do with little to support our interventions except shared knowledge and experience. There is nothing fancy about this Web site. In a good way, its format is a throwback to Web sites of the 1990s. In only the loosest sense can one describe it as "multimedia." Yet, it provides the perfect forum for expert knowledge and is a "must see" resource. Its existing content is voluminous and reliable, filtered and reviewed by renowned clinicians and educators in the field. Although its origin and structure were not specifically designed for social or professional networking, the Web site's format makes it a natural way for practitioners around the world to contribute to an ever-growing body of expertise in palliative care.

  8. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  9. Studying Acute Coronary Syndrome Through the World Wide Web: Experiences and Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Angelo A

    2017-10-13

    This study details my viewpoint on the experiences, lessons, and assessments of conducting a national study on care-seeking behavior for heart attack in the United States utilizing the World Wide Web. The Yale Heart Study (YHS) was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Grounded on two prior studies, the YHS combined a Web-based interview survey instrument; ads placed on the Internet; flyers and posters in public libraries, senior centers, and rehabilitation centers; information on chat rooms; a viral marketing strategy; and print ads to attract potential participants to share their heart attack experiences. Along the way, the grant was transferred from Ohio State University (OSU) to Yale University, and significant administrative, information technology, and personnel challenges ensued that materially delayed the study's execution. Overall, the use of the Internet to collect data on care-seeking behavior is very time consuming and emergent. The cost of using the Web was approximately 31% less expensive than that of face-to-face interviews. However, the quality of the data may have suffered because of the absence of some data compared with interviewing participants. Yet the representativeness of the 1154 usable surveys appears good, with the exception of a dearth of African American participants. ©Angelo A Alonzo. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 13.10.2017.

  10. Factors influencing the adoption of the World Wide Web for job-seeking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pavon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the use of the World Wide Web (WWW as a tool for job-seeking and recruitment has increased globally, changing the dynamics for job-seekers and recruitment organisations. The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight into the factors that influence the adoption of the Internet (WWW for job-seeking within a South African context. The impact of the Internet (WWW and newspaper-reading habits on the adoption process was of specific interest. Data was gathered by survey through telephonic interviews with 228 job seekers applying for information technology (IT work in Cape Town, South Africa. The findings show that the income of a job-seeker influences the favourability of internet facilitating conditions they encounter. Facilitating conditions in turn influence Internet (WWW usage habits. Such habits influence performance expectancy, effort expectancy and intentions to use the Internet (WWW for job-seeking. The actual extent of Internet (WWW usage for job-seeking is positively influenced by these usage intentions and negatively influenced by newspaper-reading habits. These and other findings are discussed and implications drawn.

  11. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2017-12-01

    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  12. World-wide risk assessment of the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Elert, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the project reported in this paper is to develop the means and methods for a risk analysis of the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the world. The project was initiated by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (SAGSTRAM) of the IAEA. In 1979 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the IAEA signed an agreement on the development of a model for calculation of the transport risk. Member States of the IAEA are invited to use the model for a risk assessment of the transportation of radioactive materials in their own country. These assessments will be collected and analyzed and a world-wide risk assessment performed. The IAEA has the overall responsibility for the project and administers it. Sweden manages the project and has performed the applied research with the assistance of research support groups which have supplied data and analyses and performed some other parts of the project. An Oversight Committee with participants from eight Member States has reviewed the progress and has given valuable recommendations. It was important that the model had the sophistication and flexibility required for its use by all Member States but still was easy to handle. The risk calculations are performed by the computer code INTERTRAN which is based on the American computer code RADTRAN II developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The methodology of the RADTRAN II as well as data and format of the input and output was changed to make the code more internationally oriented. 2 references

  13. Factors influencing the adoption of the World Wide Web for job-seeking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pavon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the use of the World Wide Web (WWW as a tool for job-seeking and recruitment has increased globally, changing the dynamics for job-seekers and recruitment organisations. The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight into the factors that influence the adoption of the Internet (WWW for job-seeking within a South African context. The impact of the Internet (WWW and newspaper-reading habits on the adoption process was of specific interest. Data was gathered by survey through telephonic interviews with 228 job seekers applying for information technology (IT work in Cape Town, South Africa. The findings show that the income of a job-seeker influences the favourability of internet facilitating conditions they encounter. Facilitating conditions in turn influence Internet (WWW usage habits. Such habits influence performance expectancy, effort expectancy and intentions to use the Internet (WWW for job-seeking. The actual extent of Internet (WWW usage for job-seeking is positively influenced by these usage intentions and negatively influenced by newspaper-reading habits. These and other findings are discussed and implications drawn.

  14. Virtual Reality Astronomy Education Using AAS WorldWide Telescope and Oculus Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. David; Moraitis, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    The Boyd E. Christenberry Planetarium at Samford University (Birmingham, AL) offers family friendly, live, and interactive planetarium presentations that educate the public on topics from astronomy basics to current cutting edge astronomical discoveries. With limited funding, it is not possible to provide state of the art planetarium hardware for these community audiences. In a society in which many people, even young children, have access to high resolution smart phones and highly realistic video games, it is important to leverage cutting-edge technology to intrigue young and old minds alike. We use an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset running AAS WorldWide Telescope software to visualize 3D data in a fully immersive environment. We create interactive experiences and videos to highlight astronomical concepts and also to communicate the beauty of our universe. The ease of portability enables us to set up at Virtual Reality (VR) experience at various events, festivals, and even in classrooms to provide a community outreach that a fixed planetarium cannot. This VR experience adds the “wow” factor that encourages children and adults to engage in our various planetarium events to learn more about astronomy and continue to explore the final frontier of space. These VR experiences encourages our college students to participate in our astronomy education resulting in increased interest in STEM fields, particularly physics and math.

  15. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  16. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  17. On the necessity of making geoethics a central concern in eduethics world-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookall, David; Promduangsri, Pimnutcha

    2017-04-01

    Our planet is in dire need of ethical behaviour by all its citizens. However, recent research has highlighted the increasingly dangerous impact of human activity on life systems of the planet. CO2 emissions continue to rise (400+ppm, end 2016), methane emissions are accelerating. The Arctic is about 28°C above the normal average. Average global temperature is reaching 1° above normal. Air, water and ground pollution levels are reaching devastating levels. Resource depletion is accelerating. Yet most governments still beat the drums of growth, while hypocritically humming the tune of sustainability. Humans are overshooting the carrying capacity of the planet; as attested by top scientists and organizations. Earth overshoot day in 2016 was 8 August; we need 5½ earths to live like Australians. Of course, efforts are being made globally and locally to combat impending disaster and to encourage more respectful behaviour towards the planet and its life. Individuals include scientists, writers, film makers, journalists. World-wide organizations include Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), the Climate Change Education Partnership Alliance, the International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). A key organization is the International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) because it focuses firmly and explicitly on the key issue of ethics, which few others appear to do. One might argue that the general lack of major progress in environmental care is rooted to a large degree in the world-wide lack of strong adherence to geoethical principles. Learning to behave ethically needs far more than knowledge about energy imbalance, pollution, acidity, ice melt, etc. It needs people to learn, and grow up learning, about what is right and wrong in regard to each aspect of our personal earth citizen lives. That needs nothing short of a revolution in educational practice for all schools across the globe

  18. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  19. Towards a global service registry for the world-wide LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Laurence; Pradillo, Maria Alandes; Girolamo, Alessandro Di

    2014-01-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages

  20. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-07-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  1. A comprehensive and cost-effective preparticipation exam implemented on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, J E; Haskell, W L; Matheson, G O

    1999-12-01

    Mandatory preparticipation examinations (PPE) are labor intensive, offer little routine health maintenance and are poor predictors of future injury or illness. Our objective was to develop a new PPE for the Stanford University varsity athletes that improved both quality of primary and preventive care and physician time efficiency. This PPE is based on the annual submission, by each athlete, of a comprehensive medical history questionnaire that is then summarized in a two-page report for the examining physician. The questionnaire was developed through a search of MEDLINE from 1966 to 1997, review of PPE from 11 other institutions, and discussion with two experts from each of seven main content areas: medical and musculoskeletal history, eating, menstrual and sleep disorders, stress and health risk behaviors. Content validity was assessed by 10 sports medicine physicians and four epidemiologists. It was then programmed for the World Wide Web (http:// www.stanford.edu/dept/sportsmed/). The questionnaire demonstrated a 97 +/- 2% sensitivity in detecting positive responses requiring physician attention. Sixteen physicians administered the 1997/98 PPE; using the summary reports, 15 found improvement in their ability to provide overall medical care including health issues beyond clearance; 13 noted a decrease in time needed for each athlete exam. Over 90% of athletes who used the web site found it "easy" or "moderately easy" to access and complete. Initial assessment of this new PPE format shows good athlete compliance, improved exam efficiency and a strong increase in subjective physician satisfaction with the quality of screening and medical care provided. The data indicate a need for improvement of routine health maintenance in this population. The database offers opportunities to study trends, risk factors, and results of interventions.

  2. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  3. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  4. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Hill, A D; Redmond, H Paul

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again. We aimed to compile surgical presentations online and establish a new online surgical education tool. We also sought to measure the effect of this educational tool on surgical presentation quality. Surgical presentations from Cork University Hospital and Beaumont Hospital presented between January 2010 and April 2011 were uploaded to http://www.pilgrimshospital.com/presentations. A YouTube channel and iTunes application were created. Web site hits were monitored. Quality of presentations was assessed by 4 independent senior surgical judges using a validated PowerPoint assessment form. Judges were randomly given 6 presentations; 3 presentations were pre-web site setup and 3 were post-web site setup. Once uploading commenced, presenters were informed. A total of 89 presentations have been uploaded to date. This includes 55 cases, 17 journal club, and 17 short bullet presentations. This has been associated with 46,037 web site page views. Establishment of the web site was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of presentations. Mean scores for pre- and post-web site group were 6.2 vs 7.7 out of 9 respectively, p = 0.037. This novel educational tool provides a unique method to enable surgical education become more accessible to trainees, while also improving the overall quality of surgical teaching PowerPoint presentations. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  6. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Online: What Patients Find when Searching the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Minal; Laskar, Nabila; Modi, Bhavik N

    2016-06-01

    To objectively assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients frequently search the internet regarding their healthcare issues. It has been shown that patients seeking information can help or hinder their healthcare outcomes depending on the quality of information consulted. On the internet, this information can be produced and published by anyone, resulting in the risk of patients accessing inaccurate and misleading information. The search term "Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy" was entered into the three most popular search engines and the first 50 pages on each were pooled and analyzed, after excluding websites inappropriate for objective review. The "LIDA" instrument (a validated tool for assessing quality of healthcare information websites) was to generate scores on Accessibility, Reliability, and Usability. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Of the 150 web-links, 41 sites met the eligibility criteria. The sites were assessed using the LIDA instrument and the FRES. A mean total LIDA score for all the websites assessed was 123.5 of a possible 165 (74.8%). The average Accessibility of the sites assessed was 50.1 of 60 (84.3%), on Usability 41.4 of 54 (76.6%), on Reliability 31.5 of 51 (61.7%), and 41.8 on FRES. There was a significant variability among sites and interestingly, there was no correlation between the sites' search engine ranking and their scores. This study has illustrated the variable quality of online material on the topic of CRT. Furthermore, there was also no apparent correlation between highly ranked, popular websites and their quality. Healthcare professionals should be encouraged to guide their patients toward the online material that contains reliable information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  8. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  9. Integrating video and animation with physics problem- solving exercises on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron Patrick

    1998-10-01

    Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia-focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly. As a result, we believe that when integrated with instruction, multimedia-focused problems can be a valuable tool in helping students develop better conceptual understanding and more expert-like problem solving skills by challenging novice beliefs and problem solving approaches. Multimedia-focused problems may also be useful for diagnosing conceptual understanding and problem skills.

  10. Efficacy of the World Wide Web in K-12 environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Kimberly Jane

    1998-11-01

    Despite support by teachers, students, and the American public in general, environmental education is not a priority in U.S. schools. Teachers face many barriers to integrating environmental education into K--12 curricula. The focus of this research is teachers' lack of access to environmental education resources. New educational reforms combined with emerging mass communication technologies such as the Internet and World Wide Web present new opportunities for the infusion of environmental content into the curriculum. New technologies can connect teachers and students to a wealth of resources previously unavailable to them. However, significant barriers to using technologies exist that must be overcome to make this promise a reality. Web-based environmental education is a new field and research is urgently needed. If teachers are to use the Web meaningfully in their classrooms, it is essential that their attitudes and perceptions about using this new technology be brought to light. Therefore, this exploratory research investigates teachers' attitudes toward using the Web to share environmental education resources. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate this problem. Two surveys were conducted---self-administered mail survey and a Web-based online survey---to elicit teachers perceptions and comments about environmental education and the Web. Preliminary statistical procedures including frequencies, percentages and correlational measures were performed to interpret the data. In-depth interviews and participant-observation methods were used during an extended environmental education curriculum development project with two practicing teachers to gain insights into the process of creating curricula and placing it online. Findings from the both the mail survey and the Web-based survey suggest that teachers are interested in environmental education---97% of respondents for each survey agreed that environmental education should be taught in K

  11. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  12. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  13. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  14. World-wide sexual compatibility in Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and its implications for SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the sterile insect technique, described by Knipling (1953), to control and/or eradicate insect pest populations has been applied to many Lepidoptera and Diptera species. Among Diptera species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most important agricultural pest in the world (Liquido et al. 1990) and it is also a major target of SIT action programmes world-wide. The use of SIT requires that mass rearing facilities be developed to produce sterile insects for use in national programmes, with mass reared strains being established by colonising wild insects collected from the SIT target area. More recently, with the increasing demand for sterile Medflies and the limited number of production facilities, some rearing facilities began to export Medflies to other national/regional programmes. Eight facilities have now reached production levels which allow them to export sterile insects (Fisher and Caceres 199) on a regional or inter-regional basis. When this procedure is used, the flies released have to compete with wild flies of a different geographic origin. The increasing use of Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) has also resulted in the same strain being used in different countries. To date, five rearing facilities in the world produce GSS (Fisher and Caceres 1999). Since GSS are assembled from specific components, it is impossible to 'colonise' them from each country where sterile GSS flies are needed. The GSS are often backcrossed with insects from the target population to increase the genetic variability (Franz et al. 1996), although in some cases this presents problems (Franz, personal communication). In practice, a single wild population is used as a basis for the synthesis of the GSS. Consequently, the same GSS based on the same wild genetic material may be used in various countries/continents and the question was raised concerning the sexual compatibility of these strains with

  15. Test and calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad Inoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements, A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1.As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more sophisticated than

  16. Exploratory Analysis of the Effect of Consultants on the Use of World Wide Web Sites in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigi Goode

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little published research on the role of consultants in technology adoption. Given the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web in commercial environments and the number of consultants now offering web development services, some analysis into the effects of their engagement would be of benefit. In an extension of an ongoing study, an existing sample of 113 World Wide Web adopters was used to examine the nature of World Wide Web site use with respect to consultant and Internet Service Provider (ISP engagement. Analysis was also conducted into the use of consultants and ISPs as developers and maintainers of these sites. This preliminary research finds a number of interesting outcomes. No significant relationship is found between consultant or ISP engagement and World Wide Web site use, regardless of whether the consultant was engaged as site developer or site maintainer. The study raises a number of additional findings that are of interest but are not directly related to this study. These findings merit further research.

  17. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  18. Use of World Wide Web Server and Browser Software To Support a First-Year Medical Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a World Wide Web server to support a team-taught physiology course for first-year medical students. The students' evaluations indicate that computer use in class made lecture material more interesting, while the online documents helped reinforce lecture materials and textbooks. Lists factors which contribute to the…

  19. A brief history of the World Wide Web Where it as invented, how it's used, and where it's headed

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrnin, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The World Wide Web has its historical roots in things such as the creation of the telegraph, the launching of the Sputnik and more, but it really all started in March 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee, a computer scientist at CERN in Geneva wrote a paper called Information Management: A proposal

  20. The poor quality of information about laparoscopy on the World Wide Web as indexed by popular search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J W; Finch, R J; Coleman, M G; Nathanson, L K; O'Rourke, N A; Fielding, G A

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the quality of information on the Internet regarding laparoscopy. Four popular World Wide Web search engines were used with the key word "laparoscopy." Advertisements, patient- or physician-directed information, and controversial material were noted. A total of 14,030 Web pages were found, but only 104 were unique Web sites. The majority of the sites were duplicate pages, subpages within a main Web page, or dead links. Twenty-eight of the 104 pages had a medical product for sale, 26 were patient-directed, 23 were written by a physician or group of physicians, and six represented corporations. The remaining 21 were "miscellaneous." The 46 pages containing educational material were critically reviewed. At least one of the senior authors found that 32 of the pages contained controversial or misleading statements. All of the three senior authors (LKN, NAO, GAF) independently agreed that 17 of the 46 pages contained controversial information. The World Wide Web is not a reliable source for patient or physician information about laparoscopy. Authenticating medical information on the World Wide Web is a difficult task, and no government or surgical society has taken the lead in regulating what is presented as fact on the World Wide Web.

  1. Taking risks on the world wide web: The impact of families and societies on adolescents' risky online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Hof, S. van der; Berg, B. van den; Schermer, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Children’s engagement in risky online behavior—such as providing personal information or agreeing to meet with a stranger—is an important predictor of whether they will encounter harmful content on the World Wide Web or be confronted with situations such as sexual harassment and privacy violations.

  2. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  3. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  4. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  5. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Engineer pioneer plants respond to and affect geomorphic constraints similarly along water–terrestrial interfaces world-wide

    OpenAIRE

    Corenblit, D.; Baas, A.; Balke, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Fromard, F.; Garófano-Gómez, V.; González, E.; Gurnell, A.M.; Hortobágyi, B.; Julien, F.; Kim, D.; Lambs, L.; Stallins, J.A.; Steiger, J.; Tabacchi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Within fluvial and coastal ecosystems world-wide, flows of water, wind and sediment generate a shifting landscape mosaic composed of bare substrate and pioneer and mature vegetation successional stages. Pioneer plant species that colonize these ecosystems at the land–water interface have developed specific traits in response to environmental constraints (response...

  7. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Debbie

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  8. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  9. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  10. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  11. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  12. AAS WorldWide Telescope: A Seamless, Cross-platform Data Visualization Engine for Astronomy Research, Education, and Democratizing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Fay, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Ronald K.; Cui, Chenzhou; Weigel, A. David; Robitaille, Thomas; Otor, Oderah Justin; Goodman, Alyssa

    2018-05-01

    The American Astronomical Society’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) project enables terabytes of astronomical images, data, and stories to be viewed and shared among researchers, exhibited in science museums, projected into full-dome immersive planetariums and virtual reality headsets, and taught in classrooms, from middle school to college. We review the WWT ecosystem, how WWT has been used in the astronomical community, and comment on future directions.

  13. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoling; Zhao Feng; Wu Meigui; Du Jinzhou

    2010-01-01

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  14. Starguides plus a world-wide directory of organizations in astronomy and related space sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2004-01-01

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, en...

  15. World wide intercomparison of trace element measurements in marine sediments SD-M-2/TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.; Oregioni, B.

    1991-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine sediments is an important aspect of geochemical studies of the marine environment and for assessing the levels and pathways of marine pollutants. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focussed upon near-shore marine sediments where trace metal contamination is frequently observed. The present exercise was designed to study a typical oxidised deep-sea sediment characterized by a preponderance of fine particle clays. Analysis of such material is a routine matter for most geochemists but represents a ''baseline sample'' for marine pollution chemists. The present exercise represented a unique opportunity for chemists worldwide to intercompare their analytical methodologies for deep-sea sediments. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material - apparently the only one of its kind available throughout the world. 6 refs, figs and tabs

  16. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  17. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume IX. World-Wide Means and Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TITLE (..d SobtII,) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U. S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Volume IX World-wide Means and Standard Reference...Ives the best estimate of the population standard deviations. The means, , are com~nuted from: EX IIN I 90 80 70 60" 50’ 40, 30 20 10 0 1070 T- VErr ...or 10%, whichever is greater Since the mean ice limit approximates the minus two de l temperature isopleth, this analyzed lower limit was Wave Heights

  18. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase

  19. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  20. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved.

  1. Development of a world wide web-based interactive education program to improve detectability of pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Joon Young; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Han, Ki Tae; Ahn, Young Seob; Shin, Byung Seok; Bae, Kyongtae T.

    2007-01-01

    To design and develop a World Wide Web-based education program that will allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs. Chest radiographs with known diagnosis were retrieved and selected from our institutional clinical archives. A database was constructed by sorting radiographs into three groups: normal, nodule, and false positive (i.e., nodule-like focal opacity). Each nodule was assigned with the degree of detectability: easy, intermediate, difficult, and likely missed. Nodules were characterized by their morphology (well-defined, ill-defined, irregular, faint) and by other associated pathologies or potentially obscuring structures. The Web site was organized into four sections: study, test, record and information. The Web site allowed a user interactively to undergo the training section appropriate to the user's diagnostic capability. The training was enhanced by means of clinical and other pertinent radiological findings included in the database. The outcome of the training was tested with clinical test radiographs that presented nodules or false positives with varying diagnostic difficulties. A World Wide Web-based education program is a promising technique that would allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting and characterizing pulmonary nodules

  2. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  3. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  4. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  5. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  6. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  7. International use of an academic nephrology World Wide Web site: from medical information resource to business tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kevin C; Oliver, David K; Boal, Thomas R; Gadiyak, Grigorii; Boocks, Carl; Yuan, Christina M; Welch, Paul G; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2002-04-01

    Studies of the use of the World Wide Web to obtain medical knowledge have largely focused on patients. In particular, neither the international use of academic nephrology World Wide Web sites (websites) as primary information sources nor the use of search engines (and search strategies) to obtain medical information have been described. Visits ("hits") to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) Nephrology Service website from April 30, 2000, to March 14, 2001, were analyzed for the location of originating source using Webtrends, and search engines (Google, Lycos, etc.) were analyzed manually for search strategies used. From April 30, 2000 to March 14, 2001, the WRAMC Nephrology Service website received 1,007,103 hits and 12,175 visits. These visits were from 33 different countries, and the most frequent regions were Western Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, and South America. The most frequent organization using the site was the military Internet system, followed by America Online and automated search programs of online search engines, most commonly Google. The online lecture series was the most frequently visited section of the website. Search strategies used in search engines were extremely technical. The use of "robots" by standard Internet search engines to locate websites, which may be blocked by mandatory registration, has allowed users worldwide to access the WRAMC Nephrology Service website to answer very technical questions. This suggests that it is being used as an alternative to other primary sources of medical information and that the use of mandatory registration may hinder users from finding valuable sites. With current Internet technology, even a single service can become a worldwide information resource without sacrificing its primary customers.

  8. Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data from bottle in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April 1994 (NODC Accession 0000268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data were collected using bottle from multiple vessels in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April...

  9. Temperature profile data from MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 23 December 1964 to 19 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000216)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts from multiple platforms in a world-wide distribution from December 23, 1964 to December 19, 1991. Additonal...

  10. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003 (NODC Accession 0001042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from SEA-LAND DEFENDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003....

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 07 November 2001 to 24 July 2002 (NODC Accession 0000762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from OLEANDER, TAI HE, SEA-LAND ENTERPRISE, and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were...

  12. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 26 July 1966 to 09 September 1990 (NODC Accession 0000228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, FIOLENT, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 26 July 1966 to 09...

  13. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-06-01 to 1997-08-10 (NODC Accession 9700224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from XBT casts from several research vessels in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from June 1, 1996 to August...

  14. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 2002 to 18 November 2002 (NODC Accession 0000831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES COMMANDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 04 September 2002 to 18 November...

  15. Temperature profile and oxygen data collected from multiple ships using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0002716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998. Data...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 01 March 2002 to 26 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from MELBOURNE STAR and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 March 2002...

  17. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 18 June 1970 to 05 May 1989 (NODC Accession 0000229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, AELITA, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 18 June 1970 to 05 May...

  18. Temperature profile data collected in a world wide distribution using XBT casts from 01 January 1994 to 25 May 1994 (NODC Accession 9600159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the ANGO and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 January 1994 to...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 1979-06-03 to 1988-05-27 (NODC Accession 8800182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 03 June 1979 to 27 May 1988. Data...

  20. Temperature profile data from bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 07 December 1995 to 18 October 1996 (NODC Accession 9600167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from December 07, 1995...

  1. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 1948-04-08 to 1968-12-14 (NODC Accession 9300131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 08 April 1948 to 14 Decmeber...

  2. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a World-Wide Distribution 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990 (NODC Accession 9700191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from from a World-Wide Distribution from 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990. Physical parameters include temperature...

  3. Chemical, temperature, and other data from bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 04 October 1961 to 24 August 1990 (NODC Accession 0000231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, temperature, and other data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from multiple ships from October 4, 1961 to August 24, 1990....

  4. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 200 (NODC Accession 0001019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES RAIDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 2003....

  5. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0001268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995. Data were submitted by the UK Hydrographic...

  6. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AELITA and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 30 January 1970 to 26 July 1990 (NODC Accession 0000227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a world wide distribution from AELITA, ESTAFETA OKTYABRYA, MARLIN, ORHEVI, POLYAKOV, and ZVEZDA AZOVA from...

  7. Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 16 March 1997 to 30 January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts from TIOGA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from March 16, 1997 to...

  8. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen data collected using bottle in a world wide distribution from 02 September 1998 to 02 November 2003 (NODC Accession 0002403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 02...

  9. Temperature and other data from XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 06 March 1958 to 01 April 1958 (NODC Accession 0000336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and other data were collected using XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from March 6, 1958 to April 1, 1958. Data were submitted by Duetsches...

  10. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  11. The use of the World Wide Web by medical journals in 2003 and 2005: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriger, David L; Ouk, Sripha; Altman, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    The 2- to 6-page print journal article has been the standard for 200 years, yet this format severely limits the amount of detailed information that can be conveyed. The World Wide Web provides a low-cost option for posting extended text and supplementary information. It also can enhance the experience of journal editors, reviewers, readers, and authors through added functionality (eg, online submission and peer review, postpublication critique, and e-mail notification of table of contents.) Our aim was to characterize ways that journals were using the World Wide Web in 2005 and note changes since 2003. We analyzed the Web sites of 138 high-impact print journals in 3 ways. First, we compared the print and Web versions of March 2003 and 2005 issues of 28 journals (20 of which were randomly selected from the 138) to determine how often articles were published Web only and how often print articles were augmented by Web-only supplements. Second, we examined what functions were offered by each journal Web site. Third, for journals that offered Web pages for reader commentary about each article, we analyzed the number of comments and characterized these comments. Fifty-six articles (7%) in 5 journals were Web only. Thirteen of the 28 journals had no supplementary online content. By 2005, several journals were including Web-only supplements in >20% of their papers. Supplementary methods, tables, and figures predominated. The use of supplementary material increased by 5% from 2% to 7% in the 20-journal random sample from 2003 to 2005. Web sites had similar functionality with an emphasis on linking each article to related material and e-mailing readers about activity related to each article. There was little evidence of journals using the Web to provide readers an interactive experience with the data or with each other. Seventeen of the 138 journals offered rapid-response pages. Only 18% of eligible articles had any comments after 5 months. Journal Web sites offer similar

  12. [Preliminary construction of three-dimensional visual educational system for clinical dentistry based on world wide web webpage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-yang; Song, En-min; Tan, Hong-bao; Wang, Yi-ning

    2009-09-01

    To establish a new visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on world wide web (WWW) webpage in order to provide more three-dimensional multimedia resources to dental students and an online three-dimensional consulting system for patients. Based on computer graphics and three-dimensional webpage technologies, the software of 3Dsmax and Webmax were adopted in the system development. In the Windows environment, the architecture of whole system was established step by step, including three-dimensional model construction, three-dimensional scene setup, transplanting three-dimensional scene into webpage, reediting the virtual scene, realization of interactions within the webpage, initial test, and necessary adjustment. Five cases of three-dimensional interactive webpage for clinical dentistry were completed. The three-dimensional interactive webpage could be accessible through web browser on personal computer, and users could interact with the webpage through rotating, panning and zooming the virtual scene. It is technically feasible to implement the visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on WWW webpage. Information related to clinical dentistry can be transmitted properly, visually and interactively through three-dimensional webpage.

  13. How Did I Get to Princess Margaret? (And How Did I Get Her to the World Wide Web?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kip Jones

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the growing use of tools from the arts and humanities for investigation and dissemination of social science research. Emerging spaces for knowledge transfer, such as the World Wide Web, are explored as outlets for "performative social science". Questions of ethnics and questions of evaluation which emerge from performative social science and the use of new technologies are discussed. Contemporary thinking in aesthetics is explored to answer questions of evaluation. The use of the Internet for productions is proposed as supporting the collective elaboration of meaning supported by Relational Aesthetics. One solution to the ethical problem of performing the narrations of others is the use of the writer's own story as autoethnography. The author queries autoethnography's tendency to tell "sad" stories and proposes an amusing story, exemplified by "The One about Princess Margaret" (see http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/rt/suppFiles/281/618. The conclusion is reached that the free and open environment of the Internet sidelines the usual tediousness of academic publishing and begins to explore new answers to questions posed about the evaluation and ethics of performative social science. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070338

  14. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  15. Effective utilization of technology to meet the information needs of the world-wide natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markuszewski, R.; Capadocia, S.R.; Worster, C.L.; Kosman, J.E. [IGT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Surveys on technical information relevant to the gas industry showed that no single information source was sufficient for all needs, while a number of sources include some pertinent information as part of their mission. The surveys concluded that access was difficult and wide usage of electronic resources had some real as well as some perceived problems. With the availability of the Internet and World Wide Web, many of these difficulties are being overcome. The natural gas industry is moving rapidly toward an era of electronic information with global access to a wide variety of technical, financial, and operational information. The most important sources of technical information are reviewed, and access to resources is briefly described. Cost comparison, relevancy, ease of use, and other factors are also discussed. The current status and future developments of gas industry information resources and technology are addressed in terms of emerging technologies and management issues which will bring critical information to the desktop of engineers, planners, and marketers. (au)

  16. Breast cancer on the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of information and popularity of websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, Funda; Bernstam, Elmer V; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Hunt, Kelly K; Ames, Frederick C; Ross, Merrick I; Kuerer, Henry M; Pollock, Raphael E; Musen, Mark A; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the characteristics of popular breast cancer related websites and whether more popular sites are of higher quality. Design The search engine Google was used to generate a list of websites about breast cancer. Google ranks search results by measures of link popularity—the number of links to a site from other sites. The top 200 sites returned in response to the query “breast cancer” were divided into “more popular” and “less popular” subgroups by three different measures of link popularity: Google rank and number of links reported independently by Google and by AltaVista (another search engine). Main outcome measures Type and quality of content. Results More popular sites according to Google rank were more likely than less popular ones to contain information on ongoing clinical trials (27% v 12%, P=0.01 ), results of trials (12% v 3%, P=0.02), and opportunities for psychosocial adjustment (48% v 23%, Ppopular sites by number of linking sites were also more likely to provide updates on other breast cancer research, information on legislation and advocacy, and a message board service. Measures of quality such as display of authorship, attribution or references, currency of information, and disclosure did not differ between groups. Conclusions Popularity of websites is associated with type rather than quality of content. Sites that include content correlated with popularity may best meet the public's desire for information about breast cancer. What is already known on this topicPatients are using the world wide web to search for health informationBreast cancer is one of the most popular search topicsCharacteristics of popular websites may reflect the information needs of patientsWhat this study addsType rather than quality of content correlates with popularity of websitesMeasures of quality correlate with accuracy of medical information PMID:11884322

  17. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of

  18. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51. Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero. Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing

  19. Empirical studies assessing the quality of health information for consumers on the world wide web: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Kuss, Oliver; Sa, Eun-Ryoung

    The quality of consumer health information on the World Wide Web is an important issue for medicine, but to date no systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the methods and evidence has been performed. To establish a methodological framework on how quality on the Web is evaluated in practice, to determine the heterogeneity of the results and conclusions, and to compare the methodological rigor of these studies, to determine to what extent the conclusions depend on the methodology used, and to suggest future directions for research. We searched MEDLINE and PREMEDLINE (1966 through September 2001), Science Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Social Sciences Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), LISA (1969 through July 2001), CINAHL (1982 through July 2001), PsychINFO (1988 through September 2001), EMBASE (1988 through June 2001), and SIGLE (1980 through June 2001). We also conducted hand searches, general Internet searches, and a personal bibliographic database search. We included published and unpublished empirical studies in any language in which investigators searched the Web systematically for specific health information, evaluated the quality of Web sites or pages, and reported quantitative results. We screened 7830 citations and retrieved 170 potentially eligible full articles. A total of 79 distinct studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating 5941 health Web sites and 1329 Web pages, and reporting 408 evaluation results for 86 different quality criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, medical domains, search strategies used, methods and criteria of quality assessment, results (percentage of sites or pages rated as inadequate pertaining to a quality criterion), and quality and rigor of study methods and reporting. Most frequently used quality criteria used include accuracy, completeness, readability, design, disclosures, and references provided

  20. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  1. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  2. CHANNELING: SEARCH OF THE METAANTHROPOLOGIC MEAS-UREMENTS OF MIND BEING IN THE UNIVERSE (based on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Tshedrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. In the context of religious and philosophical movements of the «New Age» gained channeling phenomenon – «laying channel», «transmission channel» information from the consciousness that is not in human form, to the individual and humanity as a whole. In the socio-cultural environment of the postmodern channeling reflects the problem of finding extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI; «ETC-problem»; SETІ problem and to establish contacts with them, this problem has a different projection, important philosophical and anthropological measurements in culture. Investigation of mechanisms of constructing virtual superhuman personalities in the world web is not only of interest for further analysis of the problem of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI, but also to extend subject field of anthropology of the Internet as an important area of philosophical and anthropological studies. The purpose of the study. Analysis of the phenomenon of channeling as a projection of the fundamental problems of life ETI, its representation on the World Wide Web, the impact on the archaism of postmodern culture posing problems meta an-thropological dimensions of existence in the universe of reason and contact with him in the doctrinal grounds channeling. Analysis of research on the problem and its empirical base. Clustered nature of the problem of ETI and channeling its element involves the widespread use of radio astronomy paradigm works carriers solve CETI; work in anthropology Internet; works of researchers of the phenomenon of «New Age». Empirical basis of the study are network resources, as well as texts–representatives created and introduced into circulation by the channelers, their predecessors. Research Methodology. Channeling as an object of research, its network of representation – as a matter of methods involve the use of analytical hermeneutics and archaeographic commenting text fractal logic cluster analysis. The main

  3. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  4. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 54th volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  5. A World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program improves efficiency, communication, and user satisfaction and reduces cost in a tertiary care pediatric medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Allison L; Lee, Carlton K K; Jain, Sanjay K; Murray, Kara L; Topolski, Jason; Miller, Robert E; Townsend, Timothy; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2008-09-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to reduce inappropriate hospital antimicrobial use. At the Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center (Baltimore, MD), we implemented a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program to address problems with the existing restriction program. A user survey identified opportunities for improvement of an existing antimicrobial restriction program and resulted in subsequent design, implementation, and evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program at a 175-bed, tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The program provided automated clinical decision support, facilitated approval, and enhanced real-time communication among prescribers, pharmacists, and pediatric infectious diseases fellows. Approval status, duration, and rationale; missing request notifications; and expiring approvals were stored in a database that is accessible via a secure Intranet site. Before and after implementation of the program, user satisfaction, reports of missed and/or delayed doses, antimicrobial dispensing times, and cost were evaluated. After implementation of the program, there was a $370,069 reduction in projected annual cost associated with restricted antimicrobial use and an 11.6% reduction in the number of dispensed doses. User satisfaction increased from 22% to 68% and from 13% to 69% among prescribers and pharmacists, respectively. There were 21% and 32% reductions in the number of prescriber reports of missed and delayed doses, respectively, and there was a 37% reduction in the number of pharmacist reports of delayed approvals; measured dispensing times were unchanged (P = .24). In addition, 40% fewer restricted antimicrobial-related phone calls were noted by the pharmacy. The World Wide Web-based antimicrobial approval program led to improved communication, more-efficient antimicrobial administration, increased user satisfaction, and significant cost savings. Integrated tools, such as this World

  6. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  7. Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Giljum

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses world-wide patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption and productivity based on a new data set for economy-wide material flows, covering used materials for all countries world-wide between 1980 and 2009. We show that global material extraction has grown by more than 90% over the past 30 years and is reaching almost 70 billion tonnes today. Also, trade volumes in physical terms have increased by a factor of 2.5 over the past 30 years, and in 2009, 9.3 billion tonnes of raw materials and products were traded around the globe. China has turned into the biggest consumer of materials world-wide and together with the US, India, Brazil and Russia, consumes more than 50% of all globally extracted materials. We also show that the per-capita consumption levels are very uneven, with a factor of more than 60 between the country with the lowest and highest consumption in 2009. On average, each human being consumed 10 tonnes of materials in 2009, 2 tonnes more than in 1980. We discuss whether decoupling of economies’ growth from resource use has occurred and analyse interrelations of material use with human development. Finally, we elaborate on key environmental problems related to various material groups.

  8. Kinesiology taping and the world wide web: a quality and content analysis of internet-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Bryan G; Cardone, Dennis A

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited regulation of websites, the quality and content of online health-related information has been questioned as prior studies have shown that websites often misrepresent orthopaedic conditions and treatments. Kinesio tape has gained popularity among athletes and the general public despite limited evidence supporting its efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality and content of Internet-based information on Kinesio taping. An Internet search using the terms "Kinesio tape" and "kinesiology tape" was performed using the Google search engine. Websites returned within the first two pages of results, as well as hyperlinks embedded within these sites, were included in the study. These sites were subsequently classified by type. The quality of the website was determined by the Health On the Net (HON) score, an objective metric based upon recommendations from the United Nations for the ethical representation of health information. A content analysis was performed by noting specific misleading versus balanced features in each website. A total of 31 unique websites were identified. The majority of the websites (71%) were commercial. Out of a total possible 16 points, the mean HON score among the websites was 8.9 points (SD 2.2 points). The number of misleading features was significantly higher than the balanced features (p < 0.001). Fifty-eight percent of sites used anecdotal testimonials to promote the product. Only small percentages of websites discussed complications, alternatives, or provided accurate medical outcomes. Overall, commercial sites had a greater number of misleading features compared to non-commercial sites (p = 0.01). Websites discussing Kinesio tape are predominantly of poor quality and present misleading, imbalanced information. It is of ever-increasing importance that healthcare providers work to ensure that reliable, balanced, and accurate information be available to Internet users. IV.

  9. Geophysical Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.

    2003-11-01

    The geophysical field theory includes the basic principles of electromagnetism, continuum mechanics, and potential theory upon which the computational modelling of geophysical phenomena is based on. Vector analysis is the main mathematical tool in the field analyses. Electrostatics, stationary electric current, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics form a central part of electromagnetism in geophysical field theory. Potential theory concerns especially gravity, but also electrostatics and magnetostatics. Solid state mechanics and fluid mechanics are central parts in continuum mechanics. Also the theories of elastic waves and rock mechanics belong to geophysical solid state mechanics. The theories of geohydrology and mass transport form one central field theory in geophysical fluid mechanics. Also heat transfer is included in continuum mechanics. (orig.)

  10. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  11. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in tuna fish homogenate sample IAEA-350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mee, L D; Oregioni, B; Horvat, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (Monaco)

    1992-12-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine biological samples is an important aspect of marine pollution studies, especially regarding studies of human exposure to toxic elements through sea food consumption. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focused upon various marine organisms including fish, bivalves and crustaceans. The present intercalibration exercise was designed in order to satisfy the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origins and the wide range of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The present report presents the entire experimental data set ana a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter. It should enable individual participants to assess their performance and make appropriate modifications to their laboratory's analytical procedures where necessary. Additionally, a graphical evaluation is made of the data for parameters where a consensus value could not easily be achieved in order to examine the source of any systematic errors. The exercise was designed to satisfy the requirements of participants in IAEA's Analytical Quality Assurance Service as well as laboratories involved in UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and similar activities conducted within the auspices of GIPME (Global Investigations of Pollution in the Marine Environment)

  12. A cross sectional review of patient information available in the World Wide Web on CyberKnife: fallacies and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Durgapoorna; Chelakkot, Prameela G; Sunil, Devika; Lakshmaiah, Ashwini

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of videos available in YouTube on CyberKnife. The term "CyberKnife" was input into the search window of www.youtube.com on a specific date and the first 50 videos were assessed for technical and content issues. The data was tabulated and analysed. The search yielded 32,300 videos in 0.33 s. Among the first 50 analysed, most were professional videos, mostly on CyberKnife in general and for brain tumours. Most of the videos did not mention anything about patient selection or lesion size. The other technical details were covered by most although they seemed muffled by the animations. Many patient videos were recordings of one entire treatment, thus giving future patients an insight on what to expect. Almost half the videos projected glorified views about the treatment technique. The company videos were reasonably accurate and well presented as were many institutional videos, although there was a tendency to gloss over a few points. The glorification of the treatment technique was a disturbing finding. The profound trust of the patients on the health care system is humbling.

  13. World-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of trace elements in Fucus sample IAEA-140. Report no. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Horvat, M.; Azemard, S.

    1997-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine samples is fundamental to pollution assessment in coastal and marine environments. Analyses of sea plants are important to investigate the uptake of toxic elements along the trophic chain and sea plants may be used as indicators for water pollution and to compare the levels of contamination of different aquatic environments. IAEA. together with UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) work closely with other producers of Reference Materials in order to assure a continuous supply of these vital compounds for quality assurance procedures. A full catalogue of materials is published regularly. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace elements for over twenty years as part of its contribution to IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service, UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. and, occasionally, in association with the IOC GIPME (Global Investigation of the Pollution in the Marine Environment) programme. This report describes the performance of laboratories in one intercomparison run conducted during 1996 that was organized for the determination of trace elements in a marine macro algae (Fucus sp.) sample. This study was intended to give laboratories responsible for trace element analyses of marine materials an opportunity for checking their analytical performance

  14. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  15. Building world-wide nuclear industry success stories - Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This WNA Position Statement summarizes the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating experience and

  16. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.2. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-04-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  17. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.4. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-10-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  18. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.3. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  19. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  20. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  1. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  2. Beyond cyborg metapathography in Michael Chorost’s Rebuilt to World Wide Mind: Introducing “morphos” as a rhetorical concept in cyborgography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Thayer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces the rhetorical concept of “morphos”, a dimension of ethos, in the context of cyborg self-transformation and cyborg storytelling. Focusing on the cyborg storytelling of Michael Chorost, a cochlear implant user and futurist, this essay applies "morphos" to develop an argument about the changing capabilities and changing stories of living cyborg authors. Using rhetorical concepts to illuminate his self-transformation and narrative constructions, this essay analyzes Chorost’s two books: Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human; and, World Wide Mind: The Coming Integration of Humanity, Machines, and the Internet. Chorost’s first book, Rebuilt, is an autobiographical account of his journey from deafness to cochlear implant hearing and his quest for community. He completes his journey of self-transformation using Haraway’s Cyborg Manifesto and Caidin’s Cyborg as narrative tools. Rebuilt can be defined as a cyborg metapathography, identifying rhetorical features of Chorost’s cyborg storytelling. Chorost’s second book, World Wide Mind, is both autobiographical and theoretical. This rhetorical shift in the context of his changing physical, perceptual, and cognitive capabilities, and his changing ethos, is significant because it opens the way for a new hybrid language combining the spoken/written and digital code.

  3. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  4. Rendimiento de los sistemas de recuperación en la world wide web: revisión metodológica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olvera Lobo, María Dolores

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to establish a methodology for the evaluation of information retrieval with search engines in the World Wide Web. The method, which is explained in detail, adapts traditional techniques for evaluating web peculiarities and makes use of precision and recall scores, based on the relevance of the first 20 results retrieved. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of ten different search engines.

    Este estudio pretende contribuir a establecer una metodología para la evaluación de la recuperación de información de las herramientas de búsqueda en el entorno de la World Wide Web. Se detalla el método diseñado (y aplicado con éxito, para evaluar los resultados de las búsquedas, adaptando las técnicas tradicionales de evaluación a las particularidades de la Web y empleando las medidas de la precisión y exhaustividad, basadas en la relevancia, para los 20 primeros resultados recuperados.

  5. Predictive geophysics: geochemical simulations to geophysical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.; Cleverley, J.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing focus on deep exploration for covered targets, new methods are required to target mineral systems under cover. Geophysical responses are driven by physical property contrasts; for example, density contrasts provide a gravity signal, acoustic impedance contrasts provide a seismic reflection signal. In turn, the physical properties for basement, crystalline rocks which host the vast majority of mineral systems are determined almost wholly by the mineralogy of the rocks in question. Mineral systems, through the transport of heat and reactive fluids, will serve to modify the physical properties of country rock as they chemically alter the hosting strata. To understand these changes, we have performed 2D reactive transport modelling that simulates the formation of Archean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. From this, we derive a model of mineralogy that we can use to predict the density, magnetic susceptibility and seismic reflection changes associated with ore formation. It is then possible to predict the gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection responses associated with these deposits. Scenario mapping, such as testing the ability to resolve buried ore bodies or the geophysical survey spacing required to resolve the mineral system, can be performed to produce geophysical targets from these geochemical simulations. We find that there is a gravity response of around 9% of the unaltered response for deposits even buried by 1km of cover, and there is a magnetic spike associated with proximal alteration of the ore system. Finally, seismic reflection response is mostly characterised by additional reflections along faults that plumb the alteration system.

  6. World-wide information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The three international organizations, IAEA, FAO, and UNESCO, which jointly sponsored the Symposium, share an active interest and involvement in information systems development. The extent of their interest was explained by the Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the meeting on behalf of the three co-sponsors: UNESCO in conjunction with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), took initiatives in 1966 which led to the establishment of its UNISIST programme. Its aims are to co-ordinate existing trends towards international co-operation in the collection, storage and dissemination of information and to act as a catalyst. Its ultimate goal is to establish 'a flexible and loosely connected network of information services based on voluntary co-operation'. A particular concern of UNISIST is to ensure co-ordination of the information activities of the United Nations organizations. The Symposium provided an opportunity for the science information community to assess the progress already made in creating links between diverse national, international, intergovernmental and non-governmental information systems and services. Papers were presented describing current developments in the national information systems of a number of countries, with special emphasis on how these developments were furthering harmonization of national information policies and facilitating interconnection with international systems. INIS and AGRIS figured prominently amongst the international systems discussed. In addition, proposals for two new international systems, to be known as DEVSIS and SPINIS, were outlined. The former will deal with development science information; the latter will cover the information on the administrative, scientific and legal aspects of science policy. There was also discussion of international co-operation in information handling within such international organizations as the CMEA, the Commission of the European Communities and OECD

  7. The World Wide Web Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  8. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  9. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-05-24 to 1996-03-21 (NODC Accession 9600116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 24 May 1982 to 21 March 1996....

  11. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SEA-LAND NAVIGATOR and other platforms from 21 September 2000 to 18 March 2002 (NODC Accession 0000696)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by deploying XBT casts from the SEA-LAND NAVIGATOR and other platforms over a world-wide distribution from 21 September 2000 to...

  12. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001 (NODC Accession 0000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001. Data were submitted...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from SAXON STAR and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 09 March 1983 to 12 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the SAXON STAR and other platforms in a World wide distribution. Data were collected...

  14. Temperature profile and other data from surface measurements casts from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide survey from 17 March 1900 to 08 March 1998 (NODC Accession 0000241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide distribution from March 17, 1900 to March 8, 1996. Data were collected by...

  15. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and phosphate profiles collected by CTD or bottle in the World-wide Oceans from 11/4/1902 to 12/17/1998 (NODC Accession 0000198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, meteorological, and nutrients data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from the HOLLAND and other platforms in a world wide distribution....

  16. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using XBT and CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 1991-09-17 to 1995-03-23 (NODC Accession 9500074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and CTD casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 17...

  17. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1995-02-24 to 1996-06-23 (NODC Accession 9700060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from February 24,...

  18. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999. Data were...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1989-03-10 to 1990-08-01 (NODC Accession 9000239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRDIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 10 March 1989...

  20. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from 01 January 1914 to 12 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1914 to 31 December 1999....

  1. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1994-06-29 to 1996-06-08 (NODC Accession 9600120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from multiple vessels in a world wide distribution from June 29, 1994 to...

  2. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SKOGAFOSS and other vessels as part of NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program from 06 February 2002 to 10 April 2002 (NODC Accession 0000718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SKOGAFOSS and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 06 February 2002 to 10 April 2002. Data...

  3. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1970-09-30 to 1979-08-05 (NODC Accession 8300089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 30 September 1970 to...

  4. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1911-11-11 to 1990-03-18 (NODC Accession 9600072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 11 November 1911 to 18...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in a world-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-08-18 to 1982-12-21 (NODC Accession 8300007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from 18 August 1982 to 21...

  6. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-03-01 to 1997-01-03 (NODC Accession 9700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from March 1, 1996 to...

  7. Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data from MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from 21 October 1957 to 18 April 1961 (NODC Accession 0000366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data were collected from the MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from October 21, 1957 to April 18, 1961....

  8. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  9. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  10. Temperature profile data from XBTs collected world wide for the NOAA Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System Program (SEAS) project from 2003-06-07 to 2003-07-11 (NODC Accession 0001137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected using XBT's from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS in a world wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological...

  11. Temperature and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the SKIF and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 06 July 1962 to 08 January 1990 (NODC Accession 0000856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from SKIF and other platforms. Data were collected from 06 July 1962 to...

  12. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-08-11 to 1997-07-16 (NODC Accession 9700213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution by several vessels from August 11, 1996 to...

  13. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-09-30 to 1997-05-27 (NODC Accession 9700161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from September 30,...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1988-02-03 to 1990-03-31 (NODC Accession 9000094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in a World-wide distribution from 03 February 1988 to 31 March 1990....

  15. Physical, chemical, meteorological, and nutrients data from bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the YERMAK and other platforms from 15 January 1873 to 15 June 1967 (NODC Accession 0000505)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and nutrients data were collected from bottle casts from the YERMAK and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 15 January 1873...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from the ALASKA and other platforms from 1943-02-02 to 1964-10-10 (NODC Accession 9200027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from the ALASKA and other platforms from 02 February...

  17. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-09-19 to 1997-03-25 (NODC Accession 9700061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from September 19,...

  18. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SEA-LAND HAWAII and other platforms as part of NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program from 05 January 2000 to 26 February 2002 (NODC Accession 0000679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by using XBT casts from the SEA-LAND HAWAII and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 05 January 2000 to 26...

  19. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  20. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonulalan, A. U.

    2007-01-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution

  1. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  2. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  3. Quality of drug information on the World Wide Web and strategies to improve pages with poor information quality. An intervention study on pages about sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Facklam, Meret; Kostrzewa, Michael; Martin, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E

    2004-01-01

    The generally poor quality of health information on the world wide web (WWW) has caused preventable adverse outcomes. Quality management of information on the internet is therefore critical given its widespread use. In order to develop strategies for the safe use of drugs, we scored general and content quality of pages about sildenafil and performed an intervention to improve their quality. The internet was searched with Yahoo and AltaVista for pages about sildenafil and 303 pages were included. For assessment of content quality a score based on accuracy and completeness of essential drug information was assigned. For assessment of general quality, four criteria were evaluated and their association with high content quality was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The pages were randomly allocated to either control or intervention group. Evaluation took place before, as well as 7 and 22 weeks after an intervention which consisted of two letters with individualized feedback information on the respective page which were sent electronically to the address mentioned on the page. Providing references to scientific publications or prescribing information was significantly associated with high content quality (odds ratio: 8.2, 95% CI 3.2, 20.5). The intervention had no influence on general or content quality. To prevent adverse outcomes caused by misinformation on the WWW individualized feedback to the address mentioned on the page was ineffective. It is currently probably the most straight-forward approach to inform lay persons about indicators of high information quality, i.e. the provision of references.

  4. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  5. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  6. Evolution and world-wide projections of the carbon dioxide emissions; Evolucion y proyecciones mundiales de las emisiones de bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Marisela; Gay, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the present preoccupation on the global climatic change and its influence in the human activities, the possible mitigation scenarios of green house effect gases are analyzed (GEG) in the world-wide scope, the contribution of carbon dioxide future emissions as main green house effect gas originating from the burning of fossil fuels; taking into account two large classifications: Developed and developing countries. In accordance with the world-wide evolution in the 1972-1995 period and to diverse adjustments of future emissions a study of the necessary levels of these emissions is made to obtain the stabilization of the greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere in a level in the vicinity of 550 ppmv. The considered projections are: emissions in accordance with the present tendency, basic scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climatic Change (Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico) (IPCC-IS92a), mitigation proposals of the Netherlands (NL-1%, NL-2%) and profiles that entail the atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilization. In addition the reduction in the contribution of future emissions that the developing countries would have to face to obtain the stabilization are compared, emissions that will depend on changes in factors such as population growth, economic, emissions per capita and carbon content of the power fuels, changes that would have to take place in all the countries, or certain key countries, in order to arrive to the necessary atmospheric stabilization of the emissions in accordance with those profiles. [Spanish] En el marco de la preocupacion actual sobre el cambio climatico global y su influencia en las actividades humanas, se analizan los posibles escenarios de mitigacion de gases efecto invernadero (GEI) en el ambito mundial, las cuotas de emisiones futuras de dioxido de carbono como principal gas invernadero proveniente de la quema de combustibles fosiles; tomando en cuenta dos grandes clasificaciones: Paises desarrollados y paises

  7. Sharing individual patient and parasite-level data through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network platform: A qualitative case study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pisani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, biomedical researchers are encouraged or required by research funders and journals to share their data, but there's very little guidance on how to do that equitably and usefully, especially in resource-constrained settings. We performed an in-depth case study of one data sharing pioneer: the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN. Methods: The case study included a records review, a quantitative analysis of WAARN-related publications, in-depth interviews with 47 people familiar with WWARN, and a witness seminar involving a sub-set of 11 interviewees. Results: WWARN originally aimed to collate clinical, in vitro, pharmacological and molecular data into linked, open-access databases intended to serve as a public resource to guide antimalarial drug treatment policies. Our study describes how WWARN navigated challenging institutional and academic incentive structures, alongside funders' reluctance to invest in capacity building in malaria-endemic countries, which impeded data sharing. The network increased data contributions by focusing on providing free, online tools to improve the quality and efficiency of data collection, and by inviting collaborative authorship on papers addressing policy-relevant questions that could only be answered through pooled analyses. By July 1, 2016, the database included standardised data from 103 molecular studies and 186 clinical trials, representing 135,000 individual patients. Developing the database took longer and cost more than anticipated, and efforts to increase equity for data contributors are on-going. However, analyses of the pooled data have generated new methods and influenced malaria treatment recommendations globally. Despite not achieving the initial goal of real-time surveillance, WWARN has developed strong data governance and curation tools, which are now being adapted relatively quickly for other diseases. Conclusions: To be useful, data sharing requires

  8. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Training value of laparoscopic colorectal videos on the World Wide Web: a pilot study on the educational quality of laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, V; Browning, M; Hitchins, C; Giglio, M C; Coleman, M G

    2017-11-01

    Instructive laparoscopy videos with appropriate exposition could be ideal for initial training in laparoscopic surgery, but unfortunately there are no guidelines for annotating these videos or agreed methods to measure the educational content and the safety of the procedure presented. Aim of this study is to systematically search the World Wide Web to determine the availability of laparoscopic colorectal surgery videos and to objectively establish their potential training value. A search for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos was performed on the three most used English language web search engines Google.com, Bing.com, and Yahoo.com; moreover, a survey among 25 local trainees was performed to identify additional websites for inclusion. All laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos with an English language title were included. Videos of open surgery, single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic, and hand-assisted surgery were excluded. The safety of the demonstrated procedure was assessed with a validated competency assessment tool specifically designed for laparoscopic colorectal surgery and data on the educational content of the video were extracted. Thirty-one websites were identified and 182 surgical videos were included. One hundred and seventy-three videos (95%) detailed the year of publication; this demonstrated a significant increase in the number of videos published per year from 2009. Characteristics of the patient were rarely presented, only 10 videos (5.4%) reported operating time and only 6 videos (3.2%) reported 30-day morbidity; 34 videos (18.6%) underwent a peer-review process prior to publication. Formal case presentation, the presence of audio narration, the use of diagrams, and snapshots and a step-by-step approach are all characteristics of peer-reviewed videos but no significant difference was found in the safety of the procedure. Laparoscopic videos can be a useful adjunct to operative training. There is a large and increasing amount of

  10. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  11. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  12. HMF-Geophysics - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, N.; Knight, R.; Robinson, D.

    2007-12-01

    There is growing recognition of the challenges we face, in many parts of the world, in finding and maintaining clean sources of water for human consumption and agricultural use, while balancing the needs of the natural world. Advancements in hydrologic sciences are needed in order to develop an improved understanding of the controls on the quantity, movement, and quality of water, thus enhancing our ability to better protect and manage our water resources. Geophysical methods can play a central role in these investigations. CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences) is developing, with the support of the National Science Foundation, a Hydrologic Measurement Facility (HMF), which contains a Geophysics module, referred to as HMF-Geophysics. The Geophysics module will support and advance the use of geophysics for hydrologic applications. Currently in second year of a 3 year pilot study, the main aim of HMF-Geophysics is to develop the infrastructure necessary to provide geophysical techniques and the expertise to apply them correctly for the hydrological community. The current working model consists of a central HMF-Geophysics facility and a number of volunteer nodes. The latter consists of individuals at universities who have volunteered to be part of HMF-Geophysics by using their equipment, and/or software, and expertise, in research partnerships with hydrologists. In response to an inquiry the central facility takes on the evaluation of the potential of geophysics to the area of research/watershed. The central facility can then undertake a feasibility study to determine how/if geophysical methods could be of use, and to evaluate the "value-added" by geophysics to the science. Once it is clear that the geophysics can contribute in a significant way to addressing the science questions the central facility works with the hydrologist to set up the next step. Our assumption is that at this point, the hydrologist (perhaps with a

  13. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  14. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  15. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  16. Slow spreading ridges of the Indian Ocean: An overview of marine geophysical investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Samudrala, K.

    Sparse and non-availability of high resolution geophysical data hindered the delineation of accurate morphology, structural configuration, tectonism and spreading history of Carlsberg Ridge (CR) and Central Indian Ridges (CIR) in the Indian Ocean...

  17. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Lenes, J.M.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Hu, C.; Fanning, K.A.; Snyder, R.; Smith, J.

    2017-01-01

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~ 15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~ 45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. - Highlights: • Oil spills, heavy metals, and overfishing decimated zooplankton grazers • Desert expansions and eutrophication concurrently fueled diazotrophs to set free

  18. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  19. Serious games for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  20. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS: AD MAJORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Florindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Annals of Geophysics is a bimonthly international journal, which publishes scientific papers in the field of geophysics sensu lato. It derives from Annali di Geofisica, which commenced publication in January 1948 as a quarterly periodical devoted to general geophysics, seismology, earth magnetism, and atmospheric studies. The journal was published regularly for a quarter of a century until 1982 when it merged with the French journal Annales de Géophysique to become Annales Geophysicae under the aegis of the European Geophysical Society. In 1981, this journal ceased publication of the section on solid earth geophysics, ending the legacy of Annali di Geofisica. In 1993, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING, founder of the journal, decided to resume publication of its own journal under the same name, Annali di Geofisica. To ensure continuity, the first volume of the new series was assigned the volume number XXXVI (following the last issue published in 1982. In 2002, with volume XLV, the name of the journal was translated into English to become Annals of Geophysics and in consequence the journal impact factor counter was restarted. Starting in 2010, in order to improve its status and better serve the science community, Annals of Geophysics has instituted a number of editorial changes including full electronic open access, freely accessible online, the possibility to comment on and discuss papers online, and a board of editors representing Asia and the Americas as well as Europe. [...

  1. A ''model'' geophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994

  2. GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Low energy perturbations used in geophysical methods provide insightful information about constant-fabric soil properties and their spatial variability. There are causal links between soil type, index properties, elastic wave velocity, electromagnetic wave parameters and thermal properties. Soil type relates to the stress-dependent S-wave velocity, thermal and electrical conductivity and permittivity. The small strain stiffness reflects the state of stress, the extent of diagenetic cementation and/or freezing. Pore fluid chemistry, fluid phase and changes in either fluid chemistry or phase manifest through electromagnetic measurements. The volumetric water content measured with electromagnetic techniques is the best predictor of porosity if the water saturation is 100%. Changes in water saturation alter the P-wave velocity when Srà100%, the S-wave velocity at intermediate saturations, and the thermal conductivity when the saturation is low Srà0%. Finally, tabulated values suffice to estimate heat capacity and latent heat for engineering design, however thermal conductivity requires measurements under proper field conditions.

  3. Karoo airborne geophysical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.J.; Stettler, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty four uranium anomalies were selected for ground follow-up from the analogue spectrometer records of Block 4 of the Karoo Airborne Geophysical Survey. The anomalies were plotted on 1:50 000 scale topographic maps and to 1:250 000 scale maps which are included in this report. The anomaly co-ordinates are tabulated together with the farms on which they occur. Results of the ground follow-up of the aerial anomalies are described. Twenty two anomalies are related to uranium mineralisation of which seventeen occur over baked mudstone adjacent to a dolerite intrusion. Five are located over fluvial channel sandstone of the Beaufort Group and subsurface mineralised sandstone may be present. The other twelve anomalies are spurious. Of the anomalies located over baked mudstone, fifteen emanate from ferruginous mudstone of the Whitehill Formation west of longitude 21 degrees 15 minutes. One of the two remaining anomalies over baked mudstone occurs over the Prince Albert Formation and the other anomaly is over baked mudstone and calcareous nodules of the Beaufort Group. The general low uranium values (less than 355 ppm eU3O8) render the occurrences uneconomic

  4. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  5. A review of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of nuclear geophysics in scientific and technological content and in range from its beginnings early in this century to the present day. We note that the early work in nuclear geophysics was originally referred to under the umbrella of open-quotes isotope applicationsclose quotes and the origin of the term open-quotes nuclear geophysicsclose quotes (which is seen to clarify and to focus work in this area) is exposed in this paper. The current expansion of nuclear geophysics front its original concern with oil well logging is an important trend because much of the underlying science, technology, and instrumentation is common ground. A review of nuclear geophysics would be a barren document without reference to long-term and, in some cases, short-term commercial and economic as well as to technological considerations, since these factors are the principal motivation for further development

  6. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  7. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussel sample IAEA-142. Report no. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Horvat, M.; Cattini, C.

    1996-03-01

    The accurate and precise determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environmental samples is an important aspect of marine pollution assessments in coastal and ocean environments. Intercomparison exercises represent an essential element of method testing and are used as a basic tool for evaluating data quality on a global and regional level. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over nineteen years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme, and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. These exercises are organized on a continuous basis, at least once per year. Result of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. As a consequence of this situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World Bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in Member State laboratories. This report describes results of the IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 142 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in a homogenised mussel sample

  8. Basic elements of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.; Pereira, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Geophysics applies the nuclear radiation detection methodology to the geosciences, specially to study the dynamical processes of the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere as well as some aspects of planetology and astrophysics. Here the main methods are described: alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, the interaction of alpha and gamma radiation with matter and the detectors used (grid chambers, surface barrier silicon detector for alpha radiation; and sodium iodide thallium activated phosphors, hyperpure and lithium drifted germanium semiconductor detectors for gamma radiation). The principal applications of Nuclear Geophysics are given as examples to ilustrate the use of the methods described. (AUthor) [pt

  9. World-Wide Immunoscore Task Force: meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge”, Napoli, November 30th–December 3rd, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Galon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The predictive accuracy of the traditional staging system is based on disease progression as a tumour cell-autonomous process, but it fails to incorporate the effects of the host immune response. A precise analysis of the immune component of the tumour microenvironment by computer-based analysis may be essential to managing patients better, opening the road to an expertise in this new emerging field. The Immunoscore as a new possible approach in the classification of cancer, designated TNM-Immune, studied in colon cancer patients with predictive and prognostic value. This new scoring system is derived from the immune contexture, and is based on the numeration of lymphocyte populations, both in the core of the tumour and in the invasive margin of tumours. The Immunoscore demonstrated to be quantitative, reproducible and robust. The usefulness of Immunoscore in advanced melanoma cancer patients has been as well demonstrated; the correlation of marker expression profile with clinical outcome is ongoing. More recently, the Immunoscore could be a useful prognostic marker in patients with rectal cancer treated by primary surgery. A multivariable Cumulative “Suppression Index” scoring system has been also studied in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma patients: it evaluates both the tumor and stromal microcompartments at the invasive margin and summarizes them into the score, providing an accurate stratification, independent of stage, tumour classification. The introduction of Immunoscore requires a redefinition of the Laboratory system according to the LEAN Management process, which has been already implemented in referral research labs. The definition and test of hundreds of biomarkers, in the tumour contexture represents a definitive scientific progression. However, there is still a need of substantial body of work to reach the end of the tunnel to assure a personalize treatment.

  10. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in polluted marine sediment IAEA-356. Report no.56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, M; Mee, L D; Oregioni, B [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (Monaco)

    1994-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine sediment samples is an important aspect of geochemical marine pollution studies and for assessing the levels and pathways of marine pollutants. Past intercomparison exercise conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) has focused upon the near shore sediment (1) and deep sea marine sediment (2) where trace levels of elements was rather low. The present intercomparison exercise on sediment taken from a polluted coastal lagoon was designed in order to fulfill the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origin and the number of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The current exercise was designed not only to test the intercomparability of different instrumental techniques, but also to evaluate the effectiveness of different procedures for sample digestion. Participants were invited to perform 'total' analyses involving, except in the case of neutron activation analysis, a simple partial extraction with 1M hydrochloric acid (2 hours, room temperature). This partial dissolution had a twofold purpose: (i) to differentiate between instrumental (plus contamination during work-up) errors and those resulting from method-specific (matrix) effects; and (ii) to evaluate a simple screening test for the more labile ('easily leached') fraction of trace elements of particular interest to environmental chemists. The present report presents the entire experimental data set and a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter.

  11. Marine geophysical data management and presentation system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    ) of the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. GPDMPS is designed for the computerized storage retrieval and presentation of marine geophysical data and information. For the systematic management of geophysical data and information, GPDMPS is subdivided...

  12. Conceptual Design of Geophysical Microsatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matviyenko, S.A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of Earth gravitational field (EGF parameters measurement from space. The radiophysical method of measurement of gravitational frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation using existent GNSS and its two variants are developed by the author. The designlayout drawing of geophysical microsatellite, which implements the radiophysical method of EGF measurement and provides Earth plasmasphere and magnetosphere monitoring, is offered.

  13. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  14. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country; Uelkemizdeki Dogal Kaynaklarin Aranmasi ve Bulunmasinda Jeofizik Calismalarin Doenemsel Incelenmesi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonulalan, A U [TPAO, Research Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution.

  15. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  16. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  17. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L

    1992-01-01

    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  18. Geophysical and solar activity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, L.; Lemaire, J.

    1984-04-01

    A large number of geophysicists try to correlate their observations with one or even a series of different geophysical or solar activity indices. Yet the right choice of the most appropriate index with which to correlate depends mainly on our understanding of the physical cause-effect relationship between the new set of observations and the index chosen. This best choice will therefore depend on our good understanding of the methods of measurement and derivation of the adopted index in such correlative studies. It relies also on our awareness of the range of applicability of the indices presently available as well as on our understanding of their limitations. It was to achieve these goals that a series of general lectures on geophysical and solar activity indices was organized by L. Bossy and J. Lemaire (Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB), Brussels), March 26-29, 1984 at Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium.

  19. Mathematics applied to nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the powerful auxiliary to nuclear geophysics is the obtention and interpretation of the alpha and gamma radiation spectra. This work discuss, qualitative and quantitative, the lost information problem, motivated by the noise in the process of information codification. The decodification process must be suppield by the appropriate mathematical model on the measure system to recovery the information from nuclear source. (C.D.G.) [pt

  20. Geophysical methods in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, K.

    1989-01-01

    In uranium prospecting, exploration, milling, and mining there is an urgent need to have information on the concentration of uranium at all steps of handling uranium containing materials. To gain this information in an effective way modern geophysical methods have to be applied. Publications of the IAEA and NEA in this field are reviewed in order to characterize the state of the art of these methods. 55 refs

  1. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  2. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites

  3. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites.

  4. Systemic sclerosis: a world wide global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral-Alvarado, Paola; Pardo, Aryce L; Castaño-Rodriguez, Natalia; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze epidemiological tendencies of systemic sclerosis (SSc) around the world in order to identify possible local variations in the presentation and occurrence of the disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed through electronic databases using the keywords "Systemic Sclerosis" and "Clinical Characteristics." Out of a total of 167 articles, 41 were included in the analysis. Significant differences in the mean age at the time of diagnosis, subsets of SSc, clinical characteristics, and presence of antibodies were found between different regions of the word. Because variations in both additive and nonadditive genetic factors and the environmental variance are specific to the investigated population, ethnicity and geography are important characteristics to be considered in the study of SSc and other autoimmune diseases.

  5. Network dynamics: The World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamic, Lada Ariana

    Despite its rapidly growing and dynamic nature, the Web displays a number of strong regularities which can be understood by drawing on methods of statistical physics. This thesis finds power-law distributions in website sizes, traffic, and links, and more importantly, develops a stochastic theory which explains them. Power-law link distributions are shown to lead to network characteristics which are especially suitable for scalable localized search. It is also demonstrated that the Web is a "small world": to reach one site from any other takes an average of only 4 hops, while most related sites cluster together. Additional dynamical properties of the Web graph are extracted from diffusion processes.

  6. Historical development of world wide guided missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to put in perspective the development of missiles from early history to present time. The influence of World War II in accelerating the development of guided missiles, particularly through German scientists, is discussed. The dispersion of German scientists to other countries and the coupling of their work with native talent to develop guided missiles is traced. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolution of the missile in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Since the Soviets possess what is probably the world's most complete array of dedicated missile system types, their known inventory is reviewed in some detail.

  7. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Shuba Olena А.; Honcharova Yuliia Yu.; Bulygina Anastasia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars o...

  8. Tesauros e a World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tiago R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Thesauri are tools that growing importance in Web context. For this, is necessary adapting the thesauri for Web technologies and functionalities. The present work is an exploratory study that aim identifies how the documentary thesauri are being utilized and/or incorporated for the management of information in the Web.

  9. Vom Webstuhl zum World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Palmer

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorin ist Direktorin der „Cybernetic Culture Research Unit“ an der University of Warwick. Sie bezeichnet sich als eine der Begründerinnen des „Cyberfeminismus“ und will mit nullen + einsen das Thema Frauen und Computer in ein neues Licht setzen. Ihre zentrale These lautet, dass das Internet eine Weiterentwicklung des Webstuhls sei. Mit Hilfe einer collage-artigen Erzählweise bildet Plant die nicht-lineare Struktur moderner Kommunikationsmittel ab.

  10. World wide web - A graphical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.; Chavan, V.S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Internet_India_IEEE_Hyderabad_1997_21.pdf.txt stream_source_info Internet_India_IEEE_Hyderabad_1997_21.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  12. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. AECL's support to operating plants world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeez, S.; Kakaria, B.K.; Hinchley, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Through their operating records, CANDU reactors have established themselves as a successful and cost-effective source of electricity in Canada and abroad. They have proven to be safe, reliable and economical. A variety of factors have contributed to the enviable CANDU record, such as a sound design based on proven principles supported by effective development programs, along with dedicated plant owners committed to excellence in safely maintaining and operating their plants. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the CANDU designer, has continuously maintained a close relationship with owners/operators of the plants in Canada, Argentina, Romania and South Korea. AECL and the plant operators have all benefited from this strengthening relationship by sharing experience and information. CANDU plant operators have been required to respond decisively to the economic realities of downward cost pressures and deregulation. Operating, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs are being given a new focus as plant owners review each cost element to improve the economic returns from their investments. Amongst the three main OM and A constituents, plant maintenance costs are the most variable and have the largest influence on effective plant operations. The correlation between effective plant maintenance and high capacity factors shows clearly the importance of proactive maintenance planning to reduce the frequency and duration of forced plant outages and their negative impacts on plant economics. This paper describes the management processes and organizational structures m AECL that support plant operations and maintenance in operating CANDU plants with cost effective products and services. (author)

  14. Natural background radiation exposures world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The average radiation dose to the world's population from natural radiation sources has been assessed by UNSCEAR to be 2.4 mSv per year. The components of this exposure, methods of evaluation and, in particular, the variations in the natural background levels are presented in this paper. Exposures to cosmic radiation range from 0.26 mSv per year at sea level to 20 times more at an altitude of 6000 m. Exposures to cosmogenic radionuclides ( 3 H, 14 C) are relatively insignificant and little variable. The terrestrial radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, and 232 Th and the decay products of the latter two constitute the remainder of the natural radiation exposure. Wide variations in exposure occur for these components, particularly for radon and its decay products, which can accumulate to relatively high levels indoors. Unusually high exposures to uranium and thorium series radionuclides characterize the high natural background areas which occur in several localized regions in the world. Extreme values in natural radiation exposures have been estimated to range up to 100 times the average values. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  16. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  17. Stochastic resonance for exploration geophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2008-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon in which signal to noise (SN) ratio gets improved by noise addition rather than removal as envisaged classically. SR was first claimed in climatology a few decades ago and then in other disciplines as well. The same as it is observed in natural systems, SR is used also for allowable SN enhancements at will. Here I report a proof of principle that SR can be useful in exploration geophysics. For this I perform high frequency GaussVanicek variance spectr...

  18. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2007-12-31 (NODC Accession 0101726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0101726 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2011-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157631 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, navigational and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans...

  1. Compilation of ocean circulation and other data from ADCP current meters, CTD casts, tidal gauges, and other instruments from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University and other institutions as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other projects from 24 November 1985 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation and other data were collected from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University (OSU) and other institutions as part of...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1990-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157698)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157698 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1990-01-01 to...

  3. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the KNORR from a world-wide distribution during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project, 24 July 1972 - 09 June 1974 (NODC Accession 8200010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from KNORR in a world-wide distribution from July 24, 1972 to June 9, 1974. Data were...

  4. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 06 January 1969 to 27 July 1977 (NODC Accession 8000006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms in a world-wide distribution...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1996-01-01 to 2004-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157733 includes Surface underway and chemical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1996-01-01 to 2004-12-31. These...

  6. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the HMAS DERWENT and other platforms from a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 03 August 1904 to 31 December 1964 (NODC Accession 6400000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from HMAS DERWENT and other platforms in a world-wide distribution...

  7. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the GASCOYNE and other platforms from a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 14 November 1916 to 27 December 1961 (NODC Accession 6100000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature, depth, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from GASCOYNE and other platforms in a world-wide...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2013-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0160918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160918 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, navigational and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans...

  9. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the PARRAMATTA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 04 October 1903 to 19 December 1963 (NODC Accession 6300000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from PARRAMATTA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution...

  10. Radiation Geophysics - Putting theory into practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy (SGA) is used in geo-physics to get information on the spatial distribution of K, U and Th. SGA is used on board of aircraft for geological survey, prospecting and contamination detection. On a typical SGA spectrum we get peaks corresponding to Bi 214 (609, 1120 and 1760 keV); Tl 208 (908 and 2615 keV) and K 40 (1460 keV). SGA gives information only on the top layer of the soil, the interpretation of the data requires information on the nature of the soil and on the relationship between surface elements and the underneath rock layers. Unlike a camera lens, a gamma-ray spectrometer does not have a fixed field of view: a highly radioactive point source may be detected even when it is outside the field of view. The gamma flux decreases exponentially with distance from the source. SGA can be combined with magnetic or electromagnetic measurements to get more accurate results. (A.C.)

  11. Automatic differentiation in geophysical inverse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambridge, M.; Rickwood, P.; Rawlinson, N.; Sommacal, S.

    2007-07-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is the technique whereby output variables of a computer code evaluating any complicated function (e.g. the solution to a differential equation) can be differentiated with respect to the input variables. Often AD tools take the form of source to source translators and produce computer code without the need for deriving and hand coding of explicit mathematical formulae by the user. The power of AD lies in the fact that it combines the generality of finite difference techniques and the accuracy and efficiency of analytical derivatives, while at the same time eliminating `human' coding errors. It also provides the possibility of accurate, efficient derivative calculation from complex `forward' codes where no analytical derivatives are possible and finite difference techniques are too cumbersome. AD is already having a major impact in areas such as optimization, meteorology and oceanography. Similarly it has considerable potential for use in non-linear inverse problems in geophysics where linearization is desirable, or for sensitivity analysis of large numerical simulation codes, for example, wave propagation and geodynamic modelling. At present, however, AD tools appear to be little used in the geosciences. Here we report on experiments using a state of the art AD tool to perform source to source code translation in a range of geoscience problems. These include calculating derivatives for Gibbs free energy minimization, seismic receiver function inversion, and seismic ray tracing. Issues of accuracy and efficiency are discussed.

  12. Surface Geophysical Exploration - Compendium Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, D.F.; Myers, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  13. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  14. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  15. Geophysical and geochemical regional evaluation and geophysical model for uranium exploration in the western part of Yanliao region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tengyao; Cui Huanmin; Chen Guoliang; Zhai Yugui

    1992-01-01

    The western part of Yanliao region is an important uranium metallogenic region. This paper summarizes the regional geophysical model for uranium exploration composed of prediction model for favourable area of mineralization and evaluation model for anomalies on the basis of aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data interpretation and analysis of the data from carborane and ground gamma spectrometric survey, high accurate magnetic survey, VLF survey and α-collected film survey in mult-displiary research work. The prospective prediction for uranium metallogenesis in this region was also conducted

  16. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  17. Responsibilities, opportunities and challenges in geophysical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytle, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical exploration for engineering purposes is conducted to decrease the risk in encountering site uncertainties in construction of underground facilities. Current responsibilities, opportunities and challenges for those with geophysical expertise are defined. These include: replacing the squiggly line format, developing verification sites for method evaluations, applying knowledge engineering and assuming responsibility for crucial national problems involving rock mechanics expertise

  18. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  19. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  20. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  1. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  2. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  3. Rezension: World Wide War: Angriff aus dem Internet/Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It von Richard A. Clarke und Robert K. Knake/by Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Je breiter der Infrastruktur-Anschluss eines Landes an das World Wide Web, desto größer die Angriffsfläche im Fall eines Netzkriegs. Die Messung der virtuellen Kampfkraft erfolgt auf Basis von drei Faktoren: Offensivkraft, Defensivfähigkeit und die Abhängigkeit vom Internet. Die USA verfügen als "Supermacht" zwar über die größte virtuelle Offensivkraft, gleichzeitig steht die Nation Cyberangriffen sehr verwundbar gegenüber. Dagegen sind in Nordkorea kaum Systeme vom Internet abhängig. Obwohl die offensiven Netzkriegskapazitäten Nordkoreas verhältnismäßig gering sind, präsentiert sich die virtuelle Kampfkraft des nordkoreanischen Regimes in Bestform. Die Verwundbarkeit ziviler Systeme, insbesondere der Energieversorgung, muss in direkter Korrelation mit deren Anknüpfung an das Internet betrachtet werden. The more broadly connected a country’s infrastructure and energy distribution, the greater its vulnerability in the event of a cyber war. Measuring this virtual fighting power is based on three factors: offensive and defensive strength, as well as dependency on the Internet. As a superpower, the USA has the greatest virtual offensive strength available. At the same time, the nation is most susceptible to cyber attacks and therefore most vulnerable. By contrast, North Korea’s offensive cyber fighting power is relatively small, but its overall cyber war capabilities are cutting-edge. The vulnerability of civil systems, especially power supply, must be viewed in direct correlation to their connection to the Internet.

  4. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  5. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  6. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  7. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  8. Exploring the oceans- The geophysical way

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The evolution of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI), the Bengal Fan and the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a consequence of the breakup of India from the eastern Gondwanaland in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Recent marine geophysical...

  9. A geological and geophysical data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, T.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    A geological and geophysical data collection system using a Personal Computer is described below. The system stores data obtained from various survey systems typically installed in a charter vessel and can be used for similar applications on any...

  10. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.; Oehberg, A.; Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  11. Geophysical investigations in the Syyry area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Kurimo, M.

    1992-12-01

    Investigations were carried out at the Syyry site at Sievi using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  12. Geophysical investigations in the Olkiluoto area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.

    1992-12-01

    Investigations were carried out at the Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1992 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  13. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, Andy; Singha, Kamini; Minsley, Burke J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Slater, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  14. uranium and thorium exploration by geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, F.A.; Kanli, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity is often measured from the ground in mineral exploration. If large areas have to be investigated, it is often unsuitable to carry out the measurements with ground-bound expeditions. A geophysical method of gamma-ray spectrometry is generally applied for uranium exploration. Exploration of uranium surveys were stopped after the year of 1990 in Turkey. Therefore the real potential of uranium in Turkey have to be investigated by using the geophysical techniques

  15. Archaeological Feedback as a Research Methodology in Near-Surface Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillol, J.; Ortega-Ramírez, J.; Berard, B.

    2005-05-01

    A unique characteristic of archaeological geophysics is to present the researchers in applied geophysics with the opportunity to verify their interpretation of geophysical data through the direct observation of often extremely detailed excavations. This is usually known as archaeological feedback. Archaeological materials have been slowly buried over periods ranging from several hundreds to several thousands of years, undergoing natural sedimentary and soil-forming processes. Once excavated, archaeological features therefore constitute more realistic test subjects than the targets artifically buried in common geophysical test sites. We are presenting the outcome of several such verification tests aimed at clarifying issues in geometry and spatial resolution of ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. On the site of a Roman villa in SE Portugal 500 Mhz GPR images are shown to depict very accurately the position and geometry of partially excavated remains. In the Maya city of Palenque, Mexico, 900 Mhz data allows the depth of tombs and natural cavities to be determined with cm accuracy. The predicted lateral extent of the cavities is more difficult to match with the reality due to the cluttering caused by high frequency. In the rainforest of Western Africa, 500 MHz GPR was used to prospect for stone tool sites. When very careful positioning and high density data sampling is achieved, stones can be accurately located and retrieved at depths exceeding 1 m with maximum positioning errors of 12cm horizontally and 2 cm vertically. In more difficult data collection conditions however, errors in positioning are shown to actually largely exceed the predictions based on quantitative theoretical resolution considerations. Geophysics has long been recognized as a powerful tool for prospecting and characterizing archaeological sites. Reciprocally, these results show that archaeology is an unparalleled test environment for the assesment and development of high resolution

  16. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  17. Methodological Developments in Geophysical Assimilation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George

    2005-06-01

    This work presents recent methodological developments in geophysical assimilation research. We revisit the meaning of the term "solution" of a mathematical model representing a geophysical system, and we examine its operational formulations. We argue that an assimilation solution based on epistemic cognition (which assumes that the model describes incomplete knowledge about nature and focuses on conceptual mechanisms of scientific thinking) could lead to more realistic representations of the geophysical situation than a conventional ontologic assimilation solution (which assumes that the model describes nature as is and focuses on form manipulations). Conceptually, the two approaches are fundamentally different. Unlike the reasoning structure of conventional assimilation modeling that is based mainly on ad hoc technical schemes, the epistemic cognition approach is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic adaptation principles. In this way some key ideas are introduced that could open new areas of geophysical assimilation to detailed understanding in an integrated manner. A knowledge synthesis framework can provide the rational means for assimilating a variety of knowledge bases (general and site specific) that are relevant to the geophysical system of interest. Epistemic cognition-based assimilation techniques can produce a realistic representation of the geophysical system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative predictions across space-time. The mathematics of epistemic assimilation involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field theory that imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated) and accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the geophysical system. In the epistemic cognition context the assimilation concept may be used to

  18. Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Definition of the hydrogeologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. These heterogeneties often control contaminant transport and the effectiveness of remediation alternatives, Surface geophysical surveys can be cost-effective methods for characterization, but individual methods have inherent limitations in resolution and sensitivity. A synergistic approach, utilizing two geophysical survey methods was applied, to define and examine the nature and extent of a deep confining zone of regulatory importance, the Crouch Branch Confining Unit, in Coastal Plain sediments at the Savannah River Site. TDEM accurately maps the overall conductance (product of thickness and electrical conductivity) of a confining zone clay facies; from variation in conductance, changes in lithology of the conforming zone can be inferred. Shear wave seismic reflection surveys map the depth to the clay layers, and the clay layer thickness, but provides little information on the lithologic nature of the confining zone. Integrated interpretation of the combined data set (including all available borehole logs) allows for delineation of the lateral and vertical extent of clay-dominated zones, sand-dominated zones, key stratigraphic horizons, and erosional features associated with unconformities. This approach has resulted in the collection of critical information that will be used to optimize remedial system design, representing a significant cost savings to environmental restoration programs at the Savannah River Site

  19. Chaos theory in geophysics: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, B.

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades of research on chaos theory in geophysics has brought about a significant shift in the way we view geophysical phenomena. Research on chaos theory in geophysics continues to grow at a much faster pace, with applications to a wide variety of geophysical phenomena and geophysical problems. In spite of our success in understanding geophysical phenomena also from a different (i.e. chaotic) perspective, there still seems to be lingering suspicions on the scope of chaos theory in geophysics. The goal of this paper is to present a comprehensive account of the achievements and status of chaos theory in geophysics, and to disseminate the hope and scope for the future. A systematic review of chaos theory in geophysics, covering a wide spectrum of geophysical phenomena studied (e.g. rainfall, river flow, sediment transport, temperature, pressure, tree ring series, etc.), is presented to narrate our past achievements not only in understanding and predicting geophysical phenomena but also in improving the chaos identification and prediction techniques. The present state of chaos research in geophysics (in terms of geophysical phenomena, problems, and chaos methods) and potential for future improvements (in terms of where, why and possibly how) are also highlighted. Our popular views of nature (i.e. stochastic and deterministic), and of geophysical phenomena in particular, are discussed, and the usefulness of chaos theory as a bridge between such views is also put forth

  20. Looking Forward to the electronic Geophysical Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Thompson, B.; Barton, C.; Kihn, E.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We discuss plans to aggregate measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make information available and useful to the scientific community, to the user community, and to the general public. We are examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of data and utilization of forecast tools in order to provide users with advanced space weather capabilities. This program will provide powerful tools for education and public outreach concerning the connected Sun-Earth System.

  1. Geophysical images of basement rocks. Geophysical images in the Guianese basement. Airborne geophysical campaign in French Guiana - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delor, C.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Asfirane, F.; Rossi, Ph.; Bonjoly, D.; Dubreuihl, J.; Chardon, D.

    1998-01-01

    The French Office for Geological and Mining Research (BRGM) has carried out a high sensitivity airborne geophysical survey of northern French Guiana during the second half of 1996. The aim was to realize a high resolution magnetic and gamma spectrometric mapping for future prospecting, land use and environment management. This paper describes in details the geophysical campaign, the material used, the navigation techniques, the processing of magnetic data, the gamma radiation sources used, the spectrometric calibrations and the geologic interpretation of the results. (J.S.)

  2. Local regression type methods applied to the study of geophysics and high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M. C.; Basu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we applied locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques (Lowess/Loess) to Geophysical and high frequency financial data. We first analyze and apply this technique to the California earthquake geological data. A spatial analysis was performed to show that the estimation of the earthquake magnitude at a fixed location is very accurate up to the relative error of 0.01%. We also applied the same method to a high frequency data set arising in the financial sector and obtained similar satisfactory results. The application of this approach to the two different data sets demonstrates that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the Lowess approach is much more desirable than the Loess method. The previous works studied the time series analysis; in this paper our local regression models perform a spatial analysis for the geophysics data providing different information. For the high frequency data, our models estimate the curve of best fit where data are dependent on time.

  3. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density

  4. Drill site selection process using geophysical (seismic, EM, magnetic) and regional geochemical uranium deposit vectors in the Athabasca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, Z.; Takacs, E.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • High resolution reflection technique, in correlation with other indicative vectors, provides primary structural and alteration information, within the Keefe L. prospect. • Several primary integrated attributes are indicative of mineralization within the SW. • The anomalous zones are more accurately defined in depths than any other geophysical technique, reduce drilling cost significantly.

  5. Lower critical solution temperature behavior of alpha-substituted poly(acrylic acids)s, cyclopolymerization of N-vinylformamido-methylacrylates, and use of the World-Wide Web in polymer science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalovic, Mark Stephen

    cyclopolymerize, but only in DMF at 122°C and at a 10:1 solvent:monomer ratio. A multimedia educational program called The Macrogalleria dealing with polymer science was created and distributed by the world wide web and on cd-rom. The site is made in the form of a virtual shopping mall in which each store is a lesson on some aspect of polymer science. The lessons are written in informal language to make the material more accessible. Also, the lessons are connected by hypertext links in a nonlinear fashion to allow students to create their own pathways through the material. The Macrogalleria has been very successful, being used by educational institutions to incorporate polymer science into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and by many industrial users as well. It has received numerous awards as well.

  6. Geophysical experiments at Mariano Lake uranium orebody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Several geophysical experiments were performed over the Mariano Lake orebody before mining. Surface self-potential methods, surface-to-hole induced-polarization methods, and reflection-seismic methods were used. These geophysical techniques provided data which relate to the conceptual model of this orebody. Currents generated in the productive formation by oxidation-reduction reactions do not generate measurable potential anomalies at the surface. Surface-to-hole induced-polarization measurements apparently can detect an oxidation-reduction front in the vicinity of an exploration borehole. Reflection-seismic techniques can provide information concening the paleostructure of the area

  7. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  8. Geophysical methods for evaluation of plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.A.; Scott, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    Geophysical methods are systematically described according to the physical principle and operational mode of each method, the type of information produced, limitations of a technical and/or economic nature, and the applicability of the method to rock-mass evaluation at Research Areas of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The geophysical methods fall into three categories: (1) airborne and other reconnaissance surveys, (2) detailed or surface (ground) surveys, and (3) borehole or subsurface surveys. The possible roles of each method in the site-screening and site-evaluation processes of disposal vault site selection are summarized

  9. Preface: Space and geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers will be printed in two separate issues; this is Part 1. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed in the Sub-Continent.

  10. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    CERN Document Server

    Smerd, S F

    1969-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  11. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  12. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  13. A portable marine geophysical data access and management system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Narvekar, P.

    Geophysical Oracle Database Management System (GPODMS) that is residing on UNIX True 64 Compaq Alpha server. GPODMS is a stable Oracle database system for longterm storage and systematic management of geophysical data and information of various disciplines...

  14. Overview of Effective Geophysical Methods Used in the Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Application of various Geophysical Techniques for the assessment of the extent of ... ineffective Geophysical Method may not give true picture of the overall level of pollution in the .... stations shut down or maintenance which halt ...

  15. Geophysical and geochemical techniques for exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittig, M.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed descriptive information in this book is based on 389 US patents that deal with geophysical and geochemical techniques useful for the exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals. Where it was necessary to round out the complete technological picture, a few paragraphs from cited government reports have been included. These techniques are used in prospecting for oil, coal, oil shale, tar sand and minerals. The patents are grouped under the following chapters: geochemical prospecting; geobiological prospecting; geophysical exploration; magnetic geophysical prospecting; gravitational geophysical prospecting; electrical geophysical prospecting; nuclear geophysical prospecting; seismic geophysical prospecting; and exploratory well drilling. This book serves a double purpose in that it supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the US patent literature in this field. By indicating all the information that is significant, and eliminating legal jargon and juristic phraseology, this book presents an advanced, industrially oriented review of modern methods of geophysical and geochemical exploration techniques

  16. Integrating non-colocated well and geophysical data to capture subsurface heterogeneity at an aquifer recharge and recovery site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Ian P.; Hermans, Thomas; Knight, Rosemary; Caers, Jef; Cameron, David A.; Regnery, Julia; McCray, John E.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical data have proven to be very useful for lithological characterization. However, quantitatively integrating the information gained from acquiring geophysical data generally requires colocated lithological and geophysical data for constructing a rock-physics relationship. In this contribution, the issue of integrating noncolocated geophysical and lithological data is addressed, and the results are applied to simulate groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer in the Prairie Waters Project North Campus aquifer recharge site, Colorado. Two methods of constructing a rock-physics transform between electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data and lithology measurements are assessed. In the first approach, a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit a bimodal lognormal distribution to horizontal crosssections of the ERT resistivity histogram. In the second approach, a spatial bootstrap is applied to approximate the rock-physics relationship. The rock-physics transforms provide soft data for multiple point statistics (MPS) simulations. Subsurface models are used to run groundwater flow and tracer test simulations. Each model's uncalibrated, predicted breakthrough time is evaluated based on its agreement with measured subsurface travel time values from infiltration basins to selected groundwater recovery wells. We find that incorporating geophysical information into uncalibrated flow models reduces the difference with observed values, as compared to flow models without geophysical information incorporated. The integration of geophysical data also narrows the variance of predicted tracer breakthrough times substantially. Accuracy is highest and variance is lowest in breakthrough predictions generated by the MLE-based rock-physics transform. Calibrating the ensemble of geophysically constrained models would help produce a suite of realistic flow models for predictive purposes at the site. We find that the success of breakthrough predictions is highly

  17. Evaluation of some Geophysical and Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... spill point parallel to the pipeline right of way. A research work carried ... of soils has been known to affect soil physio-chemical properties, which in .... The results of the geophysical analysis from the study area are presented ...

  18. Hydro geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Development at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Environ. Manage. May. 2017. Vol. 21 (3) 527-535. Full-text Available Online at ... is of equal importance with the air we breathe in ... numerical modeling solutions. The electrical geophysical survey method is the .... VES data at twelve (12) sounding points as shown in figure 2; five along traverse one; two along traverse two,.

  19. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ''data fusion,'' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site

  20. geophysical and geochemical characterization of zango abattoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    disposal of hazardous materials, fresh groundwater supplies ... in the groundwater flow system may change considerably the conductivity of the polluted zone; hence the Geo-electric and. Electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods could effectively be ... this field strength and phase displacement around a fracture zone.

  1. Early geophysical maps published by A. Petermann

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 1109-1122 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : August Petermann * Geographische Mitteilungen * geophysical maps Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  2. 36 CFR 902.59 - Geological and geophysical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical information. 902.59 Section 902.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Geological and geophysical information. Any geological or geophysical information and data (including maps...

  3. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.56 Geological and geophysical permits. Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  4. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.56 Geological and geophysical permits. (a) Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  5. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  6. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  7. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  8. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-03-23

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  9. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ''all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts

  10. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Near-surface geophysical methods have become increasingly important tools in applied agricultural practices and studies. The great advantage of geophysical methods is their potential rapidity, low cost, and spatial continuity when compared to more traditional methods of assessing agricultural land, such as sample collection and laboratory analysis. Agricultural geophysics investigations commonly focus on obtaining information within the soil profile, which generally does not extend much beyond 2 meters beneath the ground surface. Although the depth of interest oftentimes is rather shallow, the area covered by an agricultural geophysics survey can vary widely in scale, from experimental plots (10 s to 100 s of square meters), to farm fields (10 s to 100 s of hectares), up to the size of watersheds (10 s to 100 s of square kilometers). To date, three predominant methods—resistivity, electromagnetic induction (EMI), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR)—have been used to obtain surface-based geophysical measurements within agricultural settings. However, a recent conference on agricultural geophysics (Bouyoucos Conference on Agricultural Geophysics, September 8–10, 2009, Albuquerque, New Mexico; www.ag-geophysics.org) illustrated that other geophysical methods are being applied or developed. These include airborne electromagnetic induction, magnetometry, seismic, and self-potential methods. Agricultural geophysical studies are also being linked to ground water studies that utilize deeper penetrating geophysical methods than normally used.

  11. ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.

  12. Geophysical Exploration. New site exploration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hideo; Sakayama, Toshihiko

    1988-07-25

    Geophysical exploration is used for geologic survey to serve purposes in civil engineering. New methods are being developed inside and outside Japan and are used to serve various purposes. This paper discusses recently developed techniques based on the measurement of seismic waves and electric potential. It also explains seismic tomography, radar tomography, and resistivity tomography which are included in the category of geotomography. At present, effort is being made to apply geophysical exploration technology to problems which were considered to be unsuitable for conventional exploration techniques. When such effort proceeds successfully, it is necessary to develop technology for presenting results quickly and exploration equipment which can work in various conditions. (10 figs, 15 refs)

  13. Geophysical contribution for Folha Patos (PI, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.C.; Mota, A.C.; Metelo, M.J.; Vasconcelos, R.M. de

    1990-01-01

    As a part of PLGB (Brazilian Geologic reconnaissance program), executed in 1986-1989 period by Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais - CPRM to the Departamento Nacional da Producao Mineral - DNPM, geophysical studies were carried out in the Patos Quadrangle (SB. 24-Y-C-V). Gravimetric, magnetometric and scintillometric methods were performed over selected profiles, and the interpretation of aerial gamma-spectrometric maps (total, potassium, uranium and thorium channels) were integrated with geologic data. Computer programs Magpoly and Gravpoly were utilized in modelling geophysical surface data. Results of theses studies were auxiliary to the geological mapping of that area, specially in localizing lithological contacts and differentiations, tectonic structures, and revealed the structural compartimentation among crustal segments with distinct metamorphic grades. (author)

  14. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  15. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  16. Geophysical investigation, Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Geophysical surveys were conducted in 1992 and 1993 on 21 sites at the Salmon Site (SS) located in Lamar County, Mississippi. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by IT Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). During the 1960s, two nuclear devices and two chemical tests were detonated 826 meters (in) (2710 feet [ft]) below the ground surface in the salt dome underlying the SS. These tests were part of the Vela Uniform Program conducted to improve the United States capability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The RI/FS is being conducted to determine if any contamination is migrating from the underground shot cavity in the salt dome and if there is any residual contamination in the near surface mud and debris disposal pits used during the testing activities. The objective of the surface geophysical surveys was to locate buried debris, disposal pits, and abandoned mud pits that may be present at the site. This information will then be used to identify the locations for test pits, cone penetrometer tests, and drill hole/monitor well installation. The disposal pits were used during the operation of the test site in the 1960s. Vertical magnetic gradient (magnetic gradient), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to accomplish these objectives. A description of the equipment used and a theoretical discussion of the geophysical methods are presented Appendix A. Because of the large number of figures relative to the number of pages of text, the geophysical grid-location maps, the contour maps of the magnetic-gradient data, the contour maps of the EM conductivity data, and the GPR traverse location maps are located in Appendix B, Tabs I through 22. In addition, selected GPR records are located in Appendix C

  17. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  18. Development of geophysical data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai-Sup; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Gu, Sung-Bon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    (1) Development of a complete geophysical database system under C/S environment for data management. (2) Development of database system for the general user, who has not special knowledge of database, under the Internet environment. (3) Operation of the Web service for the general user. (4) Development of the stand-alone database system for a small-scale research group such as college and engineering consultant firms. (author). 15 refs.

  19. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Morrison, H.F.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs

  20. The Legacy of Benoit Mandelbrot in Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    The concept of fractals (fractional dimension) was introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot in his famous 1967 Science paper. The initial application was to the length of the coastline of Britain. A milestone in the appreciation of the fractal concept by geophysicists was the Union session of the AGU on fractals led off by Benoit in 1986. Although fractals have found important applications in almost every branch of the physical, biological, and social sciences, fractals have been particularly useful in geophysics. Drainage networks are fractal. The frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes is fractal. The scale invariance of landscapes and many other geological processes is due to the applicability of power-law (fractal) distributions. Clouds are often fractal. Porosity distributions are fractal. In an almost independent line of research, Benoit in collaboration with James Wallace and others developed the concept of self-affine fractals. The original applications were primarily to time series in hydrology and built on the foundation laid by Henry Hurst. Fractional Gaussian noises and fractional Brownian motions are ubiquitous in geophysics. These are expressed in terms of the power-law relation between the power-spectral density S and frequency f, S ~ f{ β }, examples are β = 0 (white noise), β = 1 (1/f noise), β = 2 (Brownian motion). Of particular importance in geophysics are fractional noises with β = 0.5, these are stationary but have long-range persistent and have a Hurst exponent H = 0.7. Examples include river flows, tree rings, sunspots, varves, etc. Two of Benoit Mandelbrot's major contributions in geophysics as in other fields are: (1) an appreciation of the importance of fat-tail, power-law (fractal) distributions and (2) an appreciation of the importance of self-similar long-range persistence in both stationary time series (noises) and nonstationary time series (walks).